Sample records for buccal motor programs

  1. Cerebral-buccal pathways in Aplysia californica: synaptic connections, cooperative interneuronal effects and feedback during buccal motor programs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J A; Kirk, M D

    2001-12-01

    Ingestion of seaweed by Aplysia is in part mediated by cerebral-buccal interneurons that drive rhythmic motor output from the buccal ganglia and in some cases cerebral-buccal interneurons act as members of the feeding central pattern generator. Here we document cooperative interactions between cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 and cerebral-buccal interneuron 12, characterize synaptic input to cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 and cerebral-buccal interneuron 12 from buccal peripheral nerve 2,3, describe a synaptic connection between cerebral-buccal interneuron 1 and buccal neuron B34, further characterize connections made by cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 and -12 with B34 and B61/62, and describe a novel, inhibitory connection made by cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 with a buccal neuron. When cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 and 12 were driven synchronously at low frequencies, ingestion-like buccal motor programs were elicited, and if either was driven alone, indirect synaptic input was recruited in the other cerebral-buccal interneuron. Stimulation of BN2,3 recruited both ingestion and rejection-like motor programs without firing in cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 or 12. During motor programs elicited by cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 or 12, high-voltage stimulation of BN2,3 inhibited firing in both cerebral-buccal interneurons. Our results suggest that cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 and 12 use cooperative interactions to modulate buccal motor programs, yet firing in cerebral-buccal interneurons 2 or 12 is not necessary for recruiting motor programs by buccal peripheral nerve BN2,3, even in preparations with intact cerebral-buccal pathways. PMID:11800037

  2. Cerebral-buccal pathways in Aplysia californica : synaptic connections, cooperative interneuronal effects and feedback during buccal motor programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José D. Sánchez; Mark D. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Ingestion of seaweed by Aplysia is in part mediated by cerebral-buccal interneurons that drive rhythmic motor output from the buccal ganglia and in some cases cerebral-buccal interneurons act as members of the feeding central pattern generator. Here we document cooperative interactions between cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 and cerebral-buccal interneuron 12, characterize synaptic input to cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 and cerebral-buccal interneuron 12

  3. Different roles of neurons B63 and B34 that are active during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, I; Kupfermann, I; Susswein, A J

    1997-09-01

    The buccal ganglion of Aplysia contains a central pattern generator (CPG) that organizes sequences of radula protraction and retraction during food ingestion and egestion. Neurons B63 and B34 have access to, or are elements of, the CPG. Both neurons are depolarized along with B31/B32 during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs. Both cells excite the contralateral B31/B32 neurons and inhibit B64 and other neurons active during the retraction phase. B63 and B34 also both have an axon exiting the buccal ganglia via the contralateral cerebrobuccal connective. Despite their similarities, B63 and B34 differ in a number of properties, which reflects their different functions. B63 fires during both ingestion and egestion-like buccal motor programs, whereas B34 fires only during egestion-like programs. The bilateral B63 neurons, along with the bilateral B31 and B32 neurons, act as a single functional unit. Sufficient depolarization of any of these neurons activates them all and initiates a buccal motor program. B63 is electrically coupled to both the ipsilateral and the contralateral B31/B32 neurons but monosynaptically excites the contralateral neurons with a mixed electrical and chemical excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Positive feedback caused by electrical and chemical EPSPs between B63 and B31/B32 contributes to the sustained depolarization in B31/B32 and the firing of B63 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B34 is excited during the protraction phase of all buccal motor programs, but, unlike B63, it does not always reach firing threshold. The neuron fires in response to current injection only after it is depolarized for 1-2 s or after preceding buccal motor programs in which it is depolarized. Firing of B34 produces facilitating EPSPs in the contralateral B31/B32 and B63 neurons and can initiate a buccal motor program. Firing in B34 is strongly correlated with firing in the B61/B62 motor neurons, which innervate the muscle (I2) responsible for much of protraction. B34 monosynaptically excites these motor neurons. B34 firing is also correlated with firing in motor neuron B8 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B8 innervates the I4 radula closer muscle, which in egestion movements is active during protraction and in ingestion movements is active during retraction. B34 has a mixed, but predominantly excitatory, effect on B8 via a slow conductance-decrease EPSP. Thus firing in B34 leads to amplification of radula protraction that is coupled with radula closing, a pattern characteristic of egestion. PMID:9310422

  4. Modulation of heart activity in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus by the feeding motor program, small cardioactive peptides and stimulation of buccal neuron B1.

    PubMed

    Welsford, I G; Prior, D J

    1991-01-01

    Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by abdominal ganglion nerves N9 and N11. Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the heart causes dose-dependent increases in the force of ventricular contractions. In addition, the SCPs induce rhythmic contractions in quiescent heart preparations. The effects of the SCPs appear to be specific in that the neuropeptide FMRFamide has an inhibitory effect on ventricular activity. SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material is found in the heart, kidney and pericardium and in the nerves that innervate these organs. Unilateral intracellular stimulation of buccal neuron B1, which contains SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material, mimics the FMP- and SCP-induced increases in ventricular activity. The effect of B1 on ventricular activity is frequency dependent and requires innervation of the heart by N11. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the SCPs are involved in feeding-related alterations in heart activity in Limax and that the control of this effect involves neuron B1. PMID:2016573

  5. MODULATION OF HEART ACTIVITY IN THE TERRESTRIAL SLUG LIMAX MAXIMUS BY THE FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM, SMALL CARDIOACTIVE PEPTIDES AND STIMULATION OF BUCCAL NEURON Bl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAN G. WELSFORD; DAVID J. PRIOR

    Summary Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart\\/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by ahdominal ganglion nerves N9 and Nil . Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the

  6. DOPAMINE ELICITS FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM IN LIlMAx MAXIMUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN J. WIELAND; ALAN GELPERIN

    A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in uiuo and in uitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells and in the

  7. Detection of survival motor neuron protein in buccal cells through electrochemiluminescence-based assay.

    PubMed

    Steinkellner, Hannes; Etzler, Julia; Gmeiner, Bernhard M; Laccone, Franco

    2015-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder affecting one in every 10,000 live births. The disease is characterized by loss of alpha-motor neurons in the spinal cord that leads to progressive atrophy and weakness of limb and trunk muscles. This neuromuscular disorder results from deletions and/or mutations within the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a pathologically decreased expression of functional full-length SMN protein. Here we report on the investigation to measure SMN protein levels through electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). This simple assay is a highly quantitative method able to measure SMN protein levels in human, mouse, and rat samples throughout a wide working range with low intra- and interassay error. The sensitivity for human SMN is 30?pg/mL and provides a new tool for the set up of high-throughput screening for basic research. Moreover, we describe a novel tool for a noninvasive assessment of SMN in buccal cells derived from healthy donors, SMA carriers, and SMA patients. The availability of a validated quantitative ECLIA should improve the investigation of novel compounds for the treatment of SMA. PMID:25848917

  8. Short-term synaptic enhancement modulates ingestion motor programs of aplysia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J A; Kirk, M D

    2000-07-15

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity regulates the flow of information in neuronal networks and has important implications for the expression of behavior. We find a functional role for short-term synaptic enhancement (STE) such as facilitation, augmentation, and post-tetanic potentiation at central synapses in the sea slug Aplysia californica. Consummatory feeding in Aplysia such as rhythmic biting is controlled by command-like cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs) that drive rhythmic motor output in the buccal ganglia. CBI interneuron-2 (CBI-2) makes monosynaptic connections onto buccal neurons, including premotor neurons B31/32 and B34 and motor neurons B61/62. Stimulating CBI-2 at a physiological firing frequency of 10 Hz for 30 sec causes these synapses to increase their EPSP amplitude by approximately 200%. This STE persists for nearly 2 min, during which time there is an increased cycle frequency of rhythmic ingestion buccal motor programs (iBMPs) elicited by CBI-2. This increase does not occur if the contralateral CBI-2 is trained and the test is performed with the ipsilateral CBI-2; therefore, the effect on motor programs only occurs in CBI-2 pathways in which STE is elicited. Furthermore, we find that STE elicited at CBI-2 buccal synapses permits iBMPs to be initiated at lower firing frequencies. Thus, STE of CBI-2 synapses appears to contribute to the initiation or modulation, or both, of buccal motor programs for rhythmic ingestion in Aplysia. PMID:10875940

  9. Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Wieland, S J; Gelperin, A

    1983-09-01

    A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in vivo and in vitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells in and the neuropil of the cerebral ganglia at a concentration of 62 pmol/ganglion; a large proportion of such dopamine-containing cells projected to the lips. The buccal ganglia contained several small dopaminergic cells and large amounts of dopamine in the neuropil; the measured concentration was 10 pmol/ganglion. Exogenous dopamine applied to the cerebral and buccal ganglia in vitro between 10(-7) M and 3 X 10(-6) M excited an autoactive salivary duct motor neuron (FB) and inhibited an autoactive secretomotor neuron (BSN). Concentrations of dopamine between 3 X 10(-6) M and 3 X 10(-5) M triggered FMP output, with an increased probability of triggering at higher concentrations of dopamine. ADTN and SK&F38393 were potent agonists in this system, whereas ergonovine was the only potent antagonist found; none of the neuroleptics tested was effective. Thus, the Limax system shows agonist responses similar to the vertebrate D1 receptors, but its antagonist-binding properties appear to have requirements quite different from vertebrate receptors. The effects of exogenous serotonin differed from dopamine's effects; serotonin excited BSN and several buccal motor neurons, could not elicit synchronized motor program cycling, and was not efficiently blocked by ergonovine. These data suggest that dopamine is a good candidate as an endogenous triggering and sustaining transmitter for the Limax feeding motor program. PMID:6886743

  10. Feeding motor program in Limax. I. Neuromuscular correlates and control by chemosensory input.

    PubMed

    Gelperin, A; Chang, J J; Reingold, S C

    1978-07-01

    The feeding motor program(FMP) of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus was examined in vivo and in vitro. The feeding pattern of intact animals shows an initial increase in bite frequency followed by a plateau phase. Recordings obtained from semi-intact preparations of the lips, brain, and buccal mass established the correlation of activity in buccal ganglion nerve roots with the protraction-retraction bite cycle. A preparation of the lips, cerebral ganglia, and buccal ganglia was developed, such that, repetitive chemostimulation of the lips yields reproducible bouts of FMP. Sources of proprioceptive feedback from buccal muscles were demonstrated. The feasibility of computer scoring of the FMP is documented. The results demonstrate that aspects of in vivo feeding behavior are retained and identifiable in highly dissected, in vivo preparations. PMID:681926

  11. The molluscan neuropeptide, SCPB, increases the responsiveness of the feeding motor program of Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Prior, D J; Watson, W H

    1988-01-01

    Small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) has an excitatory effect on both buccal neurons and musculature in numerous molluscan species. The present study reports the effects of SCPB on the activity of specified buccal neurons and the expression of the feeding motor program of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus. Superfusion of an isolated CNS preparation with 10(-6)M SCPB results in a 3-4-fold increase in the burst frequency of the fast salivary burster neuron (FSB), while having no effect on the activity of another endogenous burster, the bilateral salivary neuron (BSN). The response of the FSB to SCPB is dose dependent, with a threshold concentration of 2 X 10(-8)M. The response of the FSB to SCPB showed no indication of desensitization, even after long-term exposure (20 min). The feeding motor program (FMP) in Limax is a discrete pattern of cyclical motor activity that can be initiated by lip nerve stimulation. In the presence of SCPB a previously subthreshold stimulus can initiate the full FMP. The pattern of the FMP, once initiated, appears unaffected by SCPB. Thus it is the responsiveness of the initiation process that is enhanced by SCPB. Histochemical studies revealed a number of buccal neuron somata and fibers that stain for SCPB-like immunoreactive material (SLIM). PMID:3346657

  12. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...1904-AC05 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...notice of proposed rulemaking to amend the test procedures for electric motors and...

  13. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  14. Acetylcholine activates cerebral interneurons and feeding motor program in Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    King, M S; Delaney, K; Gelperin, A

    1987-11-01

    The cellular and network effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on the control system for feeding in Limax maximus were measured by intracellular recordings from feeding command-like interneurons and whole nerve recordings from buccal ganglion motor nerve roots that normally innervate the ingestive feeding muscles. The buccal ganglion motor nerve root discharge pattern that causes rhythmic feeding movements, termed the feeding motor program (FMP), was elicited either by attractive taste solutions applied to the lip chemoreceptors or by ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia. The ability of exogenous ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia to trigger FMP was blocked by the cholinergic antagonists curare and atropine. If the strength of the lip-applied taste stimulus was in the range of 1-2 times threshold, cerebral application of the cholinergic antagonists blocked or greatly decreased the ability of lip-applied taste solutions to trigger FMP (5 of 8 trials). The cerebral feeding interneurons, some of which activate FMP when stimulated intracellularly, are excited by small pulses of ACh applied directly to the cell body from an ACh-filled micropipette. A pulse of ACh that activates several of the feeding interneurons simultaneously triggers FMP. The data suggest that under certain stimulus conditions an obligatory set of cholinergic synapses onto the feedininterneurons must be activated for taste inputs to trigger ingestion. The determination of ACh's action within the feeding control system is necessary for understanding how enhanced cholinergic transmission leads to prolonged associative memory retention (Sahley, et al., 1986). PMID:3694192

  15. Complementary interactions between command-like interneurons that function to activate and specify motor programs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity. PMID:24806677

  16. Complementary Interactions between Command-Like Interneurons that Function to Activate and Specify Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Perkins, Matthew H.; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Cropper, Elizabeth C.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity. PMID:24806677

  17. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program

    E-print Network

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge program is an industry/government collaborative that is working to increase the market penetration of efficient motor-driven systems. In support of the program's Showcase Demonstrations, a variety...

  18. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program 

    E-print Network

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge program is an industry/government collaborative that is working to increase the market penetration of efficient motor-driven systems. In support of the program's Showcase Demonstrations, a variety...

  19. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...incorporate by reference and update alternative test methods for polyphase and...

  20. Effects of Perceptual-Motor Programs on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    Practical implications for physical education teachers are drawn after a review of research on perceptual motor training programs for elementary school children. Three categories of theorists are identified: those who emphasize the intellectual involvement of the child in motoric functioning; those who stress development of perceptual motor bases…

  1. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  2. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors; Final...1904-AC89 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY...DOE) is amending the energy efficiency test procedures for electric motors to...

  3. Single neuron control over a complex motor program.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, W N; Katz, P S

    1996-01-01

    While there are many instances of single neurons that can drive rhythmic stimulus-elicited motor programs, such neurons have seldom been found to be necessary for motor program function. In the isolated central nervous system of the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea, brief stimulation (1 sec) of a peripheral nerve activates an interneuronal central pattern generator that produces the long-lasting (approximately 30-60 sec) motor program underlying the animal's rhythmic escape swim. Here, we identify a single interneuron, DRI (for dorsal ramp interneuron), that (i) conveys the sensory information from this stimulus to the swim central pattern generator, (ii) elicits the swim motor program when driven with intracellular stimulation, and (iii) blocks the depolarizing "ramp" input to the central pattern generator, and consequently the motor program itself, when hyperpolarized during the nerve stimulus. Because most of the sensory information appears to be funneled through this one neuron as it enters the pattern generator, DRI presents a striking example of single neuron control over a complex motor circuit. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8552652

  4. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  5. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  7. Best antibiotics for buccal delivery

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

  8. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

  9. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors; Proposed...1904-AC89 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY...testing set-up procedures necessary to test, and extending DOE's existing test...

  10. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  11. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Babbitt III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered

  12. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  13. Buccal Exostosis: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Sonali V; Kohad, Ramesh; Budhiraja, Harmeeta; Singh, Atamjeet; Gurha, Shradha; Sharma, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostoses are broad-based, non-malignant surface growth occurring on the outer or facial surface of the maxilla and/or mandible, found usually in the premolar and molar region. Etiology is still not established, but it has been suggested that the bony overgrowth can be because of abnormally increased masticatory forces to the teeth. They tend to appear in early adolescence and may very slowly increase in size with time. They are painless, self-limiting and may increase patient concern about poor esthetics, inability to perform oral hygiene procedures, and compromised periodontal health by causing food lodgment. The following article presents a very rare case of bilateral buccal-sided maxillary exostoses and its management with surgical exploration. PMID:26028907

  14. Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2011-01-01

    Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well-characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically-coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously-postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs: the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 vs. C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely-located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axo-dendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely-located neurons. PMID:22031890

  15. New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre- and post-metamorphic tadpoles (Pelophylax ridibundus)

    E-print Network

    Quenet, Brigitte; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette

    2014-01-01

    Central CO2chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of itsrole in ventilatory rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded infacial nerve of premetamorphic and postmetamorphic tadpole isolated brainstems, under normo- andhypercapnia, are investigated using Continuous Wavelet Transform spectral analysis for buccal activityand computation of number and amplitude of spikes during buccal and lung activities. Buccal burstsexhibit fast oscillations (20-30 Hz) that are prominent in premetamorphic tadpoles: they result from thepresence in periodic time windows of high amplitude spikes. Hypercapnia systematically decreases thefrequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles, by a lengthening of the interburstduration. In postmetamorphic tadpoles, hypercapnia reduces buccal burst amplitude and unmasks smallfast oscillations. Our results suggest a common effect of the hypercapnia on the buccal part of the CentralPattern G...

  16. In vitro techniques to evaluate buccal films.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Harsha, Sree; Attimarad, Mahesh; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2013-02-28

    Extensive research on transmucosal drug delivery in the past few decades has resulted in the clinical application of several drug molecules through the buccal route. Interestingly, most of the new chemical moieties under clinical trials are being screened for their potential to deliver through the buccal cavity. In this context, buccal film offers several advantages including convenient dosing and better patient compliance. However, the greatest challenge is to develop a high quality buccal film which also necessitates constant evaluation and understanding the performance of the dosage form, the critical steps to achieve a successful product development. Despite the intense focus on buccal film based drug delivery system, there are no official standardized methods for its evaluation. Significant efforts have been made to demonstrate and improve the efficacy, potency and safety of buccal film using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assessments. Besides the physical properties of the film, several other parameters such as residence time, mucoadhesion, drug release, in vitro and in vivo buccal permeation profiles and absorption kinetics of the drug are examined while characterizing the prepared buccal films. However, various research groups have employed different methods and experimental conditions to evaluate the formulation, which has limited the comparison of data between the research groups. This review provides an overview about the various parameters that are considered and assessed as a part of formulation development to ensure quality product with desired characteristics. PMID:23219961

  17. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  18. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio?=?0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  19. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You...

  20. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You...

  1. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  2. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  3. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  4. Early Motor Training in Down's Syndrome Babies: Results of an Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, M. T.; Menendez, F. J.

    This study examined whether infants with Down syndrome (N=32) undergoing early motor training would benefit from their parents observing a clinician implement an intervention program with their child. Parents of half the children remained in the room while the clinician implemented motor stimulation techniques, while parents of the other half were…

  5. A GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE FOR PROGRAMMING STEPPER MOTORS USED AT DIFFERENT KINDS OF APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Altintas

    2009-01-01

    Stepper motors are a digital actuator whose input is in the form of programmed energization of the stator windings and whose output is in the form of discrete angular rotation. It is, therefore, ideally suited for use as an actuator in computer control systems, digital control systems and etc. Control systems employing stepper motors as actuators are known as incremental

  6. Distributed Representation of Limb Motor Programs in Arrays of Adjustable Pattern Generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Berthier; S. P. Singh; A. G. Barto; J. C. Houk

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of our exploration of how motor program concepts may be related to neural mechanisms. We have proposed a model of sensorimotor networks with architectures inspired by the anatomy and physiology of the cerebellum and its interconnections with the red nucleus and the motor cortex. We proposed the concept of rubrocerebellar and corticocerebellar information processing

  7. CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) modeling of brushless DC motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use in flight control actuators for tactical missiles. This thesis develops a low-order mathematical model for the simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor performance.

