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1

FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

Bollenbacher, G.

1976-01-01

2

Optimal control of stepper motor stability program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a principal model of a stepper motor is described. Then it stability program was designed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory and the controllability and observability were studied. Then wardware design and the main routine flowpath chart are given. It has been observed that MCU can be useful in controlling stepper motor. Also the advantage of

Bo Chen; Yazhou Wang; Chibing Hu

2010-01-01

3

Complementary interactions between command-like interneurons that function to activate and specify motor programs.  

PubMed

Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity. PMID:24806677

Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian

2014-05-01

4

Variable neuronal participation in stereotypic motor programs.  

PubMed

To what extent are motor networks underlying rhythmic behaviors rigidly hard-wired versus fluid and dynamic entities? Do the members of motor networks change from moment-to-moment or from motor program episode-to-episode? These are questions that can only be addressed in systems where it is possible to monitor the spiking activity of networks of neurons during the production of motor programs. We used large-scale voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging followed by Independent Component Analysis spike-sorting to examine the extent to which the neuronal network underlying the escape swim behavior of Tritonia diomedea is hard-wired versus fluid from a moment-to-moment perspective. We found that while most neurons were dedicated to the swim network, a small but significant proportion of neurons participated in a surprisingly variable manner. These neurons joined the swim motor program late, left early, burst only on some cycles or skipped cycles of the motor program. We confirmed that this variable neuronal participation was not due to effects of the VSD by finding such neurons with intracellular recording in dye-free saline. Further, these neurons markedly varied their level of participation in the network from swim episode-to-episode. The generality of such unreliably bursting neurons was confirmed by their presence in the rhythmic escape networks of two other molluscan species, Tritonia festiva and Aplysia californica. Our observations support a view that neuronal networks, even those underlying rhythmic and stereotyped motor programs, may be more variable in structure than widely appreciated. PMID:22815768

Hill, Evan S; Vasireddi, Sunil K; Bruno, Angela M; Wang, Jean; Frost, William N

2012-01-01

5

Young Athletes program: impact on motor development.  

PubMed

This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7-9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3-5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed. PMID:23860506

Favazza, Paddy C; Siperstein, Gary N; Zeisel, Susan A; Odom, Samuel L; Sideris, John H; Moskowitz, Andrew L

2013-07-01

6

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R.; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Baliga, M. S.; Gaikwad, Rahul N.

2012-01-01

7

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Baliga, M S; Gaikwad, Rahul N

2012-04-01

8

Buccal Bone Plate Thickness of the Asian People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distances from the apex to the buccal bone plate were measured on the computed tomography (CT) images of 1806 teeth from 66 patients, using an image analyzer program (Image-Pro Plus, Ver. 4.0, Media Cybernetics). In the mandible, the mean distance from the distal apex of the mandibular second molar to the buccal bone plate was the largest distance measured, at

G.-C Jin; K.-D Kim; B.-D Roh; C.-Y Lee; S.-J Lee

2005-01-01

9

Components of the Motor Program in Parkinson's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis that there are two separable components of the motor program which can be linked to different levels of the nervous system was tested. Preliminary studies in Parkinson's disease patients reveal that these individuals are able to use prelimi...

R. D. Rafal

1984-01-01

10

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

11

Hydraulic blowdown TVA system for the Castor 120 motor program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance and reliability of a low-cost hydraulic blowdown system for expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are demonstrated in the context of the Castro 120 motor program. Test results are reported which show that the blowdown system meets or exceeds the performance objectives for an ELV motor in a Stage I, Stage II, or strap-on application. The primary cost savings include replacement of the expensive turbine pump and auxiliary power source and the use of a simplified actuator design.

Lee, R. G.; Olsen, G. E.; Trowbridge, C. G.; Griffis, D. M.

1993-06-01

12

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

13

Program to Develop Improved Downhole Drilling Motors. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant progress was made during Phase I of the program toward finding solutions to the seal-and-bearing problems. A seal-test facility was designed and built to test full-scale seals for downhole motors. The tests will simulate closely the environmen...

A. D. Black S. J. Green L. W. Matson W. C. Maurer R. R. Nielsen

1977-01-01

14

Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.  

PubMed

A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

2014-04-18

15

Canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland tumors. It occurs in the upper lip mucosa in about 90% of cases. The next most common location is the buccal mucosa (9.5% of tumors). We present herein a new case of canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa involving a 74-year-old man. He was suffering of a slowly growing and painless nodule of the right buccal mucosa. The treatment was surgery and histological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of canalicular adenoma. No recurrence was noted one year later. PMID:17987725

Maamouri, F; Bellil, K; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M

2007-06-01

16

Intestinal calcium waves coordinate a behavioral motor program in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic behavioral motor patterns are normally controlled by neural circuits, such as central pattern generators. We here report a novel mechanism of motor pattern generation by non-neural cells. The defecation motor program in Caenorhabditis elegans consists of three stereotyped motor steps with precise timing and this behavior has been studied as a model system of a ultradian biological clock [J.H.

Takayuki Teramoto; Kouichi Iwasaki

2006-01-01

17

Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain  

PubMed Central

Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors.

Schoofs, Andreas; Huckesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spie?, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J.

2014-01-01

18

Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

19

Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

1989-01-01

20

A case of lower lip defect reconstructed with buccal mucosa and a tongue flap.  

PubMed

The use of buccal mucosa and a tongue flap in reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the lower lip is described. The patient's face received a heavy blow in a traffic accident. Necrosis caused by hematogenous disturbance occurred in more than half of the entire lower lip vermilion. The patient underwent a two-stage operation for reconstruction of the lower lip. First, vestibuloplasty was performed using a buccal mucosal flap. Subsequently, the vermilion was surgically reconstructed using a flap from the tip of the tongue. This operative method is less risky because of its favorable prognosis. An effective way to recover motor function of the lower lip is to practice a rehabilitation program against scar contraction. An extension movement with the fingers that requires two or three repetitions every day was selected. Rehabilitation was started 7 days after the tongue flap was divided. The patient had a favorable recovery after the operation and is now able to wear a denture and to eat without slobbering. PMID:15213540

Hitoshi, Osano; Koichi, Matsumoto; Yoshiyuki, Tsuchiya; Hiroto, Ito; Hideaki, Suzuki; Mikio, Kusama

2004-07-01

21

The effect of teaching curriculum to generalize the motor program in learning, passing and shooting in hand ball and motor behavior for juniors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching curriculum to generalize motor program in learning and retention for passing and shooting ,Also to know the teaching curriculum to generalize motor program in learning and retention for passing and shooting , Also to know the teaching curriculum affect the motor behavior. The statement of the problem was

Samir Yousif Mutib; Saad M. Ismail; Dhafir H. Ismail

22

The Effects of a Creative Movement Program on Motor Creativity of Children Ages Three to Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a creative movement program on the motor creativity of Taiwanese preschool children, hypothesizing that there would be no significant different in motor creativity between children participating in the creative movement program and those participating in a control group. The intervention group completed a…

Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

23

High torque DC motor fabrication and test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

Makus, P.

1976-01-01

24

Buccal mucosal grafts for urethral reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Patients requiring urethral reconstruction but who have a paucity of usable genital tissue present a considerable technical challenge. Herein we report the experience of three centers in the use of buccal mucosa for urethral replacement.Methods: From 1991 to 1996, 22 urethral reconstructions were completed using a graft of buccal mucosa. Eighteen of 22 patients had previously failed hypospadias repairs,

A. A. Caldamone; L. E. Edstrom; M. A. Koyle; R. Rabinowitz; W. C. Hulbert

1998-01-01

25

Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

2010-01-01

26

Early Motor Training in Down's Syndrome Babies: Results of an Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether infants with Down syndrome (N=32) undergoing early motor training would benefit from their parents observing a clinician implement an intervention program with their child. Parents of half the children remained in the room while the clinician implemented motor stimulation techniques, while parents of the other half were…

Sanz, M. T.; Menendez, F. J.

27

77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACEEE expressed concern over the sample size of five motors for the ``tested...manufacturer believes that this sample size will not be representative of...the manufacturer must test a sample size of at least five units...

2012-05-04

28

76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...60034-1 (2010), Rotating Electrical Machines...60034-12 (2007), Rotating Electrical Machines...Single-Speed Three-Phase Cage Induction Motors, clauses...60034-12 (2007), Rotating Electrical Machines...Single-Speed Three-Phase Cage Induction...

2011-01-05

29

76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors AGENCY...private labelers to prepare and submit Compliance Certification information to the Department...an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification Management...

2011-09-23

30

A Review of the Minuteman Propulsion Surveillance Program for Assessing Rocket Motor Service Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the MINUTEMAN Propulsion Surveillance Program are (1) to evaluate the storage behavior of the various subsystems and components the operationally deployed missile motors, and (2) to identify and verify failure modes in sufficient...

E. L. Larson

1965-01-01

31

The Effects of a Developmentally Appropriate Music and Movement Program on Motor Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic motor skills development is achieved through the implementation of different types of physical education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program and of a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the development of jumping and…

Zachopoulou, E.; Tsapakidou, A.; Derri, V.

2004-01-01

32

Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

Vonderesch, A. H.

1972-01-01

33

Preface for buccal drug delivery theme issue.  

PubMed

During the past years, buccal drug delivery has attracted the attention of researchers looking for alternative delivery routes of administration. As an alternative to oral drug delivery, the buccal mucosal route avoids the passage through the acidic gastric environment, intestinal and bacterial enzymatic activity, absorption issues associated with the intestinal epithelium (e.g. P-glycoprotein efflux), and the first pass metabolism of the liver. Therefore, the buccal route could be a good delivery route for macromolecules and other drugs not compatible with the gastrointestinal tract environment. This "Buccal Drug Delivery" special edition of Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy aims to bring together a range of different aspects relevant to the growing field of buccal drug delivery. The special edition includes thorough reviews of the literature, as well as original research articles touching on most prominent features related to buccal drug delivery systems, such as the move toward the use of nanotechnology in different ways to facilitate buccal drug delivery with the potential to prompt future product developments. PMID:24576264

Morales, Javier Octavio; McConville, Jason Thomas

2014-05-01

34

Buccal fat pad in intraoral defect reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. Buccal fat pad was used to reconstruct 3 medium sized defects due to tumoral resection and oro-antral communication. It was used as an unlined pedicled graft. Three cases are discussed along with anatomical aspect of the buccal fat pad. The findings support the view that the buccal fat pad is versatile, logical, convenient, and reliable method for the reconstruction of oral defects up to 4-5 cm in diameter and it healed within 4-5 weeks. PMID:24431887

Bither, Saurab; Halli, Rajshekhar; Kini, Yogesh

2013-12-01

35

Nondestructive Evaluation and Inspection Programs for Pershing II Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quality control inspection of Pershing II (P-II) solid-propellant rocket motors was historically the responsibility of the manufacturer. Now the U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity (PDA) has been assigned the task of nondestructive evaluation and inspection (...

F. W. Kearney M. D. Ginsberg R. B. Moler

1990-01-01

36

ASRM plume deflector analysis program. [advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents analytical conclusions resulting from subscale solid rocket motor tests and flowfield modeling for a plume deflector. Loads, flow characteristics, and corresponding material behavior were predicted or observed and will be used in final design of the deflector. The efforts resulted in quantifiable size reductions and lower cost material selections, which will significantly reduce the deflector cost while meeting performance requirements.

Dawson, Michael C.; Douglas, Freddie, III; Orlin, Peter A.

1992-01-01

37

"Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

Braun, David; Noon, Don

1998-01-01

38

The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were…

Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

39

Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs  

PubMed Central

Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Muller-Putz, Gernot R.

2014-01-01

40

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish.

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

2013-01-01

41

Maryland Motor Carrier Program Safety Profile of Commercial Motor Carriers Traveling in Maryland at Two Scale Houses Under the Jurisdiction of the Maryland State Police (MSP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) program envisions the development, design, and deployment of various technical devices and systems to benefit interstate and intrastate commercial motor carriers and the state and federal gov...

S. Bapna J. Zaveri

2001-01-01

42

New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO(2) sensitivity in pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles (Pelophylax ridibundus).  

PubMed

Central CO(2) chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of its role in ventilatory rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded in facial nerve of premetamorphic and postmetamorphic tadpole isolated brainstems, under normo- and hypercapnia, are investigated using Continuous Wavelet Transform spectral analysis for buccal activity and computation of number and amplitude of spikes during buccal and lung activities. Buccal bursts exhibit fast oscillations (20-30Hz) that are prominent in premetamorphic tadpoles: they result from the presence in periodic time windows of high amplitude spikes. Hypercapnia systematically decreases the frequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles, by a lengthening of the interburst duration. In postmetamorphic tadpoles, hypercapnia reduces buccal burst amplitude and unmasks small fast oscillations. Our results suggest a common effect of the hypercapnia on the buccal part of the Central Pattern Generator in all tadpoles and a possible effect at the level of the motoneuron recruitment in postmetamorphic tadpoles. PMID:24200645

Quenet, Brigitte; Straus, Christian; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette

2014-01-15

43

Mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract Raising the concept of mucoadhesion in the 1980s, the use of mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery has been the subject of interest. Buccal route is one of the non-invasive routes comprising several advantages such as targeting the specific tissue (I), bypassing the first-pass effect (II) as well as higher patient compliance (III) and higher bioavailability (IV) have rendered administration route feasible for a variety of drugs. This review highlights the use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery. An overview of the oral mucosa's anatomy, theories of mucoadhesion as well as mucoadhesive polymers is given within this review. Furthermore, recent advantages in mucoadhesive polymers according to the variety of drug delivery forms are presented. PMID:24576266

Laffleur, Flavia

2014-05-01

44

Effect of perioperative buccal fracture of the proximal segment on postoperative stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Buccal fracture of the mandibular proximal bone segment during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) reduces the postoperative stability. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this type of fracture on bone healing and postoperative stability after mandibular setback surgery. Materials and Methods Ten patients who experienced buccal fracture during SSRO for mandibular setback movement were evaluated. We measured the amount of bone generation on a computed tomography scan, using an image analysis program, and compared the buccal fracture side to the opposite side in each patient. To investigate the effect on postoperative stability, we measured the postoperative relapse in lateral cephalograms, immediately following and six months after the surgery. The control group consisted of ten randomly-selected patients having a similar amount of set-back without buccal fracture. Results Less bone generation was observed on the buccal fracture side compared with the opposite side (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior postoperative relapse between the group with buccal fracture and the control group. The increased mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height after the surgery in the group with buccal fracture manifested as a postoperative clockwise rotation of the mandible. Conclusion Bone generation was delayed compared to the opposite side. However, postoperative stability in the anterior-posterior direction could be maintained with rigid fixation.

Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Han, Jeong-Joon

2013-01-01

45

Improving Developmentally Appropriate Practices in the Kindergarten Program by Introducing Therapeutic Sensory Motor and Play Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum was designed to increase teacher knowledge base in developmentally appropriate practices and increase understanding of the need for play and sensory motor activities in the kindergarten program. The primary goal was that the kindergarten teachers would use more developmentally appropriate practices in achieving curriculum…

Blakes-Greenway, Doris

46

A computer program to predict the performance of slip energy recovery induction motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details are provided, in the form of a flowchart, to permit the reconstruction of a computer program to predict the transient and steady-state performance of slip energy recovery induction motor (IM) drives. Slip energy recovery IM drives are different from most other drives in that the inverter is generally connected only after the machine has reached a predetermined speed. The

E. Akpinar; P. Pillay

1990-01-01

47

Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

2013-01-01

48

A Licensing Program for Operators of Two-Wheeled Motor Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a licensing program for operators of two-wheeled motor vehicles. Materials specifically developed for the study were: (1) a driver's handbook, (2) two forms of a written test, (3) an off-street driving test, and (4) a driving range. Once developed, these materials were the basis of the separate…

Locke, Lewis Alvin

49

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: Education and Outreach Programs Target Safety and Consumer Issues, But Gaps in Planning and Evaluation Remain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FMCSA's education and outreach programs-New Entrant, Non-Entrant, Motor Coach, Safety Belt, and Household Goods- target different audiences, including the motor carrier industry, commercial vehicle drivers, and the public.Total funding for these programs ...

2005-01-01

50

Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject.

Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

2014-01-01

51

Cysticercosis masquerading as a buccal mass  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is endemic in many parts of the world. We present a case of one such lesion which presented itself as an asymptomatic buccal swelling. We present the life cycle of T. solium, the endemic nature of this infection, and the relevance of histological examination to arrive at a diagnosis.

Thambiah, Lalita J.; Pugazhendi, Satish Kumaran; Thangaswamy, Vinod

2012-01-01

52

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in salivary glands of head and neck region. Here we present a case report of a 50 year old male who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:22190804

Singh, Sanjay; Gokkulakrishnan; Jain, Jinendra; Pathak, Sachin; Singh, Kumar Tathagat

2010-09-01

53

Overview of CFD Analyses Supporting the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Program at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year, various computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program. The successful completion of these analyses involved application of the CFD codes FDNS and CELMINT. The topics addressed by the analyses were: (1) the design and prediction of slag pool accumulation within the five inch test motor, (2) prediction of slag pool behavior and its response to lateral accelerations, (3) the clogging of potential insulation debonds within the nozzle by slag accumulation, (4) the behavior of jets within small voids inside nozzle joint gaps, (5) The effect of increased inhibitor stiffness on motor acoustics, and (6) the effect of a nozzle defect on particle impingement enhanced erosion. The emphasis of this presentation will be to further discuss the work in topics 3, 4, and 5.

Stewart, Eric; McConnaughey, P.; Lin, J.; Reske, E.; Doran, D.; Whitesides, R. H.; Chen, Y.-S.

1996-01-01

54

A tyramine-gated chloride channel coordinates distinct motor programs of a Caenorhabditis elegans escape response  

PubMed Central

Summary A key feature of escape responses is the fast translation of sensory information into a coordinated motor output. In C. elegans anterior touch initiates a backward escape response in which lateral head movements are suppressed. Here we show that tyramine inhibits head movements and forward locomotion through the activation of a tyramine-gated chloride channel, LGC-55. lgc-55 mutant animals have defects in reversal behavior and fail to suppress head oscillations in response to anterior touch. lgc-55 is expressed in neurons and muscle cells that receive direct synaptic inputs from tyraminergic motor neurons. Therefore, tyramine can act as a classical inhibitory neurotransmitter. Activation of LGC-55 by tyramine coordinates the output of two distinct motor programs, locomotion and head movements that are critical for a C. elegans escape response.

Pirri, Jennifer K.; McPherson, Adam D.; Donnelly, Jamie L.; Francis, Michael M.; Alkema, Mark J.

2009-01-01

55

The monkey's prefrontal cortex functions in motor programming.  

PubMed

A new experimental approach is presented which resulted in clarification of the specific functions of the monkey?s prefrontal cortex. Monkeys with chronically implanted transcortical nonpolarizable electrodes were trained on delayed response (DR) and visual delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) tasks. The onset of the trial for each group depended upon on-line computer detection of one of the specified events: FN ? surface-negative steady potential shifts (SPS) from principalis cortex; MN ? a similar SPS from precentral cortex; FB ? near baseline SP from principalis cortex; LEM ? rightward eye deviations; and YC ? controls, with intertrial intervals yoked to those of other monkeys. Monkeys were trained with 1-s cue presentations. on successive delays of 2 to 12 s. The DR acquisition rate by the FN group was substantially faster than that of any other group, as indicated by its mean error that was only 17.24 percent the YC group?s error. The MN and LEM monkeys acquired the task at the same rates as the YCs, while the FB monkeys were the slowest learners. The correct DR performance transferred to testing with constant intertrial intervals (without preconditions). Subsequent on-line tests with brief (0.1 s) cue duration showed high DR performance by the FN, but not by other groups. No similar rapid learning was found with the DMS task. The findings from this, and other experiments, suggest that the major function of principalis cortex is the selection, or programming of delayed spatial choice responses. The view seems consonant with interpretations for the role of the human prefrontal cortex. PMID:121197

Stamm, J S

1979-01-01

56

Handedness of a motor program in C. elegans is independent of left-right body asymmetry.  

PubMed

Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or "motor handedness," often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ~1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans. PMID:23300601

Downes, Joanna C; Birsoy, Bilge; Chipman, Kyle C; Rothman, Joel H

2012-01-01

57

Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films  

PubMed Central

A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4), which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h) and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied.

Nappinnai, M.; Chandanbala, R.; Balaijirajan, R.

2008-01-01

58

Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin\\u000a sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone\\u000a (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose\\u000a were used to aid

Supriya S. Shidhaye; Pritesh V. Thakkar; Neha M. Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

2010-01-01

59

Palatal myoclonus associated with orofacial buccal dystonia.  

PubMed

Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition in which there are rhythmic jerky movements of the soft palate and sometimes of the other muscles innervated by the brainstem A particularly annoying symptom is a rhythmic clicking sound in the ear due to the opening and closing of the Eustachian tube. Orofacial buccal dystonia is a focal dystonia with sustained spasms of the masticatory, facial or lingual muscles. The frequent symptoms of this disease have mainly been reported to be involuntary and possibly painful jaw opening, closing, deflecting and retruding, or a combination of the above. However, the subtle and unnoticeable involuntary movement of multiple facial muscles, which might be an infrequent symptom of orofacial buccal dystonia, makes this disease hard to diagnose. Understanding the functional orofacial anatomy that is responsible for the clinical signs and symptoms is necessary for making a proper diagnosis. Here we report on a rare case of palatal myoclonus that was associated with orofacial buccal dystonia, and such a case has not been previously reported. We describe the diagnostic approach and excellent treatment results after Botulinum toxin A (Dysport) injection and proper counseling. PMID:22468202

Park, Shi-Nae; Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Do Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

2012-03-01

60

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

1983-08-01

61

75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of...energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on March...energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error,...

2010-04-05

62

75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...promulgated for NEMA Design B general purpose electric motors that, due to a drafting...Association (NEMA) Design B, general purpose electric motor with a power rating...f) Each NEMA Design B general purpose electric motor with a power...

2010-12-22

63

Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

64

EFFECTS OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCA- TION CURRICULUM PROGRAM ON 4-5YEAROLD CHILDREN'S FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the effects of preschool Physical Education Curriculum -program (PEC) on 4-5-year-old chil- dren's fundamental motor skills (1). The PEC was part of the international Early Steps project (2), aiming at creating an innovative physical education curriculum for preschool- aged children. The PEC was based on the idea that by means of motor skill learning through developmentally ap-

Iivonen Susanna; Nissinen Kari; Sääkslahti Arja

2007-01-01

65

Serum morphine concentrations after buccal and intramuscular morphine administration.  

PubMed Central

1. This study compared serum concentrations of morphine after administration of a buccal tablet (25mg) with those after intramuscular injection (10mg). 2. Buccal morphine was administered to eleven healthy volunteers and intramuscular morphine was given to five preoperative surgical patients. Serum morphine concentrations were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) in samples taken up to 8 h after drug administration. 3. Mean maximum morphine concentrations were eight times lower after buccal administration than after intramuscular injection and occurred at a mean of 4 h later. Individual morphine concentration-time profiles showed marked interindividual variability after administration of the buccal tablet, consistent with considerable variation in tablet persistence time on the buccal mucosa.

Fisher, A P; Fung, C; Hanna, M

1987-01-01

66

Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.  

PubMed

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings. PMID:22256162

Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

2011-01-01

67

Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

2012-02-01

68

Program for the Improvement of Downhole Drilling-Motor Bearings and Seals. Phase III, Part 2: final report  

SciTech Connect

Six months of activity to improve downhole drilling-motor bearings and seals for geothermal applications are reported. The following are covered: seal testing and evaluation, bearing-seal package testing and evaluation, lubricant testing and evaluation, and program status, plans and schedule. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-03-01

69

A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

2000-01-01

70

A Pair of Reciprocally Inhibitory Histaminergic Sensory Neurons Are Activated within the Same Phase of Ingestive Motor Programs in Aplysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that each buccal ganglion in Aplysia contains two B52 neurons, one in each hemiganglion. We now show that there are two B52 neurons in a single buccal hemiganglion and four cells in an animal. We also show that the B52 neurons are histamine-immunoreactive and use reverse phase HPLC to show that the histamine-immunoreactive sub- stance is

Colin G. Evans; Vera Alexeeva; Jurgen Rybak; Tuula Karhunen; Klaudiusz R. Weiss; Elizabeth C. Cropper

1999-01-01

71

Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

Mcdonald, Gary H.

1990-01-01

72

Maryland Motor Carrier Program Safety Profile of Commercial Motor Carriers Traveling in Maryland at the Perryville Scale House under the Jurisdiction of the Maryland Transportation Authority Police (MdTAP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) program envisions the development, design, and deployment of various technical devices and systems to benefit interstate and intrastate commercial motor carriers and the state and federal gov...