  8. New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO(2) sensitivity in pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles (Pelophylax ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Quenet, Brigitte; Straus, Christian; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette

    2014-01-15

    Central CO(2) chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of its role in ventilatory rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded in facial nerve of premetamorphic and postmetamorphic tadpole isolated brainstems, under normo- and hypercapnia, are investigated using Continuous Wavelet Transform spectral analysis for buccal activity and computation of number and amplitude of spikes during buccal and lung activities. Buccal bursts exhibit fast oscillations (20-30Hz) that are prominent in premetamorphic tadpoles: they result from the presence in periodic time windows of high amplitude spikes. Hypercapnia systematically decreases the frequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles, by a lengthening of the interburst duration. In postmetamorphic tadpoles, hypercapnia reduces buccal burst amplitude and unmasks small fast oscillations. Our results suggest a common effect of the hypercapnia on the buccal part of the Central Pattern Generator in all tadpoles and a possible effect at the level of the motoneuron recruitment in postmetamorphic tadpoles. PMID:24200645

  9. Still Jumping on the Balance Beam: Continued Use of Perceptual Motor Programs in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark; Wheldall, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual motor programs (PMPs) are used widely in Australian schools. This study reports on an analysis of the information about the uses and the rationales for these programs drawn from the websites of Australian schools. Wide-ranging claims are made for the benefits of these programs for students with difficulties and for typically developing…

  10. CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) modeling of brushless DC motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use in flight control actuators for tactical missiles. This thesis develops a low-order mathematical model for the simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor performance. This model is implemented in CSMP language. It is used to predict such motor performance curves as speed, current and power versus torque. Electronic commutation based on Hall effect sensor positional feedback is simulated. Steady state motor behavior is studied under both constant and variable air gap flux conditions. The variable flux takes two different forms. In the first case, the flux is varied as a simple sinusoid. In the second case, the flux is varied as the sum of a sinusoid and one of its harmonics.

  11. How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys??

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia. PMID:25206440

  12. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  13. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial…

  14. PMSP: A Program To Develop Perceptive-Motor Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallisera, Maria

    This monograph describes the Perceptive Motor Skills Program (PMSP) being used with adolescents and adults having mental retardation in Catalonia, Spain. The program is based on the following principles: chronologically age appropriate activities; use of daily living tools; multiple objectives and working materials; and balance between…

  15. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  16. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which...

  17. Control of Octopus Arm Extension by a Peripheral Motor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    German Sumbre; Yoram Gutfreund; Graziano Fiorito; Tamar Flash; Binyamin Hochner

    2001-01-01

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms

  18. ASRM plume deflector analysis program. [advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Michael C.; Douglas, Freddie, III; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents analytical conclusions resulting from subscale solid rocket motor tests and flowfield modeling for a plume deflector. Loads, flow characteristics, and corresponding material behavior were predicted or observed and will be used in final design of the deflector. The efforts resulted in quantifiable size reductions and lower cost material selections, which will significantly reduce the deflector cost while meeting performance requirements.

  19. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  20. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

  1. NASA Glenn Research Center Program in High Power Density Motors for Aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.; Ebihara, Ben; Johnson, Dexter; Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark; Buccieri, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Electric drive of transport-sized aircraft propulsors, with electric power generated by fuel cells or turbo-generators, will require electric motors with much higher power density than conventional room-temperature machines. Cryogenic cooling of the motor windings by the liquid hydrogen fuel offers a possible solution, enabling motors with higher power density than turbine engines. Some context on weights of various systems, which is required to assess the problem, is presented. This context includes a survey of turbine engine weights over a considerable size range, a correlation of gear box weights and some examples of conventional and advanced electric motor weights. The NASA Glenn Research Center program for high power density motors is outlined and some technical results to date are presented. These results include current densities of 5,000 A per square centimeter current density achieved in cryogenic coils, finite element predictions compared to measurements of torque production in a switched reluctance motor, and initial tests of a cryogenic switched reluctance motor.

  2. Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

    2013-10-01

    The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83 years to 6.17 years (M=5.42 years, SD=3.58 months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6 months later following the intervention, and then again at 18 months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

  3. Perceptual-Motor Programming. A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Ron; Sampson, Janet

    In this supplement to the "K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide," developed by the Manitoba Department of Education, the focus is on perceptual-motor programs for children in kindergarten and the first grade. Section I contains a discussion of the rationale for perceptual-motor programs, a curriculum outline, and definitions of terms used in…

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3–5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  5. A Licensing Program for Operators of Two-Wheeled Motor Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lewis Alvin

    This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a licensing program for operators of two-wheeled motor vehicles. Materials specifically developed for the study were: (1) a driver's handbook, (2) two forms of a written test, (3) an off-street driving test, and (4) a driving range. Once developed, these materials were the basis of the separate…

  6. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  7. Aberrant Fat Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants with Defects in the Defecation Motor Program

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ming; Gaur, Rahul; Selstam, Eva; Tuck, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are absorbed by the intestine, and the way in which the process is regulated are poorly understood. In a genetic screen for mutations affecting fat accumulation in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, nematode worms, we have isolated mutations in the aex-5 gene, which encodes a Kex2/subtilisin-family, Ca2+-sensitive proprotein convertase known to be required for maturation of certain neuropeptides, and for a discrete step in an ultradian rhythmic phenomenon called the defecation motor program. We demonstrate that aex-5 mutants have markedly lower steady-state levels of fat in the intestine, and that this defect is associated with a significant reduction in the rate at which labeled fatty acid derivatives are taken up from the intestinal lumen. Other mutations affecting the defecation motor program also affect steady-state levels of triglycerides, suggesting that the program is required per se for the proper accumulation of neutral lipids. Our results suggest that an important function of the defecation motor program in C. elegans is to promote the uptake of an important class of dietary nutrients. They also imply that modulation of the program might be one way in which worms adjust nutrient uptake in response to altered metabolic status. PMID:25849533

  8. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From...that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn...ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal and...

  9. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  10. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbitt, Norman E., III

    1992-07-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

  11. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babbitt, Norman E., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

  12. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  13. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  14. Effectiveness of aides in a perceptual motor training program for children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gersten, J W; Foppe, K B; Gersten, R; Maxwell, S; Mirrett, P; Gipson, M; Houston, H; Grueter, B

    1975-03-01

    A program for children with learning disabilities associated with perceptual deficits was designed that included elements of gross and fine motor coordination, visual and somatosensory perceptual training, dance, art, music and language. The effectiveness of nonprofessional "perceptual-aides," who were trained in this program, was evaluated. Twenty-eight children with learning disabilities associated with perceptual deficits were treated by occupational, physical, recreational and language therapists; and 27 similarly involved children were treated by two aides, under supervision, after training by therapists. Treatment in both groups was for four hours weekly over a four to seven month period. There was significant improvement in motor skills, visual and somatosensory perception, language and educational skills in the two programs. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, there was a slight advantage to the aide program. The cost of the aide program was 10 percent higher than the therapist program during the first year, but 22 percent lower than the therapist program during the second year. PMID:1119915

  15. Spastic paresis: impaired spinal reflexes and intact motor programs.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, W; Horstmann, G A; Dietz, V

    1988-01-01

    Leg muscle EMG responses evoked by short treadmill acceleration impulses applied during stance were analysed in patients with spastic hemiparesis. The compensatory reactions on the unaffected side consisted of a diphasic pattern of leg muscle activation. The first response could best be described as a polysynaptic spinal stretch reflex response. This response was absent on the spastic side, except for its later, declining component. This remainder of the first response and the following activation of the antagonistic muscle was identical on both the unaffected and the spastic side. This part of the pattern is assumed to be centrally programmed (at the spinal level) and triggered by the termination of the acceleration impulse. PMID:3379431

  16. Effects of knowledge of results frequency on the learning of generalized motor programs and parameters under conditions of constant practice.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maicon R; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Lage, Guilherme M; Corrêa, Umberto C; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on both generalized motor programs and parameters. Two experiments were conducted that compared two frequencies of KR in terms of generalized motor programs and parameters: (1) the first experiment compared the effects of KR frequency on generalized motor programs in the 100% and 50% groups; and (2) the second experiment compared the effects of reduced KR frequency on parameters in the 100% and 50% groups. In the first experiment, results showed that the 50% group exhibited smaller relative timing errors than did the 100% group, but absolute timing errors in the transfer test were similar between these two groups. In the second experiment, both groups exhibited similar relative and absolute timing errors. These results suggested that the beneficial effects of reduced KR frequency were restricted to generalized motor programs. PMID:25153740

  17. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  18. Implementing Motor Decision Plans 

    E-print Network

    Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    , like Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook (McCoy, Litman, & Doullass 1993) or a tool, like the MotorMaster+ computer program (WSU 1999)-both available through DOE's BestPractices Motor Systems program-can provide some guidance... when a motor fails and must either be replaced or repaired. This is represented visually in Figure 1. When purchasing a motor for a new application, time is usually available to consider various options. However, once a motor has failed...

  19. Surgical management of the mass in the buccal space.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G K; Myers, E N

    1988-07-01

    The discovery of a mass in the buccal space provides a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A common approach for the removal of the mass in the buccal space has been through the oral cavity. However, there is an ever-present danger of injury to the facial nerve and Stensen's duct with this approach. Experience with tumors in this area prompted a review of the anatomy of the buccal space and resulted in an improvement in the surgical technique. Our external approach through an extended parotid-submandibular incision provides excellent exposure which minimizes the risk of complications during excision of these tumors and provides an excellent cosmetic result. PMID:3386380

  20. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  1. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary H. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's

  2. The timing of activity in motor neurons that produce radula movements distinguishes ingestion from rejection in Aplysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Morton; H. J. Chiel

    1993-01-01

    1.We have studied the neural circuitry mediating ingestion and rejection in Aplysia using a reduced preparation that produces ingestion-like and rejection-like motor patterns in response to physiological stimuli.2.We have characterized 3 buccal ganglion motor neurons that produce specific movements of the radula and buccal mass. B8a and B8b act to close the radula. B10 acts to close the jaws and

  3. Foxp1-mediated programming of limb-innervating motor neurons from mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Katrina L.; Rousso, David L.; Umbach, Joy A.; Novitch, Bennett G.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons (MNs) control diverse motor tasks including respiration, posture and locomotion that are disrupted by neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Methods directing MN differentiation from stem cells have been developed to enable disease modelling in vitro. However, most protocols produce only a limited subset of endogenous MN subtypes. Here we demonstrate that limb-innervating lateral motor column (LMC) MNs can be efficiently generated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells through manipulation of the transcription factor Foxp1. Foxp1-programmed MNs exhibit features of medial and lateral LMC MNs including expression of specific motor pool markers and axon guidance receptors. Importantly, they preferentially project axons towards limb muscle explants in vitro and distal limb muscles in vivo upon transplantation–hallmarks of bona fide LMC MNs. These results present an effective approach for generating specific MN populations from stem cells for studying MN development and disease. PMID:25868900

  4. Interneuronal Basis of the Generation of Related but Distinct Motor Programs in Aplysia: Implications for Current Neuronal Models of Vertebrate Intralimb Coordination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Jing; Klaudiusz R. Weiss

    2002-01-01

    Coordination of two sets of movements, protraction-retraction versus opening-closing, of the feeding apparatus (the radula) in ingestive and egestive motor programs of Aplysia resembles vertebrate intralimb coordination in that the relative timing of the two sets of movements differs in the two motor programs. In both ingestion and egestion, radula protraction and retrac- tion alternate, whereas radula closure shifts its

  5. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  6. A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

    2000-01-01

    Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

  7. Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol; And Others

    The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

  8. Enhanced permeation of triamcinolone acetonide through the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shin, S C; Kim, J Y

    2000-09-01

    To develop new formulations that have suitable bioadhesive force and provide sustained release in buccal area for an extended period of time, bioadhesive gels containing triamcinolone acetonide were prepared using two polymers, carbopol 934 and poloxamer 407 which were selected for their bioadhesiveness and gelling property, respectively. The drug release profiles from the gels were studied as a function of drug concentration and temperature. Different enhancers such as bile salts, glycols and non-ionic surfactants were used for the enhancement of its permeation through buccal mucosa. Among the enhancers used, sodium deoxycholate showed the best enhancing effects. PMID:10962230

  9. Functional interactions of HIV-infection and methamphetamine dependence during motor programming

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ogasawara, Miki; Woods, Steven P.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection and both have been linked to alterations of brain structure and function. In a previous study, we showed that the brain volume loss characteristic of HIV infection contrasts with METH-related volume increases in striatum and parietal cortex, suggesting distinct neurobiological responses to HIV and METH (Jernigan et al., 2005). fMRI has the potential to reveal functional interactions between the effects of HIV and METH. In the present study, 50 participants were studied in four groups: an HIV+ group, a recently METH dependent group, a dually affected group, and a group of unaffected community comparison subjects. An fMRI paradigm consisting of motor sequencing tasks of varying levels of complexity was administered to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes. Within all groups, activity increased significantly with increasing task complexity in large clusters within sensorimotor and parietal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cingulate. The task complexity effect was regressed on HIV status, METH status, and the HIVxMETH interaction term in a simultaneous multiple regression. HIV was associated with less complexity-related activation in striatum, whereas METH was associated with less complexity-related activation in parietal regions. Significant interaction effects were observed in both cortical and subcortical regions; and, contrary to expectations, the complexity-related activation was less aberrant in dually-affected than in single-risk participants, in spite of comparable levels of neurocognitive impairment among the clinical groups. Thus, HIV and METH dependence, perhaps through their effects on dopaminergic systems, may have opposing functional effects on neural circuits involved in motor programming. PMID:22608157

  10. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  11. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  12. Fentanyl buccal tablets for the treatment of breakthrough pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2011-11-01

    SUMMARY Fentanyl buccal tablets (FBT) have been designed to treat breakthrough pain (BTP) in patients who are already receiving, and who are tolerant to, opioid therapy for their underlying persistent pain. FBT are a formulation that uses an effervescent drug delivery system to enhance penetration across the buccal mucosa. OraVescent technology provides an effervescent reaction that liberates carbon dioxide in the buccal cavity. This reaction causes an initial decrease in pH, which facilitates solubilization, thus driving fentanyl into solution. Subsequently, carbon dioxide increases the local pH, which facilitates permeation of unionised fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer and noncancer-related BTP, FBT have provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo and oral opioids like oxycodone. The safety and tolerability profile is generally typical of that observed with other opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for a meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. FBT, as with any other transmucosal preparations of fentanyl, should not be used in patients who are not opioid-tolerant. PMID:24645764

  13. Novel oleic acid derivatives enhance buccal permeation of didanosine.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Akamanchi, Krishnacharya; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of novel oleic acid (OA) derivatives as buccal permeation enhancers for the delivery of didanosine (ddI). The OA derivatives, i.e. ester derivative (OA1E), the dicarboxylic acid derivative (OA1A) and the bicephalous dianionic surfactant (OA1ANa) were synthesized and their effects were compared to the parent OA. OA, OA1E, OA1A and OA1ANa at 1%?w/w all showed potential for enhancing the buccal permeability of ddI with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.29, 1.33, 1.01 and 1.72, respectively. OA1ANa at 1%?w/w demonstrated the highest flux (80.30?±?10.37?µg?cm(-2?)h), permeability coefficient (4.01?±?0.57?×?10(-3)?cm?h(-1)) and ER (1.72). The highest flux for ddI (144.00?±?53.54?µg?cm(-2?)h) was reported with OA1ANa 2%?w/w, which displayed an ER of 3.09 more than that with ddI alone. At equivalent concentrations, OA1ANa (ER?=?3.09) had a significantly higher permeation-enhancing effect than its parent OA (ER?=?1.54). Histomorphological studies confirmed that OA1ANa at all concentrations (0.5, 2.0 and 6.0%?w/w) had no adverse effects on the mucosae. Morphological changes such as vacuoles formation and increased intercellular spaces were attributed to the buccal permeation-enhancing effect of OA1ANa. This study demonstrated the potential of novel OA derivatives as buccal permeation enhancers. OA1ANa at 2%?w/w was also identified as the optimal novel OA derivative to widen the pool of fatty acid derivatives as chemical permeation enhancers for buccal drug delivery. PMID:24592892

  14. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs. PMID:23407357

  15. Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

    2009-01-01

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

  16. Evaluation of a Pilot Program in Rural Schools to Increase Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger Floerchinger-Franks; Margaret Machala; Karyn Goodale; Sharon Gerberding

    2000-01-01

    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate

  17. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

  18. Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum.

    PubMed

    Druzisky, K A; Brainerd, E L

    2001-01-01

    Movements of the hyobranchial apparatus in reptiles and amphibians contribute to many behaviors including feeding, lung ventilation, buccopharyngeal respiration, thermoregulation, olfaction, defense and display. In a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, x-ray video and airflow measurements from blowhole pneumotachography show no evidence that above water hyobranchial movements contribute to lung inflation, as in the buccal or gular pump of amphibians and some lizards. Instead, hyobranchial movements produce symmetrical oscillations of air into and out of the buccal cavity. The mean tidal volume of these buccal oscillations is 7.8 times smaller than the mean tidal volume of lung ventilation (combined mean for four individuals). Airflow associated with buccal oscillation occurs in the sequence of inhalation followed by exhalation, distinguishing it from lung ventilation which occurs as exhalation followed by inhalation. No fixed temporal relationship between buccal oscillation and lung ventilation was observed. Periods of ventilation often occur without buccal oscillation and buccal oscillation sometimes occurs without lung ventilation. When the two behaviors occur together, the onset of lung ventilation often interrupts buccal oscillation. The initiation of lung ventilation was found to occur in all phases of the buccal oscillation cycle, suggesting that the neural control mechanisms of the two behaviors are not coupled. The pattern of occurrence of both buccal oscillation and lung ventilation was found to vary over time with no obvious effect of activity levels. PMID:16351827

  19. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Campos Junqueira; Joyce da Silva Martins; Raquel Lourdes Faria; Carlos Eduardo Dias Colombo; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental\\u000a candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated\\u000a with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P?); treated only with photosensitizer (L?-P+);\\u000a not treated with laser or photosensitizer

  20. Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Muzib, Y Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the base matrix. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent casting technique using different grades of HPMC with different ratios. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index (SI), folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation studies. Results: The film thickness and weight were in the range of 0.213–0.4892mm and 22.25–39.83 mg, respectively. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC, HPMCK100, and HPMC3000 films exhibited satisfactory swelling. Surface pH of buccal films was found to be 6.4–6.8. SI observed to be highest for GF12 (275.3 ± 12.17) and lowest for GF1 (173.5 ± 5.65). The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time, and promising drug release. The Higuchi plots were found to be linear with correlation coefficient values of 0.8933, 0.9138, and 0.9947 for GF4, GF8, and GF9, respectively. Conclusions: Among all the formulations, GF9 shows good controlled release results correlated with ex vivo permeation studies. PMID:23071919

  1. Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the same (first layer) mucoadhesive polymers and hydrotalcite containing flurbiprofen. Nonmedicated tablets were evaluated in terms of swelling, mucosal adhesion, and organoleptic characteristics; in vitro and in vivo release studies of flurbiprofen-loaded tablets were performed as well. The best results were obtained from the tablets containing 20 mg of flurbiprofen, which allowed a good anti-inflammatory sustained release in the buccal cavity for 12 hours, ensuring efficacious salivary concentrations, and led to no irritation. This mucoadhesive formulation offers many advantages over buccal lozenges because it allows for reduction in daily administrations and daily drug dosage and is suitable for the treatment of irritation, pain, and discomfort associated with gingivitis, sore throats, laryngopharyngitis, cold, and periodontal surgery. Moreover, it adheres well to the gum and is simple to apply, which means that patient compliance is improved. PMID:17915804

  2. Servo and Stepper Motors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas, Fred

    In this lesson from Math Machines, students will "compare and contrast hobby servo motors and small stepper motors in terms of the type and range of motion, precision, feedback and speed." The exercise is divided into two parts, the first dedicated to servo motors and the second to stepper motors. Step by step instructions are included for each section. A participant handout (including worksheets) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. Links to calculator programs are also included.

  3. Buccal capsule development as a consideration for phylogenetic analysis of Rhabditida (Nemata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dolinski; G. Borgonie; R. Schnabel; James G. Baldwin

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial feeding nematodes in the order Rhabditida including Zeldia punctata (Cephalobidae) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Rhabditidae) differ profoundly in the buccal capsule parts and associated cells. We carried out a range of tests to determine\\u000a which buccal capsule parts and cells are evolutionarily homologous between the representative species of the two families.\\u000a Tests included reconstruction of the buccal capsule and procorpus

  4. C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L. René

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

  5. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet: a pooled analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is indicated for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy for underlying, persistent cancer pain. FBT is designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FBT was shown to be dose proportional from 100 to 1,300 ?g. This analysis provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of FBT based on pooled data from nine pharmacokinetic studies. In all, 365 healthy non-opioid-tolerant adults receiving naltrexone were included in the analysis. Single-dose (100 to 1,300 ?g) pharmacokinetic parameters were dose normalized to 100 ?g. Pharmacokinetic measures included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-?)), time to reach C(max) (T(max)), apparent plasma terminal elimination rate constant, and elimination half-life. After FBT administration, fentanyl was rapidly absorbed, with T(max) ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours postdose. Mean AUC(0-?) was 1.49 ng•hour/mL, and mean C(max) was 0.237 ng/mL. However, plasma fentanyl concentration reached 80% of C(max) within 25 minutes and was maintained through 2 hours after administration. Based on the individual studies, bioequivalence was shown for sublingual and buccal tablet placement, and no significant effect of dwell time (duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity) was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile of FBT was characterized by rapid absorption, which is consistent with the rapid-onset efficacy profile of FBT observed in clinical studies. PMID:21831253

  6. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fc?-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

  7. Parotid duct relocation in buccal mucosa cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sandeep; Agrawal, Juhi; Dewan, Ajay K; Pradhan, Tapaswini

    2014-09-01

    Buccal mucosal cancer is commonly seen in India with patients presenting in advanced stages of the disease. Its excision commonly mandates division of parotid duct as a part of disease or its margin. We have adopted a simple method to salvage the parotid gland by cannulating the duct and rerouting the saliva into the oral cavity at a different site. This has now become a protocol at our center. A total of 562 patients from 2002 to 2012 have undergone this procedure. This has markedly reduced the incidence of sialocele and parotitis in early postoperative period, which may delay wound healing and subsequent radiotherapy. PMID:25162543

  8. Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity

    E-print Network

    Mazzoni, Esteban O

    Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors ...

  9. Substitution Urethroplasty for Anterior Urethral Strictures: Buccal versus Lingual Mucosal Graft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhay Kumar; Suren K. Das; Sameer Trivedi; Udai S. Dwivedi; Pratap B. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli’s technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty

  10. Micronucleus Frequencies and Nuclear Anomalies in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells of Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manas Ranjan Ray; Chandreyi Basu; Senjuti Mukherjee; Sanghita Roychowdhury; Twisha Lahiri

    KEYWORDS Buccal epithelium; firefighter; micronucleus assay ABSTRACT To determine the genotoxic effects of combustion fumes on the target tissues, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of 47 firefighters. Compared to a mean value of 1.25 MN per 1000 cells in 40 matched controls, the firefighters had 3.91 MN per 1000 epithelial cells in their oral

  11. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. PMID:24824736

  12. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  13. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of breakthrough pain: pharmacokinetics of buccal mucosa delivery and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA((R)), Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent((R)) drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. PMID:20634985

  14. Buccal fat pad pedicle flap for midface augmentation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, O M

    1999-08-01

    Midface aging is characterized by soft-tissue ptosis with loss of cheek projection. Subperiosteal midface lifts may reposition the soft-tissue mounds and improve the tear trough, but may not fill the lateral cheeks in patients with significant jowls or poor bony support. Correction with alloplastic implants is helpful, but may not be accepted by many patients. During subperiosteal midface lifts, the author often excises Bichat's fat pad to decrease the jowl and to diminish face fullness. He has modified this approach and used a vascularized Bichat's fat flap to aid lateral cheek projection while still improving lower face fullness and the jowl. For the last 4 years, close to 150 patients undergoing subperiosteal midface lifts have had vascularized Bichat's fat pad flaps. The jowls were marked preoperatively. All patients had complete cheek undermining either through a buccal sulcus incision or through a crow's-foot incision, or through a muscle-sparing limited lower blepharoplasty incision. Bichat's fat pad is identified in its pocket medial to the masseter tendon. Mobilization of Bichat's fat pad is done by blunt dissection, preserving its thin fascial envelope. The "hernial saclike" pocket, excluding Stensen's duct and the buccal branches of the facial nerve, is identified and protected. Suspension is accomplished by fixation with 3-0 polydioxanone sutures either to the temporalis fascia (via the temporal incisions), to the arcus marginalis, or to the suborbicularis oculi fat pad. Fixation technique is dependent on where the fat pad is needed and the surgeon's preference. Fat pad repositioning is accomplished with a minor learning curve. The most common problems are tearing of the fat pad during fixation and temporary numbness of the long buccal nerve. Attention to leaving the capsule intact and gentle handling is essential to fixation. Nevertheless, in some patients with poor-quality fat pads, fixation is extremely difficult. Four-year results have been excellent. Further studies with magnetic resonance imaging of postoperative patients are necessary to assess longevity. Bichat's fat pad provides autologous vascularized tissue for midface fill. Placement may be lateral for cheek augmentation or medial for deep nasolabial folds. Jowl improvement also occurs with the removal of Bichat's fat pad from its pocket. PMID:10454314

  15. Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

  16. Health and wellness programs for commercial motor-vehicle drivers: organizational assessment and new research directions.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Michael; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-02-01

    The workplace is an invaluable venue for health protection and promotion interventions, particularly for truck drivers due to their overreliance on their work environments, a plethora of work-related stressors, and their morbidity rates. Extant efforts of trucking companies to address driver health through worksite health and wellness programs have been inadequate, producing unsustainable results. The Driver Health and Wellness Program Survey was designed for and disseminated to 46 trucking companies to assess the current state of health and wellness programs in the trucking industry, including program participation rates and longevity, program evaluation procedures, and program activities and resources. Findings indicate that programmatic efforts in trucking companies continue to fall short, and health and wellness programs are insufficient to improve health outcomes in a sustainably positive direction. A new integrated, systems-based paradigm is proposed as a conceptual and methodological framework with the potential to meaningfully advance interventions in blue-collar work settings. PMID:25881658

  17. Effects of a training program based on the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on post-stroke motor recovery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa e Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Sousa Silva, Wagner Henrique; de Alencar Caldas, Vescia Vieira; Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; Costa Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    This preliminary study sought to analyze the effects of a training program based on the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on motor recovery of individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis (mean lesion time of 19.64 months) after unilateral and non-recurrent stroke underwent training based on PNF method for twelve sessions, being evaluated for motor function - using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) instrument; functionality, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM); and gait kinematic (using the Qualisys Motion Capture System), at baseline and post-training. Significant changes in FIM (from median 67 to median 68; P = .043) and STREAM scores (from median 47 to median 55; P = .003) were observed. Data showed significant changes in motor function and functionality after training, suggesting that this program can be useful for rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors. PMID:25440202

  18. Phase contrast imaging of buccal mucosa tissues-Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, A.; Tripathi, S.; Shripathi, T.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Banda, N. R.; Agrawal, A. K.; Sarkar, P. S.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2015-06-01

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) technique has been used to interpret physical parameters obtained from the image taken on the normal buccal mucosa tissue extracted from cheek of a patient. The advantages of this method over the conventional imaging techniques are discussed. PCI technique uses the X-ray phase shift at the edges differentiated by very minute density differences and the edge enhanced high contrast images reveal details of soft tissues. The contrast in the images produced is related to changes in the X-ray refractive index of the tissues resulting in higher clarity compared with conventional absorption based X-ray imaging. The results show that this type of imaging has better ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues with good contrast, which can lead to the diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of the diseases.

  19. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report

    PubMed Central

    G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

  20. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

  1. A review of the gross anatomy, functions, pathology, and clinical uses of the buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Saad; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartmann, Christopher T; Kapos, Theodoros; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2010-06-01

    The buccal fat pad is a trigone-shaped adipose tissue located in the cheek that assumes numerous functional and aesthetic clinical uses. It has been studied extensively within the past four decades, and its use in repairing common and debilitating oral defects is the motive for continued research on this topic. It is vital to understand the etiology of any oral defect or of a lesion of the buccal fat pad, for a misdiagnosis can prevent effective treatment of the underlying problem. In this review, we describe the embryology and anatomy of the buccal fat and its association with clinical condition and clinical procedures. PMID:19937328

  2. Intracellular Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Buccal Epithelial Cells Collected from Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, Joel D.; Chen, Ruoqiong; Sedgewick, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    The mouth may provide an accessible model for studying bacterial interactions with human cells in vivo. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we found that human buccal epithelial cells from 23 of 24 subjects were infected with intracellular bacteria, including the periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, as well as other species which have yet to be identified. Buccal cell invasion may allow fastidious anaerobes to establish themselves in aerobic sites that otherwise present an unfavorable environment. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells might provide a protected route for bacterial transmission between different oral sites within and between hosts. PMID:11254637

  3. Resorbable membrane in the treatment of human buccal recession: a nine-case report.

    PubMed

    Prato, G P; Clauser, C; Magnani, C; Cortellini, P

    1995-06-01

    Recent studies have reported the successful use of guided tissue regeneration procedures with nonresorbable barrier membranes to treat buccal recession in humans. Nonresorbable membranes, however, require a reentry procedure for removal, disturbing the delicate healing process. Resorbable membranes were used in a guided tissue regeneration procedure in nine patients with one site of buccal recession each. The resorbable barrier yielded satisfactory clinical results, providing significant gains in probing attachment and root coverage. However, both the surgical technique and the design of the barrier used require improvement for application at sites of buccal recession. PMID:7558659

  4. Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth W.; Zoller, Lowell K.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), a 150-in diameter segmented motor design that incorporates substantive design changes to improve the reliability and design safety margins of the Space Shuttle system, is discussed. The studies involved in the development of the ASRM are reviewed, and the ASRM design is summarized, including safety enhancement and performance improvement features. The ASRM program plan is briefly addressed.

  5. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  6. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Julio, Hernani; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Puche-Sanz, Ignacio; Flores-Martín, José F.; Cózar, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature. PMID:23133770

  7. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor derived cells existed in the blood and buccal swabs, but not in hair follicles, which can be used to obtain the pre-transplant sample of the recipient after transplant. Conclusion Peripheral blood and buccal swab do not serve as a reliable source of recipient’s origin for DNA analysis of individuals who underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at least within 6 months after transplant. PMID:26088848

  8. The use of silicone sheet to improve buccal fat pad healing in palatal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo

    2010-10-01

    The author presents a new method involving the use of a silicone sheet to achieve an improved, faster healing of pedicled buccal fat pad flaps used in palatal reconstructions. This method was applied in 3 patients with excellent final results. The procedure is quick and easy to implement, and it efficiently improves the healing of buccal fat pad used in palatal reconstruction surgery. PMID:20462819

  9. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichat´s buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, Rocío; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichat´s ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichat’s fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  10. Use of Buccal Swabs for Sampling DNA from Nestling and Adult Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    COLLEEN M. HANDEL; LISA M. PAJOT; SANDRA L. TALBOT; GEORGE K. SAGE

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells from small (2- to 13-g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4- to 8-day-old) black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from 6 4-day-old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica).

  11. Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Motor behavior, motor performance, and motor learning are discussed at length within the context of infant and child development. Individual chapters focus on the following: the sensory-motor behavior of infants; analysis of selected perceptual-motor programs; beginnings of movement in infants; gross motor attributes in early childhood; visual…

  12. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  13. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  14. Evidence for mannose-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, R L; Rogers, A L; Patterson, R J; Beneke, E S

    1982-01-01

    Various lectins and sugars were used to study the possible role of saccharide-containing moieties on the surface of Candida albicans and human buccal cells in the adherence of this yeast to mucosal surfaces. The lectins possessed affinities for several different sugar moieties and were used to pretreat C. albicans or buccal cells before mixing and incubating in the adherence assay. It was found that concanavalin A, a lectin that recognizes mannose and glucose, inhibited adherence of the pretreated yeasts to buccal cells and also inhibited adherence of pretreated buccal cells to nonpretreated yeast cells. Adherence was restored by preincubating the concanavalin A with a mannose derivative, but preincubation of concanavalin A with other sugars did not produce this effect. Lectins that do not recognize mannose had no effect on adherence. The presence of alpha-D-methyl mannopyranoside in the incubation medium during the assay inhibited adherence, whereas other sugars did not. Germinated yeasts adhered to buccal cells more effectively than nongerminated cells and were more susceptible to adherence inhibition by concanavalin A than were nongerminated yeasts. Thus, mannose-containing moieties on the surface of C. albicans and buccal cells could mediate the adherence of this yeast to human epithelium. PMID:7033143

  15. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419

  16. Motor Development Programs for School-Aged Handicapped Students: A Follow-Up Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melograno, Vincent; Loovis, E. Michael

    The purpose of this 1988 follow-up study was to augment findings previously obtained in a comprehensive needs assessment regarding appropriate physical education programming for mainstreamed students. The current educational needs of elementary and secondary public school teachers were determined. Information was sought on teachers' experience,…

  17. Caregiver and Peer Responses to Children with Language and Motor Disabilities in Inclusive Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Lawrence V.; McCluskey, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    Compared free-play social behaviors of preschoolers with special needs in two inclusive preschool programs with those of typically-developing classmates, matched by age and sex. Found that children with no/little productive language spent more time in solitary pursuits than others and seldom initiated interactions. Children who were incapable of…

  18. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach.

    PubMed

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S P; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions. PMID:25478870

  19. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  20. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups. PMID:19408038

  1. A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2012-01-01

    We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500× stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000× stiffness fin rays. PMID:22162853

  2. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  3. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

  7. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

  8. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  9. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  10. Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r?=?0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P?=?.001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

  11. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  12. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2014-09-16

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  13. A comparative ex vivo drug permeation study of beta-blockers through porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Lauroba, Jacinto; Calpena, Ana; Colom, Helena; Gimeno, Alvaro; Domenech, José

    2014-07-01

    Apparent permeability coefficients (kp) of a series of beta-blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and propranolol, through porcine buccal mucosa were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the permeation parameters (apparent permeability coefficient, kp; flux, J; and lag time, TL) as a measure of the intrinsic permeability of porcine buccal mucosa to these drugs, in order to predict the efficacy of their possible administration through human buccal mucosa. A positive linear correlation was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, kpand the partition coefficient, P. Oxprenolol and propranolol are the drugs that presented the highest values of kp: 0.3231×10(2) cm/h and 0.5666×10(2) cm/h, respectively. Multiple linear regression (MLR) using least square estimation was performed on the data set with logkpas dependent variable and the descriptors as predictor variables. The potential systemic capacity after a buccal administration was predicted by estimating the plasma concentrations at steady-stated (Css). Considering the entire process of permeation ex vivo, propranolol and oxprenolol would seem to be the best candidates for administration through the buccal mucosa. PMID:24727142

  14. Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2013-01-01

    In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool. This extracellular technique has advantages. First, extracellular electrodes can stimulate and record neurons through the sheath5, so it does not need to be removed. Thus, neurons will be healthier in extracellular experiments than in intracellular ones. Second, if ganglia are rotated by appropriate pinning of the sheath, extracellular electrodes can access neurons on both sides of the ganglion, which makes it easier and more efficient to identify multiple neurons in the same preparation. Third, extracellular electrodes do not need to penetrate cells, and thus can be easily moved back and forth among neurons, causing less damage to them. This is especially useful when one tries to record multiple neurons during repeating motor patterns that may only persist for minutes. Fourth, extracellular electrodes are more flexible than intracellular ones during muscle movements. Intracellular electrodes may pull out and damage neurons during muscle contractions. In contrast, since extracellular electrodes are gently pressed onto the sheath above neurons, they usually stay above the same neuron during muscle contractions, and thus can be used in more intact preparations. To uniquely identify motor neurons for a motor pool (in particular, the I1/I3 muscle in Aplysia) using extracellular electrodes, one can use features that do not require intracellular measurements as criteria: soma size and location, axonal projection, and muscle innervation4,6,7. For the particular motor pool used to illustrate the technique, we recorded from buccal nerves 2 and 3 to measure axonal projections, and measured the contraction forces of the I1/I3 muscle to determine the pattern of muscle innervation for the individual motor neurons. We demonstrate the complete process of first identifying motor neurons using muscle innervation, then characterizing their timing during motor patterns, creating a simplified diagnostic method for rapid identification. The simplified and more rapid diagnostic method is superior for more intact preparations, e.g. in the suspended buccal mass preparation8 or in vivo9. This process can also be applied in other motor pools10,11,12 in Aplysia or in other animal systems2,3,13,14. PMID:23568081

  15. The US Motor Systems Market Assessment: Baseline and Survey Methods 

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of the US Motor Systems Market Assessment. This component of the Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program will provide a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US...