S. Bapna J. Zaveri

2001-01-01

73

Motor response programming and movement time in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.  

PubMed

The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. PMID:20598488

Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P

2010-06-01

74

A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions.

Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

2013-01-01

75

Functional interactions of HIV-infection and methamphetamine dependence during motor programming  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection and both have been linked to alterations of brain structure and function. In a previous study, we showed that the brain volume loss characteristic of HIV infection contrasts with METH-related volume increases in striatum and parietal cortex, suggesting distinct neurobiological responses to HIV and METH (Jernigan et al., 2005). fMRI has the potential to reveal functional interactions between the effects of HIV and METH. In the present study, 50 participants were studied in four groups: an HIV+ group, a recently METH dependent group, a dually affected group, and a group of unaffected community comparison subjects. An fMRI paradigm consisting of motor sequencing tasks of varying levels of complexity was administered to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes. Within all groups, activity increased significantly with increasing task complexity in large clusters within sensorimotor and parietal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cingulate. The task complexity effect was regressed on HIV status, METH status, and the HIVxMETH interaction term in a simultaneous multiple regression. HIV was associated with less complexity-related activation in striatum, whereas METH was associated with less complexity-related activation in parietal regions. Significant interaction effects were observed in both cortical and subcortical regions; and, contrary to expectations, the complexity-related activation was less aberrant in dually-affected than in single-risk participants, in spite of comparable levels of neurocognitive impairment among the clinical groups. Thus, HIV and METH dependence, perhaps through their effects on dopaminergic systems, may have opposing functional effects on neural circuits involved in motor programming.

Archibald, Sarah L.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ogasawara, Miki; Woods, Steven P.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Jernigan, Terry L.

2012-01-01

76

A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation.  

PubMed

Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

Wondrusch, C; Schuster-Amft, C

2013-01-01

77

Motor Development: A Lifelong Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of articles on the lifelong process of motor development focuses on: (1) neural changes in lifespan motor development; (2) the effects of developmental memory differences on learning motor skills; (3) physical growth and motor performance; (4) motor development in children with learning disabilities; (5) a motor development program

Roberton, Mary Ann; And Others

1982-01-01

78

Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA.  

PubMed

In eukaryotic cells, cargo is transported on self-organized networks of microtubule trackways by kinesin and dynein motor proteins. Synthetic microtubule networks have previously been assembled in vitro, and microtubules have been used as shuttles to carry cargoes on lithographically defined tracks consisting of surface-bound kinesin motors. Here, we show that molecular signals can be used to program both the architecture and the operation of a self-organized transport system that is based on kinesin and microtubules and spans three orders of magnitude in length scale. A single motor protein, dimeric kinesin-1, is conjugated to various DNA nanostructures to accomplish different tasks. Instructions encoded into the DNA sequences are used to direct the assembly of a polar array of microtubules and can be used to control the loading, active concentration and unloading of cargo on this track network, or to trigger the disassembly of the network. PMID:24213281

Wollman, Adam J M; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Carstairs, Helen M J; Cross, Robert A; Turberfield, Andrew J

2014-01-01

79

NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

2000-01-01

80

Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

1992-11-01

81

Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules.  

PubMed

For years now, the delivery of small molecules through the buccal mucosal route has been described in the literature, but it has only been over the past decade that investigations into macromolecule delivery via the buccal route have sharply increased. The administration of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, antibodies, or nucleic acids by buccal administration would be greatly enhanced due to the avoidance of the gastrointestinal conditions, rapid uptake into systemic circulation, as well as the potential for controlled drug delivery. Since macromolecules are faced with a number of specific challenges related to permeation through the epithelium, several strategies have been employed historically to improve their buccal absorption and subsequent bioavailability. Several conventional strategies to improve macromolecule penetration include the use of chemical permeation enhancers, enzyme inhibitors and the use of mucoadhesive materials acting as carriers. More recent approaches include the incorporation of the macromolecule as part of nanostructured delivery systems to further enhance targeting and delivery. This review focuses on the different permeation enhancing strategies as well as formulation design that are tailored to meet the challenges of active macromolecule delivery using the buccal mucosal route of administration. PMID:24611816

Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

2014-05-01

82

Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

2009-01-01

83

A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

2014-01-01

84

Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

1992-01-01

85

Buccal fat pad reconstruction for oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by gradually increasing fibrosis of the oral cavity and pharynx, mainly the buccal mucosa, resulting in trismus. Prepotency of the disease is seen in the Indian subcontinent, with its highest incidence in South India due to various deleterious habits. In spite of the numerous medical modalities employed in the management of oral submucous fibrosis, occasionally surgical intervention becomes inevitable. Various flaps have been used to reconstruct the surgical defects following excision of fibrous bands. Undoubtedly; the buccal fat pad remains the most versatile because of its excellent blood supply and minimal donor site morbidity. Here we present a case of severe oral submucous fibrosis surgically treated and reconstructed using buccal fat pad.

Surej, Kumar L. K.; Kurien, Nikhil M.; Sakkir, Nasil

2010-01-01

86

Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

1988-01-01

87

Buccaling under the pressure: influence of secondary care establishments on the prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets in primary care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine which characteristics were the best predictors of high rates of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. DESIGN: Practice and patient characteristics from 197 practices were examined, and a multiple regression analysis was performed to examine which variables were important in predicting this prescribing. SETTING: Former family health services authority (197 practices). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Volume of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. RESULTS: Four variables contributed significantly to a multiple regression model: the catchment area of the secondary care establishment; the number of partners in a practice; the level of practice deprivation; and whether the practice served an urban or a rural area. The model suggests that the most important variable was the catchment area of the secondary care establishment in which the practice was located. CONCLUSION: Although only the prescribing of short acting glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets was studied, an impact of this size on primary care prescribing may have extensive implications for all drug expenditure in primary care.

Pryce, A. J.; Heatlie, H. F.; Chapman, S. R.

1996-01-01

88

Diffusion Rates and Transport Pathways of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-Labeled Model Compounds Through Buccal Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize transport of FITC-labeled dextrans of different molecular weights as model compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration of these dextrans through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the

A. Janet Hoogstraate; Christopher Cullander; J. Fred Nagelkerke; Sevda Senel; J. Coos Verhoef; Hans E. Junginger; Harry E. Boddé

1994-01-01

89

Feasibility of High-Throughput Genome-Wide Genotyping using DNA from Stored Buccal Cell Samples.  

PubMed

It is unclear if buccal cell samples contain sufficient human DNA with adequately sized fragments for high throughput genetic bioassays. Yet buccal cell sample collection is an attractive alternative to gathering blood samples for genetic epidemiologists engaged in large-scale genetic biomarker studies. We assessed the genotyping efficiency (GE) and genotyping concordance (GC) of buccal cell DNA samples compared to corresponding blood DNA samples, from 32 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) participants using the Illumina Infinium 660W-Quad platform. We also assessed how GE and GC accuracy varied as a function of DNA concentration using serial dilutions of buccal DNA samples. Finally we determined the nature and genomic distribution of discordant genotypes in buccal DNA samples. The mean GE of undiluted buccal cell DNA samples was high (99.32%), as was the GC between the paired buccal and blood samples (99.29%). GC between the dilutions versus the undiluted buccal DNA was also very high (>97%), though both GE and GC notably declined at DNA concentrations less than 5 ng/mul. Most (>95%) genotype determinations in buccal cell samples were of the "missing call" variety (as opposed to the "alternative genotype call" variety) across the spectrum of buccal DNA concentrations studied. Finally, for buccal DNA concentration above 1.7 ng/ul, discordant genotyping calls did not cluster in any particular chromosome. Buccal cell-derived DNA represents a viable alternative to blood DNA for genotyping on a high-density platform. PMID:20520743

Loomis, Stephanie J; Olson, Lana M; Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey; Mirel, Daniel; Crenshaw, Andrew; Parkin, Melissa; Rahhal, Brandon; Tetreault, Stephanie; Kraft, Peter; Tworoger, Shelley S; Haines, Jonathan L; Kang, Jae H

2010-01-01

90

Buccal misoprostol as cervical preparation for second trimester pregnancy termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of cervical preparation with misoprostol or laminaria suction abortion up to 18 weeks gestation. The study was conducted among a consecutive case series of patients presenting for dilatation and evacuation at a single center. Cervical preparation was effected by either 600 mg buccal misoprostol (n = 32) or laminaria (n

Catherine S. Todd; Maria Soler; Laura Castleman; M. Katherine Rogers; Paul D. Blumenthal

2002-01-01

91

In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

2011-01-01

92

Buccal Absorption of Etomidate from a Solid Formulation in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etomidate is typically administered lV for the induction of general anesthesia. We believe that oral transmucosal absorption may extend etomidate's use to premeditation and conscious sedation. Our objective was to study the oral mucosal absorption kinetics and bioavailability of etomidate in a solid dose form in dogs. A solid dose form containing 50 mg of etomidate in sorbitol for buccal

Jie Zhang; Lynn Maland; Brian Hague; Suyi Niu; Scott Robertson; Dennis Coleman; Theodore H. Stanley; James B. Streisand

1998-01-01

93

Drug permeation enhancement via buccal route: possibilities and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, there has been a particular interest in delivering drugs, especially peptides and proteins via the buccal route. It provides direct entry into the systemic circulation thus avoiding the hepatic first-pass effect and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, ease of administration, and the ability to terminate delivery when required. However membrane permeation can be a limiting factor

Sevda ?enel; A. Atilla H?ncal

2001-01-01

94

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL FILMS OF RANITIDINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioadhesive formulations have a wide scope of application for both systemic and local effects of drugs. The mucosa is relatively permeable, well supplied with both vascular and lymphatic drainage. The oral transmucosal drug delivery bypasses liver and avoids presystemic elimination in the gastro intestinal tract and liver. The present investigation highlights the formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films of

M. Alagusundaram; B. Chengaiah; S. Ramkanth; S. Angala Parameswari; C. Madhu; Sudhana Chetty; D. Dhachinamoorthi

95

Simplified buccal DNA extraction with FTA ® Elute Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA isolation is the initial step of most genetic studies, and ideally it should use a reliable and non-invasive method. Buccal samples are adequate for such purposes, being painless, easy to collect and a very reliable DNA source. FTA® Elute Cards are relatively new on the market and are designed for rapid blood DNA extraction, in which DNA is solubilized

Eldamária de Vargas Wolfgramm; Fernanda Magri de Carvalho; Vitor Rezende da Costa Aguiar; Mariana Penha De Nadai Sartori; Gabriela C. R. Hirschfeld-Campolongo; Weslley M. Tsutsumida; Iúri Drumond Louro

2009-01-01

96

Multiple Neural Oscillators and Muscle Feedback Are Required for the Intestinal Fed State Motor Program  

PubMed Central

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40–60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40–200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle.

Chambers, Jordan D.; Bornstein, Joel C.; Thomas, Evan A.

2011-01-01

97

C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context.

Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

2012-01-01

98

Motor schema based navigation for a mobile robot: An approach to programming by behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas are proposed as a basic unit of behavior specification for the navigation of a mobile robot. These are multiple concurrent processes which operate in conjunction with associated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation behind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuroscientific, psychological and robotic sources.

Ronald C. Arkin

1987-01-01

99

Fusion protein Isl1-Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1–Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1–Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1–Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1–Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells.

Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M.; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W.; Lee, Soo-Kyung

2012-01-01

100

Pre-Student Teaching Laboratory Experiences for Students Majoring in Physical Education and in Elementary Education. The Children's Motor Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the 1972 Distinguished Achievement Award Entry from the University of Wisconsin describes the Children's Motor Development Program which is designed to give student teachers experience in elementary physical education methods through volunteer laboratory training. After a review of the development of the program, the following…

Wisconsin Univ., Stevens Point. Dept. of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

101

Motor Neurons that Multitask  

PubMed Central

Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion.

Goulding, Martyn

2013-01-01

102

Homopolar motor technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homopolar motors are compact and, therefore, are attractive for use in a direct electric drive for a ship. The critical components for the motor are the brushes, the superconducting coils, and the power conversion system to produce the high current, low voltage DC required for the motor. A program is underway at General Atomics for the Office of Naval Research

R. J. Thome; W. Creedon; M. Reed; E. Bowles; K. Schaubel

2002-01-01

103

The use of autologous buccal mucosa grafts in vaginal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Vaginal reconstruction can be challenging when there is a paucity of tissue, as the ideal donor source has yet to be determined. Many of the existing and commonly used techniques, such as vaginal replacement with skin grafts or bowel segments, have both advantages and disadvantages. A novel technique for vaginal replacement and reconstruction is with autologous buccal mucosa, an epithelium which is an excellent tissue match to the vagina. As urologists often have extensive experience with the use of oral mucosa for urethral reconstruction, it is fitting to apply these techniques to procedures where native vaginal tissue is lacking. This review presents the existing literature as well as the author's own experience with the use of autologous buccal mucosa for a variety of vaginal reconstructive procedures. PMID:24948036

Grimsby, Gwen M; Baker, Linda A

2014-08-01

104

Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

2009-03-01

105

Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the base matrix. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent casting technique using different grades of HPMC with different ratios. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index (SI), folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation studies. Results: The film thickness and weight were in the range of 0.213–0.4892mm and 22.25–39.83 mg, respectively. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC, HPMCK100, and HPMC3000 films exhibited satisfactory swelling. Surface pH of buccal films was found to be 6.4–6.8. SI observed to be highest for GF12 (275.3 ± 12.17) and lowest for GF1 (173.5 ± 5.65). The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time, and promising drug release. The Higuchi plots were found to be linear with correlation coefficient values of 0.8933, 0.9138, and 0.9947 for GF4, GF8, and GF9, respectively. Conclusions: Among all the formulations, GF9 shows good controlled release results correlated with ex vivo permeation studies.

Muzib, Y Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

2011-01-01

106

Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablets containing clotrimazole.  

PubMed

Buccal bioadhesive tablets of clotrimazole (CTZ) and clotrimazole: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CTZ-HPbetaCD) complex were prepared by using polymer xanthan gum in combination with carbopol 974P. The prepared buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics (weight, hardness, friability, diameter, and drug content), swelling index, microenvironment pH, in-vitro drug release, bioadhesion strength, residence time and duration of antifungal activity (in-vitro). The dissolution of CTZ from the prepared tablets into phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was controlled up to 8 h. All the prepared tablets gave reasonable in-vitro residence time (7.13 - 9.34 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the CTZ-HPbetaCD complex, made by kneading and freeze-dried method, showed no CTZ crystal signals, demonstrating the inclusion of CTZ in the hydrophobic cavity of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and formation of amorphous inclusion complex. Duration of the antifungal activity was measured by the inhibition zone of Candida albicans by agar diffusion assay. It is evident from the results obtained, the prepared buccal bioadhesive tablets of CTZ would markedly prolong the duration of the antifungal activity and may prove to be a viable alternative to the conventional local oral medication. PMID:18393816

Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tilak, R

2008-04-01

107

Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users  

PubMed Central

Background: Gutkha is a cheap and convenient betel quid substitute, which is popular among all age groups. Various studies reveal its carcinogenic nature that leads to oral submucosus fibrosis and increases the chances of oral cancer. The micronucleus (MN) assay in exfoliated mucosal cells is a useful method for observing genetic damage in humans. Aim: To observe the genotoxic effect of gutkha on human buccal epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The MN assay was performed to assess the frequency of MN in human buccal epithelial cells. The study comprises 60 individuals of which 30 individuals were gutkha chewers and another 30 were nonusers (control). The MN frequency was scored to estimate the genotoxic damage. Results: In gutkha users, the frequency of MN was highly significant (17.4 ± 0.944) as compared with nonusers (control) groups (4.53 ± 0.331) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The MN assay in human buccal epithelial cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. Asignificantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells are found among gutkha users.

Jyoti, Smita; Khan, Saif; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

2012-01-01

108

Servo and Stepper Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Math Machines, students will "compare and contrast hobby servo motors and small stepper motors in terms of the type and range of motion, precision, feedback and speed." The exercise is divided into two parts, the first dedicated to servo motors and the second to stepper motors. Step by step instructions are included for each section. A participant handout (including worksheets) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. Links to calculator programs are also included.

Thomas, Fred

2011-10-13

109

Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

2002-04-01

110

Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

111

Activation of nucleus basalis facilitates cortical control of a brain stem motor program.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that activation of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), which provides cholinergic input to cortex, facilitates motor control. Our measures of facilitation were changes in the direction and time-course of vibrissa movements that are elicited by microstimulation of vibrissa motor (M1) cortex. In particular, microstimulation led solely to a transient retraction of the vibrissae in the sessile animal but to a full motion sequence of protraction followed by retraction in the aroused animal. We observed that activation of NBM, as assayed by cortical desynchronization, induced a transition from microstimulation-evoked retraction to full sweep sequences. This dramatic change in the vibrissa response to microstimulation was blocked by systemic delivery of atropine and, in anesthetized animals, an analogous change was blocked by the topical administration of atropine to M1 cortex. We conclude that NBM significantly facilitates the ability of M1 cortex to control movements. Our results bear on the importance of cholinergic activation in schemes for neuroprosthetic control of movement. PMID:15728764

Berg, Rune W; Friedman, Beth; Schroeder, Lee F; Kleinfeld, David

2005-07-01

112

Monoaminergic orchestration of motor programs in a complex C. elegans behavior.  

PubMed

Monoamines provide chemical codes of behavioral states. However, the neural mechanisms of monoaminergic orchestration of behavior are poorly understood. Touch elicits an escape response in Caenorhabditis elegans where the animal moves backward and turns to change its direction of locomotion. We show that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a G?o pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor neurons that synapse onto ventral body wall muscles. Extrasynaptic activation of SER-2 facilitates ventral body wall muscle contraction, contributing to the tight ventral turn that allows the animal to navigate away from a threatening stimulus. Tyramine temporally coordinates the different phases of the escape response through the synaptic activation of the fast-acting ionotropic receptor, LGC-55, and extrasynaptic activation of the slow-acting metabotropic receptor, SER-2. Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence. PMID:23565061

Donnelly, Jamie L; Clark, Christopher M; Leifer, Andrew M; Pirri, Jennifer K; Haburcak, Marian; Francis, Michael M; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Alkema, Mark J

2013-01-01

113

Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

2013-11-01

114

Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

1972-01-01

115

Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain  

PubMed Central

Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding.

Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

2013-01-01

116

A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. PMID:24291123

Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

2014-01-30

117

Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Drug Testing Programs Could Better Identify Illegal Drug Users and Keep Them off the Road.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal law requires commercial drivers to submit urine specimens for drug testing. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is responsible for ensuring that motor carriers comply with these regulations. Recent reports have raised concerns ...

2008-01-01

118

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grant monies in appropriate safety programs will increase the likelihood that safety defects, driver deficiencies...they become contributing factors to accidents. The MCSAP...and uniform enforcement of safety rules, regulations,...

2013-10-01

119

An Evaluation of the Michigan Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the effectiveness of an on-road, spot check method of conducting vehicle inspections. The study concentrated on an enhanced program which was operated in three Michigan counties. The proportion of the vehicle population inspected was s...

J. S. Creswell

1974-01-01

120

Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

2005-01-01

121

The motor program for defensive kicking in crickets: performance and neural control  

PubMed

Crickets can repulse sources of mechanical touch to their wings, legs or to the posterior body by kicking backwards ipsilaterally with one hindleg. The main component of a kick is the rapid extension of the femoro-tibial (knee) joint. A kick as a defence against predators must occur instantly after the moment of touch. The cricket kick is completed within 60­100 ms, whereas in locusts 500­2000 ms elapses between the stimulus and the end of the kick. The rapid movement of the cricket hindleg was recorded with a high-resolution video technique. Cricket kicking is based on a dynamic co-contraction of the extensor and flexor tibiae muscles during the pre-kick knee flexion period, thus differing from the static co-contraction period seen in locusts. Biomechanically, the knee joint is specialized for kicking and jumping by the specific leverage of tendons inserting at the knee, by a femoral ridge that modifies the angle of attack for flexor muscular forces and by a cushion-like swelling on the flexor tibiae tendon. Because of these structural specialisations for rapid kicking, the neural control of the motor pattern of the muscles participating in the tibial movement can vary considerably, but still produce efficient kicks. Kicking is also an element of other complex behaviours. PMID:9319140

Hustert; Gnatzy

1995-01-01

122

Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2053-2061, 2014. PMID:24824736

Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

2014-07-01

123

Substitution Urethroplasty for Anterior Urethral Strictures: Buccal versus Lingual Mucosal Graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli’s technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty

Abhay Kumar; Suren K. Das; Sameer Trivedi; Udai S. Dwivedi; Pratap B. Singh

2010-01-01

124

Sexual dimorphism in the buccal cavity of paternal mouthbrooding cardinalfishes (Pisces: Apogonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical basis of mouthbrooding in the coral reef cardinalfish (family Apogonidae) has yet to be established. Sexual dimorphism in the anatomy of the oral jaws and buccal cavity of seven species of paternal mouthbrooding apogonids was therefore investigated. A novel silicon injecting technique was used to quantify between sexes differences in size and shape of the buccal cavity. Osteological

A. Barnett; D. R. Bellwood

2005-01-01

125

Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers  

PubMed Central

The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

2010-01-01

126

Preparation and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Films Containing Clotrimazole  

PubMed Central

Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

Jain, S.; Muthu, M. S.; Tiwari, S.; Tilak, R.

2008-01-01

127

Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty.  

PubMed

Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007-2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o'clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12-15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18-30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4). Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases. PMID:22453071

Tang, Shou-Hung; Kao, Chien-Chang; Wu, Seng-Tang; Meng, En; Cha, Tai-Lung

2012-04-01

128

Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

1992-01-01

129

Inverted periosteal flap: an alternative to the buccal advancement flap for tension-free, watertight closure.  

PubMed

The buccal advancement flap has been universally used in oral and maxillofacial surgery for closure of alveolar ridge incisions. It involves scoring of the buccal periosteum to enhance flap mobility and then stretching the buccal tissues medially (palatally or lingually) to obtain tension-free, watertight closure of a wound. Its applications have included, but have not been limited to, alveolar ridge augmentation procedures and closure of oral-antral communications. However, the buccal advancement flap technique has several major disadvantages. First, because the buccal flap is advanced crestally and medially, this technique invariably results in a significant reduction in vestibular depth. This can cause patients discomfort, such that they have described a sensation that their buccal mucosa has been sutured to their alveolar mucosa. In addition to being uncomfortable, this vestibular shortening can adversely affect patients' options for future prosthetic rehabilitation. Second, because the buccal flap is advanced medially, the mucogingival junction will be obliged to follow; therefore, the width of the keratinized tissue on the buccal aspect of the alveolus will be diminished. Third, if the buccal flap has been advanced a large distance, even with aggressive periosteal scoring and release, true tension-free closure can be very difficult to achieve, increasing the risk of wound dehiscence. The inverted periosteal flap is a new technique for flap design and closure that has several advantages over the buccal advancement flap. In my experience, the inverted periosteal flap will preserve the vestibular depth, maintain the keratinized gingival dimensions, and provide true tension-free closure. Thus, this flap could be ideal for any oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure in which tension-free, watertight closure is desired. PMID:24768423

Rosenfeld, Elisheva A

2014-07-01

130

Bioavailability of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone following buccal administration in cats.  

PubMed

Buccal administration of buprenorphine is commonly used to treat pain in cats. It has been argued that absorption of buprenorphine through the buccal mucosa is high, in part due to its pKa of 8.24. Morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone have a pKa between 8 and 9. This study characterized the bioavailability of these drugs following buccal administration to cats. Six healthy adult female spayed cats were used. Buccal pH was measured prior to drug administration. Morphine sulfate, 0.2 mg/kg IV or 0.5 mg/kg buccal; methadone hydrochloride, 0.3 mg/kg IV or 0.75 mg/kg buccal; hydromorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal; or oxymorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal were administered. All cats received all treatments. Arterial blood was sampled immediately prior to drug administration and at various times up to 8 h thereafter. Bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of the area under the time-concentration curve following buccal administration to that following IV administration, each indexed to the administered dose. Mean ± SE (range) bioavailability was 36.6 ± 5.2 (12.7-49.5), 44.2 ± 7.9 (18.7-70.5), 22.4 ± 6.9 (6.4-43.4), and 18.8 ± 2.0 (12.9-23.5)% for buccal administration of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone, respectively. Bioavailability of methadone was significantly higher than that of oxymorphone. PMID:24236993

Pypendop, B H; Ilkiw, J E; Shilo-Benjamini, Y

2014-06-01

131

A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.  

PubMed

We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500× stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000× stiffness fin rays. PMID:22162853

Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

2012-01-01

132

Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent® drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP.

Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

2010-01-01

133

Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3?±?0.6, BMI 16.3?±?1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n?=?201), children in the intervention group (n?=?187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (?0.8 to 0.3), p?=?0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p?program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460

2013-01-01

134

Micronucleus assay in human cells: lymphocytes and buccal cells.  

PubMed

The micronucleus (MN) assay, applied in different surrogate tissues, is one of the best validated cytogenetic techniques for evaluating chromosomal damage in humans. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMNcyt) in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the most frequent method in biomonitoring human populations to evaluate exposure to genotoxic agents, micronutrient deficiency, or excess and genetic instability. Furthermore recent scientific evidence suggests an association between an increased MN frequency in lymphocytes and risk of cancer and other age-related degenerative diseases. The micronucleus cytome assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells (BMNCyt) provides a complementary method for measuring DNA damage and cytotoxic effects in an easily accessible tissue not requiring in vitro culture. The protocol for CBMNcyt described here refers to the use of ex vivo whole blood involving 72 h of culture with the block of cytokinesis at 44 h. BMNCyt protocol reports the established method for sample processing, slide preparation, and scoring. PMID:23896878

Bolognesi, Claudia; Fenech, Michael

2013-01-01

135

Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

2014-01-01

136

Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient.

Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

2013-01-01

137

The level of buccal gingival margin around single and two adjacent implant restorations: a preliminary result  

PubMed Central

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Little information is available about the buccal gingival level of multiple implant restorations. PURPOSE This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between width and height of buccal soft tissue around single and 2 adjacent implant restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Four implant restoration groups (first and second molars, single second molars, posterior single restorations between teeth, and anterior single restorations between teeth) were randomly chosen from one dental institute. Each group comprised of 6 patients. After 6 months of function, silicone impressions were taken and stone models were fabricated for each restoration group. The stone models were cut in bucco-lingual direction at the most apical point of buccal gingival margin. The height and width of buccal supra-implant soft tissue were measured. One way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests were performed to analyze the data obtained (P < .05). RESULTS The most unfavorable width-height ratio was noted for the group, which was comprised of the second molar in the multiple adjacent (first and second molar) implant-supported restorations. The group also resulted in the shorter height of buccal supra-implant mucosa rather than that of anterior single implant restorations between natural teeth. CONCLUSION To achieve a favorable level of buccal gingival margin, greater thickness of buccal supra-implant mucosa is required for the implant restorations without a neighboring natural tooth compared to the implant restorations next to a natural tooth.

Kim, Young-Bum; Shim, June-Sung; Han, Chong-Hyun

2009-01-01

138

Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

Robinson, Leah E.

2011-01-01

139

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2013-07-01

140

Control of feeding motor output by paracerebral neurons in brain of Pleurobranchaea californica.  

PubMed

1. A population of interneurons that control feeding behavior in the mollusk Pleurobranchaea has been analyzed by dye injection and intracellular stimulation/recording in whole animals and reduced preparations. The population consists of 12-16 somata distributed in two bilaterally symmetrical groups on the anterior edge of the cerebropleural ganglion (brain). On the basis of their position adjacent to the cerebral lobes, these cells have been named paracerebral neurons (PCNs). This study concerns pme subset pf [MCs. the large, phasic ones, which have the strongest effect on the feeding rhythm (21). 2. Each PCN sends a descending axon via the ipsilateral cerebrobuccal connective to the buccal ganglion. Axon branches have not been detected in other brain or buccal nerves and hence the PCNs appear to be interneurons. 3. In whole-animal preparations, tonic intracellular depolarization of the PNCs causes them to discharge cyclic bursts of action potentials interrupted by a characteristic hyperpolarization. In all specimens that exhibit feeding behavior, the interburst hyperpolarization is invariably accompanied by radula closure and the beginning of proboscis retraction (the "bite"). No other behavorial effect of PCN stimulation has been observed. 4. In whole-animal preparations, the PCNs are excited by food and tactile stimulation of the oral veil, rhinophores, and tentacles. When such stimuli induce feeding the PCNs discharge in the same bursting pattern seen during tonic PCN depolarization, with the cyclic interburst hyperpolarization phase locked to the bit. When specimens egest an unpalatable object by cyclic buccal movements, however, the PCNs are silent. The PCNs therefore exhibit properties expected of behaviorally specific "command" neurons for feeding. 5. Silencing one or two PCNs by hyperpolarization may weaken but does not prevent feeding induced by natural food stimuli. Single PCNs therefore can be sufficient but are not necessary to induction of feeding behavior. Instead the PCNs presumably operate as a population to control feeding. 6. In isolated nervous system preparations tonic extracellular stimulation of the stomatogastric nerve of the buccal ganglion elicits a cyclic motor rhythm that is similar in general features to the PNC-induced motor rhythm. Bursts of PCN action potentials intercalated at the normal phase position in this cycle intensify the buccal rhythm. Bursts of PCN impulses intercalated at abnormal phase positions reset the buccal rhythm. The PCNs, therefore, also exhibit properties expected of pattern-generator elements and/or coordinating neurons for the buccal rhythm. 7. The PCNs are recruited into activity when the buccal motor rhythm is elicited by stomatogastric nerve stimulation or stimulation of the reidentifiable ventral white cell. The functional synergy between the PCNs and the buccal rhythm is therefore reciprocal. 8... PMID:7086474

Gillette, R; Kovac, M P; Davis, W J

1982-05-01

141

Identification and Development of Countermeasures for Bicyclist/Motor-Vehicle Problem Types. Volume 1. Methods and Training Program Descriptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed re-analysis of previously collected bicycle/motor-vehicle accident data was conducted to define potential countermeasures. Countermeasure development was then undertaken in the areas of Training (this Volume), Public Education (see Volume II) a...

R. D. Blomberg W. A. Leaf A. Hale M. L. Farrell K. D. Cross

1982-01-01

142

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient.

S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

2014-01-01

143

The effect of N-Nitrosonornicotine on the buccal mucosa of Syrian hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The carcinogens in smokeless tobacco have been identified as the tobacco-specific nitrosamines and the effect of one of these, N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN), on the buccal mucosa of the Syrian hamster was studied.Materials and Methods: Buccal pouches of 36 Syrian hamsters were painted five times per week for 24 weeks with 10 mg\\/mL 98% pure NNN in suspension with mineral oil.

Maria B Papageorge; Edmund Cataldo; Edwin G. E Jahngen

1996-01-01

144

Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms\\u000a of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934\\u000a (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal\\u000a devices were evaluated by different parameters such

Vishnu M. Patel; Bhupendra G. Prajapati; Madhabhai M. Patel

2007-01-01

145

In Vitro Models for Investigations of Buccal Drug Permeation and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal drug delivery across mucosal lining of the cheek offers a clear advantage over the peroral dosing route by avoidance\\u000a of intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, despite offering the possibility of improved systemic drug delivery,\\u000a buccal administration has been utilized for relatively few pharmaceutical products so far. One of the reasons is costly preclinical\\u000a development, which includes laborious pharmacokinetic

Tanja Obradovic; Ismael J. Hidalgo

146

Inhibition of adhesion of Haemophilus influenzae to buccal cells by respiratory secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of salivary secretions and sputum sol from patients with chronic bronchitis to inhibit the adhesion of non-serotypable Haemophilus influenzae to human buccal epithelial cells has been examined. Specific H. influenzae antibodies were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva and sputum levels of anti- H. influenzae immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody were related inversely to buccal cell adherence

Diana C Taylor; Allan W Cripps; Robert L Clancy

1990-01-01

147

The Effect of Manipulation and Incision on Experimental Carcinoma of Hamster Buccal Pouch1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sixty male and female golden hamsters, 6 months of age, were studied for the effects of incision and manipulation of buccal pouch carcinomas upon the growth and invasion of these malignant tumors. Epidermoid carcinomas were induced in the left buccal pouch by painting three times weekly with a 0.5% solution of 9,10-dimethyl-l,2-benzanthracene in heavy mineral oil. Carcinomas became grossly

Gerald Shklar

148

Carcinoma buccal cavity: Late presentation and salvage, experience from a North Indian center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma buccal cavity, the most common oral cavity cancer was seen in our set up in more than 50% cases. Forty patients\\u000a of carcinoma buccal cavity were studied at JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, and Aligarh over a period of last\\u000a 5 years (2003–2008). Mean age at presentation 36.5 years (30–55) years. Male: Female, 27:13. Most common association was

Satyaswarup Tripathy; Mohd. Yaseen; Lalit M. Bariar; Satish Chandra Sharma

2010-01-01

149

Aphtose buccale r?cidivante, et si c'?tait une maladie coeliaque  

PubMed Central

L'aphtose buccale récidivante est une maladie le plus souvent bénigne mais parfois invalidante qui évolue de façon chronique et récidivante. Elle peut être isolée ou associé à d'autre pathologie, d'où l'intérêt de la recherche d'une maladie sous jacente. Nous rapportons le cas d'une aphtose buccale récidivante révélant une maladie coeliaque chez une patiente âgée de 45 ans.

Zinelabidine, Kaoutar; Rhizlane, Idrissi; Meziane, Meriame; Zahra Mernissi, Fatima

2012-01-01

150

Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia  

PubMed Central

The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

2014-01-01

151

Outcomes of Dorsal and Ventral Buccal Graft Urethroplasty at a Tertiary Hospital in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Although the use of buccal mucosa in substitution urethroplasty has been practiced for some years, it has not been free of controversy over which surgical technique is the most appropriate to use. There is paucity of data in Sub-Saharan Africa about its success; this study presents the outcomes of dorsal and ventral buccal graft urethroplasty at a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital. Methods. This is a prospective study in which buccal mucosa was used for ventral and dorsal grafts; followup was up to two years. All patients provided informed written consent for the procedures. Results. Seventy-two patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent buccal graft one-stage urethroplasty. Mean age was 55 years; etiology of the strictures was postinflammatory due to urethritis from sexually transmitted infections 97% (70/72) and trauma 3% (2/72). Buccal mucosa grafts were harvested from the cheek using a two-team approach. Grafts were placed on the ventral and dorsal urethral surfaces in 32 and 40 cases, respectively; the success rate was 84 and 80%, respectively. Repeated urethroplasty was successfully done among 10% (7/72) and patients reported resolution of symptoms in the follow-up period. Conclusion. There was no difference between dorsal and ventral onlay buccal graft outcomes for bulbar urethral strictures. The success rate was 80 to 84%.

Kaggwa, S.; Galukande, M.; Dabanja, H.; Luweesi, H.

2014-01-01

152

Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia.  

PubMed

The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419

Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

2014-04-01

153

Motor Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

2013-06-14

154

Motor Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

2013-06-13

155

Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

Brown, Gerald V.

2004-01-01

156

Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient.

Kurup, Seema; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Jose, Renju; Puthalath, Ushass

2013-01-01

157

Effect of an equine-movement therapy program on gait, energy expenditure, and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week program of hippotherapy on energy expenditure during walking; on the gait dimensions of stride length, velocity, and cadence; and on performance on the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) in five children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). A repeated-measures within-subjects design was used consisting of two baseline measurements taken 8 weeks apart, followed by an 8-week intervention period, then a posttest. After hippotherapy, all five children showed a significant decrease (X2(r)=7.6, P<0.05) in energy expenditure during walking and a significant increase (X2(r)=7.6, P<0.05) in scores on Dimension E (Walking, Running, and Jumping) of the GMFM. A trend toward increased stride length and decreased cadence was observed. This study suggests that hippotherapy may improve energy expenditure during walking and gross motor function in children with CP. PMID:9881805

McGibbon, N H; Andrade, C K; Widener, G; Cintas, H L

1998-11-01

158

Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive–motor performance in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive–motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive–motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus.

Frankemolle, Anneke M. M.; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

2010-01-01

159

Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats.  

PubMed

The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%). The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively). A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. PMID:23184169

Azambuja, Carolina Barrera de; Cavagni, Juliano; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Gaio, Eduardo José; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

2012-01-01

160

Evaluation of buccal plate after human bone allografting: clinical and CBCT outcomes of immediate anterior implants in eight consecutive cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this clinical case series was to evaluate buccal bone thickness using cone beam computed tomography and to demonstrate optimal clinical outcomes for implants placed into extraction sockets in the anterior maxilla with a thin biotype, by placing a graft of mineralized and demineralized human bone allograft into the buccal gap. The preliminary outcomes showed good preservation of soft and hard tissue architecture after 1 year in function. In particular, in eight patients, this allograft mixture appeared to minimize the amount of buccal contour change in the extraction site ridge with a thin buccal plate. PMID:24804296

Spinato, Sergio; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo

2014-01-01

161

A subscale solid propellant rocket motor experimental program to validate the performance and gasdynamic analysis of the Titan IV SRMU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to support Hercules Aerospace investigations into the failure of the Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) during its first ground test firing and to demonstrate the effectiveness of a remedial grain configuration. Motor internal flow processes for several propellant comfigurations were examined using a 7 percent scale reusable solid propellant combustor in short duration tests. Propellant surface pressure distributions in the combustor were determined by rapid response piezoelectric pressure tranducers. Results of the PQM-1 and PQM-1 one second propellant grain configurations indicated that a high pressure gradient across the joint of the aft and central motor segments led to deformation of the aft grain segment which caused a partial blockage of flow in the central bore of the motor, overpressurization of the forward case and subsequent failure. Tests with the June 5th Baseline redesigned grain configuration showed that chamfering the sharp edges of the forward face of the aft segment leads to a significant reduction in loads across the center-to-aft interface. Test results are discussed and provide a basis to proceed with the remedial design and second ground firing test of the Titan IV SRMU.

Albrechcinski, T.; Drzewiecki, R.; Pierowicz, J.; Wehe, S.; Wurster, W.; Lundgreen, R.; Daines, W.

1992-07-01

162

Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and rep...

J. M. Miller

2013-01-01

163

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. PRESENTATION OF CASE 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. DISCUSSION Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. CONCLUSION The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands.

Dereci, Omur; Cimen, Emre

2014-01-01

164

A novel flow through diffusion cell for assessing drug transport across the buccal mucosa in vitro.  

PubMed

A novel flow through (FT) diffusion cell for assessing the permeability of compounds across the buccal mucosa was designed. Porcine buccal mucosa was mounted between two chambers with flow through capacity in both the donor and receptor chambers. The permeability of caffeine (CAF), triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), and estradiol (E(2)) was determined over 4 h and flux values were compared to those obtained using a modified Ussing chamber (MUC). No significant differences in the flux of each probe compound were observed using either the MUC or the novel FT cell. The design of the FT cell allowed for monitoring appearance of receptor solution within the donor chamber during the initial equilibration period, allowing for visual inspection of tissue integrity. These permeability studies demonstrate that this FT cell is a suitable alternative model for assessing drug permeability across the buccal mucosa, without the limitations associated with the static MUC. This novel model was then utilized to determine whether salmeterol xinafoate (SX) could permeate the buccal mucosa at concentrations expected in the oral cavity following inhalation. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that SX permeates the buccal mucosa via passive diffusion and that oral mucosal absorption may contribute significantly to the overall systemic exposure of inhaled SX. PMID:19408309

Lestari, Maria L A D; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

2009-12-01

165

Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

2013-01-16

166

Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane) was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score?=?10.82(SD2.96)). Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8) and a significant correlation (r?=?0.67; p?Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level) have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component ‘client-centred’ and ‘exercise progression’ may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research.

2012-01-01

167

MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

Stickney, B.L.

1993-12-31

168

HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells. PMID:21198427

Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

2011-01-01

169

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum-based bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches of zolmitriptan.  

PubMed

A novel bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patch of zolmitriptan was prepared using xanthan gum (XG) as mucoadhesive polymer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E-15 was used as film-former and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was incorporated, to increase the tensile strength of the patches. To study the effect of independent variables viz. concentrations of XG and PVA, on various dependent variables like in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and swelling index, 3(2) factorial design was employed. In vitro drug release studies of optimized formulation showed initially, rapid drug release; 43.15% within 15 min, followed by sustained release profile over 5h. Incorporation of 4% dimethyl sulfoxide enhanced drug permeability by 3.29 folds, transported 29.10% of drug after 5h and showed no buccal mucosal damage after histopathological studies. In conclusion, XG can be used as a potential drug release modifier and mucoadhesive polymer for successful formulation of zolmitriptan buccal patches. PMID:24299896

Shiledar, Rewathi R; Tagalpallewar, Amol A; Kokare, Chandrakant R

2014-01-30

170

Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and buccal administration in cats, and effects on thermal threshold.  

PubMed

This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine, following i.v. and buccal administration, and the relationship between buprenorphine concentration and its effect on thermal threshold. Buprenorphine (20 ?g/kg) was administered intravenously or buccally to six cats. Thermal threshold was determined, and arterial blood sampled prior to, and at various times up to 24 h following drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the concentration-thermal threshold data. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than baseline 44 min after buccal administration, and 7, 24, and 104 min after i.v. administration. A two- and three-compartment model best fitted the data following buccal and i.v. administration, respectively. Following i.v. administration, mean ± SD volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg), clearance (mL·min/kg), and terminal half-life (h) were 11.6 ± 8.5, 23.8 ± 3.5, and 9.8 ± 3.5. Following buccal administration, absorption half-life was 23.7 ± 9.1 min, and terminal half-life was 8.9 ± 4.9 h. An effect-compartment model with a simple effect maximum model best predicted the time-course of the effect of buprenorphine on thermal threshold. Median (range) ke0 and EC50 were 0.003 (0.002-0.018)/min and 0.599 (0.073-1.628) ng/mL (i.v.), and 0.017 (0.002-0.023)/min and 0.429 (0.144-0.556) ng/mL (buccal). PMID:24862514

Hedges, A R; Pypendop, B H; Shilo-Benjamini, Y; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

2014-06-01

171

Effects of sample collection and storage conditions on DNA damage in buccal cells from agricultural workers.  

PubMed

Buccal cells are becoming a widely used tissue source for monitoring human exposure to occupational and environmental genotoxicants. A variety of methods exist for collecting buccal cells from the oral cavity, including rinsing with saline, mouthwash, or scraping the oral cavity. Buccal cells are also routinely cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), then examined later for DNA damage by the comet assay. The effects of these different sampling procedures on the integrity of buccal cells for measuring DNA damage are unknown. This study examined the influence of the collection and cryopreservation of buccal cells on cell survival and DNA integrity. In individuals who rinsed with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), the viability of leukocytes (90%) was significantly (p<0.01) greater than that of epithelial cells (12%). Similar survival rates were found for leukocytes (88%) and epithelial cells (10%) after rinsing with Listerine(®) mouthwash. However, the viability of leukocytes after cryopreservation varied significantly (p<0.01) with DMSO concentration. Cell survival was greatest at 5% DMSO. Cryopreservation also influenced the integrity of DNA in the comet assay. Although tail length and tail moment were comparable in fresh or cryopreserved samples, the average head intensity for cryopreserved samples was ?6 units lower (95% CI: 0.8-12 units lower) than for fresh samples (t(25)=-2.36, p=0.026). These studies suggest that the collection and storage of buccal samples are critical factors for the assessment of DNA damage. Moreover, leukocytes appear to be a more reliable source of human tissue for assessing DNA damage and possibly other biochemical changes. PMID:21138773

Muniz, Juan F; McCauley, Linda A; Pak, Victoria; Lasarev, Michael R; Kisby, Glen E

2011-02-28

172

A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. Results The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. Conclusion RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

Schaefer, Jeffrey S.; English, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam

2013-01-01

173

Investigating the effect of Aloe vera gel on the buccal permeability of didanosine.  

PubMed

The buccal mucosal route offers several advantages but the delivery of certain drugs can be limited by low membrane permeability. This study investigated the buccal permeability properties of didanosine (ddI) and assessed the potential of Aloe vera gel (AVgel) as a novel buccal permeation enhancer. Permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells, and the drug was quantified by UV spectroscopy. Histomorphological evaluations were undertaken using light and transmission electron microscopy. The permeability of ddI was concentration-dependent, and it did not have any adverse effects on the buccal mucosae. A linear relationship (R² = 0.9557) between the concentrations and flux indicated passive diffusion as the mechanism of drug transport. AVgel at concentrations of 0.25 to 2 %w/v enhanced ddI permeability with enhancement ratios from 5.09 (0.25 %w/v) to 11.78 (2 %w/v) but decreased permeability at 4 and 6 %w/v. Ultrastructural analysis of the buccal mucosae treated with phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 (PBS), ddI/PBS, and ddI/PBS/AVgel 0.5 %w/v showed cells with normal plasmalemma, well-developed cristae, and nuclei with regular nuclear envelopes. However, cells from 1, 2, and 6 %w/v AVgel-treated mucosae showed irregular nuclear outlines, increased intercellular spacing, and plasmalemma crenulations. This study demonstrates the potential of AVgel as a buccal permeation enhancer for ddI to improve anti-HIV and AIDS therapy. PMID:22161764

Ojewole, Elizabeth; Mackraj, Irene; Akhundov, Kamil; Hamman, Josias; Viljoen, Alvaro; Olivier, Eugene; Wesley-Smith, James; Govender, Thirumala

2012-03-01

174

Use of a buccal musculomucosal flap to close palatal fistulae after cleft palate repair.  

PubMed

Forty-two patients aged 4 to 13 (mean 7 years) had palatal fistulae closed with a buccal musculomucosal flap. The pedicle was divided approximately 2 weeks after the initial operation. Complete closure at the first attempt was obtained in 69% of the cases though, when the fistulae were large and extended to the anterior hard palate, the results were not as good (36%). Almost no detrimental after-effects occurred at the donor site. The buccal musculomucosal flap was found to be a useful alternative to a tongue flap. PMID:2393771

Nakakita, N; Maeda, K; Ando, S; Ojimi, H; Utsugi, R

1990-07-01

175

Altered cytological parameters in buccal cells from individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be reflective of the early stages of more pronounced neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a need for a minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic to identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of MCI and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary preventative measures. The hypothesis was that a minimally invasive approach using cytological markers in isolated buccal mucosa cells can be used to identify individuals of both MCI and AD. An automated buccal cell assay was developed using laser scanning cytometry (LSC) to measure buccal cell type ratios, nuclear DNA content and shape, and neutral lipid content of buccal cells from clinically diagnosed AD (n?=?13) and MCI (n?=?13) patients prior to treatment compared to age- and gender-matched controls (n?=?26). DNA content was significantly higher in all cell types in both MCI (P?2N nuclei. Abnormal nuclear shape (circularity) was significantly increased in transitional cells in MCI (P?buccal cells was significantly lower in the MCI group (P?buccal basal cells for both MCI and AD was significantly higher compared to the control group, with ratios for MCI being approximately 2.8-fold greater (P?buccal cell DNA content and ORO content in the AD group (r(2) ?=?0.75, P?buccal cell cytome observed in this study could prove useful as potential biomarkers in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:24616437

François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Hecker, Jane; Faunt, Jeffrey; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

2014-08-01

176

A case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the buccal mucosa: review of the literature.  

PubMed

We present a case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma on the right buccal mucosa in a 52-year-old Japanese woman. Based on the histopathology, the excised tumor was the non-invasive type, but the majority of the tumor consisted of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. We performed proton radiation after the surgery. The patient was well, without evidence of disease, 48 months after surgery. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the buccal mucosa has been reported in only four cases during the past twenty years. Therefore, our case was comparatively rare. PMID:24431844

Nakamura, Shinnosuke; Inui, Madoka; Matsumura, Yoshihiko; Takeoka, Takashi; Okumura, Kenya; Tagawa, Toshiro

2013-06-01

177

In-vivo buccal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4400 with glycodeoxycholate as an absorption enhancer in pigs.  

PubMed

Buccal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran 4400 (FD4) was investigated in-vivo in pigs. The delivery device consisted of an application chamber with a solution of FD4 and was adhered to the buccal mucosa for 4 h using an adhesive patch. A randomized crossover study including intravenous administration and buccal delivery without and with 10 mM sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDC) as absorption enhancer was performed in five pigs. After buccal administration, steady state plasma levels were rapidly reached. Coadministration of 10 mM GDC increased the absolute bioavailability of FD4 from 1.8 +/- 0.5% to 12.7 +/- 2.0%. Since FD4 is a macromolecular and hydrophilic compound such as peptide and protein drugs, buccal delivery would provide an adequate alternative to the parenteral administration of these drugs. PMID:8742934

Hoogstraate, A J; Verhoef, J C; Tuk, B; Pijpers, A; van Leengoed, L A; Verheijden, J H; Junginger, H E; Boddé, H E

1996-05-01

178

Binding of fibronectin to human buccal epithelial cells inhibits the binding of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of purified human plasma fibronectin (FN) with human buccal epithelial cells was studied. Maximal binding of FN occurred at pH 5. The majority of the binding was specific and reversible. The binding of FN to buccal cells was saturable, reaching a maximum when 10(5) buccal cells were incubated with approximately 200 micrograms of radiolabeled protein per ml. The adherence of a type 1 fimbriated strain of Escherichia coli to buccal epithelial cells was inhibited by the addition of FN in a dose-related manner. Our results indicate that exogenous FN can bind to human buccal epithelial cells and block the attachment of a type 1 fimbriated strain of E. coli.