  16. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power. PMID:22531616

  17. [An in vitro of acrylonitrile inducing early damage on buccal mucosa of murine

    PubMed

    Fu, P; Jin, W C; Jin, X J; Zhu, P

    1998-06-01

    ObJECTIVE:Understand the change and damage of rats and mice buccal mucosa tissue structure posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol. METHODS: Using optical microscope and transmitted electron microscope (TEM) techniques, observed the structure of rats and mice buccal mucosa which posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol for 13 weeks in different dosages. RESULTS: Acrylonitrile can damage the ultrastructure of the cells and lead to precancerous dysplasia,such as enlargement and deformation of nuclei, reducing of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes,break of basement membrane,swelling and denaturalization of mitochondrion. The degree of damage was correlated with its dosage. Alcohol can increase the damage caused by acrylonitrile. CONCLUSION: Both acrylonitrile and alcohol can destroy the ultrastructure of cells,TEM is helpful for diagnosing disease in their early stage,and buccal mucosa can be used as a window for observing the disease caused by many toxic factors. PMID:15071667

  18. Investigating the effect of Aloe vera gel on the buccal permeability of didanosine.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, Elizabeth; Mackraj, Irene; Akhundov, Kamil; Hamman, Josias; Viljoen, Alvaro; Olivier, Eugene; Wesley-Smith, James; Govender, Thirumala

    2012-03-01

    The buccal mucosal route offers several advantages but the delivery of certain drugs can be limited by low membrane permeability. This study investigated the buccal permeability properties of didanosine (ddI) and assessed the potential of Aloe vera gel (AVgel) as a novel buccal permeation enhancer. Permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells, and the drug was quantified by UV spectroscopy. Histomorphological evaluations were undertaken using light and transmission electron microscopy. The permeability of ddI was concentration-dependent, and it did not have any adverse effects on the buccal mucosae. A linear relationship (R² = 0.9557) between the concentrations and flux indicated passive diffusion as the mechanism of drug transport. AVgel at concentrations of 0.25 to 2 %w/v enhanced ddI permeability with enhancement ratios from 5.09 (0.25 %w/v) to 11.78 (2 %w/v) but decreased permeability at 4 and 6 %w/v. Ultrastructural analysis of the buccal mucosae treated with phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 (PBS), ddI/PBS, and ddI/PBS/AVgel 0.5 %w/v showed cells with normal plasmalemma, well-developed cristae, and nuclei with regular nuclear envelopes. However, cells from 1, 2, and 6 %w/v AVgel-treated mucosae showed irregular nuclear outlines, increased intercellular spacing, and plasmalemma crenulations. This study demonstrates the potential of AVgel as a buccal permeation enhancer for ddI to improve anti-HIV and AIDS therapy. PMID:22161764

  19. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  20. Weibull analysis of shear\\/peel bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes bonded to five resin composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nita Viwattanatipa; Jamnong Prasertsangwal; Niwut Juntavee

    2008-01-01

    Bonding orthodontic buccal tube on a large resin composite restoration of molar tooth can result in easier bond failure than bonding to intact enamel. The resin composite type may be one of several factors that influence the bond strength. The objective of this study was to analyze the survival probabilities of buccal tubes bonded to various resin composites. Resin composite

  1. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  2. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  3. Subway mandibular buccal defect blocked with two part prosthesis unified by Earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2013-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tissue conditioner material engaging the undercut. PMID:24431709

  4. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

    2011-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds. PMID:21753876

  5. Premovement high-alpha power is modulated by previous movement errors: Indirect evidence to endorse high-alpha power as a marker of resource allocation during motor programming.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Andrew; Gallicchio, Germano; Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Previous electroencephalographic studies have identified premovement high-alpha power as a predictor of movement accuracy; less frontal-central high-alpha power is associated with accurate movements (e.g., holed golf putts), and could reflect more cognitive resources being allocated to response programming. The present experiment tested this interpretation. Ten expert and ten novice golfers completed 120 putts while high-alpha power was recorded and analyzed as a function of whether the previous putt was holed (i.e., a correct response) or missed (i.e., an error). Existing evidence indicates that more resources are allocated to response programming following errors. We observed less premovement high-alpha power following errors, especially in experts. Our findings provide indirect evidence that high-alpha power is an inverse marker of the amount of resources allocated to motor response programming. PMID:25684215

  6. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model. PMID:25370025

  7. Engineering poly(ethylene oxide) buccal films with cyclodextrin: a novel role for an old excipient?

    PubMed

    Miro, Agnese; d'Angelo, Ivana; Nappi, Antonella; La Manna, Pietro; Biondi, Marco; Mayol, Laura; Musto, Pellegrino; Russo, Roberto; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2013-08-16

    Inspired by the multiple roles cyclodextrins can play in polymeric systems, here we engineered poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) films with (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin (CD) as multipurpose ingredient. To shed light on the potential of CD in formulating PEO buccal films for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, we preliminarily assessed thermal and mechanical properties as well as wettability of films prepared at different PEO/CD ratios. PEO/CD platform containing 54% by weight of CD was chosen as the optimized composition since it matched acceptable mechanical properties, in terms of tensile strength and elasticity, with a good wettability. The platform was tested as buccal delivery system for triamcinolone acetonide (TrA), a lipophilic synthetic corticosteroid sparely water soluble. Confocal Raman imaging clearly showed that CD was homogeneously (i.e. molecularly) dispersed in PEO. Nevertheless, homogenous drug distribution in the film without TrA crystallization occurred only in the presence of CD. Finally, CD-containing PEO film placed in simulated buccal fluids provided a useful speed-up of TrA release rate while showing slower dissolution as compared to PEO film. These results, as well as compliance with quality specifications of pharmaceutical manufacturing products, strongly support the soundness of the strategy and prompt toward further applications of PEO/CD films in buccal drug delivery. PMID:23707963

  8. Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk. PMID:24959316

  9. Abnormal anatomy of inferior orbital fissure and herniation of buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, T; Thomson, A; Ilankovan, V

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the inferior orbital fissure has been well studied, and its reported dimensions vary little. It is encountered during exploration of the orbital floor and when possible is not disturbed. We describe a case of herniation of buccal fat through the inferior orbital fissure that was found during exploration and repair of the orbital floor. PMID:25451070

  10. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200?g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  11. Telomere length in blood, buccal cells, and fibroblasts from patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Cawthon, Richard; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P.; Savage, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres, the nucleotide repeats and protein complex at chromosome ends, are required for chromosomal stability and are important markers of aging. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita (DC), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS), have mutations in telomere biology genes, and very short telomeres. There are limited data on intra-individual telomere length (TL) variability in DC and related disorders. We measured relative TL by quantitative-PCR in blood, buccal cells, and fibroblasts from 21 patients with an IBMFS (5 Diamond-Blackfan anemia, 6 DC, 6 Fanconi anemia, and 4 Shwachman-Diamond syndrome). As expected, TL in patients with DC was significantly (p<0.01) shorter in all tissues compared with other IBMFS. In all disorders combined, the median Q-PCR TL was longer in fibroblast and buccal cells than in blood (overall T/S ratio=1.42 and 1.16 vs. 1.05, p=0.001, 0.006, respectively). Although the absolute values varied, statistically significant intra-individual correlations in TL were present in IBMFS patients: blood and fibroblast (r=0.66, p=0.002), blood and buccal cells (r=0.74, p<0.0001), and fibroblast and buccal cells (r=0.65, p=0.004). These data suggest that relative TL is tissue-independent in DC and possibly in the other IBMFS. PMID:21113082

  12. Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming.

    PubMed

    Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C; Vitek, Jerrold L; McIntyre, Cameron C; Alberts, Jay L

    2010-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive-motor performance in advanced Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive-motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive-motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20061324

  13. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and biocompatible hydrogel system for buccal drug delivery. PMID:25453967

  14. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    PubMed Central

    PITHON, Matheus Melo; da MATA, Kayure Rocha; ROCHA, Karina Silva; COSTA, Brenda do Nascimento; NEVES, Fernando; BARBOSA, George Caique Gouveia; COQUEIRO, Raildo da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%). To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA). The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient's facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive. PMID:25466472

  15. Risk evaluation for motor operated valves in an Inservice Testing Program at a PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Li; K. T. Chen; Y. L. Su; K. Ting; F. T. Chien; G. D. Li; S. H. Huang

    Safety related valves such as Motor Operated Valves (MOV), Air Operated Valves (AOV) or Check Valves (CV) play an important role in nuclear power plant. Functioning of these valves mainly aim at emergency reactivity control, post-accident residue heat removal, post-accident radioactivity removal and containment isolation when a design basis accident occurred. In order to maintain these valves under operable conditions,

  16. Active Suppression of Interneuron Programs within Developing Motor Neurons Revealed by Analysis of Homeodomain Factor HB9

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Thaler; Kathleen Harrison; Kamal Sharma; Karen Lettieri; John Kehrl; Samuel L. Pfaff

    1999-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies the identity of both motor neurons (MNs) and interneurons with morphogen-like activity. Here, we present evidence that the homeodomain factor HB9 is critical for distinguishing MN and interneuron identity in the mouse. Presumptive MN progenitors and postmitotic MNs express HB9, whereas interneurons never express this factor. This pattern resembles a composite of the avian homologs MNR2

  17. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells. PMID:24603450

  18. Chemopreventive potential of neem ( Azadirachta indica) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Balasenthil; S Arivazhagan; C. R Ramachandran; V Ramachandran; S Nagini

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All hamsters painted on their buccal pouch with DMBA for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of neem leaf extract effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence

  19. An innovative technique for root coverage using pedicled buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Gayathri, G. V; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2014-01-01

    Various etiological factors are associated with gingival recession which may be anatomical, physiologic, or pathologic factors. Several root coverage procedures have been described to manage the gingival recession. However, it has been found that root coverage procedures in Miller's Class III and IV gingival recession have a poor prognosis with current techniques. A newer predictable technique, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) has been introduced in cases of severe gingival recession. The buccal fat pad (BFP) is a specialized capsulated fat tissue that has the property of maintaining its volume and structure over a long period of time. It can also serve as a well vascularized, readily obtainable local flap for reconstructive purposes and increasing the dimensions of keratinized mucosa. The aim of this case report is to establish a new technique for root coverage using pedicled BFP in Miller Class IV recession on the maxillary right first molar. PMID:25191079

  20. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells’ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  1. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  2. Carcinogenic potential of tobacco tar-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in buccal cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fujiki; H. Takeuchi; N. Nishitani; H. Yamanaka; K. Suzuki; M. Kurusu; M. Suganuma

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The effects of cigarette smoking on the association between inflammation and cancer were studied, since some bacteria induce the production of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), a proinflammatory cytokine and endogenous tumor promoter, in cells.Methods Bacteria from a gargled solution from the buccal cavity of 20 individuals were cultured in the presence of 4 mg\\/ml cigarette-smoke condensates. Although cigarette-smoke condensates inhibited

  3. Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content. PMID:25639306

  4. Identification of novel transcripts deregulated in buccal cancer by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Sajnani, Manisha R; Patel, Amrutlal K; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Tripathi, Ajai K; Ahir, Viral B; Shankar, Vangipuram; Shah, Siddharth; Shah, Tejas M; Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2012-10-10

    The differential transcriptome analysis provides better understanding of molecular pathways leading to cancer, which in turn allows designing the effective strategies for diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and prediction of therapeutic outcome. This study describes the transcriptome analysis of buccal cancer and normal tissue by CLC Genomics Workbench from the data generated by Roche's 454 sequencing platform, which identified total of 1797 and 2655 genes uniquely expressed in normal and cancer tissues, respectively with 2466 genes expressed in both tissues. Among the genes expressed in both tissues, 1842 were up-regulated whereas 624 were down-regulated in cancer tissue. Besides transcripts known to be involved in cancer, this study led to the identification of novel transcripts, with significantly altered expression in buccal cancer tissue, providing potential targets for diagnosis and cancer therapeutics. The functional categorization by the KEGG pathway and gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of differentially expressed transcripts to various pathways leading to cancer, including the p53 signaling pathway. Moreover, the gene ontology analysis unfolded suppression of transcripts involved in actin mediated cell contraction process. The down-regulation of four of these transcripts MYL1, ACTA1, TCAP and DESMIN in buccal cancer were further supported by quantitative PCR signifying its possible implication in the cancer progression. PMID:22846364

  5. Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

    2013-01-01

    A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice. PMID:24137377

  6. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  7. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w ?-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40?min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva. PMID:22204701

  8. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  9. Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the Monkey Premotor Cortex Machiko Ohbayashi or movement sequences, appear to mediate the generation of a motor program from the maintained information stimuli (1, 2). Motor planning is carried out in motor-related areas that include the dorsal premotor

  10. Simulation Model of Induction Motor Based on LabVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Qianxiang; Hu Jingtao

    2010-01-01

    The state equation for induction motor in the two stationary coordinates was developed. A dynamic model of induction motor was established based on the graphical programming environment of Lab VIEW, The corrective and effectiveness of motor model based on Lab VIEW are verified with a simulation experiment. At the same time, the static model of induction motor was established to

  11. Electric Motors 101

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from Penton Media includes a number of introductory "mini" lectures on different types of electric motors, including AC motors, DC motors, Servo motors and Stepper motors. The materials also cover electrical drives and other types of small motors. The site includes information about suppliers of electrical motors.

  12. Motor-Cognitive Stimulation of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ana Rey; Lacruz, Inmaculada Canales; Pais, Maria Ines Taboas

    2011-01-01

    This article shows the cognitive and motor-perceptive effects of the application of a cognitive stimulating program through motor function on 234 elderly people. The assessment was carried out prior to and after the program. Significant improvements in the experimental group were observed (p [less than or equal to] 0.05) in six of the eight…

  13. Microcomputer speed control of stepper motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chen

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a microcomputer as a programmed speed control for a stepper motor. The microcomputer is used as a variable frequency square wave generator, and a digital driving circuit is designed to transform the square wave into a useful sequential driving waveform. The digital driving circuit, speed control program, and computation of motor speed are explained

  14. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls’ physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh’s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children’s physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Results Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R2=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R2=0.15, ?=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R2=0.06, ?=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Conclusion Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  15. Motor Vehicle Repairs and Inspection Personnel--Manpower Development Program. Final Report, 1 July, 1968-31 December, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

    A perennial problem facing vocational educators is the need to correlate required on-the-job skills and knowledge with the instruction in the corresponding vocational education program. Using this as an objective, data were gathered on current automotive mechanic training programs by reviewing selected government reports and related literature and…

  16. 76 FR 57696 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance Programs...State Implementation Plan revision submitted by...motor vehicle enhanced inspection and maintenance program...transient emission short test program as it relates...State Implementation Plan revision because it...

  17. 77 FR 11742 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance Program...State Implementation Plan revision submitted by...motor vehicle enhanced inspection and maintenance program...transient emission short test program as it relates...State Implementation Plan revision because it...

  18. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  19. Premium Efficient Motors 

    E-print Network

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  20. Skill acquisition Motor learning

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    ·1 Skill acquisition · Motor learning theories ­ closed loop theory ­ schema theory ­ hierarchical theory · Motor learning practice ­ Fitt's three stages ­ motor imagery ­ physical changes Skill acquisition: Closed loop theory · Feedback guides learning a motor skill ­ memory trace selects and initiates

  1. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because cannot exclude completely the migration of superficial tissues. In following experiments it was shown that the intensive pressure on the cheek area in vertical position produce the volume excess in the temporal area similar and more exaggerate than in gravity test. To correlate the excess of tissue with underlying anatomical structures we had acquired the CT's of some probationers, performed 3D reconstruction of bony structures, Bichat fat pad, and aligned with the previous surface scans. The projection of this excess in both experiments corresponds with the temporal process of Bichat fat pad. That means that the leading mechanism of these changes is protrusion of temporal process of Bichat fat pad through the leaves of temporal fascia due to pressure on the buccal extension: in these conditions, the buccal fat pad works as a communicating vessel between the cheek area and temporal fossa. This fact has suggested us that the phenomenon of the deepening of temporal area during the ageing could be produced as by the atrophy of buccal fat pad as by the migration of the fat pad to the cheek area due to ptosis.

  2. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55?±?5 and 35?±?5?min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120?±?0 and 165?±?15?min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7?±?4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets. PMID:24724915

  3. ?H2AX responses in human buccal cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Sabbir; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F; Leifert, Wayne R

    2015-04-01

    DNA double strand breaks are induced by ionizing radiation (IR), leading to the phosphorylation of the core histone protein H2AX (termed ?H2AX). The understanding of the ?H2AX responses in irradiated human buccal cells is still very limited. We used visual scoring and laser scanning cytometry (LSC) methods to investigate ?H2AX signaling following exposure of human buccal cells (from six individuals) to ionizing radiation at 0-4 Gy. The frequency of nuclei containing 15-30 ?H2AX foci was significantly elevated 30 min post-IR exposure (by visual scoring). Concomitantly, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of cells without foci following exposure to IR. IR-induced ?H2AX signal as determined by laser scanning cytometry (which included ?H2AX integral and MaxPixel value) increased significantly in all individual's 2N nuclei 30 min post-IR and was similar for all three nuclear shapes identified. Individuals with the lowest baseline ?H2AX integral (i.e., in nonirradiated cells) showed the greatest fold stimulation of ?H2AX and significant dose-responses to IR doses of 1, 2, and 4 Gy. In 5 out of 6 individuals, the frequency of visually scored ?H2AX in nuclei showed a strong correlation (up to r?=?0.999) with LSC scored ?H2AX integrals. The ?H2AX response and subsequent decline varied between individuals but remained elevated above baseline levels 24 h post IR exposure. ?H2AX response in irradiated human buccal cells has potential to be used as an index of baseline DNA damage in population studies. The variable response to IR exposure between individuals should be taken into consideration when using the ?H2AX assay for radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25515017

  4. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy Th; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety-enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P?0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  5. In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-02-01

    Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

  6. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  7. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (?28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P?0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  8. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  9. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  10. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. PMID:22564009

  11. Electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of buccal smooth muscle of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Wright; H. Huddart

    1999-01-01

    Buccal mass muscle of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum was examined by conventional tension recording and the sucrose-gap electrophysiological technique. Elevated potassium salines\\u000a induced dose-dependent depolarisations accompanied by tonic contractures with superimposed rapid twitch contractions. The\\u000a latter were suppressed at over 40?mmol?·?l?1 external potassium, where depolarisation-induced inactivation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels may have occurred. Acetylcholine\\u000a caused significant dose-dependent depolarisations and

  12. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  13. Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad in 1 year old child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gadipelly, Srinivas; Sudheer, M V S; Neshangi, Srisha; Harsha, G; Reddy, Vijaybaskar

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad (BFP) is very rare, usually seen in infants and young children ranging from 5 months to 12 years of age. Etiology will be blunt injury to buccal mucosa from foreign objects or trauma due to teeth and fall. The suckling activity in infants may also encourage the herniation following trauma. A minor injury or perforation to the buccal mucosa can cause herniation of BFP. The size of herniated mass is very large when compared to the size of the perforation. The history of trauma, absence of prolapse before the injury, its occurrence in infants and young children, specific anatomic sites and location of perforation in mucosa, histopathological appearance of adipose tissue are the characteristic features important for diagnosing the condition. The treatment options for the herniated BFP are usually excision. Alternative to excision is repositioning of the herniated fat in its anatomical location if noticed early. PMID:25848153

  14. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

  15. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (?200nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  16. Anthocyanin structure determines susceptibility to microbial degradation and bioavailability to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Failla, Mark L; Kumar, Purnima S; Giusti, M Mónica

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids with reported chemoprotective activities in the oral cavity. However, information about their stability, metabolism, and tissue uptake in the mouth is limited. Anthocyanin chemical structure was recently shown to affect their stability ex vivo in saliva, and it was hypothesized that structure may affect their availability in oral tissues in vivo. Here, 12 healthy individuals retained red grape or chokeberry juice in the mouth for 5 min. Anthocyanin stability, mucus binding, and uptake into epithelial cells were evaluated. Loss of delphinidin-3-glucoside in red grape juice exceeded that of other anthocyanin-glucosides, and lesser amounts of delphinidin- and petunidin-glucosides were associated with buccal scraping, suggesting the loss was due to degradation. In chokeberry juice, loss of cyanidin-3-xyloside exceeded that of other anthocyanins, whereas cyanidin-3-glucoside preferentially accumulated in epithelium cells. These results suggest that anthocyanin structure affects stability and buccal cell uptake and therefore the potential efficacy of anthocyanin-rich products for the promotion of oral health. PMID:24579959

  17. Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan–pectin for delivery of carvedilol

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route. PMID:23960773

  18. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  19. Reconstruction of full-thickness buccal defects with submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Fang, Qi-Gen; Luo, Rui-Hua; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Shan-Ting; Du, Wei; Qi, Jinxing

    2015-03-01

    Our goal was to introduce the application of submental island flap in reconstructing through-and-through cheek defects. From January 2009 to January 2013, 7 patients (5 men and 2 women) with full-thickness buccal defects due to tumor resection received submental flap reconstruction at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University; surgical procedure and success rate as well as functional results were described. Distal partial necrosis occurred in 1 flap, but all flaps survived. All patients were capable of maintaining a regular oral diet, and no patients complained of an inability to eat in a public setting, microstomia, or drooling; the appearance was reported to be good or acceptable in all cases, and the mean postoperative mouth-open width was 4.2 (range, 3.7-5.0) cm. One patient had a local recurrence in the follow-up. Therefore, submental island flap is a reliable procedure for through-and-through buccal defects in selected patients. PMID:25759929

  20. An atomic force microscopy investigation of bioadhesive polymer adsorption onto human buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, D; Smith, J R; Smith, A W; Grist, N; Barnett, P; Smart, J D

    2000-05-10

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine the buccal cell surface in order to image the presence of adsorbed bioadhesive polymers identified from previous work. Isotonic saline solution (5 ml) containing either polycarbophil (pH 7.6), chitosan (pH 4.5) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (pH 7.6) (0.5% w/v) was exposed to freshly collected buccal cells (ca. 48x10(4) cells/test) for 15 min at 30 degrees C. The cells were then rinsed with a small volume of double distilled water, allowed to air-dry on a freshy cleaved mica surface and imaged using contact mode AFM. Untreated cells showed relatively smooth surface characteristics, with many small 'crater-like' pits and indentations spread over cell surfaces. Cells that had been treated with all the investigated polymers appeared to have lost the crater and indentation characteristic and gained a higher surface roughness. These results suggest that polymer chains had adsorbed onto the cell surfaces. Quantitative image analysis of cell topography showed significant increases (P<0.05) in arithmetic roughness average (R(a)) for all the investigated polymer treated cells surfaces with respect to untreated control specimens. The changes in surface topography indicate the presence of adsorbed polymer, confirming previous work. This study demonstrates the suitability of AFM as a powerful and sensitive technique for detecting and imaging bioadhesive polymers present on mucosal cell surfaces. PMID:10867257

  1. Rotary protein motors.

    PubMed

    Oster, George; Wang, Hongyun

    2003-03-01

    Three protein motors have been unambiguously identified as rotary engines: the bacterial flagellar motor and the two motors that constitute ATP synthase (F(0)F(1) ATPase). Of these, the bacterial flagellar motor and F(0) motors derive their energy from a transmembrane ion-motive force, whereas the F(1) motor is driven by ATP hydrolysis. Here, we review the current understanding of how these protein motors convert their energy supply into a rotary torque. PMID:12628343

  2. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk of Stroke, Heart Attack, and Death with FDA-Approved Testosterone Products issued on January 31, 2014.][Posted ... ucm436259.htm for additional details.BACKGROUND: Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy only for men who have ...

  3. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  4. MOTOR BRUSH TESTING FOR MARS AND VACUUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don E. Noon

    Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in

  5. New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre-and postmetamorphic tadpoles

    E-print Network

    chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of its role in ventilatory. Hypercapnia systematically decreases the frequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles of the breathing control in amphibians, characterized by a developmental transition from water breathing to air

  6. A comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols are implicated as potential chemoprotective agents for oropharyngeal cancer. Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were therefore analyzed in smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=21) for these nutrients to determine how chronic tobacco ...

  7. Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John McIntyre; Sue Robertson; Elizabeth Norris; Richard Appleton; William P Whitehouse; Barbara Phillips; Tim Martland; Kathleen Berry; Jacqueline Collier; Stephanie Smith; Imti Choonara

    2005-01-01

    Methods A multicentre, randomised controlled trial was undertaken to compare buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam for emergency-room treatment of children aged 6 months and older presenting to hospital with active seizures and without intravenous access. The dose varied according to age from 2·5 to 10 mg. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success: cessation of seizures within 10 min and for

  8. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Ceschel; P. Maffei; A. Sforzini; S. Lombardi Borgia; A. Yasin; C. Ronchi

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do

  9. DNA profiling in blood, buccal swabs and hair follicles of patients after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhou; Siyue Li; Juan Zhou; Lanlan Wang; Xingbo Song; Xiaojun Lu; Jun Wang; Yuanxin Ye; BinWu Ying; Yongqian Jia

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that buccal swab and hair follicle samples could be used to detect recipients’ personal identification or kinship study in forensic cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT). Seven casework examples of materials collected from individuals after allo-PBSCT and their donors were investigated. Detection of genotypes was preformed by PCR analysis of short

  10. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Spanish greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides: micronuclei analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Lucero; S Pastor; S Suárez; R Durbán; C Gómez; T Parrón; A Creus; R Marcos

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluate whether or not occupational exposure to a complex mixture of pesticides results in a significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cells. Sixty four greenhouse workers from Almer??a (Southeastern Spain), together with 50 men from the same area, without indication of exposure to pesticides, that served as controls were

  12. Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to support its efficacy claims by long term pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in human beings. PMID:23799205

  13. Motor Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-06-26

    In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

  14. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  15. Augmenting cognitive processes in robot-assisted motor rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Peng Tee; Cuntai Guan; Kai Keng Ang; Kok Soon Phua; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive processes, such as motor intention, attention, and higher level motivational states are important factors that govern motor performance and learning. Current robot-assisted rehabilitative programs focus only on the physical aspects of training. In this paper, we propose a framework for motor rehabilitation based on the augmentation of cognitive channels of patient-robot interactions and using it to deliver a more

  16. 49 CFR 385.301 - What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning interstate operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.301 What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning...

  17. Reluctance and doubly-excited reluctance motors

    SciTech Connect

    Heyne, C.J.; El-Antably, A.M.

    1984-11-01

    Since the energy crisis in 1974, there has been increasing awareness of conserving energy. Industrial ac motors from 1 to 125 hp are estimated to consume 60% of the total electricity produced in the United States. Significant energy conservation could be achieved if the efficiency of these motors is improved. The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA). This work deals with the design, analysis, and test of two types of motors designed to have a high efficiency and power factor. The first type, reluctance motors (RMs), are similar to synchronous motors but without dc excitation. A novel 3-phase RM has been designed and tested, and it was found to have superior efficiency when compared with a similar induction motor.

  18. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  19. [Cytologic study of buccal epithelium in various lengths of service in chrysotile-asbestos production].

    PubMed

    Kurkin, A V; Dauletkalieva, Zh A; Rybalkina, D H

    2015-01-01

    Buccal epithelium cytograms were analyzed in workers of chrysotile-asbestos production "Kostanaiskiye mineraly" JSC. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are associated with increased number of 4th differentiation grade cells and correspondingly decreased number of 5th differentiation grade cells. Later, with 20 years of service, numbers of 4th and 5th grade epitheliocytes reach initial values. With 10-20 years of service, integral parameters of differentiation index, cornification index and intracellular relations decrease. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are connected with domination of proliferation over differentiation processes. Length of service over 20 years is with adaptive processess in the workers. These data are important in evaluation of mucosal system in variable length of occupational service. PMID:26036017

  20. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) (FENTORA) is indicated for the management of breakthrough pain (BTP) in patients with cancer pain and who are tolerant to ?60 mg of oral morphine equivalents, at least with the current availability of the minimal strength of 100 ?g. FBT uses the OraVescent technology to further increase the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl. Short-term, randomized, controlled, clinical studies of FBT in patients with cancer pain have shown the efficacy of FBT in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The efficacy was also confirmed in long-term studies on the safety and tolerability of FBT. It has been recommended that administration should be tailored to the patient's individual requirement, through dose titration starting from the lowest dose to find the effective dose. However, recent studies have demonstrated that predictable doses calculated from the basal opioid regimen are safe and more effective than doses achieved after dose titration. PMID:25359295

  1. Buccal mucosa bleeding time is prolonged in canine models of primary hemostatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M; Catalfamo, J

    1993-11-15

    Bleeding times are reported in many studies using canine models, with a variety of techniques employed to adapt these tests for dogs. We evaluated a canine model of template bleeding time, the buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT), by examining the test's sensitivity and specificity for defects of primary hemostasis. We examined thirty-five dogs having defined defects of either primary hemostasis (Types I, II, III von Willebrand's disease, thrombasthenia, thrombopathia) or secondary hemostasis (hemophilia A and B, Factor VII deficiency). Comparisons of BMBT and cuticle bleeding time were made in a subset of these dogs. All dogs having primary hemostatic disorders had long BMBT, and all factor deficient dogs had BMBT within normal range. The BMBT in canine models appears to be a specific and sensitive test of primary hemostasis; suitable for evaluating factors affecting template bleeding time and potential efficacy and thrombogenicity of treatment regimens. PMID:8128434

  2. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martin Teles, Flavia; Pettorossi Imaparatto, Jose C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using DIAGNOdent at the most prominent buccal region of each tooth. Three subsequent measurements were taken at 1, 7 and 15 days. All measurements were taken by the same examiner and averages were recorded for each time period. Results showed that the three solutions had similar responses to laser. ANOVA was applied to verify the correlation between measurements, time periods, and storage solutions. Statistically significant differences were found only between the time periods. In this in vitro study, all three storage solutions influenced the DIAGNOdent measurement results as time elapsed until the 24 h period.

  3. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted. PMID:25536824

  4. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  5. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay: results of an intra- and inter-laboratory scoring comparison.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Roggieri, Paola; Ropolo, Monica; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Fenech, Michael; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2015-07-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay is a minimally invasive approach for measuring DNA damage, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell death in exfoliated buccal cells. The main limitation for its use is the lack of knowledge about inter- and intra-laboratory variability in scoring micronuclei and other end points included in the cytome approach. In order to identify the main sources of variability across the BMCyt biomarkers, a scoring exercise was carried out between three experienced laboratories using the same set of slides and an identical set of detailed scoring criteria and associated images for the different end points. Single batches of slides were prepared from pooled samples of four groups of subjects characterised by different frequencies of cell types and micronuclei, namely Down syndrome patients, head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and two age- and gender-matched control groups. A good agreement among the laboratories in the identification of normal differentiated cells and of micronuclei was obtained. A 3-fold and 20-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells and micronuclei in differentiated cells of Down syndrome patients and in cancer patients, respectively, compared to matched controls, was a consistent result in the three laboratories. The scores of other cell types and nuclear anomalies, such as basal, binucleated, condensed chromatin and karyorrhectic cells showed significant disagreement between and within laboratories indicating that their evaluation using the current visual scoring protocol does not yield robust results for these parameters. The guidelines for BMCyt assay application could be improved by combining the anomalies associated with cell death (condensed chromatin and karyorrhectic cells) in a single category and by defining more stringent criteria in classifying basal cell, binucleated cells and buds. PMID:25795005

  6. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium: IV. Permeability of water, mannitol, testosterone and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Comparison to human, monkey and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R

    2000-01-25

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey and porcine buccal mucosa. Further, the permeability rates of ten beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, timolol and tertatolol) across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa were related to their lipophilicity (logD(oct; 7.4)) and capacity factor (k') and to their polar water accessible surface area (PWASA). For water, mannitol, testosterone and some of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, the permeability enhancement across the TR146 cell culture model in the presence of sodium glycocholate (GC) was determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165 x 10(-6) cm/s (metoprolol). For propranolol the cellular permeability value (P(c)) was lower than expected, probably due to accumulation in the TR146 cell layers. Limited correlation of permeability with k' was observed both for the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa, although the porcine permeability values were approximately 100 times less than the values determined with the TR146 cell culture model. The permeability values were also found to decrease with increasing PWASA. The PWASA value seemed to be more predictable for permeability than k'. The presence of 12.5 mM GC increased the permeability only for the hydrophilic atenolol, which may help explain the mechanism for GC-induced enhancement. The present results indicate that the TR146 cell culture model can be used as an in vitro model for permeability studies and mechanistic studies of human buccal drug delivery of drugs with different lipophilicity. PMID:10692640

  7. Motor current signature analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pillay; Z. Xu

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows how the speed of an induction motor (IM) can be extracted from the motor currents of an induction motor with a Labview implementation of motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The implementation is first applied to an IM driven by the 60 Hz mains. The estimation system consists of data acquisition, demodulation, and FFT spectrum analyses. The estimation

  8. Gross Motor Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

    The document is designed to help teachers identify and remediate gross motor development deficits in elementary school students. A definition of gross motor development and a checklist of gross motor skills are provided. Sections cover the following topics: successful teaching techniques; activities for perceptual-motor training; activities for…

  9. Investigating motors and magnetism.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Reierson

    This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

  10. In-Depth Tests of Faulhaber 2657CR012 Motor By: Carlos Arango-Giersberg

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    recognized mathematical model of a DC motor (see equations 1.1-1.3) to our collected data, and we found motor. We varied the current supplied to the Thermax motor to provide different levels of resistance the motor with varying PWM values supplied by our controlling program. In addition, a current sensor

  11. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  12. Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  13. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  14. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  15. Weibull analysis of bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes bonded to resin composite surface with various techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nita Viwattanatipa; Walaitip Jermwiwatkul; Rochaya Chintavalakorn; Widchaya Kanchanavasita

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the survival probabilities of various surface preparation techniques for bonding buccal tubes on resin composite surface. Resin composite specimens (hybrid), 33 per group were prepared. 8 experimental groups were (1) sandblast 90?m; (2) sandblast 50?m; (3) abrasion using diamond bur; (4) hydrofluoric acid etching for 1min (HF 1min); (5) HF 2min; (6)

  16. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH with optimum swelling approaching zero order release. PMID:23351403

  17. Effect of antimicrobial mouthrinses on the in vitro adhesion of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pizzo; G. Giuliana; M. E. Milici; M. D'Angelo

    2001-01-01

    Adhesion to epithelial cells is a critical step in successful oral colonization and infection by Candida albicans. Therefore, three mouthrinse products, containing chlorhexidine 0.2% (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05% (CPC) or triclosan 0.045% (TRN), were compared for their effects on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Candidal adhesion appeared to be significantly reduced by

  18. Fatty acid profile of buccal cheek cell phospholipids as an index for dietary intake of docosahexaenoic acid in preterm infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Hoffman; Eileen E. Birch; David G. Birch; Ricardo Uauy

    1999-01-01

    Cheek cells (buccal epithelia) were utilized as a noninvasive index of fatty acid status in a study of the effects of n?3\\u000a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on visual function in preterm infants. The fatty acid profile of cheek\\u000a cell phospholipids was directly correlated with the dietary docosahexenoic acid (DHA) intake of infants receiving: (i) primarily\\u000a human milk; (ii)

  19. Long-term effect of Spirulina platensis extract on DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis (immunohistochemical study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed E. Grawish; Ahmed Ragheb Zaher; Ashraf I. Gaafar; Wesam A. Nasif

    2010-01-01

    In cancer research, the use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased over the past decade. In this study, 80\\u000a male golden Syrian hamsters were divided into four equal groups; the right buccal pouches of the hamster rats in group 1 were\\u000a painted with 0.5% solution of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), three times a week for 32 weeks. The same pouches of

  20. A novel approach to enhance the mucoadhesion of lipid drug nanocarriers for improved drug delivery to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Joanne D; Liu, Qingtao; Salentinig, Stefan; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J

    2014-08-25

    Targeted drug delivery to the buccal mucosa offers distinct advantages over oral delivery to the gastrointestinal tract including by-passing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, the buccal route is often limited by low bioavailability, low drug loading and reduced residence time due to salivary excretion and clearance. To overcome these limitations, a novel mucoadhesive formulation based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles was designed. Utilising a pH induced in situ transition from a stable vesicle formulation to dispersed inverse hexagonal phase nanoparticles (hexosomes) enhanced adsorption onto the mucosal surface was enabled. Firstly, the phase behaviour of the amphiphilic lipid phytantriol (PHY) and oleic acid (OA) was assessed from pH 2-9 using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to determine the appropriate composition for the vesicle to hexosome transition. The colloidal stability of the formulation was determined using turbidity studies. Dispersions comprising 30% w/w OA in PHY were able to form stable vesicles at pH 8 and transition to hexosomes when exposed to pH<7 (as encountered on the buccal mucosal surface). Subsequent ex vivo studies utilising excised porcine buccal tissue indicated significant retention of the in situ-formed PHY/OA hexosomes when compared to control DOPC vesicles (p<0.005), confirmed independently using confocal fluorescence microscopy, radioactive scintillation counting and HPLC analysis for incorporated drug. Thus, a novel approach providing a stable vesicle formulation, with in situ transformation to mucoadhesive hexosomes has been identified with the potential to enhance drug delivery to mucosal surfaces. PMID:24879939

  1. Estimation of Salivary Glucose and Glycogen Content in Exfoliated Buccal Mucosal Cells of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Deepa Moothedathu; Sukumaran, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder which shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Constant monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patient is required which involves painful invasive techniques. Saliva is gaining acceptance as diagnostic tool for various systemic diseases which can be collected noninvasively and by individuals with limited training. Aim The aim of the present study was to analyse the possibility of using salivary glucose and glycogen content of buccal mucosal cells as a diagnostic marker in Type II Diabetes mellitus patients which can be considered as adjuvant diagnostic tool to the gold standards. Materials and Methods Sample consists of 30 study and 30 control groups. Saliva was collected by passive drool method.Intravenous blood samples were collected for glucose estimation. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from apparently normal buccal mucosa, smeared on dry glass slide and stained with PAS. Blood and salivary glucose are estimated by Glucose Oxidase endpoint method. For Glycogen estimation, number of PAS positive cells in fifty unfolded cells was analysed. Results The results of the present study revealed a significant increase in the salivary glucose level and the number of PAS positive buccal mucosal cells in the diabetics than in the controls. The correlation between the fasting serum glucose and fasting salivary glucose and also that between fasting serum glucose and PAS positive cells was statistically significant. But the correlation between the staining intensity and fasting serum glucose was statistically insignificant. Conclusion With the results of the present study it is revealed that salivary glucose and PAS positive cells are increased in diabetics which can be considered as adjuvant diagnostic tool for Diabetes mellitus.