Simpson, W A; Hasty, D L; Beachey, E H

1985-01-01

179

FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost

Josh Ley; Jon Lutz

2006-01-01

180

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

1980-07-01

181

Detection of a secondary mesio-buccal canal in maxillary first molar: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The purpose of this study was to clarify detection characteristics of the secondary mesio-buccal canal in maxillary first molars using various methods. Materials and Methods: The root canal system of 86 extracted human maxillary first molars was inspected using micro-focus-computed tomography to accurately determine the number of canals. Radiographs or floors of the pulp chamber for all samples were observed for the secondary mesio-buccal canal with computed tomography for dentistry, digital dental radiography, magnifier, or the naked eye. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy for these four methods were investigated using the results from the micro-focus-computed tomography inspection as the gold standard. All samples of each method were observed by 10 endodontists. Using these results, the ?2 test was used to compare and analyze differences between the various conditions (P<0.05). Results: The secondary mesio-buccal canal could be recognized in 60.9% of samples with the micro-focus-computed tomography. No significant difference was seen between efficiencies of the computed tomography for dentistry and the micro-focus-computed tomography. The computed tomography for dentistry was superior to the other three methods. Conclusion: Detectability of the secondary mesio-buccal canal in the maxillary first molar was superior using dental-computed tomography compared to digital dental radiography, magnification telescope, and the naked eye.

Hosoya, Noriyasu; Yoshida, Takumasa; Iino, Fumiaki; Arai, Takashi; Mishima, Akira; Kobayashi, Kaoru

2012-01-01

182

Buccal absorption of ergotamine tartrate using the bioadhesive tablet system in guinea-pigs.  

PubMed

The buccal administration of ergotamine tartrate (ET) combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel brought about higher plasma concentration of ET compared with that of oral administration of capsules in guinea-pigs. T(max) of ET in plasma of buccal administration was significantly smaller than that of oral administration. For the buccal dosage form of ET, the bioadhesive tablet system (BTS) was newly developed. It consisted of a reservoir of drug and an adhesive region. BTS showed better absorption of ET compared with PVA gel in guinea pigs. Among several pharmaceutical bases in the reservoir of BTS, Witepsol W-35 was most effective. It is likely that the high lipophilic property of Witepsol W-35 in which ET was dissolved facilitated the drug release by its relatively low melting point (around 35 degrees C), consequently a rapid absorption. In addition, the enhancing activity of the cod-liver oil extract (CLOE) in hydrophilic ointment on the in vivo buccal ET absorption was clarified to be comparable to that in the in vitro study utilizing the keratinized epithelial-free membrane (KEF-membrane) of the hamster cheek pouch. PMID:11996820

Tsutsumi, Keiko; Obata, Yasuko; Nagai, Tsuneji; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Takayama, Kozo

2002-05-15

183

In-vitro permeability of neutral polystyrene particles via buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Drugs can be absorbed well in the oral cavity, which eliminates problems related to intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Although it is well-established that nanoparticles are small enough to penetrate/permeate epithelial barriers, there is no clear understanding of how they interact with the buccal mucosa. This work provides useful information regarding particle properties with regard to mucosal uptake and can be used for the rational design of nanocarriers. In the buccal mucosa, the uptake of neutral polystyrene nanoparticles (PP) is size-dependent. Compared to 25 and 50 nm particles, 200 nm PP particles penetrate into deeper regions of the mucosa. This is attributed to the structure of the buccal mucosa, i.e., mucus layer and microplicae. The particles permeate the mucus layer and deposit in ridge-like folds of superficial buccal cells. Thus, the effects of thermodynamic driving forces and/or interparticle electrostatic repulsion are enhanced and cellular uptake might be reduced for smaller particle sizes. PMID:23112142

Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Meindl, Claudia; Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Zimmer, Andreas; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Roblegg, Eva

2013-02-11

184

Bilayer Films for Mucosal (Genetic) Immunization via the Buccal Route in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The oral buccal mucosa may be an ideal site for mucosal immunization, allowing for the needle-free administration of cost-effective vaccines. A novel mucoadhesive bilayer film was developed to test the feasibility of this route of immunization in rabbits.

Zhengrong Cui; Russell J. Mumper

2002-01-01

185

Formation of DNA adducts in human buccal epithelial cells exposed to acetaldehyde and methylglyoxal in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaldehyde (AA) and methylglyoxal (MG) are reactive, ubiquitous aldehydes, present in the environment and endogenously formed in animals and humans. They have both been shown to readily form DNA adducts under simulated physiological conditions. We report here on the use of cultured normal and SV40T antigen-immortalized human buccal epithelial cells as model systems for aldehyde exposure of the oral epithelium,

Carlos E Vaca; Jan Anders Nilsson; Jia-Long Fang; Roland C Grafström

1998-01-01

186

Examining smoking-induced differential gene expression changes in buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be

Doris M. Kupfer; Vicky L. White; Marita C. Jenkins; Dennis Burian

2010-01-01

187

Use of autologous buccal mucosa for vaginoplasty: a study of eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vaginal agenesis is a rare condition and treatment methods are varied. The difference between most of the surgical techniques is the graft material used. The purpose of this study was to describe the procedure and outcome of creating a neovaginal pouch lined with autologous buccal mucosa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2000 and February 2002, eight patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser

W. C. Lin; Cherry Y. Y. Chang; Y. Y. Shen; H. D. Tsai

2003-01-01

188

Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk.

Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

2014-01-01

189

Inhibition of DMBA carcinogenesis of hamster buccal pouch by phenanthrene and dimethylnaphthalene.  

PubMed

Phenanthrene (Phe) and to a lesser degree 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMeN) were each found to retard the development of epidermoid carcinomas in hamster buccal pouch induced by the thrice weekly application of a 0.5 per cent solution of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in heavy mineral oil. PMID:6793258

Malament, D S; Shklar, G

1981-01-01

190

Radiation Risk Assessment in Professionals Working in Dental Radiology Area using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of professionals working in radiology area to determine the risk of stochastic effects of radiation. Materials and methods: All the professionals and students working in King Khalid University - College of Dentistry radiology area were included in the Risk Group (RG = 27). The Control Group (CG = 27) comprised of healthy individual matching the gender and age of the RG. Buccal mucosal scraping from all the 54 subjects of RG and CG were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (×100) for the presence of micronuclei (MN) in the exfoliated epithelial cells. Results: There was no signifcant difference between the incidence of MN in RG and CG (p = >0.05) using t-test. Conclusion: Routine radiation protection protocol does minimize the risk of radiation induced cytotoxicity, however, screening of professionals should be carried out at regular intervals. Keywords: Micronucleus, Buccal Epithelial cells, Stochastic, Radiation. How to cite this article: Sadatullah S, Dawasaz AA, Luqman M, Assiry AA, Almeshari AA, Togoo RA. Radiation Risk Assessment in Professionals Working in Dental Radiology Area using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(6):1024-1027. Source of support: Nil Confict of interest: None declared. PMID:24858744

Sadatullah, Syed; Dawasaz, Ali Azhar; Luqman, Master; Assiry, Ali A; Almeshari, Ahmed A; Togoo, Raf Ahmad

2013-01-01

191

Statistical optimization of insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for buccal delivery of basal insulin.  

PubMed

The principle of statistical optimization was employed to fabricate insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin. A two-level resolution III fractional factorial design was applied to simultaneously evaluate five independent formulation variables: PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, sodium sulfate concentration, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration, and presence of sodium glycocholate. The amount of insulin released and permeated from gels as well as gelation time and mucoadhesion force of gels were measured and used as dependent response variables for formulation optimization. Optimization of a gel formulation was achieved by applying constrained optimization via regression analysis. In vitro permeation flux of insulin from the optimized formulation through procine buccal mucosa was 93.17 (±0.058, n?=?3) ?g/cm(2). Plasma insulin levels following buccal administration of the optimized formulation at 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg to healthy rats were found to be dose dependent and basal insulin levels were maintained at least for 8 h. Furthermore, continuous hypoglycemia for at least 8 h was observed with 89%, 51% and 25% of blood glucose reduction, respectively, for these three doses. The results of this investigation conclude the feasibility of development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for basal insulin delivery. PMID:21214425

Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

2012-01-01

192

Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk. PMID:24959316

Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

2014-01-01

193

Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in Spain. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal). Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. Results Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of €5.4 million. Conclusion The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by €29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet.

Darba, Josep; Kaskens, Lisette; Sanchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

2014-01-01

194

Motor Vehicle Repairs and Inspection Personnel--Manpower Development Program. Final Report, 1 July, 1968-31 December, 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perennial problem facing vocational educators is the need to correlate required on-the-job skills and knowledge with the instruction in the corresponding vocational education program. Using this as an objective, data were gathered on current automotive mechanic training programs by reviewing selected government reports and related literature and…

McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

195

An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.  

PubMed

The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Alvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

2014-08-18

196

Commutatorless Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been found that the performance of a single-phase reluctance motor driven by a static inverter compares favorably with that of the motor driven by a sinusoidal supply. The investigation here is primarily concerned with the development of extremely ...

S. A. Nasar

1968-01-01

197

Electric Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make an electric motor to explore the transfer of energy. Learners can vary the type and/or length of wire used in the motor to determine what works best. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

198

Motor Bird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a bird that flies in place with help from a motor, wire, and some straws. This engineering activity introduces learners to circuits and motors, automata, and rotational motion. Note: a drill and drill bit are required for this project, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

199

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

200

Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

McCormack, James E.

201

AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, AC Motors, is the thirteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Synchronous Motors, Tesla polyphase induction motors; Wound rotor induction motors; and Selsyn (synchro) motors. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-04

202

Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2012-01-01

203

BUCCAL MUCOSAL URETHROPLASTY FOR BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS RELATED URETHRAL STRICTURES: THE OUTCOME OF 1 AND 2STAGE TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) related strictures are complex and generally managed by 2-staged urethroplasty. We present our results with 1-stage dorsal onlay and 2-stage buccal mucosal urethroplasty for such strictures.

DEEPAK DUBEY; ANAND SEHGAL; ANEESH SRIVASTAVA; ANIL MANDHANI; RAKESH KAPOOR; ANANT KUMAR

2005-01-01

204

Chemopreventive potential of neem ( Azadirachta indica) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All hamsters painted on their buccal pouch with DMBA for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of neem leaf extract effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence

S Balasenthil; S Arivazhagan; C. R Ramachandran; V Ramachandran; S Nagini

1999-01-01

205

Buccals are likely to be a more informative surrogate tissue than blood for epigenome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that interindividual epigenetic variation is an etiological factor in common human diseases. Such epigenetic variation could be genetic or non-genetic in origin, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) are underway for a wide variety of diseases/phenotypes. However, performing an EWAS is associated with a range of issues not typically encountered in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), such as the tissue to be analyzed. In many EWASs, it is not possible to analyze the target tissue in large numbers of live humans, and consequently surrogate tissues are employed, most commonly blood. But there is as yet no evidence demonstrating that blood is more informative than buccal cells, the other easily accessible tissue. To assess the potential of buccal cells for use in EWASs, we performed a comprehensive analysis of a buccal cell methylome using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Strikingly, a buccal vs. blood comparison reveals > 6X as many hypomethylated regions in buccal. These tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) are strongly enriched for DNaseI hotspots. Almost 75% of these tDMRs are not captured by commonly used DNA methylome profiling platforms such as Reduced Representational Bisulfite Sequencing and the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and they also display distinct genomic properties. Buccal hypo-tDMRs show a statistically significant enrichment near SNPs associated to disease identified through GWASs. Finally, we find that, compared with blood, buccal hypo-tDMRs show significantly greater overlap with hypomethylated regions in other tissues. We propose that for non-blood based diseases/phenotypes, buccal will be a more informative tissue for EWASs.

Lowe, Robert; Gemma, Carolina; Beyan, Huriya; Hawa, Mohammed I.; Bazeos, Alexandra; Leslie, R. David; Montpetit, Alexandre; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.

2013-01-01

206

Buccal microRNA dysregulation in lung field carcinogenesis: Gender-specific implications.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be reliable early biomarkers in a variety of cancers including that of lung. We ascertained whether the biomarker potential of miRNAs could be validated in microscopically normal and easily accessible buccal epithelial brushings from cigarette smokers as a consequence of lung cancer linked 'field carcinogenesis'. We found that compared to neoplasia-free subjects, a panel of 68 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 downregulated in the normal appearing buccal mucosal cells collected from patients harboring lung cancer (n=76). The performance characteristics of selected miRNAs (with ?1-fold change) were excellent with an average under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of >0.80. Several miRNAs also displayed gender specificity between the groups. These results provide the first proof-of-concept scenario in which minimally intrusive cheek brushings could provide an initial screening tool in a large at-risk population. PMID:24919547

Wali, Ramesh K; Hensing, Thomas A; Ray, Daniel W; Dela Cruz, Mart; Tiwari, Ashish K; Radosevich, Andrew; Jepeal, Lisa; Fernando, Hiran C; Litle, Virginia R; Charlot, Marjory; Momi, Navneet; Backman, Vadim; Roy, Hemant K

2014-09-01

207

Furcation groove of buccal root of maxillary first premolars--a morphometric study.  

PubMed

Furcation grooves on the palatal aspect of the buccal roots of 35 maxillary first premolars, randomly selected, were assessed and found to exist in 97% of the sample. The buccal roots were sectioned into slices, 1 mm thick, and morphometric horizontal and vertical measurements were taken by a Toolmaker Microscope. The slice with the deepest invaginations served as the reference plane. The deepest invaginations were found to be at a mean distance of 1.18 mm from the bifurcation, with a mean depth of 0.4 mm. The canal had a kidney-shaped appearance in cross-section, and the mean distance from the invagination to the canal wall was 0.81 mm. It is thus hazardous to use rotary instruments for flaring these roots and any circular-shaped post space preparation at this level is contraindicated. The outcome of such procedures might be root thinning, perforation, or vertical root fracture, thus causing a poor prognosis. PMID:11199755

Tamse, A; Katz, A; Pilo, R

2000-06-01

208

Coronoidectomy, masticatory myotomy and buccal fat pad graft in management of advanced oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate coronoidectomy, masticatory myotomy and buccal fat pad graft in advanced (Stage III-IV) oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF). 10 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed advanced OSF underwent surgery entailing bilateral coronoidectomy, masticatory muscle myotomy and closure with a pedicled buccal fat pad graft followed by vigorous mouth opening exercises. The result was evaluated using the interincisal distance at maximum mouth opening as the objective outcome measure over a follow up period of 12 months. Results showed a mean interincisal opening of 14.7 mm preoperatively and 32.5 mm at 12 months postoperatively. Relapse was encountered in one patient who did not cooperate with the postoperative exercise regime. Results suggest this regime is effective. PMID:22551649

Kothari, M C; Hallur, N; Sikkerimath, B; Gudi, S; Kothari, C R

2012-11-01

209

Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells’ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

2012-01-01

210

Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.  

PubMed

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

2012-04-01

211

Transmission of the respiratory rhythm to trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons in the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana).  

PubMed

Spatially distinct, interacting oscillators in the bullfrog medulla generate and coordinated buccal and lung ventilatory rhythms, but how these rhythms are transmitted onto trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons is unknown. Using a vertically-mounted isolated brainstem preparation, the Sheep Dip, we identified the regions of the brainstem containing motor nuclei using a solution capable of blocking synaptic release and, following washout, locally exposed these regions to 5 ?M NBQX and/or 50 ?M AP5. Local application of NBQX significantly reduced the amplitude of buccal and lung bursts on the trigeminal nerve, and lung bursts on the hypoglossal nerve. Local AP5 caused a significant reduction in lung burst amplitude on both nerves, but for buccal bursts, hypoglossal amplitude increased and trigeminal amplitude was unchanged. Local co-application of NBQX and AP5 eliminated fictive respiratory motor output completely in both nerves. These results are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting a critical role for glutamate in transmission of respiratory activity from oscillators to motor neurons. PMID:23791823

Kottick, Andrew; Baghdadwala, Mufaddal I; Ferguson, Erin V; Wilson, Richard J A

2013-08-15

212

Programmable controller for multiphase stepper motor  

SciTech Connect

A programmable controller for a multiphase stepper motor is described that is designed for use in scanning devices of x-ray spectrometers and other physics apparatus. The system provides considerable memory economy with respect to total size and the number of bits, permits automatic development of stepper-motor control programs, and allows stepper motors with any number of phases to be controlled merely by changing the program stored in the memory unit.

Lozovoi, L.N.

1987-04-01

213

Inhibition of Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis by Limonin 17???d?Glucopyranoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limonin 17???d?glucopyranoside, nomilin 17???d?glucopyranoside, and nomilinic acid 17???d?glucopyranoside, three limonoid glucosides isolated from oranges, were tested for cancer chemopreventive activity. Eighty female Syrian hamsters were divided into four equal groups. The left buccal pouches of the animals in each group were pretreated topically with two applications of water (Group I) or a 3.5% solution of limonin 17???d?glucopyranoside (Group II), nomilin

Edward G. Miller; Anne M. Couvillon; John M. Wright; Shin Hasegawa; Luke K. T. Lam

1992-01-01

214

Development and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablet of an anti-emetic agent ondansetron.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a buccal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochloride (OH). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used while preparing buccal adhesive tablets. The tablets were prepared using carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 15cps) as mucoadhsive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose to act as an impermeable backing layer. The formulations were prepared by direct compression and characterized by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, swelling index, in vitro drug release studies, mucoadhesive strength, and ex vivo permeation study. As compared with the optimized formulation composed of OH--5 mg, CP 934--30 mg, SCMC LV--165 mg, PEG 6000--40 mg, lactose--5 mg, magnesium stearate--1.5 mg, and aspartame--2 mg, which gave the maximum release (88.15%), non-bitter (OH) that form namely ondansetron base and complexed ondansetron was used in order to make the selected formulation acceptable to human. The result of the in vitro release studies and permeation studies through bovine buccal mucosa revealed that complexed ondansetron gave the maximum release and permeation. The stability of drug in the optimized adhesive tablet was tested for 6 h in natural human saliva; both the drug and device were found to be stable in natural human saliva. Thus, buccal adhesive tablet of ondansetron could be an alternative route to bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of (OH). PMID:19757080

Hassan, Nisreen; Khar, R K; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed

2009-01-01

215

Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

A strong correlation was shown between germination and increased adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells, indicating that germination or other changes in the fungi accompanying germination were responsible for enhanced adherence. Partial inhibition of germination by cysteine resulted in a comparably lower adherence. Preferential adherence of germinated fungi occurred in competition assays with nongerminated and germinated fungi. The enhanced adherence to human mucosal cells of germinated C albicans could represent one mechanism contributing to the pathogenicity of the organism.

Kimura, L H; Pearsall, N N

1980-01-01

216

Design and evaluation of chitosan\\/ethylcellulose mucoadhesive bilayered devices for buccal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of new buccal bilayered devices comprising a drug-containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug-free backing layer, by two different methods. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting\\/solvent evaporation technique and bilayered tablets were obtained by direct compression. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of a mixture of drug and chitosan, with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer

Carmen Remuñán-López; Ana Portero; José Luis Vila-Jato; Mar??a José Alonso

1998-01-01

217

Polymeric Films as Vehicle for Buccal Delivery: Swelling, Mechanical, and Bioadhesive Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the suitability of an SCMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose\\/polyethylene glycol 400\\/carbopol 934P) and an HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose\\/polyethylene glycol 400\\/carbopol 934P) films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery. Methods. The mechanical and in vitro bioadhesive strength properties of the films were investigated using texture analyzer equipment, while swelling behavior was studied in different media, namely, distilled water and simulated

Choy Fun Wong

1999-01-01

218

Risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India. DESIGN--The investigation was a case-control study. SETTING--Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, and local teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were all those registered with oral cancers at the Regional Cancer Centre during 1983 and 1984 (n = 414). Controls (n = 895) were

R Sankaranarayanan; S W Duffy; G Padmakumary; N E Day; M Krishan Nair

1990-01-01

219

Salivary Flow Induction by Buccal Permucosal Pilocarpine in Anesthetized Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether permucosal delivery of pilocarpine nitrate could be used to elicit significant salivary secretion. Pilocarpine (pKa 6.6 at 37°C) was applied as solutions (pHs 5.6, 6.6, 7.6; 15 mg\\/mL) to the buccal mucosa (2.8 cm2) of 6 anesthetized dogs. Saliva was collected continuously from cannulated submandibular and parotid ducts and blood sampled during and after drug administration. Plasma

M. L. Weaver; J. M. Tanzer; P. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

220

Buccal Transmucosal Delivery of Calcitonin in Rabbits Using Thin-Film Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Salmon Calcitonin (sCT) is used to treat hypercalcemia resulting from Paget's disease and osteoporosis. sCT is available either in a sterile injectable form or nasal spray. Alternative and more cost-effective dosage forms for the delivery of calcitonin are needed. We sought to deliver sCT transmucosally using a previously reported mucoadhesive bilayer thin-film composite (TFC) via the buccal route.

Zhengrong Cui; Russell J. Mumper

2002-01-01

221

[Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the buccal mucosa: report of 1 case].  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumor is often considered to be a mesenchymal tumor. We reported a case of atypical SFT of the buccal mucosa in a 56-year-old male patient. We found hypercellularity, nuclear atypia, increased number of mitotic figures(more than 4 per 10 high-power fields) microscopically. A long-term follow-up is necessary after complete excision. PMID:24100914

Pei, Jing; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Yun-xiang

2013-08-01

222

Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer  

PubMed Central

A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice.

QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

223

Saffron reduction of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of saffron in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Assessment was by monitoring the percentage of tumor bearing hamsters, tumor size as well as the status of detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Oral squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting them with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% oral tumor formation with severe histopathological abnormalities in all the hamsters treated with DMBA alone, activities of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants being significantly altered. Though oral administration of saffron completely prevented the formation of tumors, we noticed severe hyperplasia and dysplasia in hamsters treated with DMBA, suggesting that tumors might eventually develop. Oral administration of saffron return detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants to normal ranges. The chemopreventive potential of saffron thus is likely due to antioxidant properties and modulating effects on detoxification in favour of the excretion of carcinogenic metabolites during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23621267

Manoharan, Shanmugam; Wani, Shamsul Afaq; Vasudevan, Krishnamoorthy; Manimaran, Asokan; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy

2013-01-01

224

The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20?mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18?mm (mean 14?mm). As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38?mm (mean 33.25?mm). The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36?mm (mean 30.63?mm). The results were evaluated using student's t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

Saravanan, K.; Narayanan, Vinod

2012-01-01

225

Nasal and buccal treatment of midazolam in epileptic seizures in pediatrics.  

PubMed

Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital. PMID:23641166

Ulgey, Ay?e; Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

2012-01-01

226

Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital.

Ulgey, Ayse; Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

2012-01-01

227

Preparation and evaluation of ritodrine buccal tablets for rational therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Ritodrine hydrochloride (RD-HCl) tablets containing alginate (AL) and lactose (LC) with or without microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients were produced as a buccal dosage form. The RD-HCl (2mg) tablets with AL/LC but no MC swelled and dissolved gradually in the in vitro dissolution test. The tablet showing the fastest dissolution and highest drug release rate, called Tablet A1, was selected as a tablet to show rapid and prolonged absorption. However, in the in vivo buccal absorption test using rats, it could not give a plasma concentration over the human minimal effective level (15ng/mL). The modified tablet containing AL, LC, MC and RD-HCl (4mg), named Tablet B/MC, showed better hardness and faster drug release. Tablet B/MC gave a plasma concentration over the human effective level within 15min, and the plasma concentration was maintained at >15ng/mL over 4h. Moreover, the deconvolution analyses demonstrated that a prolonged high absorption rate could be achieved in vivo best with Tablet B/MC. Tablet B/MC improved the pharmacokinetic profile in comparison with Tablet A1 and the solution dosage form. The RD-HCl buccal tablets with AL, LC and MC as excipients are suggested to be possibly useful for the treatment of premature labor. PMID:24709218

Onishi, Hiraku; Yumoto, Kei; Sakata, Osamu

2014-07-01

228

Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression.

Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

2012-01-01

229

Visibility of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations using different radiographic techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess intraoral images and two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. Class V cavities were made for composite (30 teeth) and amalgam (30 teeth). Full restorations with thermoplastic polymer (30 teeth) and nickel-chromium metal crown (30 teeth) were constructed. In 60 teeth, artificial buccal recurrent caries were simulated; 60 other teeth served as controls. Intraoral film, intraoral digital, Veraviewepocs 3D, and Kodak 9000 images were scored twice. ? Coefficients were calculated and Az values were compared using Z-tests, with a significance level of ?=0.05. Higher interobserver agreement was obtained from the CBCT images compared with the intraoral images. The Az values of both readings of all three observers were highest for the Veraviewepocs 3D followed by Kodak 9000 except for the second reading of the third observer. CBCT outperformed intraoral radiography in detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. PMID:22917443

Murat, S; Kamburo?lu, K; Isayev, A; Kur?un, S; Yüksel, S

2013-01-01

230

Development and in vitro/in vivo evaluations of bioadhesive buccal tablets for nicotine replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations of nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were developed using chitosan and carbomer at different ratios. Magnesium hydroxide was incorporated into the formulations as pH increasing agent. In vitro release and bioadhesion properties of the tablets were investigated. Release of NHT from the tablets was increased with the increasing amount of chitosan in formulations whilst the bioadhesion of the tablet was decreased. In vivo studies were carried out in healthy, non-smoker volunteers in comparison to a commercially available transdermal patch. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. No significant difference was found between the maximum plasma nicotine concentrations (Cmax) obtained with the buccal tablet and the transdermal patch (p > 0.05). Time to reach the Cmax was 2.9 +/- 0.2 h and 11.5 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-24 values were 59.3 +/- 5.1 ng x h x mL(-1) (0-12 h) and 204.1 +/- 31.2 ng x h x mL(-1) for buccal tablet and transdermal patch, respectively. PMID:16599260

Ikinci, G; Senel, S; Tokgözo?lu, L; Wilson, C G; Sumnu, M

2006-03-01

231

Buccal Injection of 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine for the Removal of Maxillary Third Molars  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to demonstrate if 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1?:?200,000 epinephrine could provide palatal anesthesia in maxillary tooth removal with a single buccal injection. The subjects included in the clinical study were those requiring extraction of the maxillary third molar of either side. For the purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into 2 main groups: group 1 (study group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single injection before extraction, and group 2 (control group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single buccal injection and a single palatal injection before extraction. After 5 minutes the extraction was performed. All patients were observed for Faces Pain Scale during extraction and asked for the same on a 100-mm visual analog scale after extraction. According to visual analog scale and Faces Pain Scale scores, when maxillary third molar removal without palatal injection (study group) and with palatal injection (control group) were compared the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Removal of maxillary third molars without palatal injection is possible by depositing 2 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1?:?200,000 epinephrine to the buccal vestibule of the tooth.

Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sachdeva, Akash

2013-01-01

232

Postoperative outcomes of anophthalmic socket reconstruction using an autologous buccal mucosa graft.  

PubMed

Socket contracture is one of the most common and difficult problems in anophthalmic patients. This study intended to evaluate postoperative outcomes of anophthalmic socket reconstruction using an autologous buccal mucosa graft in patients with socket contracture. Medical records and photographs of 44 anophthalmic patients who underwent socket reconstruction surgery using an autologous buccal mucosa graft were reviewed retrospectively. The time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized was assessed, and fornix depth was measured before and 6 months after surgery. Postoperative cosmetic and functional outcomes were evaluated, and the factors that influence postoperative outcomes were investigated. The surgery was performed without any significant complications, and the patients only complained of oral discomfort within 1 week. The graft surface was fully vascularized about 1.1 months after surgery. Mean fornix depth after surgery was significantly deeper than that before surgery (9.1 mm, about 68.2% of the vertical size of the implanted graft). Preoperatively, 50.0% of the patient had cosmetic grades 1 and 2; however, 63.6% of the patients achieved grade 4, and 93.2% had higher than grade 3 after surgery. In functional outcomes, 86.4% of the patients presented functional success. Graft recontracture occurred in only 2 patients. Preoperative severe socket contracture was a factor associated with worse cosmetic outcome (P = 0.001). An autologous buccal mucosa can be a safe and effective graft material for the reconstruction of a contracted socket. PMID:25006890

Kim, Chang Yeom; Woo, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

2014-07-01

233

Electric Motors 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Penton Media includes a number of introductory "mini" lectures on different types of electric motors, including AC motors, DC motors, Servo motors and Stepper motors. The materials also cover electrical drives and other types of small motors. The site includes information about suppliers of electrical motors.

2012-12-24

234

Saving energy with efficient motors and systems  

SciTech Connect

In industrial and commercial facilities, motor-driven systems are responsible for as much as 70 percent of a building`s electric consumption. For some industries--such as pulp and paper or textiles--motor system electricity consumption can approach 90 percent of the industry`s total. But with energy-efficient motors and motor systems one could cut down on energy costs while improving the efficiency of systems and reducing equipment maintenance. In Wisconsin, the Responsible Power Management Program is demonstrating the benefits of using energy-efficient motors and creating efficient motor systems. By working with Wisconsin`s companies, RPM is helping industries improve their production while saving energy--and money. Sharing what the authors have learned and taught about efficient motors and motor systems could help one make good energy efficiency choices for one`s company.

Prestil, A.L.; Wroblewski, R.G. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

235

Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

2000-05-01

236

[Analysis of motor performance associated with the nutritional status of the elderly enrolled in the Family Health Program in the municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco].  

PubMed

The scope of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the motor skills of the elderly registered in the Family Health Program in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco, by means of a transversal epistemological descriptive-analytical field study. The participants of this survey were 235 elders, both male and female of 60-years-old and over registered in the family health program in the urban area of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index and the circumference of the calf. Four motor tests were used to evaluate motor performance: Time Up&Go, Tinetti's Index, Functional Reach and Unipodal Support. The associations were checked using Spearman's correlation. The association of the nutritional status with the motor tests was statistically significant among males* or females**: (Time Up&Go rho = 0.290* / 350**; Functional Reach rho = 0.232* / 352**; Tinetti's Index rho = 243* / 363** and Unipodal Support rho = 221* / 475**. The evaluation of the results revealed an association between nutritional status and functional capacity of the elders no matter what gender; with obesity being a limiting nutritional condition to adequate performance in the tests. PMID:22634822

Soares, Lisandra Delfino de Albuquerque; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares; Lima, Bruna Rafaela Dornelas de Andrade; Siqueira, Danielle Ferreira de; Fittipaldi, Etiene Oliveira da Silva; Arruda, Silvana Gonçalves Brito de; Faro, Zelyta Pinheiro de

2012-05-01

237

Motor neglect.  

PubMed Central

Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity.

Laplane, D; Degos, J D

1983-01-01

238

A Program of Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training to Determine Its Effects upon Primary Level Children with Reading and Learning Deficiencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the project was to determine to what extent visual, motor, and perceptual training would improve the reading and general achievement of children with visual, motor, and perceptual deficiencies. Eighty first, second, and third graders, identified as having such handicaps by gross and fine screening instruments, were randomly divided…

Litchfield, Ticknor B.

239

49 CFR 385.303 - How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.303 How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA?...

2013-10-01

240

77 FR 18914 - National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical Corrections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1121-AA79 National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical...final rule for its National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Program (NMVTIS) in...Background The National Motor Vehicle Title Information System was established...

2012-03-29

241

Molecular motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macro-scale thermodynamic engines convert the random motion of fuel-produced heat into directed motion. Such engines cannot be downsized to the nanometre scale, because thermodynamics does not apply to single atoms or molecules, only large assemblies of them. A great challenge for the field of nanotechnology is the design and construction of microscopic motors that can transform input energy into directed

Joseph Klafter; Michael Urbakh

2005-01-01

242

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

243

Synchronous Motor Railcar Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of ac motor drives for rail transit car has centered on the induction motor with pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter control. Interest in the induction motor as a replace for the series dc traction motor stems from the simplicity of the squirrel cage rotor of the induction motor. In this article, the short-comings of PWM inverter-induction motor transit car drive

Frank J. Bourbeau

1977-01-01

244

[Buccal glucose measurements in dogs using safety lancets for blood sampling].  

PubMed

Objective: Glucose measurements at the pinna or paws are an important part of the management of diabetic dogs. Despite extensive rubbing or warming of the testing site, an adequate blood sample cannot always be obtained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the lip as an alternative sampling site with respect to practicability and tolerance by the dogs and reliability of the measured values. Material and methods: Nine clinic-owned male-castrated healthy beagles were included in this prospective study. Glucose measurements were performed using a glucometer developed for veterinary use, before and 15 minutes after oral application of glucose syrup. Capillary blood was collected using two commercially available safety lancets (Wellion Safety lancet [23 gauge] and Wellion Safety lancet special [blade 0.8 mm]) at the buccal mucosa of the upper lip and at the pinna. Measured values were compared with those obtained from venous plasma (reference method). Results: Buccal glucose measurements were easy to perform and were well tolerated by the dogs without obvious pain reactions. There was no difference between the glucose concentrations from the lip samples and those determined using the reference method (p = 0.793, F < 1). The glucose application had no effect on the observed differences (reference value minus glucometer value; p = 0.63, F < 1). However, in one dog, a clinically problematic discrepancy of 3.6 mmol/l was observed. The special lancet caused noticeable secondary bleeding in two dogs. Conclusion and clinical relevance: The results of this study indicate that the buccal mucosa is a convenient and reliable alternative sampling site for glucose measurements in dogs. Problematic deviations from reference values are possible after oral glucose application and the use of blade-like needles is not encouraged. PMID:24920144

Zeugswetter, F K; Karlovitz, S

2014-06-12

245

In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

2012-02-01

246

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride  

PubMed Central

Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 – 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K30, a hydrophilic polymer, significantly reduced the bioadhesive strength and in vitro mucoadhesion time of the films, although the degree of swelling increased. In vitro drug release studies in simulated saliva showed a prolonged release of over five to six hours for all formulations, except C4, with 99.98% release in 1.5 hours. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated that the best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient for all formulations was the Peppas model. In vivo studies, on selected films in rabbits, were conducted, to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-?, using model-independent methods with nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. The AUC and values of Cmax of ondansetron hydrochloride were found to be significantly greater (P < 0.005) than the selected films C2 and C3, as compared to those from the oral solution, thereby confirming improved bioavailability via the buccal route. The Tmax values were also significantly greater (P < 0.005), indicating the slower release of the drug from buccal films, thereby, providing prolonged effects. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed with R2 values exceeding 0.98, when the percentage of drug released was correlated with the percentage of drug absorbed.

Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

2011-01-01

247

"Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

2004-01-01

248

Transdermal and buccal delivery of methylxanthines through human tissue in vitro.  

PubMed

We examined the in vitro permeation of central nervous stimulants - caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine across human skin with the aid of six chemical enhancers. It was found that oleic acid was the most potent enhancer for all three methylxanthines. Further optimization studies with different solvents showed that caffeine transport could be enhanced to give flux values up to 585 microg/cm2.hr-1. Theobromine and theophylline delivery rates proved insufficient. An additional study involving a buccal tissue equivalent showed that this membrane was more permeable than skin for all model actives tested and would offer an alternate way of delivery. PMID:17520442

Thakur, Rashmi A; Michniak, Bozena B; Meidan, Victor M

2007-05-01

249

Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach  

PubMed Central

Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

2012-01-01

250

Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.  

PubMed

Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

2014-08-18

251

Verruciform xanthoma of buccal mucosa: A case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Verruciformxanthoma (VX) is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown etiology. It appears as a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous surface and variable color from reddish pink to gray. It occurs primarily in the masticatory mucosa. Histologically, VX is characterized by the presence of parakeratinized epithelium with thin rete ridges and connective tissue papillae extending up to the surface. The papillae characteristically consist of foam cells, also called xanthoma cells. We report a case of VX in the buccal mucosa and discuss their clinical and histopathological findings.

Bhalerao, Sudhir; Bhat, Pooja; Chhabra, Ranit; Tamgadge, Avinash

2012-01-01

252

Motor Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor defects are usually considered as the core of cerebral palsy (CP). Although we know that often this is not the only\\u000a existing problem, and that sometimes it is not even the most important, we think it is necessary to start the analysis of\\u000a the disorders provoked by this complex disease by dealing with the disorders of posture and movement

Adriano Ferrari

253

Locoregional invasion of buccal squamous cell carcinoma into the maxillary, palatal and mandibular bones, a case report  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the buccal mucosa accounts for 23% to 37% of all intraoral cancers, the prognosis is generally poor. we reported a case of Local invasion of buccal squamous cell carcinoma. A 32-year-old man referred to the clinic with a chief complaint of swelling in the right cheek region that initiated from 6 months ago and rapidly grow from one month ago. History of the patient revealed that he was undergoing a surgery for buccal Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lesion 2 years ago. Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resonance(MRI) images showed a heterogenous mass in the right maxillary, palate and mandibular regions that was histopathologically diagnosed as recurrence with locoregional invasion of SCC.

Jafaripozve, Nasim; Ataiekhorasgani, Masoud; Jafaripozve, Shahram

2013-01-01

254

Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization. PMID:22051536

Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

2011-11-01

255

A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

Marshall, Thomas

2007-01-01

256

A study on cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliative buccal cells in iron deficiency anemic patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear diameter (ND), cytoplasmic diameter (CD) and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) in cytological buccal smears of iron deficiency anemic patients by comparing with normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 40 healthy individuals and 40 iron deficiency anemic patients who were selected on clinical history, hematological investigations, and confirmed by serum ferritin levels. Exfoliative buccal smears stained with PAP stain were evaluated for cytoplasimic, nuclear diameters, and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C) using Image Proexpress Version 6.0 image analysis system. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: A significant increase is seen in the average nuclear diameter (ND) and N/C ratio of the anemic group when compared to the control group. The average cytoplasmic diameter (CD) did not show any statistical difference among the two groups. Conclusion: Oral exfoliative cytological techniques could possibly be a noninvasive alternative diagnostic tool for iron deficiency anemia.

Sumanthi, J.; Reddy, G. Sridhar; Anuradha, C. H.; Sekhar, P. Chandhra; Prasad, L. Krishna; Reddy, B. V. Ramana

2012-01-01

257

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the upper lip with metachronous myoepithelioma of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Examples of multiple minor salivary gland tumors, synchronous or metachronous, are uncommon. We report a patient who initially presented with polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and subsequently with myoepithelioma. A 91-year-old white woman presented in 2009 with a 1-cm, firm, nontender, well-circumscribed nodule of the left side of the upper lip extending to the anterior buccal mucosa. Excisional biopsy revealed PLGA. While the margins were positive, further treatment was not recommended due to the patient's age. In 2011, the patient returned with a 1.5-cm, asymptomatic mass of the left buccal vestibule. Excision of the lesion revealed a circumscribed proliferation of epithelioid and plasmacytoid cells arranged in spherical or whorl-like islands and immersed in a mucinous stroma, consistent with myoepithelioma. The PLGA recurred 3 years after initial diagnosis. Excision was again associated with positive margins, and again no further treatment was recommended. A few months later, at a scheduled follow-up appointment, she presented with a painless nodule of the left upper lip, consistent with recurrent PLGA. One month later, the patient died of unrelated causes. We also present a literature review of multiple minor salivary gland tumors. PMID:24268388

Argyris, Prokopios P; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2014-06-01

258

Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients. PMID:23850817

Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

2013-09-15

259

Epigenetic variation in monozygotic twins: a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in buccal cells.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A; Slieker, Roderick C; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M; Davies, Gareth E; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Boomsma, Dorret I

2014-01-01

260

Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions.

Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

2012-01-01

261

Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan-pectin for delivery of carvedilol  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route.

Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

2011-01-01

262

Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive properties, were investigated. Molecular interactions between the components of the film were also investigated. The results indicated that NCT-loaded CS-MAS films provided a higher NCT content than NCT-loaded films containing only CS. The greater the MAS ratio in the films, the higher the NCT content that was observed because intercalated nanocomposites could be formed by electrostatic interactions of MAS with NCT and CS. These interactions caused an insignificant loss of NCT by evaporation during film drying. The release and permeation of NCT were related to the square root of time, indicating that a diffusion-controlled mechanism via the NCT-MAS complex particles and the film matrix controls NCT release. NCT release and permeation rates decreased with as the MAS ratio of the films was increased. However, the NCT-loaded CS-MAS films may have a potential adhesion to the mucosal membrane. These findings suggest that NCT-loaded CS-MAS films can be used as a buccal NCT delivery system. PMID:23298850

Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas

2013-04-01

263

Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control-C (n = 7), acetone-A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide-CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP-A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP-DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib-DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G de M; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

2014-01-01

264

Filament overwrapped motor case technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

Compton, Joel P.

1993-11-01

265

Testosterone Buccal  

MedlinePLUS

... conclusions and recommendations when the evaluation is complete.BACKGROUND: Testosterone is a hormone essential to the development ... ever had breast or prostate cancer; enlarged prostate; diabetes; or heart, kidney, liver, or lung disease.you ...

266

Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

1974-01-01

267

Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors: overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.

Kenji Uchino

1998-01-01

268

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

269

Used Oil Management Program  

MedlinePLUS

Used Oil Management Program Recycling your used motor oil is easy. Do not spill any oil on the ground. Put your ... You Drink It? campaign focuses on the proper management of used motor oil and includes a variety ...

270

Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

1980-01-01

271

Gross motor control  

MedlinePLUS

Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

272

Fine motor control  

MedlinePLUS

... general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, or joints may all decrease fine motor control. The difficulty in speaking, eating, and writing in ...

273

Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

Friedman, Stewart D.

2001-01-01

274

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

275

Vernier Rocket Motor Mk 84 Mod 0 Quality Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program was conducted to determine the present performance capability and safety of the Vernier Rocket Motor Mk 84 Mod 0 and to determine the feasibility of extending the service life of the Vernier Rocket Motor Mk 84 Mod 0. A sample of 12 motors, ra...

W. G. Mitchell

1983-01-01

276

Effect of surfactants and pH on naltrexone (NTX) permeation across buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The objective of this pre-formulation study was to systematically investigate the effects of two surfactants (Brij 58® and Tween 80®) and change in solution pH on in vitro permeation of naltrexone HCl (NTX-HCl) across tissue engineered human buccal mucosa. For the study, 10 mg/mL solutions of Tween 80® (0.1 and 1 % w/v) and Brij 58® (1 % w/v) were prepared in standard artificial saliva buffer solution (pH 6.8). For studying pH effects, solution pH was adjusted to either 7.5 or 8.2. As controls, three concentrations of NTX-HCl (2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL) were prepared. Using NTX standard solution (10mg/ml; pH 6.8), the permeation was observed between in vitro human and ex vivo porcine mucosa. It was observed that Brij 58® increased the permeation rates of NTX significantly. The flux of 10mg/ml solution (pH 6.8) increased from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) to 13.9 ± 2.2 (×102) ?g/cm2/h (approximately 6 fold) in presence of 1% Brij 58®. Increasing pH of NTX-HCl solution was found to increase the drug flux from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 6.8) to 3.0 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 7.4) and 8.0 ± 3.5 (×102) (pH 8.2) ?g/cm2/h respectively. Histological analyses exhibited no tissue damage due to exposure of buccal tissue to Brij 58®. The mean permeability coefficients (Kp) for 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL solutions of NTX-HCl (pH 6.8) were 5.0 (×10?2), 1.8 (×10?2) and 3.2 (×10?2) cm/h respectively, consistent with data from published literature sources. Increase of NTX flux observed with 1% Brij 58® solution may be due to the effects of ATP. Increase in flux and the shortening of lag time observed by increasing in solution pH confirmed earlier finding that distribution coefficient (log D) of NTX is significantly affected by small increments in pH value and therefore plays an important role in NTX permeation by allowing faster diffusion across tissue engineered human buccal membranes.

Rai, Vishwas; Tan, Hock S.; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

2011-01-01

277

Motor neurons and the sense of place.  

PubMed

Seventy years ago George Romanes began to document the anatomical organization of the spinal motor system, uncovering a multilayered topographic plan that links the clustering and settling position of motor neurons to the spatial arrangement and biomechanical features of limb muscles. To this day, these findings have provided a structural foundation for analysis of the neural control of movement and serve as a guide for studies to explore mechanisms that direct the wiring of spinal motor circuits. In this brief essay we outline the core of Romanes's findings and place them in the context of recent studies that begin to provide insight into molecular programs that assign motor pool position and to resolve how motor neuron position shapes circuit assembly. Romanes's findings reveal how and why neuronal positioning contributes to sensory-motor connectivity and may have relevance to circuit organization in other regions of the central nervous system. PMID:22078502

Jessell, Thomas M; Sürmeli, Gül?en; Kelly, John S

2011-11-01

278

Reluctance and doubly-excited reluctance motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the energy crisis in 1974, there was increasing awareness of conserving energy. Industrial ac motors from 1 to 125 hp are estimated to consume 60% of the total electricity produced in the United States. Significant energy conservation could be achieved if the efficiency of these motors is improved. The work described was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA). The design, analysis, and test of two types of motors designed to have a high efficiency and power factor are described. The first type, reluctance motors (RMs), are similar to synchronous motors but without dc excitation. A novel 3-phase RM was designed and tested, and it was found to have superior efficiency when compared with a similar induction motor.

Heyne, C. J.; El-Antably, A. M.

1984-11-01

279

Effect of Neuraminidase on Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Human Buccal Epithelial Cells. Inhibition of Adhesion by Monosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase on the adherence of 28 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which were isolated from humans, different animals and environment to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Two reference strains ñ NCTC 6749 and ATCC 27853 were also examined. Incubation of cells with the enzyme significantly increased bacterial adherence

KATARZYNA WOLSKA; KAROLINA ZABIELSKA; ANTONI JAKUBCZAK

280

Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

1994-12-01

281

Differences in molar relationships and occlusal contact areas evaluated from the buccal and lingual aspects using 3-dimensional digital models  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to use a 3-dimensional (3D) system to compare molar relationship assessments performed from the buccal and lingual aspects, and to measure differences in occlusal contact areas between Class II and Class I molar relationships. Methods Study casts (232 pairs from 232 subjects, yielding a total of 380 sides) were evaluated from both the buccal and lingual aspects, so that molar relationships could be classified according to the scheme devised by Liu and Melsen. Occlusal contact areas were quantified using 3D digital models, which were generated through surface scanning of the study casts. Results A cusp-to-central fossa relationship was observed from the lingual aspect in the majority of cases classified from the buccal aspect as Class I (89.6%) or mild Class II (86.7%). However, severe Class II cases had lingual cusp-to-mesial triangular fossa or marginal ridge relationships. Mean occlusal contact areas were similar in the Class I and mild Class II groups, while the severe Class II group had significantly lower values than either of the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Buccal and lingual assessments of molar relationships were not always consistent. Occlusal contact areas were lowest for the Class II-severe group, which seems to have the worst molar relationships - especially as seen from the lingual aspect.

Jang, Sook-Yoon; Kim, Minji

2012-01-01

282

Transport of Fentanyl Through Pig Buccal and Esophageal Epithelia in Vitro . Influence of Concentration and Vehicle pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To validate pig esophageal epithelium as a model for the permeability barrier of the buccal mucosa, the transport of fentanyl across the two tissues was compared in vivo. Methods. The epithelia were separated by immersing the excised mucosae into an isotonic saline solution at 60Y65-C. Fentanyl was delivered as the citrate salt at a concentration of 1 or 2

Isabel Diaz del Consuelo; Françoise Falson; Richard H. Guy; Yves Jacques

2005-01-01

283

49 CFR 385.307 - What happens after a motor carrier begins operations as a new entrant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.307 What happens after a motor carrier begins operations as...

2013-10-01

284

49 CFR 385.301 - What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning interstate operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.301 What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning...

2013-10-01

285

A Study of the Effects of an Intensive Training Program on the Motor Skills of Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study on improvement of basic motor skills by educable mentally retarded (EMR) children with special training in a sport and game situation, 21 EMR boys and 19 EMR girls (aged 4-1 to 10-1) were divided into an experimental and a control group, matched by chronological age, IQ, sex, and pretest scores on the Basic Skills Test (reliability .97)…

Ross, Sheila A.

286

Adult human buccal epithelial stem cells: identification, ex-vivo expansion, and transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify adult human buccal epithelial stem cells (SCs) on the basis of two parameters (high p63 expression and greater nucleus/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio) and to evaluate clinical efficacy of ex-vivoexpanded autologous epithelium in bilateral limbal SC-deficient (LSCD) patients. Methods The epithelial cells were isolated from buccal biopsy and cultured on human amnion in culture inserts with 3T3 feeder layer. The SCs were identified on the basis of two-parameter analysis using confocal microscopy, surface markers, and colony-forming efficiency (CFE). The cultured epithelium was transplanted in 10 LSCD patients followed by penetrating keratoplasty in 4 patients. The clinical outcome was followed up to 3 years. Results A distinct population (3.0±1.7%) of small cells expressing high levels of p63 with greater N/C ratio was observed in buccal epithelium. The N/C ratio was found to be more appropriate than cell diameter for two-parameter analysis. These cells located in the basal layer were negative for connexin-43 and positive for melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, containing holoclones with 0.2% CFE, thus representing the SC population. After transplantation of cultured epithelium with increased (sixfold) SC content, anatomical and visual improvement was observed at 13–34 months in 3/10 LSCD patients. Conclusions The two-parameter SC marker is useful to identify and quantify buccal epithelial SCs. The transplantation of bioengineered SC-rich buccal epithelium is a strategy for corneal surface reconstruction in bilateral LSCD. However, further studies are required to optimize the culture conditions and to look for other sources of adult SCs for better visual outcome.