  2. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  3. Reversing cognitive–motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming

    PubMed Central

    Frankemolle, Anneke M. M.; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive–motor performance in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive–motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive–motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20061324

  4. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

  5. From the mouths of monkeys: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, AK; Engel, G; Rompis, A; Putra, IGA A; Lee, BP Y-H; Aggimarangsee, N; Chalise, M; Shaw, E; Oh, G; Schillaci, MA; Jones-Engel, L

    2012-01-01

    Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the PCR amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

  6. Genetic relatedness of subgingival and buccal Candida dubliniensis isolates in immunocompetent subjects assessed by RAPD-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jewtuchowicz, Virginia Marta; Mujica, Maria Teresa; Malzone, Maria celina; Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Maria lorena; Iovannitti, Cristina Adela; Rosa, Alcira Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Background It is recognized that Candida dubliniensis commonly colonizes oral and subgingival sites in immunocompetent subjects with periodontal disease. Objective Since there are few data available on genetic characterization of C. dubliniensis in periodontal pockets and other oral sites, the aim of this study was to characterize subgingival and mucosal C. dubliniensis isolates recovered from immunocompetent subjects and to assay the genetic similarity of such isolates from both niches in the same patient by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Design C. dubliniensis recovered from subgingival plaque and from buccal cavity samples were studied in 240 immunocompetent non-smoking individuals. Arbitrary amplification was carried out by RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes of C. dubliniensis in different sampling sites (buccal cavity and subgingival areas) in eight of 10 patients except for those derived from two participants who presented presumably unrelated isolates. Conclusions On the basis of the findings presented, the origin of the colonization of C. dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm seems to be the buccal cavity in a single patient. Consequently, it may be assumed that most of C. dubliniensis in these sites arise from the endogenous commensal strains. PMID:21523209

  7. Immunocytological detection of salivary mucins (MUC5B) on the mucosal pellicle lining human epithelial buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Siying, Tai; Brignot, Hélène; Lherminier, Jeannine

    2014-06-01

    The mucosal pellicle is defined as the protein film adsorbed onto oral mucosa. This study aimed at characterizing the ultrastructure of human epithelial buccal cells and localizing salivary mucins MUC5B, a major constituent of the mucosal pellicle. Cells were sampled from the buccal surface and prepared for Transmission Electron Microscopy using high-pressure freezing/cryosubstitution followed by immunogold labelling of MUC5B. Morphologically, cells were visualized as typical cells of the superficial layer of a squamous nonkeratinized epithelium with a partly degraded plasma membrane. The outer surface of the plasma membrane was lined with a biological material of medium electron density. MUC5B were detected in the extracellular space, and particularly in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, sometimes onto fibrils protruding from the membrane. This area was, therefore, considered as constituting the mucosal pellicle, which appeared as a mixed film of both salivary and epithelial components. The distribution of gold particles suggested that the surface of the pellicle was not uniform, and that the film thickness could reach up to 100 nm. This work showed the feasibility of visualizing and characterizing the mucosal pellicle directly on human epithelial buccal cells sampled in a noninvasive manner. PMID:24706554

  8. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

    1982-09-01

    Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

  9. IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

  10. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

  11. Actinomycotic sinus of the buccal mucosa: a rare complication of cheek dimple creation.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Ghandoor, Khalid; Ahli, Qassim

    2014-11-01

    Even though actinomyces are common oral commensals, actinomycosis is an uncommon oral infection. Cheek dimple creation is a common surgical procedure with rare complications. Bacterial infection with abscess formation and foreign body reaction were reported. We report a rare example-and, to our knowledge, the first-of oral actinomycosis after cheek dimple creation. A young woman complained of a chronic tender nodule of the right buccal mucosa with pus discharge after surgery for cheek dimple creation. Histologic examination showed a sinus tract with actinomyces microorganisms. This complication can be mimicked by other oral or dental sinus-forming lesions, can be chronic and insidious, and could therefore clinically be missed or mistreated. This might delay the diagnosis and cause scarring and disfigurement. The treatment of choice is early recognition and complete surgical excision to avoid irreversible complications and prevent recurrence. Awareness of this potential complication by aesthetic surgeons, oral clinicians, and dentists is important. Patients' adherence to preventive measures and plastic surgeons' application of inclusion criteria and contraindications, as well as their choice of best technique per patient, should help minimize such a problem in a simple and safe aesthetic procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: PMID:24973339

  12. Evaluation of matrix type mucoadhesive tablets containing indomethacin for buccal application.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku

    2013-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. PMID:23791737

  13. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  14. Development and evaluation of a buccal bioadhesive system for smoking cessation therapy.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Kumar, G

    2007-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a bilayered buccal bioadhesive film formulation of nicotine hydrogen tartrate for smoking cessation therapy, comprising a bioadhesive drug layer and a backing layer, which releases the drug at a pre-determined rate for a period of 4 h. Formulations were prepared using various bioadhesive polymers and were evaluated for physical parameters like peelability, flexibility, softness, bioadhesive strength, tensile strength, dispersion time and pharmaceutical parameters such as thickness, swelling, content uniformity, water vapour permeability and drug release. Based on these parameters formulation N2, containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polycarbophil as the bioadhesive polymers, was selected as the optimized formulation. The formulation showed suitable adhesion and an initial burst release of 40% drug in first 15 min followed by a total 80% drug release in a characteristic manner until 4 h; which is the desired time of application. This release pattern is beneficial for patients suffering from emergent cravings. Backing layers of the films were studied by a moisture vapor permeability test and it was observed that the percentage of moisture which permeated through single layered films was much higher than through bilayered films implying that a backing layer would prevent washing out of drug by the saliva. PMID:17484281

  15. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol.

    PubMed

    Mane, P P; Bushetti, S S; Keshavshetti, G G

    2014-03-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  16. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip. PMID:23784986

  17. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive patches of salbutamol sulfate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Puratchikody, Ayrivan; Prasanth, Viswanadhan Vasantha; Mathew, Sam Thomas; Kumar, Balaraman Ashok

    2011-06-01

    Buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate were prepared using five different water soluble polymers in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. A 32 full factorial design was used to design the experiments for each polymer combination. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm and showed an increase in mass whenever PEG-400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of all patches approached neutral. Eight formulations which had shown high folding endurance (> 300) were selected for evaluation. Patches prepared with PEG-400 showed a high swelling index. The residence time of the tested patches ranged between 105 and 130 min. Formulations A10, A32, B10 and B32 fitted the Higuchi model best, whereas formulations A19 and B19 showed super case II transport drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period of 6 months. PMID:21684844

  18. Metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma in the upper buccal gingiva misdiagnosed as an epulis.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, "local" relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  19. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    PubMed Central

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  20. In vitro transport of the steroidal glycoside P57 from Hoodia gordonii across excised porcine intestinal and buccal tissue.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, I; Viljoen, A M; Chen, W; Hamman, J H

    2011-06-15

    Hoodia gordonii was traditionally used by the Khoisan people as a thirst and appetite suppressant and is currently commercially available as a popular weight-loss supplement. The perceived active ingredient isolated from this plant is a steroidal glycoside named P57. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro transport of P57 across excised porcine intestinal and buccal mucosa in a Sweetana-Grass diffusion apparatus. For both the intestinal and buccal experiments, the transport of pure P57 was compared to that obtained from a crude plant extract. Bi-directional transport experiments were conducted across the intestinal tissue in two different media namely Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and simulated intestinal fluid. Apical-to-basolateral transport experiments were conducted across the buccal tissue in two different media namely Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and artificial saliva. Apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) and flux values were calculated and analysed by means of a one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if differences were significant (p?0.05). The transport of pure P57 across intestinal tissue was significantly higher in the secretory direction than in the absorptive direction indicating efflux by membrane transporters. Much higher intestinal transport was obtained for P57 in both directions when applied in the form of a crude extract, possibly due to inhibition of efflux as indicated by lower secretory transport compared to absorptive transport. For the buccal tissue, no transport was obtained for the pure P57, while relatively high transport was obtained when applied in the form of a crude extract. Furthermore, the intestinal transport of P57 was significantly decreased when the crude extract was prepared in simulated intestinal fluid compared to when it was prepared in buffer. On the other hand, buccal transport was higher in artificial saliva than in buffer. It is therefore evident that the transport of P57 across mucosal tissues is significantly affected on exposure to conditions simulating the in vivo situation. PMID:21353512

  1. Energy efficient motors for HVAC applications: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, J.; Biesemeyer, W.D.

    1995-06-01

    The empirically derived data presented in this paper are the result of a program established by the State of Arizona to replace all the existing HVAC motors in the majority of State-owned buildings. All motors from 5 HP up were selected as candidates for retrofit. The largest motor was 125 HP. After obtaining questionable data from the initial existing motor field measurements, it was decided that some further study and testing was needed. By dynamometer testing aging motors from the field and new energy efficient motors, some startling conclusions were realized. One of the most common methods for determining motor loads in the field, the slip method, is highly inaccurate and cannot be used to reliably determine the load on the motor. Field measurements reconciled with dynamometer testing reveals that the slip method can be over 40% in error. Replacing an existing motor with an energy efficient motor may actually use more energy due to the effects of full load speed differences. Energy efficient motors generally run faster than standard motors because of the inherent lower internal losses. However, because the power required by a centrifugal load induction motor varies as the cube of the speed, the savings due to the higher efficiency may be completely offset by the increased power requirement due to the faster speed. Some of the conventional practices for protecting and determining energy savings from HVAC system energy efficient motor retrofits are misleading. Using the slip method for calculating motor load and not accounting for the speed difference between the existing motor and new motor are two examples presented here.

  2. Implementing Motor Management 

    E-print Network

    Colip, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors account for sixty five percent of industrial energy consumed today. There are many opportunities to conserve electricity by using more energy efficient motors and drives. Proven technologies and practices can reduce energy...

  3. Brushless Motor Parameter Optimization

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    ~ 1 ~ Brushless Motor Parameter Optimization Report Spring 2011 May 6, 2011 Alicia Violeta Juarez Crow ECE 2012 1439 Kentfield Ave. Apt. 2 Redwood City, CA 94061 (650)3957846 avj22 ........................................................................................................................ 7 A. Motor

  4. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  5. Stepping Motor Control System

    E-print Network

    Larson, Noble G.

    This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

  6. Why electric motors fail

    SciTech Connect

    Strugar, D. (Reliance Electric Co., Chicago, IL (United States)); Weiss, R. (Reliance Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Operated long enough, all motors eventually fail. This inevitable failure, however, is deferred significantly by eliminating or minimizing the most common causes of motor failure. These causes are dust and other solid contaminants, chemical attack, moisture, overloading, high ambient operating temperature, undervoltage, overvoltage, voltage unbalance, voltage surges, and vibration. The paper presents a review on the most prevalent causes of motor failure, and information on what you can do to extend motor life.

  7. Motor bearing fluting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Lawson

    1993-01-01

    Electrical motor bearing fluting has been defined as damage due to electrical current discharge through a motor bearing. Bearing race metal is electroplated onto the bearing balls. Close inspection reveals microscopic pits on bearing ball and race surfaces. A DC motor frame was completely isolated from ground except by a single grounding conductor with applied armature and field voltage. No

  8. Easy Robot Programming for Beginners and Kids Using Command and Instruction Marker Card

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Our developed motor driver can control six servo motors and have eight digital input/output ports, such as motors, sensors, microcontrollers and embedded computers. A robot programming to control motors programming system recognizes instruction cards and translates icon commands into the motor driver program

  9. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-?-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  10. Formulation, Characterisation and Stabilisation of Buccal Films for Paediatric Drug Delivery of Omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Boateng, Joshua S; Mitchell, John; Trivedi, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop films for potential delivery of omeprazole (OME) via the buccal mucosa of paediatric patients. Films were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), sodium alginate (SA), carrageenan (CA) and metolose (MET) with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) as plasticiser, OME (model drug) and L-arg (stabiliser). Gels (1% w/w) were prepared at 40°C using water and ethanol with PEG 400 (0-1% w/w) and dried in an oven (40°C). Optimised formulations containing OME and L-arg (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) were prepared to investigate the stabilisation of the drug. Tensile properties (Texture analysis, TA), physical form (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; X-ray diffraction, XRD; thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) and surface topography (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) were investigated. Based on the TA results, SA and MET films were chosen for OME loading and stabilisation studies as they showed a good balance between flexibility and toughness. Plasticised MET films were uniform and smooth whilst unplasticised films demonstrated rough lumpy surfaces. SA films prepared from aqueous gels showed some lumps on the surface, whereas SA films prepared from ethanolic gels were smooth and uniform. Drug-loaded gels showed that OME was unstable and therefore required addition of L-arg. The DSC and XRD suggested molecular dispersion of drug within the polymeric matrix. Plasticised (0.5% w/w PEG 400) MET films prepared from ethanolic (20% v/v) gels and containing OME: L-arg 1:2 showed the most ideal characteristics (transparency, ease of peeling and flexibility) and was selected for further investigation. PMID:25559373

  11. Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frédéric; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Séverine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

  12. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive sol-gel composites of paclitaxel/dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon Gil; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  13. Arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from human buccal mucosal fibroblasts is mediated by ZEB1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lai, You-Liang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chi, Wan-Yu; Li, Jung Jung; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is considered as a pre-cancerous condition of the oral mucosa and is highly associated with habitual areca quid chewing. Arecoline is the major alkaloid in areca quid and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. Our previous studies have demonstrated that arecoline could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Therefore, we investigated the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which is a well-known transcriptional factor in EMT, in OSF tissues and its role in arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. The expression of ZEB1, as well as the myofibroblast marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), was significantly increased in OSF tissues, respectively. With immunofluorescence analysis, arecoline induced the formation of ?-SMA-positive stress fibres in BMFs expressing nuclear ZEB1. Arecoline also induced collagen contraction of BMFs in vitro. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the binding of ZEB1 to the ?-SMA promoter in BMFs was increased by arecoline. The promoter activity of ?-SMA in BMFs was also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of ZEB1 abolished arecoline-induced ?-SMA promoter activity and collagen contraction of BMFs. Long-term exposure of BMFs to arecoline induced the expression of fibrogenic genes and ZEB1. Silencing of ZEB1 in fibrotic BMFs from an OSF patient also suppressed the expression of ?-SMA and myofibroblast activity. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 could suppress arecoline-induced ZEB1 activation in BMFs. Our data suggest that ZEB1 may participate in the pathogenesis of areca quid-associated OSF by activating the ?-SMA promoter and inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. PMID:24400868

  14. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Raut, P P; Prasanth, K V; Prasad, R G

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 3(2) factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  15. Topical treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron beam.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon Gil; Baek, Eun Jung; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Nho, Young-Chang; Lim, Youn-Mook; Park, Jong-Seok; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Huh, Kang Moo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2013-04-15

    In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation. PMID:23467084

  16. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  17. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

  18. Cyclodextrin-containing poly(ethyleneoxide) tablets for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs: potential as buccal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Brunella; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Giannini, Lucia; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Miro, Agnese; Quaglia, Fabiana; Russo, Roberto

    2006-08-17

    The aim of this work was to develop a tablet for the buccal delivery of the poorly soluble drug carvedilol (CAR), based on poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) as bioadhesive sustained-release platform and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) as modulator of drug release. As first, PEO tablets loaded with CAR/HPbetaCD binary systems with different dissolution properties were tested for CAR and HPbetaCD release features and compared to PEO tablets containing only CAR. When the drug was incorporated as CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried product, all CAR content was released from the tablet in about 10 h, displaying a constant release regimen after a transient. The effect of HPbetaCD incorporation on the release mechanism, was rationalized on the basis of the interplay of different physical phenomena: erosion and swelling of the tablet, drug dissolution, drug counter-diffusion and complex formation. In the second part of the study, the potential of HPbetaCD-containing PEO tablets as buccal delivery system for CAR was tested. It was found that the incorporation of HPbetaCD in the tablet did not alter significantly its good adhesion properties. The feasibility of buccal administration of CAR was assessed by permeation experiments on pig excised mucosa. The amount of CAR permeated from PEO tablet was higher in the case of HPbetaCD-containing tablets, the maximum value being obtained for CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried system. Our results demonstrate that, when the tablet is employed as transmucosal system, the role of drug dissolution enhancement in the hydrated tablet is much more relevant than in solution for increasing the delivery rate. PMID:16650700

  19. Mucoadhesive buccal films containing phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles as an effective carrier for Cucurbitacin B delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingyuan; Shen, Chengying; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Yu, Chao; Xu, Pinghua; Xu, He; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-05-01

    Cucurbitacin B (Cu B), a potent anti-cancer agent, suffers with the problems of water-insoluble, gastrointestinal side effects and non-specific toxicity via oral administration and drawbacks in patient's compliance and acceptance through injections. An integration of nanoscale carriers with mucoadhesive buccal films drug delivery system would resolve these issues effectively with greater therapeutic benefits and clinical significance. Thus, the drug loaded mucoadhesive buccal film was developed and characterized in this study and the carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) was chosen as a bioadhesive polymer, glycerol was chosen as a plasticizer and phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles (PL-BS-MMs) was selected as the nanoscale carriers. The CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was evaluated for the mechanical properties, mucoadhesion properties, in vitro water-uptake, in vitro release and morphological properties, respectively. The optimal CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was easily reconstituted in a transparent and clear solution with spherical micelles in the submicron range. The in vivo study revealed a greater and more extended release of Cu B from nanoscale CCS-films compared to that from a conventional CCS films (C-CCS-films) and oral marketed tablet (Hulusupian). The absorption of Cu B from CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs resulted in 2.69-fold increased in bioavailability as compared to conventional tablet formulation and 10.46 times with reference to the C-CCS-films formulation. Thus, this kind of mucoadhesive buccal film might be an alternative safe route for delivery of Cu B with better patient compliance and higher bioavailability for the treatments. PMID:24467528

  20. Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2013-07-01

    To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

  1. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  2. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study 

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  3. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Zimmerman; Gerald E. Litzinger

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple

  4. A finite element code for electric motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

  6. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  7. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  8. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth W.; Zoller, Lowell K.

    1989-01-01

    The principal phases and the current status of the ASRM program studies are briefly reviewed. The 150-in. diameter ASRM segmented motor design incorporates substantive changes to improve the reliability and design safety margins of the Space Shuttle system. The motor thrust characteristics are tailored to preclude the necessity for throttling the Space Shuttle Main Engines during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, thus reducing or eliminating about 175 criticality 1/1R failure modes of the shuttle system. The ASRM is designed to provide a 12,000-pound payload improvement to support Space Station development and other critical NASA missions. The first ASRM Shuttle development flight is tentatively scheduled for late 1994.

  9. In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elsabé; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Drug delivery via the buccal route has emerged as a promising alternative to oral drug delivery. Didanosine (DDI) undergoes rapid degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and low oral bioavailability, making DDI a suitable candidate for buccal delivery. Recent developments in buccal drug delivery show an increased interest toward nano-enabled delivery systems. The advantages of buccal drug delivery can be combined with that of nanoparticulate delivery systems to provide a superior delivery system. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the preparation of novel nano-enabled films for buccal delivery of DDI. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared via hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication and were characterized before being incorporated into nano-enabled monolayered multipolymeric films (MMFs). Glyceryl tripalmitate with Poloxamer 188 was identified as most suitable for the preparation of DDI-loaded SLNs. SLNs with desired particle size (PS) (201?nm), polydispersity index (PDI) (0.168) and zeta potential (-18.8?mV) were incorporated into MMFs and characterized. Conventional and nano-enabled MMFs were prepared via solvent casting/evaporation using Eudragit RS100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Drug release from the nano-enabled films was found to be faster (56% versus 20% in first hour). Conventional MMFs exhibited higher mucoadhesion and mechanical strength than nano-enabled MMFs. SLNs did not adversely affect the steady state flux (71.63?±?13.54?µg/cm(2)?h versus 74.39?±?15.95?µg/cm(2)?h) thereby confirming the potential transbuccal delivery of DDI using nano-enabled MMFs. Nano-enabled buccal films for delivery of DDI can be successfully prepared, and these physico-mechanical studies serve as a platform for future formulation optimization work in this emerging field. PMID:24576267

  10. Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode

    PubMed Central

    Kamburo?lu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yüksel, S; Paksoy, C S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n?=?22) and buccal periodontal defects (n?=?22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax® 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as ??=?0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p?Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

  11. Pharmacokinetic properties of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets: A phase I, open-label, crossover study of single-dose 100, 200, 400, and 800 ?g in healthy adult volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Darwish; Mary Kirby; Philmore Robertson; William Tracewell; John G. Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Background: The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) is designed to enhance the rate and extent of the absorption of fentanyl, an opioid, through the buccal mucosa.Objectives: The purposes of this study were to assess the dose proportionality of FEBT in healthy volunteers over the potential therapeutic dose range (100–800 ?g) and characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of 4 doses (100,

  12. Continuous decoding of motor attempt and motor imagery from EEG activity in spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    López-Larraz, Eduardo; Antelis, Javier M; Montesano, Luis; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Minguez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) associates brain reorganization with a loss of cortical representation of paralyzed limbs. This effect is more pronounced in the chronic state, which can be reached approximately 6 months after the lesion. As many of the brain-computer interfaces (BCI) developed to date rely on the user motor activity, loss of this activity hinders the application of BCI technology for rehabilitation or motor compensation in these patients. This work is a preliminary study with three quadriplegic patients close to reaching the chronic state, addressing two questions: (i) whether it is still possible to use BCI technology to detect motor intention of the paralyzed hand at this state of chronicity; and (ii) whether it is better for the BCI decoding to rely on the motor attempt or the motor imagery of the hand as mental paradigm. The results show that one of the three patients had already lost the motor programs related to the hand, so it was not possible to build a motor-related BCI for him. For the other patients it was suitable to design a BCI based on both paradigms, but the results were better using motor attempt as it has broader activation associated patterns that are easier to recognize. PMID:23366260

  13. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altu?, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Ar?, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Dö?ero?lu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the determination of BEC-MN frequency (per mille) and frequency of BEC with MN (per mille). The same children were also recruited for lung function measurements within a MATRA project ("Together Towards Clean Air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun") Measured NO2 and SO2 concentrations did not exceed the European Union (EU) limit levels either in urban-traffic or suburban regions. Higher O3 concentrations were measured in the suburban site especially in the summer period. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels which did not differ statistically between two regions were above the EU limits in general. Although BEC-MN frequencies of children living in the suburban sites were higher in general, the difference between two regions was not significant either in the summer or winter periods. BEC-MN frequencies of the urban-traffic children were found to be significantly higher in summer period (mean ± SD, 2.68?±?1.99) when compared to winter period (1.64?±?1.59; p?=?0.004). On the other hand, no seasonality was observed for the suburban children. Similar results have been obtained in the BEC frequency with MN in our study. In summer, BEC-MN frequencies were significantly increased with the decrease in pulmonary function levels based on forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) levels (p?