Priya, C G; Arpitha, P; Vaishali, S; Prajna, N V; Usha, K; Sheetal, K; Muthukkaruppan, V

2011-01-01

287

Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to non-existent. Hemangiomas of the oral cavity are not common pathological entities, but the head and neck are common sites. Furthermore some time histologically lymphatic channels may be evident in hemangiomas, and then it will be categorized according predominant component, e.g.; hemangiolymphangiomas or lymphangiohemangiomas, vice versa is true for lymphangiomas. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but 10-20% of true hemnagioma in completely involute and required post- adolescent ablative treatment. In the present article we are reporting a case of hemangiolypmangiomas of left buccal mucosa in an 18-year-old male patient. We have also reviewed various treatment modalities and their clinical implication.

Sobhana, C. R.; Beena, V. T.; Soni, Ashish; Choudhary, Kanaram; Sapru, Deepthy

2012-01-01

288

A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

2013-01-01

289

Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat  

PubMed Central

A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis.

Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

2013-01-01

290

Extraneural Sclerosing Perineurioma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Clinicopathologic Review  

PubMed Central

The perineurioma is an infrequently encountered benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of a clonal proliferation of perineurial cells. Rare cases of perineurioma have been reported in the oral cavity. An extraneural sclerosing perineurioma arising in the buccal mucosa of a 17-year-old male is presented. Histopathologically, the tumor is composed of a well circumscribed nodular proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a storiform growth pattern, in some areas subtly arranged around vascular channels. The tumor cells reveal positive immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), collagen type IV and vimentin, and negative immunostaining for S-100 protein, consistent with a perineurial origin. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of an extraneural sclerosing perineurioma involving the oral cavity.

Greene, David J.; Brodsky, Gilbert; Kabani, Sadru P.

2010-01-01

291

Motor control for a brushless DC motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

292

In vitro effects of ethanol and mouthrinse on permeability in an oral buccal mucosal tissue construct.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the influence of ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinses on model chemical permeability in an in vitro oral buccal mucosal construct (EpiOral, ORL-200, MatTek). Innate ethanol transport and metabolism in the tissue construct was also studied. Caffeine flux in buccal tissue was measured after pre-treatment with < 26.9% ethanol or Listerine(®) products under conditions modeling a typical mouthwash rinsing. Specifically, a 30s exposure to alcohol products followed by a 10h non-treatment phase and then a second 30s exposure prior to addition of caffeine. At 10min specific intervals, media was collected from the basal part of the tissue insert for HPLC analysis of caffeine. The results demonstrated no increase in caffeine flux due to prior exposure to either ethanol or Listerine(®), and the flux and permeability constants were derived from the linear phase. No cytotoxicity or histopathological effects were observed in these tissues. We also studied the transepithelial transport and metabolism of ethanol in these tissues. Transport of ethanol was concentration-dependent with rate of diffusion proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane. The potential metabolism of ethanol in the EpiOral construct was addressed by analyzing the remaining level of ethanol after incubation and de novo accumulation of acetaldehyde or acetic acid in culture media. Incubation for 30min incubation resulted in no change in ethanol level up to 2000mM, the highest concentration tested. No acetaldehyde or acetic acid was detected in culture media. In conclusion, ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinse treatment modeled after a typical daily mouthrinse pattern had no apparent effect on the permeability of the standard model chemical, caffeine. This exposure also had no effect on the viability of the tissue construct or histopathology, and uptake of ethanol was rapid into the tissue construct. PMID:21712062

Koschier, Francis; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod; Toole, Colleen; Gallo, Michael A

2011-10-01

293

Linear Motor Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The controller interfaces up to two linear motors to either a manual control panel or a two channel computer. The control commands can emanate from either the computer (for both motors) or a combination of the computer (for one motor) and the linear motor...

R. D. Mohlere

1981-01-01

294

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

295

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

296

Final report of the General Motors Corporation powdered coal--oil mixtures (COM) program. Period covered: March 1975July 1977. [65 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Motors Corporation together with a consortium of 26 other organizations has successfully completed a two-year effort to demonstrate the full-scale preparation and combustion of a coal-oil mixture in an industrial boiler. This report describes work carried out under U.S. ERDA Contract No. E949-18-2267 (now EX-76-C-01-2267), Electric Power Research Institute Contract No. RP527, and contracts with other consortial organizations. The

A. Jr

1977-01-01

297

Motor imagery influences the execution of repetitive finger opposition movements.  

PubMed

Motor imagery (MI) is the ability to imagine performing a movement without executing it. In literature, there have been numerous reports on the influence of MI on motor practice and the beneficial effects of "mental practice" on the physical performance has been suggested to rely to the close temporal association between motor rehearsal and actual performance. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether the addition of a period of motor imagery between two motor practice trials could modify movement execution in a repetitive finger opposition motor task performed at maximal speed and whether the effect of motor imagery on motor practice is dependant on the complexity of movement. We observed that the addition of motor imagery to the sole motor practice was able to influence the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements inducing an increase of the velocity of movement greater than that observed with the motor practice alone. Further the addition of motor imagery was able to induce a modification in the motor strategy in terms of duration of the main phases of movements. This was more evident when subjects executed a finger sequential task with respect to a simple finger tapping task. We assume that mental rehearsal facilitates the brain network involved in sensorimotor control, particularly acting on those neural structures involved in the motor program. PMID:19770024

Avanzino, Laura; Giannini, Alessandro; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

2009-11-27

298

Effects of fibronectin and other salivary macromolecules on the adherence of Escherichia coli to buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

The effect of saliva and fibronectin (Fn) on the adherence of a type 1 fimbriated strain of Escherichia coli to human buccal epithelial cells was studied. Saliva pretreatment of epithelial cells led to a dose-dependent increase in adherence that was inhibited by alpha-methyl mannoside, which is typical of a type 1 fimbria-mediated event. The molecules responsible for affecting this increased adherence were nondialyzable and were recovered after lyophilization. E. coli adherence was stimulated by individual saliva samples from each of 11 volunteers. Fn inhibited E. coli adherence to saliva-treated buccal cells by more than 60%. Biotinylated E. coli and Fn were reacted with Western blots of whole saliva to identify the receptors that might explain the phenomenon described above. Both E. coli and Fn bound to 57- and 62-kilodalton (kDa) protein bands in Western blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of whole saliva. The binding of E. coli to these bands was inhibited by pretreatment with unlabeled Fn. To study these salivary components, samples of saliva were electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, strips corresponding to the appropriate molecular weights were cut out, and the proteins were eluted electrophoretically. Material that eluted from strips at 57 and 62 kDa, but not that from a control strip, stimulated E. coli adherence to buccal cells. Alternatively, saliva was fractionated over 100- and 50-kDa cutoff filters. Of the three fractions obtained, only the fraction passing through the 100-kDa filter and retained by the 50-kDa filter stimulated E. coli adherence to buccal cells. This fraction also increased the binding of Fn to buccal cells. These observations suggest the possibility that one or more salivary components bind to the surface of buccal cells and serve as receptors for type 1 fimbriated E. coli. Fn also binds to this isolated material; and it is apparently by these interactions, at least in part, that saliva stimulates and Fn inhibits E. coli adherence. The way in which these interactions may affect bacterial adherence in vivo remains to be elucidated. Images

Hasty, D L; Simpson, W A

1987-01-01

299

Large Segmented, Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Rocket Motor Cases (TU-312 Rocket Motor Case).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this Air Force manufacturing technology program was to develop manufacturing methods, controls, equipment, and processes for the fabrication of large (156 in. diameter) segmented, fiberglass reinforced plastic, rocket motor cases....

T. Walker J. R. Hinchman

1969-01-01

300

IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

301

Ford Motor Company. Sae-Tsiarl-67TK Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

302

Dissociating motor cortex from the motor  

PubMed Central

Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual ?-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to ?-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces.

Schieber, Marc H

2011-01-01

303

Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests  

SciTech Connect

Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

1982-09-01

304

Pulp remains viable following vital amputation of the mesio-buccal root of the maxillary fourth premolar in dogs.  

PubMed

Vital amputation of the mesio-buccal root of the maxillary fourth premolar (P4) was performed bilaterally in 8 dogs. Histopathologic evaluation of the tooth structure revealed normal pulp in the remaining mesio-buccal, mesio-palatal, and distal roots and crown during a mean follow-up period of 3.5 +/- 1.9 months. Amputation site healing was characterized by a reparative dentin bridge produced by odontoid cells. Tunnel defects were observed in 13 of 16 (81%) dentin bridges. It is concluded that the pulp of a tri-rooted, periodontal disease-free tooth remains viable during a 6-month period following vital root amputation. These results point to the intriguing possibility that this may also occur in humans, however, this needs to be directly tested in man. PMID:9706858

Smith, M M; Saunders, G K; Payne, J T; Cox, C F

1998-07-01

305

Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in normal human buccal mucosa cells of oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: a field effect.  

PubMed

Abstract We evaluated micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral cavity on the side opposite the lesion targeted by radiotherapy and correlated them with radiation doses. Buccal smears were obtained from oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with a cumulative dose of at least 1000 rad for 3 weeks and from controls matched for age, gender and habits. The exfoliated cells from the mucosa were collected using a cytobrush; smears were prepared, fixed in 80% methanol and stained using the Feulgen plus fast green method. The mean number of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies/1000 cells was significantly greater in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment, but the differences were not significant compared to radiation doses. It appears that radiotherapy has a potent clastogenic effect on buccal mucosal cells of oral cancer patients. PMID:24799093

Tak, A; Metgud, R; Astekar, M; Tak, M

2014-08-01

306

Collection of Human Genomic DNA From Buccal Cells for Genetics Studies: Comparison Between Cytobrush, Mouthwash, and Treated Card  

PubMed Central

Alternative sources such as buccal cells have already been tested for genetic studies and epidemiological investigations. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in this study to compare cytology brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards for DNA collection. Quantity and quality of DNA and cost and feasibility were assessed. The mean DNA yield at 260?nm was found to be 3.5, 4, and 2.6??g for cytobrushes, mouthwashes, and treated cards, respectively. A second quantification technique by fluorescence showed differences in the DNA yield with 1.1 and 5.2??g for cytobrushes and mouthwash, respectively. All buccal samples allowed isolation of DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. According to the procedure of sample collection, the yield and purity of collected DNA, and storage conditions, the use of cytobrush appears to be the more appropriate method for DNA collection. This protocol has been validated and is currently applied in three large-scale multicentric studies including adults or children.

2005-01-01

307

Buccal fat pad versus sandwich graft for treatment of oroantral defects: A comparison  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare the efficacy of buccal fat pad (BFP) graft with sandwich graft (hydroxyapatite crystals embedded within collagen sheath) in closure of oroantral defects. Materials and Methods: A 2-year prospective study was conducted; 20 patients were included in the study were divided into two groups having 10 patients in each. Group I patients underwent surgical closure of oroantral fistula with sandwich graft and Group II patients with buccal pad of fat. Results: In Group I, the mean pain scores were 7.60 ± 0.84, 3.90 ± 1.10, 2.30 ± 1.16, 1.10 ± 0.99 and 0.40 ± 0.70 at immediate post-op., 1, 3, 6 and 12 week time intervals, respectively, whereas in Group II these were 7.30 ± 0.67, 3.50 ± 0.53, 1.70 ± 0.48, 1.00 ± 0.47 and 0.30 ± 0.48, respectively, at the corresponding time intervals. In Group I, swelling was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 7 (70%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively, whereas in Group II, it was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 10 (100%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at the corresponding time intervals. At 1 week, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and 2 (20%) patients of Group II. At 3 and 6 weeks, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and none of the patients of group II. No radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in either group up to 1 week. At 3 week interval, there were 6 (60%) patients in Group I and nil (0%) in Group II showing bone formation, thus showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups. By 6 week time interval, radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in 9 (90%) patients of Group I but in no patients of Group II, thereby showing a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference between the two groups. In Group I, in 1 (10%) patient, graft was rejected by first week; however, no further graft rejection took place. In Group II, no case of graft rejection was reported. Conclusions: The sandwich graft technique yielded a more promising closure of oroantral communication by provision of a more biologically apt base in terms of regeneration of lost bone structure at the floor of the maxillary sinus

Hariram; Pal, U. S.; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, R. K.; Singh, Gaurav; Malkunje, Laxman R.

2010-01-01

308

Risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India. DESIGN--The investigation was a case-control study. SETTING--Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, and local teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were all those registered with oral cancers at the Regional Cancer Centre during 1983 and 1984 (n = 414). Controls (n = 895) were selected from admissions to the cancer centre who were found to have non-malignant conditions, or from patients attending outpatients in teaching hospitals of Trivandrum medical college with non-malignant conditions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The risk in males of the following habits was investigated: pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking snuff. Only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated in females as very few indulged in other habits. Among males predisposing effects were found for pan-tobacco chewing (p less than 0.001), bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001), and taking snuff (p less than 0.01). As in males, pan-tobacco chewing also had a predisposing effect in females (p less than 0.001). Duration of use was a better predictor of risk than either daily frequency of use or total lifetime exposure, both for pan-tobacco chewing (especially if the habit started before age 21 years) and bidi smoking. However, there were also very high risks associated with the current occasional use of both factors. Pan-tobacco chewing was the most important risk factor, with relative risk of 13.24 with 31-40 years' use, and 37.75 with greater than 40 years' use among males. Corresponding relative risks in females were 21.30 and 54.93. No effect of cigarette smoking was observed (relative risk 0.64, p greater than 0.1). CONCLUSIONS--A substantial majority of cases of buccal and labial cancers are attributable to chewing pan-tobacco. This has obvious implications for instituting preventive measures.

Sankaranarayanan, R; Duffy, S W; Padmakumary, G; Day, N E; Krishan Nair, M

1990-01-01

309

In vitro transport of the steroidal glycoside P57 from Hoodia gordonii across excised porcine intestinal and buccal tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoodia gordonii was traditionally used by the Khoisan people as a thirst and appetite suppressant and is currently commercially available as a popular weight-loss supplement. The perceived active ingredient isolated from this plant is a steroidal glycoside named P57. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro transport of P57 across excised porcine intestinal and buccal mucosa in a Sweetana–Grass

I. Vermaak; A. M. Viljoen; W. Chen; J. H. Hamman

2011-01-01

310

Articaine for Supplemental Buccal Mandibular Infiltration Anesthesia in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis When the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Fails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental buccal infiltration injection of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block failed. Fifty-five emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an IAN block

Rachel Matthews; Melissa Drum; Al Reader; John Nusstein; Mike Beck

2009-01-01

311

Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

2011-02-01

312

Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from Buccal Epithelial Cells, Small Amounts of Serum, and Dried Blood Spots  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860) have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC), dried blood spots (DBS), and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. Methods Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL). Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days) Results There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies) as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies). These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. Conclusion We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

Halfon, Philippe; Ouzan, Denis; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Castellani, Paul; Oules, Valerie; Kahloun, Asma; Amrani, Nolwenn; Fanteria, Lise; Martineau, Agnes; Naldi, Lou; Bourliere, Marc

2012-01-01

313

Effects of bile salts on transport rates and routes of FITC-labelled compounds across porcine buccal epithelium in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the penetration enhancing effect of bile salts on the transport of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds across porcine buccal mucosa was investigated in-vitro. Coadministration of 100 mM of the trihydroxy bile salts sodium glycocholate (GC) and sodium taurocholate (TC) and the dihydroxy bile salts sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDC) and sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC) increased the in-vitro transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)

A. J. Hoogstraate; S. Senel; C. Cullander; J. Verhoef; H. E. Junginger; H. E Boddé

1996-01-01

314

Gross anatomical, CT and MRI analyses of the buccal fat pad with special emphasis on volumetric variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the buccal fat pad (BFP) has increased in popularity in recent years because of its reliability, ease of harvest,\\u000a and low complication rate during oral and maxillofacial procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the volumetric variations\\u000a of the BFP with a CT and MRI, as well as the thickness, weight and volume with conventional

Marios Loukas; Theodoros Kapos; Robert G. Louis Jr; Christopher Wartman; Ashley Jones; Barry Hallner

2006-01-01

315

A novel approach to enhance the mucoadhesion of lipid drug nanocarriers for improved drug delivery to the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Targeted drug delivery to the buccal mucosa offers distinct advantages over oral delivery to the gastrointestinal tract including by-passing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, the buccal route is often limited by low bioavailability, low drug loading and reduced residence time due to salivary excretion and clearance. To overcome these limitations, a novel mucoadhesive formulation based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles was designed. Utilising a pH induced in situ transition from a stable vesicle formulation to dispersed inverse hexagonal phase nanoparticles (hexosomes) enhanced adsorption onto the mucosal surface was enabled. Firstly, the phase behaviour of the amphiphilic lipid phytantriol (PHY) and oleic acid (OA) was assessed from pH 2-9 using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to determine the appropriate composition for the vesicle to hexosome transition. The colloidal stability of the formulation was determined using turbidity studies. Dispersions comprising 30% w/w OA in PHY were able to form stable vesicles at pH 8 and transition to hexosomes when exposed to pH<7 (as encountered on the buccal mucosal surface). Subsequent ex vivo studies utilising excised porcine buccal tissue indicated significant retention of the in situ-formed PHY/OA hexosomes when compared to control DOPC vesicles (p<0.005), confirmed independently using confocal fluorescence microscopy, radioactive scintillation counting and HPLC analysis for incorporated drug. Thus, a novel approach providing a stable vesicle formulation, with in situ transformation to mucoadhesive hexosomes has been identified with the potential to enhance drug delivery to mucosal surfaces. PMID:24879939

Du, Joanne D; Liu, Qingtao; Salentinig, Stefan; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J

2014-08-25

316

Gene expression of markers associated with proliferation and differentiation in human keratinocytes cultured from epidermis and from buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal keratinocytes from epidermis and from buccal mucosa underwent dissimilar stages of differentiation in the same culture medium and responded differently to changes in the composition of the medium. Manifestations of these variations were examined in terms of the expression at the mRNA level (as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) of three regulatory genes (cdc2, c-myc, and p53) and

Miriam M. Brysk; Istvan Arany; Henry Brysk; San-Hwan Chen; Karen H. Calhoun; Stephen K. Tyring

1995-01-01

317

Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel mucoadhesive buccal discs of an antifungal drug: relationship between swelling, erosion, and drug release.  

PubMed

Two groups of fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal discs were prepared: (a) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by direct compression containing bioadhesive polymers, namely, Carbopol 974p (Cp), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), or sodium alginate (SALG) in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). (b) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by freeze drying containing different polymer combinations (SCMC/HPMC, Cp/HPMC, SALG/HPMC, and chitosan/SALG). The prepared discs were evaluated by investigating their release pattern, swelling capacity, mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro adhesion time. In vivo evaluation of the buccal disc and in vivo residence times were also performed. Fluconazole salivary concentration after application of fluconazole buccal systems to four healthy volunteers was determined using microbiological assay and high-performance liquid chromatography. SCMC/HPMC buccal disc prepared by direct compression could be considered comparatively superior mucoadhesive disc regarding its in vitro adhesion time, in vivo residence time, and in vitro/in vivo release rates of the drug. Determination of the amount of drug released in saliva after application of the selected fluconazole disc confirmed the ability of the disc to deliver the drug over a period of approximately 5 h and to reduce side effects and possibility of drug interaction encountered during systemic therapy of fluconazole, which would be beneficial in the case of oral candidiasis. PMID:19082739

Yehia, Soad A; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Basalious, Emad B

2008-01-01

318

Design, characterization and ex vivo evaluation of chitosan film integrating of insulin nanoparticles composed of thiolated chitosan derivative for buccal delivery of insulin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to optimize and characterize of chitosan buccal film for delivery of insulin nanoparticles that were prepared from thiolated dimethyl ethyl chitosan (DMEC-Cys). Insulin nanoparticles composed of chitosan and dimethyl ethyl chitosan (DMEC) were also prepared as control groups. The release of insulin from nanoparticles was studied in vitro in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) pH 7.4. Optimization of chitosan buccal films has been carried out by central composite design (CCD) response surface methodology. Independent variables were different amounts of chitosan and glycerol as mucoadhesive polymer and plasticizer, respectively. Tensile strength and bioadhesion force were considered as dependent variables. Ex vivo study was performed on excised rabbit buccal mucosa. Optimized insulin nanoparticles were obtained with acceptable physicochemical properties. In vitro release profile of insulin nanoparticles revealed that the highest solubility of nanoparticles in aqueous media is related to DMEC-Cys nanoparticles. CCD showed that optimized buccal film containing 4% chitosan and 10% glycerol has 5.81?kg/mm(2) tensile strength and 2.47?N bioadhesion forces. Results of ex vivo study demonstrated that permeation of insulin nanoparticles through rabbit buccal mucosa is 17.1, 67.89 and 97.18% for chitosan, DMEC and DMEC-Cys nanoparticles, respectively. Thus, this study suggests that DMEC-Cys can act as a potential enhancer for buccal delivery of insulin. PMID:24524272

Mortazavian, Elaheh; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

2014-05-01

319

Ultrastructure and distribution of the taste buds in the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a herbivorous fish: Oreochromis niloticus.  

PubMed

The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. The buccal cavity distinguished into the roof and the floor. Three different types of taste buds (type I, II and III) are distributed in the buccal cavity. The proximal part of the buccal cavity bears relatively high epidermal papillae in which type I TBs was found. The middle region of the buccal cavity is mostly occupied by low epidermal papillae containing type II TBs. Type III TBs which are present within the metabranchial buccal cavity; never rise above the normal level of the epithelium. The different types of TBs are useful for ensuring full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish. It is postulated that the TBs serve different functions: TBs type I and II may act as chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. TBs type III acts predominantly as a chemoreceptors. TBs of each type show two kinds of receptor villi within their receptor areas: tall villi and small villi. The surface of the lining epithelial cells shows a delicate microridge system. These structures protect against physical abrasion potentially caused during food maneuvering and swallowing. Furthermore, protection of the epithelium from abrasion is enhanced with goblet cells secretion. PMID:22440511

Elsheikh, E H; Nasr, E S; Gamal, A M

2012-06-01

320

Directed flux motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2011-01-01

321

Effect of the color of intraradicular posts on the color of buccal gingiva: a clinical spectophotometric evaluation.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to test whether intraradicular posts of different colors induce different amounts of color change of the buccal gingiva. Twentythree patients in need of a post-and-core buildup at one endodontically treated incisor, canine, or premolar were included. Titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zi), and glass fiber (Gf) posts were consecutively inserted in each test tooth. Spectrophotometric color measurement of the buccal gingiva was performed prior to post bed preparation and after insertion of Ti, Zi, and Gf posts. For control purposes, the gingival color at the contralateral vital tooth was assessed. The differences of color components ?L, ?a, and ?b and the total color difference (?E) between different experimental conditions were obtained. ?E value of 3.7 was considered the threshold value for intraoral color distinction. The gingival thickness at test teeth was measured. No difference occurred with regard to the amount of gingival discoloration induced by different posts. In the majority of cases, posts did not exhibit a visible influence on the color of buccal gingiva. The gingiva at endodontically treated teeth presented a visible discoloration compared to the gingiva at vital teeth. The degree of gingival discoloration at endodontically treated teeth was correlated with the gingival thickness, with more pronounced discolorations in cases of thinner soft tissue. PMID:24116358

Benic, Goran I; Wolleb, Karin; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

2013-01-01

322

Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in healthy and diabetic individuals and the impact of a dietary intervention.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the frequencies of nuclear anomalies in buccal cells between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and to assess the impact of a 'healthy diet'-a cornerstone in the treatment of diabetes. Seventy-six diabetic and 21 non-diabetic individuals participated in this parallel, randomised, intervention trial. All participants received information about the importance of a healthy diet, while participants randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300g of vegetables and 25ml of plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) per day for 8 weeks. Cytogenetic damage in buccal cells was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Micronucleus (MN) frequency at baseline was significantly higher in participants with diabetes (0.58±0.30‰) compared with non-diabetic individuals (0.28±0.29‰). Further analysis of baseline data revealed significantly higher MN levels in participants of the highest tertile of waist circumference (+40%), fasting plasma glucose (+55%), glycated haemoglobin (+41%) and cardiovascular disease risk (+39%) relative to participants of the lowest tertile. The dietary intervention had no effect on MN frequencies. Glycated haemoglobin and biomarkers reflecting cytokinetic defect or acute cell death were reduced in both the intervention and 'information only' groups. The results of this study suggest a strong impact of abdominal obesity and glucose metabolism on genomic stability. Similar effects on nuclear anomalies were observed in the 'information only' group and the intervention group receiving vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil. PMID:24311117

Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Nersesyan, Armen; Nitz, Marlies; Petschnig, Alice; Wallner, Marlies; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

2014-01-01

323

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation. PMID:19467841

Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

2009-10-01

324

Gene expression of markers associated with proliferation and differentiation in human keratinocytes cultured from epidermis and from buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Normal keratinocytes from epidermis and from buccal mucosa underwent dissimilar stages of differentiation in the same culture medium and responded differently to changes in the composition of the medium. Manifestations of these variations were examined in terms of the expression at the mRNA level (as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) of three regulatory genes (cdc2, c-myc, and p53) and five that encode structural proteins (keratins K5, K10 and K13, involucrin, and filaggrin), in three growth-medium formulations. The culture conditions enhanced or retarded maturation; the observed alterations in gene expression correlated with these changes. Except for the proliferation genes, the non-keratinizing buccal mucosa generally responded more weakly than the orthokeratotic epidermis to culture-medium supplementation favouring differentiation. Gene expression in cultured keratinocytes reflected their ability to differentiate in vivo; genes were expressed even when the corresponding protein was not seen in vitro. Although keratin K10 is not prevalent in the buccal mucosa nor keratin K13 in the epidermis, the genes for both were found to be expressed in both tissues. PMID:8651890

Brysk, M M; Arany, I; Brysk, H; Chen, S H; Calhoun, K H; Tyring, S K

1995-09-01

325

Terminalia Arjuna (Roxb.) Modulates Circulatory Antioxidants on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Oral cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide and India has recorded the highest incidence (40-50%) of oral malignancy. This study is designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark (TaBet) on circulatory lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods Male Syrian golden hamsters painted with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on the buccal pouches and developed oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Results The enhanced Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation of tumor-bearing animals was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of TaBet (500 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas, decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced the levels of antioxidants. Conclusion The chemopreventive potential of TaBet is probably due to its antilipidperoxidative effect or the presence of some potent bioactive chemopreventive principles in the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The results of the present study indicate that T. arjuna may emerge as a putative chemopreventive agent against oral carcinogenesis.

Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Selvam, Mathi; Salama, Suzan M. Abdel-Tawab; Shanmugam, Manoharan; Sethuraman, Prema

2010-01-01

326

[Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].  

PubMed

Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

Abakarova, D S

2004-01-01

327

Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

1972-01-01

328

Electrical Transmission among Neurons in the Buccal Ganglion of a Mollusc, Navanax inermis  

PubMed Central

The opisthobranch mollusc, Navanax, is carnivorous and cannibalistic. Prey are swallowed whole by way of a sudden expansion of the pharynx. The buccal ganglion which controls this sucking action was isolated and bathed in seawater. Attention was focused upon 10 identifiable cells visible on the ganglion's rostral side. Two cells were observed simultaneously, and each was penetrated with two glass microelectrodes, one for polarizing the membrane and the other for recording membrane potential variations. The coupling coefficients for direct current flow and action potentials of several identified cells were tabulated. Attenuation was essentially independent of the direction of current flow, but depended upon the relative size of the directly and indirectly polarized cells. The attenuation of subthreshold sinusoidally varying voltages increased with frequency above about 1 Hz. The coupling coefficient for spikes was lower than for DC due to greater high frequency attenuation. There is considerable similarity in the spontaneous PSP's of all cells, which is not due to the electrical coupling but to input from a common source. The 10 cells were not chemically interconnected but some were electrically connected to interneurons which fed back chemically mediated PSP's. The feedback can be negative or positive depending upon the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell. We conclude that electrical coupling among the 10 cells plays a minor role in sudden pharyngeal contractions but that the dual electrical-chemical coupling with interneurons may be important in this respect.

Levitan, H.; Tauc, L.; Segundo, J. P.

1970-01-01

329

Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol  

PubMed Central

Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport.

Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

2014-01-01

330

Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip. PMID:23784986

Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

2013-09-01

331

Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

2012-06-01

332

Potential uses, limitations, and basic procedures of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells.  

PubMed

The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

2014-01-01

333

Evaluation of matrix type mucoadhesive tablets containing indomethacin for buccal application.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. PMID:23791737

Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku

2013-09-10

334

Relationship between buccal mucosa ridging and viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the buccal mucosa ridging (BMR), which has been mentioned to be a clinical sign of clenching, and the viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa. Twenty-three people with BMR and 21 people without BMR participated as volunteers in this study. Measurements of viscoelastic behaviour were performed using a suction viscoelastic meter on central part of lower labial mucosa. A suction pressure of 300 hPa was applied for 2 s and then released for 2 s, and the time-dependent changes in the deformation of the mucosa over this 4 s were recorded as a deformation curve. Distensibility, remaining deformation and elastic recovery, which describe viscoelastic behaviour, were calculated by the deformation curve. These parameters were compared between groups with and without BMR. No significant difference was found in distensibility between the two groups (P=0·349). There were significant differences for the remaining deformation (P=0·012) and the elastic recovery (P=0·032), and the group with BMR showed higher remaining deformation and lower elastic recovery than the group without BMR. Based on these results, it clarified that the BMR is related to the mucosal viscoelastic behaviour, in particular remaining deformation and elastic recovery. PMID:21054483

Kumakura, S; Sakurai, K; Tahara, Y; Nakagawa, K

2011-06-01

335

Reconstruction of large composite buccal defects using single soft tissue flap--analysis of functional outcome.  

PubMed

Resection of advanced gingivo-buccal tumors results in a posterolateral mandibular and large soft tissue defect. Because of large soft tissue requirement, these defects are difficult to reconstruct using a single osteocutaneous flap. A double free flap reconstruction of such defects is recommended. However, double flap may not be feasible in certain situations. In this study, we objectively evaluated functional and cosmetic outcomes following single soft-tissue flap reconstruction in a group of patients where double flap reconstruction was not feasible. Patient and defect characteristics were obtained from charts. The speech and swallowing functions of patients were prospectively assessed by a dedicated therapist. The cosmetic outcome of reconstruction was evaluated by an independent observer. Fifty-six patients with large soft tissue and segmental posterolateral mandible defect, reconstructed with anterolateral thigh or pectoralis major flap from May 2009 till December 2010 were included. In this series, none of the flaps were lost; two patients with pectoralis major flap developed partial skin paddle loss. Most of the patients developed mandibular drift; however, majority of these patients had no postoperative trismus. All patients resumed regular or soft solid oral diet. The mean speech intelligibility was more than 70%. Majority of patients had satisfactory cosmetic outcome. The defects were classified into regions resected to develop a reconstruction algorithm for optimal reconstruction using a free or pedicle flap. In conclusion, patients with large oro-mandibular defect undergoing single soft tissue flap reconstruction have satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:23255307

Kekatpure, Vikram D; Manjula, B V; Mathias, Smita; Trivedi, Nirav P; Selvam, Sumithra; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

2013-03-01

336

Development and evaluation of a buccal bioadhesive system for smoking cessation therapy.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop a bilayered buccal bioadhesive film formulation of nicotine hydrogen tartrate for smoking cessation therapy, comprising a bioadhesive drug layer and a backing layer, which releases the drug at a pre-determined rate for a period of 4 h. Formulations were prepared using various bioadhesive polymers and were evaluated for physical parameters like peelability, flexibility, softness, bioadhesive strength, tensile strength, dispersion time and pharmaceutical parameters such as thickness, swelling, content uniformity, water vapour permeability and drug release. Based on these parameters formulation N2, containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polycarbophil as the bioadhesive polymers, was selected as the optimized formulation. The formulation showed suitable adhesion and an initial burst release of 40% drug in first 15 min followed by a total 80% drug release in a characteristic manner until 4 h; which is the desired time of application. This release pattern is beneficial for patients suffering from emergent cravings. Backing layers of the films were studied by a moisture vapor permeability test and it was observed that the percentage of moisture which permeated through single layered films was much higher than through bilayered films implying that a backing layer would prevent washing out of drug by the saliva. PMID:17484281

Garg, S; Kumar, G

2007-04-01

337

Development and evaluation of a biphasic buccal adhesive tablet for nicotine replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Bilayer nicotine mucoadhesive tablets were prepared and evaluated to determine the suitability of the formulation as a nicotine replacement product to aid in smoking cessation. A range of formulations containing 0-50% w/w Carbopol 934 and 0-50% w/w hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were prepared and tested for adhesive properties and drug release. Mucoadhesion was assessed using bovine buccal mucosa. Peak detachment force of the tablets was found to reach a maximum at 20% w/w Carbopol 934, whilst work of adhesion continued to increase with Carbopol 934 concentration. HPC concentrations of 20-30% w/w were found to provide nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) release approaching zero order kinetics over a 4 h test period. A combination of 20% w/w Carbopol 934 and 20% w/w HPC was thus found to provide suitable adhesion and controlled drug release. The formulation of a bilayer tablet containing the adhesive controlled release layer (CRL) and a fast releasing layer provided an initial burst release of NHT followed by the controlled release for a period of up to 4 h. The same biphasic type of release was identified during an in vivo assessment using human volunteers This biphasic drug release could represent an improvement over current methods of nicotine replacement. PMID:11955819

Park, Calum R; Munday, Dale L

2002-04-26

338

Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells  

PubMed Central

The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

Torres-Bugarin, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-Garcia, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

339

Use of buccal mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction in children: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of buccal mucosa grafts (BMG) for urethral reconstruction has increased in popularity over the last several decades. Our aim was to describe our institutional experience with and outcomes after BMG urethroplasty. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of boys undergoing BMG urethral reconstruction. Preoperative and perioperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results Twenty-nine patients (median age 8.2 years) underwent BMG urethroplasty from 1995–2012. Of the 10 patients undergoing 1-stage repairs, 6 had tubularized grafts, the last of which was performed in 2000 due to an unacceptably high revision rate (100%). A 2-stage approach was elected for 19 patients (median follow-up 21.3 months). Complications including stricture, fistula, or chordee were seen in 60% of patients completing both stages and 32% required ?1 revision. However, 71% of 2-stage patients were free of significant problems at last follow-up. Conclusions We found BMG to be a reasonable option for use in complex pediatric urethral reconstruction. Tubularized grafts had poor results, and we no longer use them. We favor a 2-stage approach for all patients except those with “simple” non-hypospadiac strictures. Although revision procedures were not uncommon, the majority of patients were ultimately free of long-term problems.

2014-01-01

340

Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol.  

PubMed

Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

Mane, P P; Bushetti, S S; Keshavshetti, G G

2014-03-01

341

Teamwork in microtubule motors.  

PubMed

Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

2013-11-01

342

Induction Motor Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induc...

I. G. Hansen

1990-01-01

343

Energy Efficient Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

1995-01-01

344

Energy efficient motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

1995-01-01

345

Magnetostrictive Direct Drive Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with t...

D. Naik P. H. Dehoff

1990-01-01

346

Smart motor technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

1984-01-01

347

System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit  

DOEpatents

A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI) [Kenosha, WI; Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA) [Snellville, GA

2011-06-07

348

Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

1985-01-01

349

Slurried Propellant Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to slurried rocket propellants and a spinning rocket motor wherein the propellants have viscosities which enable them to form central cores when spun in spinning rocket motors. The motor has a diaphragm-like base plate which assists in ...

R. F. Vetter J. P. Diebold G. F. Sieg H. W. Gerrish H. H. Payne

1977-01-01

350

Motor-pump aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor-pump aggregate whose pump is a glandless centrifugal pump and is intended for use in a nuclear reactor plant has hollow coaxial pump and motor shafts which are sealingly coupled to each other. To this end, the first end portion of the pump shaft extends into the adjacent first end portion of the motor shaft and has an external

W. Schneider; K. Gaffal; J. Peters

1983-01-01

351

Torpedo Motor Mounting Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The torpedo motor mounting structure provides noise-isolation and facilitates motor installation and removal. The frame of the motor is provided with end-bells having generally frusto-conical surfaces, and the torpedo tailcone section is provided with a p...

J. G. Shmorhun E. H. Lenker

1964-01-01

352

49 CFR 1.86 - The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Motor Carrier Safety Administration. 1.86 Section...DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.86 The...Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Is responsible...Carrying out an effective communications and outreach program...safety data to the...

2013-10-01

353

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 109 (Tires). The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

354

Improved Transistorized AC Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive s...

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

355

Solid propellant motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1978-01-01

356

Adiabatic Quantum Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When parameters are varied periodically, charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic conductor without applied bias. Here, we consider the inverse effect in which a transport current drives a periodic variation of an adiabatic degree of freedom. This provides a general operating principle for adiabatic quantum motors which we discuss here in general terms. We relate the work performed per cycle on the motor degree of freedom to characteristics of the underlying quantum pump and discuss the motors’ efficiency. Quantum motors based on chaotic quantum dots operate solely due to quantum interference, and motors based on Thouless pumps have ideal efficiency.

Bustos-Marún, Raúl; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

2013-08-01

357

Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors  

SciTech Connect

Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

2008-05-01

358

The sensitivity of biomarkers for genotoxicity and acute cytotoxicity in nasal and buccal cells of welders.  

PubMed

Welders are inhalatively exposed to fumes which contain genotoxic carcinogens and it was found in epidemiological studies that they have increased cancer rates which may be causally related to DNA damage. In order to assess their health risks and to find out which chemicals cause the adverse effects, bioassays can be performed which enable the detection of genetic damage. The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation with exfoliated buccal and nasal cells in regard to induction of chromosomal alterations and acute cytotoxicity in welders and unexposed controls (n=22 per group). To elucidate the factors which account for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, additional biochemical parameters were monitored reflecting the redox status as well as concentrations of different metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in body fluids. We found in the nasal cells significant induction of alterations which are indicative for DNA damage, i.e. of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds, while elevated rates of nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, karyolylsis) were detected in cells from both organs. The levels of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni), but not markers of oxidative damage were significantly higher in the body fluids of the welders. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses indicate that exposure to Mo (15% MNi increase by one standard deviation increase of Mo in serum), Ni (9% increase) and Mn (14% increase) are positively associated with the induction of MNi in nasal cells while Ni was associated with cytotoxic effects in both types of cells (12 and 16% increase). Taken together, our findings indicate that epithelial cells from the respiratory tract are suitable for the detection of DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects in welders and can be used to assess health risks associated with genomic instability. PMID:24698449

Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Jakse, Robert; Beham, Alfred; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmueller, Siegfried

2014-01-01

359

Induction of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells of coca chewers: results of a field study.  

PubMed

The leaves of coca (Erythroxylum coca var. coca), a South American shrub which contains cocaine, other alkaloids and phenolics are widely used by indigenous populations of the Andes. It is currently not known if coca consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans. This information is important to predict potential long-term toxic effects such as cancer induction. Therefore, the buccal cytome assay was used to analyze oral cells from 45 uni- and bilateral chewers and 23 controls living in the Altiplano of the Peruvian Andes. In total, 123,471 cells were evaluated from chewers and 57,916 from controls. Information concerning the consumption levels and habits and also use of lime were collected with questionnaires. Chewing of the leaves did not induce nuclear anomalies reflecting genetic damage such as micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds; in the highest exposure group (but not in the overall group) even a significant decrease in the frequencies of cells with MNi (by 64 %) was observed. However, we found significantly elevated levels of other nuclear anomalies (karyorrhexis and karyolysis) which reflect cytotoxic effects in the coca users. The frequencies of these anomalies increased with the daily consumption and when lime was used to improve the release of the alkaloids. In contrast to other chewing habits (betel, tobacco and khat), consumption of coca leaves does not induce genetic instability in cells from the oral cavity and our findings indicate that no adverse health effects take place in chewers which are associated with DNA damage. However, the significant increase in certain anomalies shows that acute toxic effects are caused by coca consumption. PMID:23128829

Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Barcelos, Gustavo; Mišík, Miroslav; Wultsch, Georg; Carrion, Juan; Carrion-Carrera, Gladys; Knasmueller, Siegfried

2013-03-01

360

The influence of recrystallized caffeine on water-swellable polymethacrylate mucoadhesive buccal films.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of particles on the properties of polymethacrylate films intended for buccal delivery. A solvent casting method was used with Eudragit RS and RL (ERS and ERL, respectively) as film-forming rate-controlling polymers, with caffeine as a water-soluble model drug. The physicochemical properties of the model films for a series of formulations with increasing concentrations of caffeine were determined in terms of morphology, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug content uniformity, and drug release and associated kinetics. Typically regarded as non-mucoadhesive polymers, ERS and mainly ERL, were found to be good mucoadhesives, with ERL01 exhibiting a work of mucoadhesion (WoA) of 118.9 ?J, which was about five to six times higher than that observed for commonly used mucoadhesives such as Carbopol(®) 974P (C974P, 23.9 ?J) and polycarbophil (PCP, 17.4 ?J). The mucoadhesive force for ERL01 was found to be significantly lower yet comparable to C974P and PCP films (211.1 vs. 329.7 and 301.1 mN, respectively). Inspection of cross-sections of the films indicated that increasing the concentration of caffeine was correlated with the appearance of recrystallized agglomerates. In conclusion, caffeine agglomerates had detrimental effects in terms of mucoadhesion, mechanical properties, uniformity, and drug release at large particle sizes. ERL series of films exhibited very rapid release of caffeine while ERS series showed controlled release. Analysis of release profiles revealed that kinetics changed from a diffusion controlled to a first-order release mechanism. PMID:23456475

Morales, Javier O; Su, Rong; McConville, Jason T

2013-06-01

361

The effects of permeabilizers on the in vitro penetration of propranolol through porcine buccal epithelium.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study is to test the possibility that oleic acid might increase the permeability of buccal mucosa and thereby facilitate transmucosal drug delivery. Propranolol, a commonly used beta-blocking agent, was chosen as the model drug, and propylene glycol was chosen as a vehicle in which both propranolol and oleic acid are soluble. The flux of propranolol through porcine tissue mounted in perfusion chambers is monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It is found that oleic acid in propylene glycol increases both the initial flux and the flux at steady state. With oleic acid concentrations in the range of 1 through 10%, there was a 3- to 4-fold increase in permeability to propranolol as judged by changes in permeability constant (KP) values. Oleic acid and propranolol also led to a virtual elimination of the lag time and a maximum drug flux exceeding that at steady state within 2 hours. Similar results were obtained with methyl oleate. Oleic acid has a cis double bond between carbons 9 and 10 in an 18-carbon chain, and it is thought that this double bond fluidizes membranes in the outer portion of the epithelium. This effect on membrane fluidity can account for the increase in KP. The effect of oleic acid in propylene glycol on the initial drug flux is mechanistically more complex and is though to be related to changing thermodynamic activity of the drug as water is displaced by propylene glycol in the tissue. Taken together, the present results indicate that permeability enhancement for the purpose of drug delivery through oral mucosa is feasible. PMID:8961721

Manganaro, A M; Wertz, P W

1996-11-01

362

Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students  

PubMed Central

Objective Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. Materials and methods A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18–29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Results Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p < 0.001). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259–1.790, p < 0.001), crowding (OR = 2.102, 95% CI = 1.706–2.590, p < 0.001) and overjet (OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.418–0.818, p = 0.002). On the other hand, BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Conclusions Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration.

Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

2014-01-01

363

Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

Burden, J.S.

1999-02-24

364

Motorized support jack  

DOEpatents

A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

2001-01-01

365

Superconducting coil development and motor demonstration: Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting bismuth-cuprate wires, coils, and magnets are being produced by industry as part of a program to test the viability of using such magnets in Naval systems. Tests of prototype magnets, coils, and wires reveal progress in commercially produced products. The larger magnets will be installed in an existing superconducting homopolar motor and operated initially at 4.2K to test the performance. It is anticipated that approximately 400 Hp will be achieved by the motor. This article reports on the initial tests of the magnets, coils, and wires as well as the development program to improve their performance.

Gubser, D. U.

1995-12-01

366

A finite element code for electric motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

Campbell, C. Warren

1994-01-01

367

Comparative study of the carcinogenic activities of nas and some chemical carcinogens when introduced into the buccal pouch of the Syrian hamster*  

PubMed Central

Studies were carried out on the carcinogenic effects of nas, 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene (DMBA), DMBA+nas, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), diethylnitrosamine (DENA), and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) when introduced into the buccal pouch of the Syrian hamster. Nas alone induced no tumours in the buccal pouch but tumours at other sites occurred in 18.8% of the treated animals, compared with 4.4% of the controls. Three of 11 hamsters treated with DMBA alone developed tumours. No tumours appeared in the buccal pouch following treatment with DMBA + nas but they developed at other sites in 6 of the 11 hamsters treated. DMNA and DENA induced no macroscopic changes in the mucous membrane of the buccal pouch. Following DMNA administration, tumours developed only in the liver; no tumours developed following the application of DENA. Tumours developed at various sites, including the buccal pouch, in 20 of the 25 hamsters treated with MNU. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Milievskaja, I. L.; Kiseleva, N. S.

1976-01-01

368

Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

Maslowski, E. A.

1981-01-01

369

Preparation and characterization of laminated thiolated chitosan-based freeze-dried wafers for potential buccal delivery of macromolecules.  

PubMed

Abstract This study involves the development and functional characterization of a thiolated chitosan (CS) system for potential buccal delivery of proteins. Thiolated CS was synthesized by conjugating pure CS with thioglycolic acid and dialyzed to remove excess acid. Amount of thiol groups immobilized on CS was determined using L-cysteine calibration curve. The weight average molecular weights of CS and thiolated CS were monitored using gel permeation chromatography. Laminated wafers were obtained by pouring gels (containing bovine serum albumin; BSA, different amounts of glutathione as enzyme inhibitor and mucin to mimic salivary conditions) of the thiolated CS into moulds previously lined with impervious ethylcellulose (EC) films and freeze-dried. The resulting formulations were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formulations were further characterized for functional buccal mucosa performance using hydration, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug dissolution studies. FTIR showed successful thiolation of CS's amine functionality, CD confirmed that BSA conformation remained unchanged throughout the gel formulation and freeze-drying process, whilst SEM showed a porous microstructure of the wafers and a uniform EC film laminate with no visible pores or cracks. The functional characterization studies showed that glutathione had significant effects on hydration, mucoadhesion and subsequently drug dissolution and release characteristics, whilst mucin affected the mucoadhesive properties of the wafers. It was concluded that BSA-loaded wafers containing 10% w/w glutathione as enzyme inhibitor was the formulation choice for potential buccal delivery and should be selected for further investigations. PMID:24506457

Boateng, Joshua S; Ayensu, Isaac

2014-05-01

370

Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-?B, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna Chandra; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

2007-01-01

371

Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.  

PubMed

Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

2013-01-01

372

Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations  

PubMed Central

Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

Romero, Alejandro; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquin; Perez-Perez, Alejandro

2013-01-01

373

The effects of mental practice and concentration skills on EEG brain dynamics during motor imagery using independent component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that mental practice using motor imagery improves motor skills. The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning are the result of practice on central motor programming. According to this view, it seems logical that mental practice should modify the neuronal activity in the primary sensorimotor areas. This article explores the use of independent component

Ali Erfani; Abbas Erfanian

2004-01-01

374

Preparation and Characterization of Nicotine–Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Complex-Loaded Sodium Alginate Matrix Tablets for Buccal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine (NCT) buccal tablets consisting of sodium alginate (SA) and nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate (NCT–MAS) complexes\\u000a acting as drug carriers were prepared using the direct compression method. The effects of the preparation pH levels of the\\u000a NCT–MAS complexes and the complex\\/SA ratios on NCT release, permeation across mucosa, and mucoadhesive properties of the tablets\\u000a were investigated. The NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets

Sopaphan Kanjanabat; Thaned Pongjanyakul

2011-01-01

375

An unusual occurrence of epidermoid cyst in the buccal mucosa: a case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Intraoral dermoid and epidermoid cysts are rare and account for less than 0.01% of all the cysts in the oral cavity. A large majority of the same arise in the floor of the mouth and infrequently in other sites. These cysts often remain asymptomatic for years until they reach a size that interferes with mastication, speech and rarely, breathing. However, they also can become acutely symptomatic if they are secondarily infected. We would like to report a case of a rare epidermoid cyst in the buccal mucosa with its differential diagnosis and a review of literature. PMID:24431820

Kini, Yogesh K; Kharkar, Viraj R; Rudagi, B M; Kalburge, Jitendra V

2013-03-01

376

Virtual instruments (VIs) for study of asynchronous motor functional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, using Lab View graphical programming environment are implemented the virtual instrumentation's concept, realizing three virtual instruments which are been used at the study of asynchronous motor functional characteristics. In this study, the asynchronous motor is in case of steady state regime. It starts from the per phase equivalent diagram in T for these Virtual Instruments designed. In

Gheorghe Eugen Subtirelu; Mircea Dobriceanu

2011-01-01

377

Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

Kovacs, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

378

Motor Development: A Guide for Learning Assistance Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to include motor development activities that supplement the regular physical education curriculum; it was written primarily for teachers of children with learning problems, but may also offer ideas to any teacher wishing to broaden the motor development experiences in the regular physical education program. The guide is…

Jenkins, Rose B.; Slansky, Nancy

379

Perceptual-Motor Learning with Moderately Retarded Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A training program was undertaken with 12 cultural-familial and 12 organic institutionalized young adults to determine if organic signs on the Bender-Gestalt visual-motor test could be reversed. Significant improvement was obtained. Results are discussed in relation to perceptual-motor regression and its potential for reversibility. (Author/SJL)

Kodman, Frank, Jr.