  14. MOTOR BIKES, MOPEDS, AND MOTOR SCOOTERS Registration and Operation

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    ://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/documents/dbikes/14-286.pdf Motorcycle - Motorcycle means a motor vehicle, with or without a side car, having not more and a motor which is not in the enclosed area. Motor Scooters - Many motor scooters are motorcycles and would require a registration and motorcycle operator's license to operate on the road. Some motor scooters fall

  15. Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1 1 M.W. wishes to thank the LPPA for its on motor processes. First, motor rotation that is compatible with mental rotation results in faster times slow down or speed up the mental rotation. Cognition 68, 77-94 (1998) #12;Motor processes 2 Mental

  16. [Regeneration of mouth mucosa in the buccal plane following graft procurement for reconstruction of bulbar urethral stenoses].

    PubMed

    Szulczewski, D H; Kleinheinz, J; Werkmeister, R; Meyer, U; Roth, S; Joos, U

    1999-01-01

    The use of free buccal mucosal grafts in the treatment of urethral strictures has become very popular. In 1996 and 1997 we harvested free buccal mucosal grafts up to 7 cm long and 4 cm wide from 12 patients who underwent urologic surgery for urethral strictures. In 2 patients the donor site was closed primarily by sutures. Four patients received Lyodura and another 4 patients received Syspurderm as temporary wound coverage. In 2 patients Ethisorp patches were used. Donor site pain was judged by the patients on a visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. The 2 patients who received the Ethisorp patches complained of more intense pain, probably caused by the rigidity of the material. In all patients regeneration of the donor site mucosa was good. During the follow-up period of 4-18 months scar formation at the lower vestibulum was noticed as the only complication. Permanent limitation of mouth opening, stenosis of the parotid duct or hypesthesia did not occur. PMID:10077966

  17. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication. PMID:25963705

  18. An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-12-01

    Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37°C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1?g/cm(2)/h and 4×10(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

  19. Embodied Memory Judgments: A Case of Motor Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu-Ju; Gallo, David A.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that perceptual and conceptual fluency can influence episodic memory judgments. Here, the authors asked whether fluency arising from the motor system also impacts recognition memory. Past research has shown that the perception of letters automatically activates motor programs of typing actions in skilled typists. In this study,…

  20. Development of a small high-thrust tractor rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.E.; Oberlander, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the parachute extraction tractor rocket motor design and test efforts conducted during the Sandia ASW/SOW development program. The prime contractor was Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the tractor rocket motor subcontractor was Morton Thiokol, Inc., Elkton, Maryland.

  1. The use of fentanyl buccal tablets for breakthrough pain by using doses proportional to opioid basal regimen in a home care setting.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Porzio, Giampiero; Aielli, Federica; Averna, Lucilla; Ficorella, Corrado; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    The dose of rapid onset opioids to be given for breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is controversial. Dose proportional to the basal opioid regimen seem to be safe and effective in hospital units. However, data in other less protected settings, like home care, are lacking. The aim of this open-label study was to assess the efficacy and safety in a group of patients with BTcP followed at home, after giving a dose of fentanyl buccal tablets (FBT) proportional to the opioid basal regimen, skipping the steps for dose titration. Consecutive patients admitted to a home care program presenting BTcP episodes and receiving stable doses of opioids for background pain were selected. Data from four consecutive episodes of BTcP were collected. For each episode, patients were instructed to routinely collect changes in pain intensity and severe adverse effects when pain got severe (T0) and to reassess the same items 15 min after FBT, given as a rescue medication in doses proportional to the daily opioid doses used for background pain (T15). One hundred twenty episodes of BTcP were recorded in 30 patients. One hundred eight episodes were defined as successfully treated, while 12 episodes required a further administration of opioids. Pain intensity significantly decreased at T15 (p < 0.001). In 95.5 and 90.8 % of episodes treated, there was a reduction in pain intensity of more than 33 and 50 %, respectively. No relevant adverse effects were recorded, even in older patients. This study suggests that FBT given in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of BTcP is very effective and safe in clinical practice in the home care setting. PMID:23564072

  2. Traffic of Molecular Motors

    E-print Network

    Stefan Klumpp; Melanie J. I. Müller; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2005-12-06

    Molecular motors perform active movements along cytoskeletal filaments and drive the traffic of organelles and other cargo particles in cells. In contrast to the macroscopic traffic of cars, however, the traffic of molecular motors is characterized by a finite walking distance (or run length) after which a motor unbinds from the filament along which it moves. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding aqueous solution until they rebind to a filament. We use variants of driven lattice gas models to describe the interplay of their active movements, the unbound diffusion, and the binding/unbinding dynamics. If the motor concentration is large, motor-motor interactions become important and lead to a variety of cooperative traffic phenomena such as traffic jams on the filaments, boundary-induced phase transitions, and spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems with two species of motors. If the filament is surrounded by a large reservoir of motors, the jam length, i.e., the extension of the traffic jams is of the order of the walking distance. Much longer jams can be found in confined geometries such as tube-like compartments.

  3. Motor nerve transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gray, W P; Keohane, C; Kirwan, W O

    1997-10-01

    The motor nerve transplantation (MNT) technique is used to transfer an intact nerve into a denervated muscle by harvesting a neurovascular pedicle of muscle containing motor endplates from the motor endplate zone of a donor muscle and implanting it into a denervated muscle. Thirty-six adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent reinnervation of the left long peroneal (LP) muscle (fast twitch) with a motor nerve graft from the soleus muscle (slow twitch). The right LP muscle served as a control. Reinnervation was assessed using microstimulatory single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG), alterations in muscle fiber typing and grouping, and isometric response curves. Neurofilament antibody was used for axon staining. The neurofilament studies provided direct evidence of nerve growth from the motor nerve graft into the adjacent denervated muscle. Median motor endplate jitter was 13 microsec preoperatively, and 26 microsec at 2 months, 29.5 microsec at 4 months, and 14 microsec at 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.001). Isometric tetanic tension studies showed a progressive functional recovery in the reinnervated muscle over 6 months. There was no histological evidence of aberrant reinnervation from any source outside the nerve pedicle. Isometric twitch responses and adenosine triphosphatase studies confirmed the conversion of the reinnervated LP muscle to a slow-type muscle. Acetylcholinesterase studies confirmed the presence of functioning motor endplates beneath the insertion of the motor nerve graft. It is concluded that the MNT technique achieves motor reinnervation by growth of new nerve fibers across the pedicle graft into the recipient muscle. PMID:9322851

  4. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  5. Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

  6. Synaptic modulation contributes to firing pattern generation in jaw motor neurons during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, T; Narusuye, K; Arai, H

    1999-11-01

    Japanese species, Aplysia kurodai, feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium (Geli.) or Pachydictyon (Pach.) with different rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. During ingestion the jaws open at the radula-protraction phase and remain half open at the initial phase of the radula-retraction, whereas during rejection the jaws open similarly but start to close immediately after the onset of the radula-retraction. These can be induced not only by the natural seaweed but by the extract solutions. We previously showed that the change of the patterned jaw movements from the ingestion to the rejection may result from the decrease in the delay of the firing onset of the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons during their depolarization. This diminished delay produces a phase advance relative to the radula-retraction phase. In that study, we showed that during ingestion the buccal multiaction (MA) neurons may generate the delay of firing onset of the JC motor neurons by producing monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) during the initial portion of their depolarization. In the present experiments, the firing patterns in the MA neurons induced by application of the Geli. or Pach. extract to the lips were explored in the semi-intact preparations. During the Pach. response the duration and the firing frequency of the MA firing at each depolarizing phase were decreased in comparison with the Ulva response. No decreases in the MA firing were observed during the Geli. response, suggesting that the similar patterned jaw movements during rejection of Geli. and Pach. may be generated by different neural mechanisms. Moreover, the size of the MA-induced IPSP in the JC motor neurons was largely decreased by application of the Geli. or Pach. extract to the lips in the reduced preparations consisting of the tentacle-lips and the cerebral-buccal ganglia. Voltage-clamp experiments on the JC motor neurons showed that the size of synaptic current induced by the MA spikes was decreased by application of these solutions to the lips. The decrease was induced when the buccal ganglia were bathed in a solution to block polysynaptic pathways. These results suggest that the advance of the onset of the JC firing at each depolarizing phase during the Geli. or Pach. response may be mainly or partly caused by the decrease in the size of the MA-induced IPSP in the motor neurons. Modulatory action of cerebral neurons or peripheral afferent neurons in the lip region may contribute to this synaptic plasticity. PMID:10561428

  7. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  8. The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

  9. Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study 

    E-print Network

    Dautovich, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    "high efficiency" motor is described and the operating cost is compared to the standard motor. Payback for high efficiency motors is found to be about one year for continuous duty applications. Specific instructions are presented for use in industry....

  10. Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study

    E-print Network

    Dautovich, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

  11. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhou; Bin Lu; Michael P. Nowak; Steven A. Dimino

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set

  12. Fault detection and management system for fault-tolerant switched reluctance motor drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Stephens

    1991-01-01

    The superior fault tolerance characteristics of the switched reluctance motor (SRM) have been proved in a working laboratory drive system. The program started by defining the performance effects of various types of motor winding faults. Motor winding fault detection devices were developed, along with control circuitry, to isolate a faulted winding by blocking the gating signals to the semiconductor power

  13. Steering Acoustically Propelled Nanowire Motors toward Cells in a Biologically Compatible Environment Using Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    trajectories. Coordinated motion of multiple motors and targeting of individual motors toward HeLa cellsSteering Acoustically Propelled Nanowire Motors toward Cells in a Biologically Compatible of Engineering Science and Mechanics, and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Finger-tapping Task Separates Motor from Timing

    E-print Network

    Moses, Elisha

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Finger- tapping Task Separates Motor from Timing Mechanisms,3 , and Elisha Moses1 Abstract & We study the interplay between motor programs and their timing in the brain by using precise pulses of transcranial mag- netic stimulation (TMS) applied to the primary motor cortex

  15. DC motor experimental parameter identification using the Nelder-Mead simplex method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Dub; Rudolf Jalovecký

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical model of separately excited DC motor is featured by transfer function. Searched parameters are motor gain coefficient and motor time constants. Offline identification algorithm is based on minimization of criteria function where searched variables are parameters of the mathematical model. The minimization algorithm is the Nelder-Mead simplex search method of the MATLAB program.

  16. Motor Brush Testing for Mars and Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, Don E.

    1999-01-01

    Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in the Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in low-pressure CO2. All motors performed acceptably, with accumulated motor revolutions between 98 and 144 million revolutions, depending on load. A proprietary silver-graphite material from Superior Carbon (SG54-27) appears to be the best choice for long life, but even the stock copper-graphite brushes performed reliably with acceptable wear. The motors from the CO2 test were then cleaned and run in vacuum for 2 weeks. The difference in results was dramatic, with 5 motors failing catastrophically and wear rates increasing by orders of magnitude for the SG54-27 material. Three brush materials survived the test with no failures: SG54-27 with a proprietary Ball Aerospace impregnation, a silver-graphite-molybdenum disulfide material from Superior Carbon (SG59), and a copper sulfide-graphite material also from Superior Carbon (BG91).

  17. Acceptance testing of electric motors and generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Hamer

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive inspection and acceptance-test program for electric motors and generators of 300 HP (225 kW) and larger is outlined. Induction and synchronous machines are included, and references are made to IEEE, ANSI, and NEMA standards for the electrical tests. Recommended electrical and mechanical inspections and tests are described, and bearing housing and shaft vibration limits are recommended for all

  18. Contemporary Theories of Perceptual-Motor Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Monte; Pyfer, Jean L.

    Contemporary theories of perceptual-motor development and dysfunction are analyzed in detail in this review of the literature. Studies focused on observation of delays, deviations, cause, theories of development, and programs of remediation. It is suggested that it may be presumptuous for theorists to delineate three, four, or ten characteristics…

  19. Stripped-down Motor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

  20. Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    , a set of techniques has been developed for diagnosing motor problems before they reach the point are large enough, various temperature sensors, accelerometers, and even flux sensors have been added is particularly attractive, as the current (and voltage) sensors are usually installed in the motor control center

  1. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  2. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    PubMed Central

    El Bakary, Neveen El Said Reda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea. PMID:24144124

  3. The long-term efficacy and safety of a testosterone mucoadhesive buccal tablet in testosterone-deficient men.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Wallace W; Wyllie, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Striant® SR is the only available buccal delivery system for testosterone replacement therapy. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have shown that Striant SR effectively produces physiological serum testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. Efficacy and safety data from previously unpublished studies over 2 years of continuous use indicate that Striant SR is effective long term in maintaining serum testosterone within a physiological range, is well tolerated and has a high level of patient acceptance. Striant® sustained-release (SR) is a mucoadhesive buccal tablet (30 mg testosterone, The Urology Company) that adheres to the gum surface in the mouth providing controlled- and sustained-release of testosterone over a 12-h dosing period, offering a unique and rational method of testosterone delivery. Striant SR is indicated for testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism when testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by clinical features and biochemical tests. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that testosterone is released from Striant SR in a manner similar to the normal daily rhythm of endogenous testosterone secretion, with serum levels rising rapidly after insertion and peak levels reached by the second 12-hourly dose with no accumulation over time. In clinical trials involving hypogonadal men receiving Striant SR for up to 2 years, mean serum testosterone levels have always remained within the normal range. Striant SR is well tolerated, with gum-related disorders (such as irritation, inflammation and gingivitis) and taste perversion being the most commonly reported adverse events, reported by 5.6-16.3% and 3.0-4.1% of patients, respectively. Once patients have become accustomed to it, Striant SR has a high level of patient acceptance. In a long-term study, 90% of patients rated the twice-daily dosing as acceptable, just under half preferred it to other forms of TRT that they have used and 96% found it to be cosmetically acceptable. There is no clinically significant risk of testosterone transfer from Striant SR, as any testosterone that may be present in the saliva when swallowed is subject to extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. It is pertinent to note that the saliva of eugonadal men contains similar levels of endogenous testosterone. Buccal delivery is particularly suitable where easy and rapid reversal of treatment might be required (such as in late-onset hypogonadism) and where there is a need to avoid the potential for transfer of testosterone to women and young children. PMID:22288877

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of buccal cells from shoe-workers and pathology and anatomy laboratory workers exposed to n-hexane, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone and formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Burgaz, Sema; Erdem, Onur; Cakmak, Gonca; Erdem, Nurten; Karakaya, Asuman; Karakaya, Ali Esat

    2002-01-01

    People employed in the shoe manufacture and repair industry are at an increased risk for cancer, the strongest evidence being for nasal cancer and leukaemia. A possible causal role for formaldehyde is likely for cancer of the buccal cavity and nasopharynx. Exfoliated buccal cells are good source of tissue for monitoring human exposure to inhaled and ingested occupational and environmental genotoxicants. To assess the cytogenetic damage related to occupational exposure to airborne chemicals during shoe-making and the processes in pathology and anatomy laboratories, the micronuclei (MN) count per 3000 cells was measured in buccal smears from shoe-workers (group I, n = 22) exposed to mainly n-hexane, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and from anatomy and pathology staff (group II, n = 28) exposed to formaldehyde (FA). Eighteen male university staff were used as controls. The mean time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of n-hexane, toluene and MEK in 10 small shoe workshops were 58.07 p.p.m., 26.62 p.p.m. and 11.39 p.p.m., respectively. The measured air concentrations of FA in the breathing zone of the anatomy and pathology laboratory workers were between 2 and 4 p.p.m. Levels of 2,5-hexadione (2,5-HD) and hippuric acid (HA), metabolic markers of n-hexane and toluene exposure, respectively, were significantly higher in the urine of workers in group I than in control subjects (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The mean (+/- SD) MN (0/00) [corrected] frequencies in buccal mucosa cells from workers in group I, group II and controls were 0.62 +/- 0.45%, 0.71 +/- 0.56% and 0.33 +/- 0.30%, respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 compared with controls for group I and group II, respectively). The effects of smoking, age and duration of exposure on the frequency of micronucleated buccal cells from workers in all three groups studied were also evaluated. Overall, the results suggest that occupational exposure to organic solvents, mainly n-hexane, toluene, MEK and FA, may cause cytogenetic damage in buccal cells and that use of exfoliated buccal cells seems to be appropriate to measure exposure to organic solvents. PMID:12101634

  5. Motor-output variability in a ballistic task 

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Douglas Lane

    1981-01-01

    of the centralist explanation for the speed-accuracy trade-off is a force/force variability relationship (Schmidt et al. , 1978, 1979). The idea of using a motor program (Keele, 1968; Klapp, 1977; Schmidt 5 Russell, 197Z) to explain how rapid-motor acts might..., the traditional motor program notion could not account for the speed-accuracy trade-off until Schmidt et al. (1979) demonstrated that larger initial impulses required to traverse a longer amplitude or achieve a smaller target introduces greater "noise...

  6. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  7. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  8. A 2-year clinical evaluation of a diphenylphosphorylazide-cross-linked collagen membrane for the treatment of buccal gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Bozon, C; Brunel, G

    1998-09-01

    To retard collagen membrane enzymatic degradation and to increase its mechanical strength, the diphenylphosphorylazide (DPPA) technique has been demonstrated to achieve natural cross-links between peptide chains of collagen without leaving any foreign product in the cross-linked molecule. In the present prospective clinical trial, the potential of a DPPA-cross-linked type I bovine collagen membrane was evaluated in the healing of 15 buccal soft tissue recessions in 15 patients according to the biological concept of guided tissue regeneration. The recession decreased from 3.7 mm (SD 1.4) at baseline to 0.8 mm (SD 1.2) at 2 years postsurgery, corresponding to a mean root coverage of 82.2% (P <0.0001). Concurrently, the clinical attachment level decreased from 5.4 mm (SD 1.6) at baseline to 1.9 mm (SD 1.2) 2 years postsurgery, corresponding to an average clinical attachment gain of 3.5 mm (SD 1.3) (P <0.0001). The 2-year postsurgical width of the keratinized tissue was not significantly different from baseline values. More than half (53%) of the treated sites showed complete root coverage and about two-thirds (73%) of the total cases showed a 75% to 100% disappearance of the mucogingival defect. The present investigation demonstrated that the use of DPPA-cross-linked collagen membranes in the treatment of human buccal soft tissue recessions results in predictable amounts of root coverage and clinical attachment gain. Long-term randomization controlled clinical trials of this material are needed to fully evaluate its potential for treating periodontal recession. PMID:9776025

  9. Motor-pump aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.; Gaffal, K.; Peters, J.

    1983-10-04

    A motor-pump aggregate whose pump is a glandless centrifugal pump and is intended for use in a nuclear reactor plant has hollow coaxial pump and motor shafts which are sealingly coupled to each other. To this end, the first end portion of the pump shaft extends into the adjacent first end portion of the motor shaft and has an external conical shoulder for engagement with an internal conical seat of the first end portion of the motor shaft. A feather holds the first end portions against rotation relative to one another, and the shoulder is urged against the seat by a pair of threaded connectors one of which is anchored in a disc-shaped member in the region of the second end portion of the motor shaft and the other of which is anchored in the first end portion of the pump shaft. The disc-shaped member and the second end portion of the motor shaft have mating ring gears to ensure accurate and a reproducible centering. The connection between the second end portion of the pump shaft and an impeller is similar to that between the second end portion of the motor shaft and the disc-shaped member except that one of the respective connectors is anchored in a transverse end wall which is inserted into the second end portion of and is welded to the pump shaft.