1981-01-01

380

Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

2011-01-01

381

Treatment of a large postextraction buccal wall defect with mineralized allograft, ?-TCP, and rhPDGF-BB: a growth factor-mediated bone regenerative approach.  

PubMed

Buccal wall defects following tooth removal are frequent in the anterior portions of the mandible and maxilla. Common reasons for such defects include thin buccal bone, preexisting periodontal disease, bundle bone resorption, difficult orthodontic movement, and traumatic extractions. Regeneration of the postextraction defect with vital, well-vascularized, dense bone is critical to a successful implant-supported restoration. This case report examines the effectiveness of using a composite graft of freeze-dried bone allograft and ?-tricalcium phosphate plus recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB to regenerate healthy, dense bone in a large mandibular anterior buccal wall defect. The importance of access to the overlying periosteum as a readily available source of osteogenic cells in growth factor-mediated bone regenerative procedures is emphasized. PMID:23057053

Snyder, Mark B

2012-12-01

382

General Motors sidestream separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative

Tessier

1981-01-01

383

Theories of rotary motors.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flagellar motor and the ATP-hydrolysing F1 portion of the F1Fo-ATPase are known to be rotary motors, and it seems highly probable that the H+-translocating Fo portion rotates too. The energy source in the case of Fo and the flagellar motor is the flow of ions, either H+ (protons) or Na+, down an electrochemical gradient across a membrane. The fact that ions flow in a particular direction through a well-defined structure in these motors invites the possibility of a type of mechanism based on geometric constraints between the rotor position and the paths of ions flowing through the motor. The two best-studied examples of such a mechanism are the 'turnstile' model of Khan and Berg and the 'proton turbine' model of Läuger or Berry. Models such as these are typically represented by a small number of kinetic states and certain allowed transitions between them. This allows the calculation of predictions of motor behaviour and establishes a dialogue between models and experimental results. In the near future structural data and observations of single-molecule events should help to determine the nature of the mechanism of rotary motors, while motor models must be developed that can adequately explain the measured relationships between torque and speed in the flagellar motor.

Berry, R M

2000-01-01

384

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

385

In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.  

PubMed

Abstract Drug delivery via the buccal route has emerged as a promising alternative to oral drug delivery. Didanosine (DDI) undergoes rapid degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and low oral bioavailability, making DDI a suitable candidate for buccal delivery. Recent developments in buccal drug delivery show an increased interest toward nano-enabled delivery systems. The advantages of buccal drug delivery can be combined with that of nanoparticulate delivery systems to provide a superior delivery system. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the preparation of novel nano-enabled films for buccal delivery of DDI. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared via hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication and were characterized before being incorporated into nano-enabled monolayered multipolymeric films (MMFs). Glyceryl tripalmitate with Poloxamer 188 was identified as most suitable for the preparation of DDI-loaded SLNs. SLNs with desired particle size (PS) (201?nm), polydispersity index (PDI) (0.168) and zeta potential (-18.8?mV) were incorporated into MMFs and characterized. Conventional and nano-enabled MMFs were prepared via solvent casting/evaporation using Eudragit RS100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Drug release from the nano-enabled films was found to be faster (56% versus 20% in first hour). Conventional MMFs exhibited higher mucoadhesion and mechanical strength than nano-enabled MMFs. SLNs did not adversely affect the steady state flux (71.63?±?13.54?µg/cm(2)?h versus 74.39?±?15.95?µg/cm(2)?h) thereby confirming the potential transbuccal delivery of DDI using nano-enabled MMFs. Nano-enabled buccal films for delivery of DDI can be successfully prepared, and these physico-mechanical studies serve as a platform for future formulation optimization work in this emerging field. PMID:24576267

Jones, Elsabé; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

2014-05-01

386

Perceptual-Motor and Motor Performance Test Batteries Developed for Pre-School Through Grade Six Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This initial phase of the comprehensive Missouri Physical Assessment Program consisted of the selection of test items to measure the components of perceptual-motor and motor performance for pre-school through grade six children. These components were identified as Balance, Rhythm and Coordination, Movement Patterns, Strength, and…

Arnett, Chappelle; Thompson, Margaret M.

387

Evaluation of the mesio-buccal gingival sulcus depth of the upper central incisors in patients submitted to surgically assisted maxillary expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposition  The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifications that occurred in the mesio-buccal gingival sulcus depth of the upper\\u000a central incisors during a 3-year post-operative period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The mesio-buccal gingival sulcus depth of the upper central incisors of patients submitted to surgically assisted maxillary\\u000a expansion (SAME) was measured by using a periodontal probe, both in the pre-operative period and

Diogo Souza Ferreira Rubim de Assis; Paulo Domingos Ribeiro Jr; Marco Antônio Húngaro Duarte; Eduardo Sanches Gonçales

2011-01-01

388

Time-dependent reduction of structural complexity of the buccal epithelial cell nuclei after treatment with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may affect cell DNA structure in in vitro conditions. In this paper, we present the results indicating that AgNPs change nuclear complexity properties in isolated human epithelial buccal cells in a time-dependent manner. Epithelial buccal cells were plated in special tissue culture chamber / slides and were kept at 37°C in an RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine. The cells were treated with colloidal silver nanoparticles suspended in RPMI 1640 medium at the concentration 15 mg L?¹. Digital micrographs of the cell nuclei in a sample of 30 cells were created at five different time steps: before the treatment (controls), immediately after the treatment, as well as 15 , 30 and 60 min after the treatment with AgNPs. For each nuclear structure, values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, circularity, as well as parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture, were determined. The results indicate time-dependent reduction of structural complexity in the cell nuclei after the contact with AgNPs. These findings further suggest that AgNPs, at concentrations present in today's over-the-counter drug products, might have significant effects on the cell genetic material. PMID:24118045

Pantic, I; Paunovic, J; Perovic, M; Cattani, C; Pantic, S; Suzic, S; Nesic, D; Basta-Jovanovic, G

2013-12-01

389

An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37°C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1?g/cm(2)/h and 4×10(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

2013-12-01

390

Effects of proprietary oral rinses containing chlorhexidine, hexetidine and benzydamine on the proliferation of human buccal epithelial cells in culture.  

PubMed

Cell cultures were established from small samples of buccal tissue, using a 3T3 fibroblast feeder-layer technique. After exposure to increasing dilutions of three proprietary oral rinses for 22 h or 2 h, the effects upon cell proliferation were studied by measurement of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA. Cell membrane damage was assessed by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase content. Cultures exposed to hexetidine-containing or chlorhexidine-containing rinses for 22 h at dilutions of 250-fold or lower showed almost complete inhibition of [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Cultures treated with benzydamine-containing rinse at the same dilutions showed no significant inhibition of incorporation. Exposure to the same dilutions of hexetidine- and chlorhexidine-containing rinses for 2 h resulted in 65% and 20% inhibition of incorporation, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase content decreased to negligible levels after exposure to the rinse containing hexetidine at a 250-fold dilution, but was unaffected by the other two rinses. Thus dividing buccal epithelial cells in vitro may be adversely affected by exposure to certain commercial oral rinses. PMID:3256294

Shakespeare, V; Shakespeare, P G; Evans, B T

1988-01-01

391

Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage.

Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

2012-01-01

392

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

393

Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

Story, George

2006-01-01

394

Motor Schema Formation by EMR Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Schmitd's schema theory that there are generalized motor programs for a given class of movements was examined with 24 10-year-old educable mentally retarded boys and two nonretarded groups of boys matched on either MA or CA. (Author/SW)

Porretta, David L.

1982-01-01

395

Program  

Cancer.gov

Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

396

Motor Brush Testing for Mars and Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in the Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in low-pressure CO2. All motors performed acceptably, with accumulated motor revolutions between 98 and 144 million revolutions, depending on load. A proprietary silver-graphite material from Superior Carbon (SG54-27) appears to be the best choice for long life, but even the stock copper-graphite brushes performed reliably with acceptable wear. The motors from the CO2 test were then cleaned and run in vacuum for 2 weeks. The difference in results was dramatic, with 5 motors failing catastrophically and wear rates increasing by orders of magnitude for the SG54-27 material. Three brush materials survived the test with no failures: SG54-27 with a proprietary Ball Aerospace impregnation, a silver-graphite-molybdenum disulfide material from Superior Carbon (SG59), and a copper sulfide-graphite material also from Superior Carbon (BG91).

Noon, Don E.

1999-01-01

397

Reducing Problems in Fine Motor Development among Primary Children through the Use of Multi-Sensory Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 10-week classroom intervention program was implemented to facilitate the fine-motor development of eight first-grade children assessed as being deficient in motor skills. The program was divided according to five deficits to be remediated: visual motor, visual discrimination, visual sequencing, visual figure-ground, and visual memory. Each area…

Wessel, Dorothy

398

Robotic NDE Inspection of Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Casings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program determined the need to inspect ASRM forgings and segments for potentially catastrophic defects. To minimize costs, an automated eddy current inspection system was designed and manufactured for inspection of ASRM for...

G. E. Mcneelege C. Sarantos

1994-01-01

399

40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions...for conformity purposes. (1) Bakersfield, approved March 31, 1998;...

2013-07-01

400

Development of Procedures to Simulate Motor Vehicle Pollution Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a program performed to develop procedures to predict motor vehicle air quality concentrations in the vicinity of highways as a function of highway design configuration, traffic characteristics and meteorological conditio...

B. A. Egan A. Epstein M. Keefe J. League T. Lavery

1973-01-01

401

Validation of Simulation Techniques for Electromechanical Couplings in Electrical Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High frequency injection and electromagnetic coupling techniques are used to measure the parameters of a single-phase induction motor to determine its equivalent circuit. This equivalent circuit is then programmed on the analog computer for verification. ...

K. T. Huang D. M. Shiroma

1977-01-01

402

Global trends in motor vehicle air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status of pollution control programs around the world.

Walsh, M.P.

1985-01-01

403

Bacterial flagellar motor.  

PubMed

The bacterial flagellar motor is a reversible rotary nano-machine, about 45 nm in diameter, embedded in the bacterial cell envelope. It is powered by the flux of H+ or Na+ ions across the cytoplasmic membrane driven by an electrochemical gradient, the proton-motive force or the sodium-motive force. Each motor rotates a helical filament at several hundreds of revolutions per second (hertz). In many species, the motor switches direction stochastically, with the switching rates controlled by a network of sensory and signalling proteins. The bacterial flagellar motor was confirmed as a rotary motor in the early 1970s, the first direct observation of the function of a single molecular motor. However, because of the large size and complexity of the motor, much remains to be discovered, in particular, the structural details of the torque-generating mechanism. This review outlines what has been learned about the structure and function of the motor using a combination of genetics, single-molecule and biophysical techniques, with a focus on recent results and single-molecule techniques. PMID:18812014

Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Berry, Richard M

2008-05-01

404

Electric Motor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The D.C.-energized brushless-motor system is useful in driving film-type recorders, as used in the exercise sections of acoustic-homing torpedoes during underwater test runs. The motor has a permanently-magnetized rotor, a specially wound stator, and a pa...

H. W. Thompson

1965-01-01

405

Stripped-down Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

406

FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I. FY 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3....

M. Olszewski

2006-01-01

407

Study of Synchronous Automatic Speed Control System Based on the Motors Driving Conveyer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the asynchronousy of the control system caused by internal tension imbalance in the running of tri- motors driving conveyance line, this paper mainly discuss a practical program --- synchronous automatic speed control system. In this system, the rotary encoder is adopted to detect the motors' speed, samples and analyses various motor speeds through the PLC and adjusts the

You Wenqiang; Zhang Guanying; Yong Zhiqun

2011-01-01

408

Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

2013-01-01

409

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

Hughes, Phil D.

1990-01-01

410

Fast Forward: An Upskilling Programme for Ford Motor Company Foundry Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of an upgrading program for British Ford Motor Company employees was getting trainees back into learning environments and improving communication, listening, calculation, reading, and cooperation. (SK)

Cousin, Glynis; Pound, Gill

1991-01-01

411

CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY  

PubMed Central

A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning, eyelid conditioning and vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, and primary motor cortex for skilled finger movements. We then review evidence for and against a consolidation process for adaptation of arm movements. We propose that contradictions have arisen because consolidation can be masked by inhibition of memory retrieval.

Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

2008-01-01

412

Superconducting stepper motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available stepper motor designed for a remote positioning system of cryogenic acoustic microscopes was modified for use at liquid-He temperatures. The coils of the original disk-magnet motor were rewound with a superconducting wire consisting of 0.076-mm-thick Nb-Ti alloy clad with a 0.025-mm-thick layer of copper and insulated with Formvar. The four coils (each with the resistance of 35 ohm at room temperature) were wound on plastic coil forms, and the three pole pieces were pressed into each coil form. No adhesive was used, making it easy to remove coils from the motor, and the pole pieces from the coil forms. Three motors were thus modified and have proved reliable after many cooldowns over a period of several months. The motors were operated with about 400 mA per coil.

Moulthrop, Andrew A.; Muha, Michael S.

1988-04-01

413

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

414

Induction motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

415

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

416

Advanced Motor and Motor Control Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of operating a high-speed permanent-magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of...

K. L. Wuertz E. D. Beauchamp

1988-01-01

417

Research on speech motor control and its disorders: a review and prospective.  

PubMed

This paper reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders. Speech motor control refers to the systems and strategies that regulate the production of speech, including the planning and preparation of movements (sometimes called motor programming) and the execution of movement plans to result in muscle contractions and structural displacements. Traditionally, speech motor control is distinguished from phonologic operations, but in some recent phonologic theories, there is a deliberate blurring of the boundaries between phonologic representation and motor functions. Moreover, there is continuing discussion in the literature as to whether a given motor speech disorder (especially apraxia of speech and stuttering) should be understood at the phonologic level, the motoric level, or both of these. The motor speech disorders considered here include: the dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. PMID:11081787

Kent, R D

2000-01-01

418

40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...trucks or rail cars used to transport diesel fuel designated...

2011-07-01

419

40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...trucks or rail cars used to transport diesel fuel designated...

2010-07-01

420

40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...trucks or rail cars used to transport diesel fuel designated...

2012-07-01

421

40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION...requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel...trucks or rail cars used to transport diesel fuel designated...

2013-07-01

422

Anti-cell proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of andrographolide during 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to explore anti-cell proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of andrographolide by analyzing the expression pattern of cell proliferative (PCNA, Cyclin D1) and angiogenic (VEGF) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. DMBA painting three times a week for 14 weeks in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters resulted in oral tumors which were histopathologically diagnosed as well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical (PCNA, VEGF) and RT-PCR (Cyclin D1) studies revealed over expression of PCNA, VEGF and Cyclin D1 in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of andrographolide at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only suppressed the histological abnormalities but also down regulated the expression of PCNA, VEGF and Cyclin D1. The results of the present study suggest that andrographolide suppressed tumor formation in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA through its anti-cell proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential. PMID:24289615

Singh, Arjun Kumar; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Vasudevan, Krishnamurthy; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Manimaran, Asokan; Suresh, Kathiresan

2013-01-01

423

Rehabilitation of the maxillary arch with implant-supported fixed restorations guided by the most apical buccal bone level in the esthetic zone: a clinical report.  

PubMed

This article describes a prosthetically-driven protocol for the rehabilitation of the completely edentulous maxillary arch using immediate implant placement and loading techniques. After the incisal edges of the planned maxillary central incisors are determined, the most apical buccal bone level in the esthetic zone serves to guide complete arch rehabilitation. PMID:22475463

Rojas-Vizcaya, Fernando

2012-04-01

424

Formulation Selection and Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film with Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Crossover Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: BioErodible MucoAdhesive (BEMA ? ) is a new transmucosal drug delivery system designed to improve and ease the admin- istration of drugs by this route. The first product that uses this novel delivery system contains fentanyl and is intended for the treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. The generic name is fentanyl buccal soluble

Niraj Vasisht; Larry N. Gever; Ignacio Tagarro; Andrew L. Finn

2009-01-01

425

Personal Characteristics of Older Primary Care Patients Who Provide a Buccal Swab for Apolipoprotein E Testing and Banking of Genetic Material: The Spectrum Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the personal characteristics and reasons associated with providing a buccal swab for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genetic testing in a primary care study. Methods: The study sample consisted of 342 adults aged 65 years and older recruited from primary care settings. Results: In all, 88% of patients agreed to provide a DNA sample for APOE genotyping and 78%

Hillary R. Bogner; Marsha N. Wittink; Jon F. Merz; Joseph B. Straton; Peter F. Cronholm; Peter V. Rabins; Joseph J. Gallo

2004-01-01

426

Electric 'LEGO' Motor II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

Pino, Jose

2008-11-17

427

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

428

Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect

In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-02-11

429

[Observations on the structural changes according to aging of oral mucous membrane in the elderly--structure of buccal mucous membrane in the vicinity of angulus oris].  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to clarify the structural changes according to the aging of the buccal mucous membrane in the elderly. Thirty-eight Japanese adult cadavers (62-98 years) which dental students had used for anatomy practice were used as materials. Serial sections were made from the specimens of the buccal mucous membrane in the vicinity of angulus oris removed from the cadavers, and the sections were observed with a light microscope. The results were as follows: 1) As for the buccal mucous membrane in the vicinity of angulus oris in the elderly, the thickness decreases significantly with aging. 2) In the buccal mucous membranes of the elderly, the functional arrangement of the collagenous and elastic fibers distributed in the lamina propria and the submucous membrane disappears with aging, and the fibrosis tendency generally becomes remarkable. 3) The number of blood vessels distributed in the mucous membrane in the vicinity of angulus oris of the elderly decreases with aging, and the distribution of blood vessels changes, too. It seems that these changes suppress the circulatory system of the buccal mucous membrane in the very elderly. 4) The fatty change and the fibrosis of the small salivary gland progress among the very elderly. It seems that the structural change of such a glandular tissue causes dryness in the mouth. 5) The change in the thickness of the tunica muscularis according to aging was hardly seen among the elderly. However, the tendency toward thinness with aging was seen, as for the muscular fiber. The structural change of such a muscular fiber seems to cause depression such as that of the orbicular muscle of the mouth in the elderly. PMID:15301277

Akimoto, Kazuhiro

2004-06-01

430

Identification of Control Parameters for Brass Player’s Embouchure by Measuring Contact Pressure on the Teeth Buccal Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the technical improvement for brass instrument players it is important to obtain the detailed control parameters for embouchure building. While many investigators have reported the preliminary data on the muscle behavior, the precise aspects are unrevealed so far. The purpose of the present paper is to study dynamic perioral muscle behavior of French horn players and to investigate their lip valve function by measuring the contact pressure on teeth buccal surface during playing. It was shown from the experimental results that the advanced players contracted depressor angulioris and levator angulioris especially for high tone playing. It is considered that the combined contraction by these muscles contributes to forming smaller lip aperture being suitable to produce higher tones. Inversely a strong contraction of m. buccinator, which is widely believed to work to give hard tension to player’s lip, was observed insignificantly in the advanced players.

Kourakata, Itaru; Moriyama, Kozo; Hara, Toshiaki

431

Towards a microrotary motor driven by motor proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological molecular motors, motor proteins, have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures. This paper describes a bio- hybrid micro rotary motor using kinesin\\/ microtubule motor. We developed a simple fabrication process for a micro-structure by one-time deposition of parylene and a

Yuichi Hiratsuka; Shoji Takeuchi

2007-01-01

432

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading.

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-01-01

433

Comparative Study of Genotoxicity in Different Tobacco Related Habits using Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating diseases afflicting mankind. Consumption of tobacco in various forms constitutes one of the most important etiological factors in initiation of oral cancer. When the focus of today’s research is to determine early genotoxic changes in human cells, micronucleus (MN) assay provides a simple, yet reliable indicator of genotoxic damage. Aims and Objectives: To identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa in individuals with different tobacco related habits and control group, to compare the genotoxicity of different tobacco related habits between each group and also with that of control group. Patients and Methods: In the present study buccal smears of 135 individuals with different tobacco related habits & buccal smears of 45 age and sex matched controls were obtained, stained using Giemsa stain and then observed under 100X magnification in order to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. Results: The mean Micronucleus (MN) count in individuals having smoking habit were 3.11 while the count was 0.50, 2.13, and 1.67 in normal control, smoking with beetle quid and smokeless tobacco habit respectively. MN count in smokers group was 2.6 times more compared to normal controls. MN count was more even in other groups when compared to normal control but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: From our study we concluded that tobacco in any form is genotoxic especially smokers are of higher risk and micronucleus assay can be used as a simple yet reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Jose, Maji; Saxena, Kartikay; K, Deepa; Prabhu, Vishnudas

2014-01-01

434

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films.  

PubMed

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4(th) and 5(th) decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-03-01

435

Influence of additives on a thermosensitive hydrogel for buccal delivery of salbutamol: relation between micellization, gelation, mechanic and release properties.  

PubMed

Thermosensitive hydrogels developed for buccal delivery of salbutamol were prepared using poloxamer analogs (Kolliphor(®) P407/P188), xanthan gum (Satiaxane(®) UCX930) and NaCl. P188 increased gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) by 2.5-5°C, micellization temperature (<1°C) and gelation time by >3s. To obtain a suitable Tsol-gel at 28-34°C, P407 and P188 concentrations were set to 18-19% and 1%. NaCl reduced Tsol-gel (>2°C) out of the optimal range. Six formulations containing 0.05-0.1% Satiaxane(®) fulfilled the temperature criteria. Concerning the gel strength, 1% P188 had no significant effect, NaCl increased it at 20°C, and Satiaxane(®) enhanced it at 20°C and 37°C. The release study using membrane-less (to mimic oral cavity) and membrane (to mimic buccal mucosa side) methods allowed a complete investigation showing that erosion and diffusion both contributed to the drug release but differed according to the formulation. In the membraneless method, simple P407 formulations had weak ability to retain salbutamol (T80=35 min). P188 accelerated drug release. NaCl accelerated release in the membraneless method by 5-11 min but slightly reduced it in the membrane method. The hydrogels containing Satiaxane(®) exhibited the slowest release. In the membrane method, combination of P407/P188/Satiaxane(®) provided a sustained diffusion with a burst effect (T25=9.6 min, T80=97.8 min), which provides potential clinical interests. PMID:24699353

Zeng, Ni; Dumortier, Gilles; Maury, Marc; Mignet, Nathalie; Boudy, Vincent

2014-06-01

436

DNA Damage in Buccal Mucosa Cells of Pre-School Children Exposed to High Levels of Urban Air Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1–3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age±SD: 4.3±0.9 years) were investigated. The mean±SD MN frequency was 0.29±0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

Ceretti, Elisabetta; Feretti, Donatella; Viola, Gaia C V.; Zerbini, Ilaria; Limina, Rosa M.; Zani, Claudia; Capelli, Michela; Lamera, Rossella; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

2014-01-01

437

The Motor Learning of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents some highlights of what research tells the practitioner about the motor learning of children. Major emphasis is on motor learning in relation to the physical and motor characteristics of the child's maturation and development. In the first three sections of the study, general ideas concerning motor learning are discussed.…

Christina, Robert W.

438

Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

2010-01-01

439

DC Motor Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains the basic principles of dc motor operation by a progressive development of magnetic fields and shows how a current-carrying device acts when placed in these fields. Explains the positions of maximum and minimum torque.

1994-01-01

440

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET  

Cancer.gov

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET Please read all instructions carefully. INSTRUCTIONS: You are responsible for reporting vehicle defects and accidents immediately. DESTINATION VEHICLE TAG NO. NAME OF ALL DRIVERS: PHONE NO TYPE OF VEHICLE SIGNATURE