  10. Towards a microrotary motor driven by motor proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Hiratsuka; Shoji Takeuchi

    2007-01-01

    Biological molecular motors, motor proteins, have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures. This paper describes a bio- hybrid micro rotary motor using kinesin\\/ microtubule motor. We developed a simple fabrication process for a micro-structure by one-time deposition of parylene and a

  11. Justification for Energy Efficient Motors 

    E-print Network

    Buschart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of Energy Efficient (or EE) motors in NEMA frame sizes, (1-200 HP). It examines the economics of using EE motors for new motor requirements, as replacements for motors - instead of rewinding...

  12. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

  13. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    E-print Network

    Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

    2007-06-20

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  14. Stepper Motors Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource presents tutorials about stepper motors. Topics include unipolar, bipolar, current control, and micro stepping. Clicking on each topic provides an in-depth tutorial complete with graphics.

  15. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  16. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  17. Energy Efficient Motors 

    E-print Network

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

  18. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  19. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  20. Dielectric fluid motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan)] [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)] [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

  2. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  3. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  4. Visual learning by imitation with motor representations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manuel; Santos-Victor, José

    2005-06-01

    We propose a general architecture for action (mimicking) and program (gesture) level visual imitation. Action-level imitation involves two modules. The viewpoint Transformation (VPT) performs a "rotation" to align the demonstrator's body to that of the learner. The Visuo-Motor Map (VMM) maps this visual information to motor data. For program-level (gesture) imitation, there is an additional module that allows the system to recognize and generate its own interpretation of observed gestures to produce similar gestures/goals at a later stage. Besides the holistic approach to the problem, our approach differs from traditional work in i) the use of motor information for gesture recognition; ii) usage of context (e.g., object affordances) to focus the attention of the recognition system and reduce ambiguities, and iii) use iconic image representations for the hand, as opposed to fitting kinematic models to the video sequence. This approach is motivated by the finding of visuomotor neurons in the F5 area of the macaque brain that suggest that gesture recognition/imitation is performed in motor terms (mirror) and rely on the use of object affordances (canonical) to handle ambiguous actions. Our results show that this approach can outperform more conventional (e.g., pure visual) methods. PMID:15971913

  5. Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

  6. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication. PMID:25810829

  7. Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Oh, Ji-Su

    2014-01-01

    For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of the failed replacement, at which point the prosthetic treatment was considered complete. In all of the six cases that we were able to follow-up with, the sinus-bone graft was healing favorably. We observed that the sinus bone height decreased gradually with time. Based on these case series, we conclude that our procedure of repairing large sinus-membrane perforations with a pedicled buccal fat pad and a collagen membrane is a reliable technique. PMID:25247149

  8. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication. PMID:25810829

  9. Motor considerations for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Halfpap, R.F.; Brotherhood, R. (Louis Allis Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Customers who use large rotating equipment realize motors can be subjected to hostile environmental conditions, nonstandard voltage levels and a variety of load requirements. The motor specifications they write reflect this change and have become far more detailed. Too often in the past, when large projects were being organized and highly technical equipment purchased, induction motors were thought of as standard pieces of equipment not requiring much in the way of specialized design. High-speed compressor applications are good examples of the need for specific compressor torque characteristics and starting requirements to allow for proper motor design. Not only different compressor designs, but adjustments in compressor valves and changes in gas process conditions, can produce a diversity of speed-torque curves. Therefore, it is not practical for a motor designer to be told to assume a standard compressor load torque during acceleration. An example of compressor speed-torque curves illustrates this point. The paper also presents the example of centrifugal pumps to further illustrate the need for properly matching driver torque and power requirements.

  10. A randomized clinical multicentre trial comparing enamel matrix derivative and membrane treatment of buccal class II furcation involvement in mandibular molars. Part III: patient factors and treatment outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hoffmann; Steffen Richter; Joerg Meyle; Jose R. Gonzales; Bernd Heinz; Mehrdad Arjomand; Anton Sculean; Elmar Reich; Karin Jepsen; Soren Jepsen; Rolf-Hasso Boedeker

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of patient factors on the outcome of regenerative treatment of buccal mandibular class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat population 21 patients were allocated into the sequence left treatment with enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) and right guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and 27 in the sequence left GTR and

  11. Rapid Induction of y-Glutamyl Transpeptidase-rich Intraepithelial Clones in 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated Hamster Buccal Pouch1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis B. Solt; Gerald Shklar

    1982-01-01

    Individual y-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-stained cells and cell doublets were rapidly induced in the epithelium of hamster buccal pouch treated with biweekly topical applications of 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil. The cells were detected histochemically in whole mounts of pouch epithelium harvested as early as 3 days after the first application of this carcinogen. During 3 consecutive weeks of DMBA

  12. Effects of platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin on healing of extraction sockets with buccal dehiscence in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Marukawa, Eriko; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-?. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence. PMID:24098948

  13. Functional diversity of ES cell derived motor neuron subtypes revealed through intraspinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Peljto, Mirza; Dasen, Jeremy S.; Mazzoni, Esteban O.; Jessell, Thomas M.; Wichterle, Hynek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cultured ES cells can form different classes of neurons, but whether these neurons can acquire specialized subtype features typical of neurons in vivo remains unclear. We show here that mouse ES cells can be directed to form highly specific motor neuron subtypes in the absence of added factors, through a differentiation program that relies on endogenous Wnts, FGFs, and Hh – mimicking the normal program of motor neuron subtype differentiation. Molecular markers that characterize motor neuron subtypes anticipate the functional properties of these neurons in vivo: ES motor neurons grafted isochronically into chick spinal cord settle in appropriate columnar domains and select axonal trajectories with a fidelity that matches that of their in vivo generated counterparts. ES motor neurons can therefore be programmed in a predictive manner to acquire molecular and functional properties that characterize one of the many dozens of specialized motor neuron subtypes that exist in vivo. PMID:20804971

  14. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  15. Reproducibility and intraindividual variation over days in buccal cell DNA methylation of two asthma genes, interferon ? (IFN?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The biological mechanisms responsible for the onset and exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children may involve the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory genes after environmental exposures. Using buccal cells, we hypothesized that DNA methylation in promoter regions of two asthma genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interferon ? (IFN?), can vary over several days. Repeat buccal samples were collected 4 to 7 days apart from 34 children participating in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study. Several field duplicates (sequential collection of two samples in the field) and replicates (one sample pyrosequenced twice) also were collected to ensure consistency with collection and laboratory procedures. DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing a PCR of bisulfite-treated DNA. We found that replicate and field duplicate samples were correlated strongly (r = 0.86 to 0.99, P < 0.05), while repeat samples demonstrated low within-subject correlations (r = 0.19 to 0.56, P = 0.06 to 0.30). Our data reveal DNA methylation as a dynamic epigenetic mechanism that can be accessed safely and reproducibly in an inner city pediatric cohort using non-invasive buccal swabs and pyrosequencing technology. PMID:22414378

  16. Hot gas thrust vector control motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdoyes, Michel; Ellis, Russell A.

    1992-07-01

    A hot gas thrust vector control (HGTVC) motor developed in the framework of a Foreign Weapon Evaluation program is discussed. Two HGTVC versions were evaluated on the two nozzles of the program, normal injection with a blunt pintle and 10 deg upstream injection with a tapered pintle. The HGTVC system was tested on a modified ORBUS-1 motor which is based on two technologies, namely, a composite chamber polar boss (CPB) and a two-piece C-C nozzle which threads to the CPB and receives two HGVs embedded into its exit cone, 180 deg apart. It is concluded that the composite polar bosses and C-C nozzles performed successfully in both firings.

  17. Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control

    E-print Network

    Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

  18. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  19. Results of a 24-inch Hybrid Motor Performance Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Joseph D.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    The subscale (11 and 24-inch) hybrid motors at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been used as versatile and cost effective testbeds for developing new technology. Comparisons between motor configuration, ignition systems, feed systems, fuel formulations, and nozzle materials have been carried out without detailed consideration as to haw "good" the motor performance data were. For the 250,000 lb/thrust motor developed by the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program consortium, this shortcoming is particularly risky because motor performance will likely be used as put of a set of downselect criteria to choose between competing ignition and feed systems under development. This analysis directly addresses that shortcoming by applying uncertainty analysis techniques to the experimental determination of the characteristic velocity, theoretical characteristic velocity, and characteristic velocity efficiency for a 24-inch motor firing. With the adoption of fuel-lined headends, flow restriction, and aft mixing chambers, state of the an 24-inch hybrid motors have become very efficient However, impossibly high combustion efficiencies (some computed as high as 108%) have been measured in some tests with 11-inch motors. This analysis has given new insight into explaining how these efficiencies were measured to be so high, and into which experimental measurements contribute the most to the overall uncertainty.

  20. Basics of AC Motors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in AC Motors. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course covers: motor basics, NEMA motors, Siemens motorr, final exam, a glossary, plus a 116 page study guide.

  1. Distribution system voltage sags: Interaction with motor and drive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, L.; Lamoree, J.; McGranaghan, M. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Mehta, H. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several papers have been written on the response of directly connected induction motors or adjustable speed drive (ASD) connected motors to unbalanced and balanced voltage sags caused by faults on the power system. This paper will detail the interaction between the motors and drives and the supplying distribution system both during and after the voltage sag. In addition, the system effect of transferring the loads during the sag to an alternate feed with solid-state switching is evaluated. The Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP) was used for the analysis.

  2. Real -time DC motor position control by ( FPID )controllers and design (FLC)using labview software simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. a. altayef; Zhu Qun-xiong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the position control of a DC motor using Fuzz Logic and PID Control algorithms. Fuzzy Logic and PID controllers are designed based on labview program, and the real - time position control of the DC motor was realized by using DAQ device. The experimental results demonstrate that the responses of DC motor with FLC show a satisfactory,

  3. Project Success for the SLD Child, Motor-Perception Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne - Carroll Public Schools, Wayne, NE.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for a perceptual motor program which was developed by Project Success (Nebraska) through a Title III grant for language learning disabled elementary level students in kindergarten through grade 3. The program is said to be arranged in a hierarchy of skills ranging from simple to complex and to be written so that the…

  4. Feeding motor programme in Limax. II. Modulation by sensory inputs in intact animals and isolated central nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Reingold, S C; Gelperin, A

    1980-04-01

    The sources of variability in feeding motor programme (FMP) of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus, were examined in relation to: (1) changes in load on the feeding apparatus; (2) changes in concentration of attractive food stimuli; and (3) changes in satiety signalled by feedback from the gut. These sources of variability, which affect both timing of the central pattern generator for feeding and probability of occurrence of FMP, were compared in intact animals and in isolated brain preparations. The load on feeding apparatus of intact animals is altered by varying the hardness of their food. An animal will show a higher 'bite cycle' frequency on soft food as compared with hard food. In physiological preparations, weights attached to buccal muscles similarly increase load. Cycle frequency of FMP triggered by food extracts is increased when buccal muscles are unloaded compared with FMP when muscles are loaded. Increasing the chemostimulant concentration of food results in greater numbers of intact animals feeding for longer periods. Increasing the food extract concentration used to trigger FMP in physiological preparations causes similar increases in feeding duration. Intact animals use cues from gut distention to indicate satiation and terminate feeding. Inflation of the crop in physiological preparations causes an early termination of feeding activity, along with decreased FMP cycle frequency. PMID:7373207

  5. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties - DSM for motors popular with utilities and customers alike

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Demand-site management (DSM) programs for energy-efficient electric motors are effective cost-cutting strategies that utilities can use to help customers reduce their electricity consumption. Electric motor applications and motor-driven systems account for more than 50% of the total electricity used in the United States at a cost between $70 and $90 billion per year. Improving the energy efficiency of motors and motor systems can save 9% to 23% of all the electricity used in the United States. Improving motor system efficiency offers opportunities to save cities and counties substantial amounts of money and energy.

  6. Central motor conduction is abnormal in motor neuron disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Ingram; M Swash

    1987-01-01

    Conduction in the central motor pathways of the brain and spinal cord was studied in 12 patients with motor neuron disease. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the cortex, cervical cord, thoracic cord and conus medullaris was used to determine motor latencies to the biceps brachii, thenar eminence and tibialis anterior muscles. Prominent, and often asymmetrical,

  7. Finite element analysis of adhesive endo-crowns of molars at different height levels of buccally applied load

    PubMed Central

    Frentzen, Matthias; Utz, Karl-Heinz; Hoyer, Daniel; Langenbach, Alexander; Bourauel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of adhesive endo-crowns and the influence of their design on the restoration prognosis when four loading positions are applied from the restoration–tooth junction. Two three-dimensional finite element models for the lower first molar were developed: endo-crown as a monobloc and endo-crown of a primary abutment and a full crown. Four crown loading positions were considered: 5, 6, 7 and 8 mm. A force of 1400 N was applied buccally on the middle of the mesiodistal width. No differences were observed for the two endo-crowns concerning restoration displacement and the distribution of equivalent von Mises stress and total equivalent strain. Shifting the position of the applied load to 8 mm resulted in an increase in the displacement from 25 to 42 µm and an increase of equivalent von Mises stress concentration at the tooth. The height of load application on the restoration has a significant role in the prognosis of endo-crowns. PMID:22924064

  8. Technical Evaluation Motor 3 (TEM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, Diane

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of the technical evaluation motor program is to recover the case, igniter and nozzle hardware for use on the redesigned solid rocket motor flight program. Two qualification objectives were addressed and met on TEM-3. The Nylok thread locking device of the 1U100269-03 leak check port plug and the 1U52295-04 safe and arm utilizing Krytox grease on the barrier-booster shaft O-rings were both certified. All inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-3 static test firing conducted 23 May 1989 was successful. The test was conducted at ambient conditions with the exception of the field joints (set point of 121 F, with a minimum of 87 F at the sensors), igniter joint (set point at 122 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors) and case-to-nozzle joint (set point at 114 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors). Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. Nozzle performance was nominal with typical erosion. The nozzle and the case joint temperatures were maintained at the heaters controlling set points while electrical power was supplied. The water and the CO2 quench systems prevented damage to the metal hardware. All other test equipment performed as planned, contributing to a successful motor firing. All indications are that the test was a success, and all expected hardware will be refurbished for the RSRM program.

  9. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  10. Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit 

    E-print Network

    Evans, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a...

  11. Multiple Changes to Reusable Solid Rocket Motors, Identifying Hidden Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.; McCann, Bradley Q.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) baseline is subject to various changes. Changes are necessary due to safety and quality improvements, environmental considerations, vendor changes, obsolescence issues, etc. The RSRM program has a goal to test changes on full-scale static test motors prior to flight due to the unique RSRM operating environment. Each static test motor incorporates several significant changes and numerous minor changes. Flight motors often implement multiple changes simultaneously. While each change is individually verified and assessed, the potential for changes to interact constitutes additional hidden risk. Mitigating this risk depends upon identification of potential interactions. Therefore, the ATK Thiokol Propulsion System Safety organization initiated the use of a risk interaction matrix to identify potential interactions that compound risk. Identifying risk interactions supports flight and test motor decisions. Uncovering hidden risks of a full-scale static test motor gives a broader perspective of the changes being tested. This broader perspective compels the program to focus on solutions for implementing RSRM changes with minimal/mitigated risk. This paper discusses use of a change risk interaction matrix to identify test challenges and uncover hidden risks to the RSRM program.

  12. Gas-operated motor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rilett, J.W.

    1980-09-30

    A gas-operated motor system of the stored energy type-as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,092,830-in which the gas exhausted from the motor is ducted to a chamber during operation of the motor and thereafter compressed back into the gas reservoir vessel. Recompression may be achieved, e.g., by providing the exhaust gas chamber with a movable piston, or by running the motor in the reverse mode as a compressor.

  13. Filament depolymerization by motor molecules

    E-print Network

    Gernot A. Klein; Karsten Kruse; Gianaurelio Cuniberti; Frank Juelicher

    2005-01-24

    Motor proteins that specifically interact with the ends of cytoskeletal filaments can induce filament depolymerization. A phenomenological description of this process is presented. We show that under certain conditions motors dynamically accumulate at the filament ends. We compare simulations of two microscopic models to the phenomenological description. The depolymerization rate can exhibit maxima and dynamic instabilities as a function of the bulk motor density for processive depolymerization. We discuss our results in relation to experimental studies of Kin-13 family motor proteins.

  14. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

  15. Brushed Motor Test Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    . Additional data (motor velocity and current, and battery, current, velocity and voltage) was collected using Cornell University #12;In this test, a brushed motor, like the ones currently used in the robot Ranger: What does "PWM" mean here? #12;Figure 2 Comparison of current when motor spins positive and negative

  16. Spotting drives for large motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dick

    2002-01-01

    High power line-fed, constant speed motors sometimes must be operated at very low speed for controlled positioning of the attached load equipment. This process is referred to as 'spotting' or 'inching'. Examples include cement grinding mills (both raw and finish) and metal processing rolls. These motors are usually medium voltage (>2300 V). Two methods of spotting motors have been used

  17. Passenger car motor oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of a conference on passenger car motor oil. Topics covered include: Analysis of oil consumption mechanism by measuring oil rims radial movement; Base oil effects in sequence IIID and sequence V-D engine tests; Study of transient oil consumption of automotive engines; and SI engine warm-up: Water and lubricating oil temperature influences.

  18. Vesicles as Osmotic Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, J.; Bruinsma, R.; Sackmann, E.

    1999-06-01

    We report on a quantitative study of the motion of model osmotic motors-lipid vesicles in a solute concentration gradient. The vesicles move through recoil produced by osmotic pumping, but the transformation of entropic osmotic energy into mechanical motion is found to be unexpectedly efficient: The drift velocity is more than 3 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by linearized nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

  19. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  20. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  1. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  2. Metacognition in Motor Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic A. Simon; Robert A. Bjork

    2001-01-01

    Research on judgments of verbal learning has demonstrated that participants' judgments are unreliable and often overconfident. The authors studied judgments of perceptual–motor learning. Participants learned 3 keystroke patterns on the number pad of a computer, each requiring that a different sequence of keys be struck in a different total movement time. Practice trials on each pattern were either blocked or

  3. ams2000.com Stepper Motor System Basics

    E-print Network

    Bechtold, Jill

    . STEPPING MOTORS TYPES OF STEPPING MOTORS VARIABLE RELUCTANCE PERMANENT MAGNET HYBRID MOTOR WINDINGS MOTORS There are basically three types of stepping motors; variable reluctance, permanent magnet with laminated steel stators. VARIABLE RELUCTANCE The variable reluctance motor does not use a permanent magnet

  4. Electric drive system with BLDC motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Bai

    2011-01-01

    With the resource supply becoming severe recently, the use of hybrid car or electric car is a necessity that it can reduce the need of oil. This paper presents BLDC motor is the best choice for high-efficiency motor and shows a design of control system for BLDC motor. With the comparison of DC motor, Induction Motor and BLDC motor, Analysis

  5. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nabeel Anwar; Naoki Tomi; Koji Ito

    2011-01-01

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills.

  6. Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW), under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggest that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single E. coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed. PMID:25167320

  7. Programming LEGO mindstorms NXT with visual programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Han Kim; Jae Wook Jeon

    2007-01-01

    Lego Company has made a programmable robot set named Mindstorms NXT(NXT). This set comes with several types of sensors, motor, and programmable brick. The NXT set is provided with visual programming environment. Novice programmer can easily make a program for robot using this visual programming environment. The software of NXT is based on National Instruments' Lab VIEW. Also, Microsoft developed

  8. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  9. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  10. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-09-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series with it (Fig. 1). The second bulb is then replaced with the motor (Fig. 2). When the motor is running, the first bulb is dimmer than it was in series with the other bulb. However, if the shaft of the motor is held so it cannot move (like Hewitt's saw motor), the bulb is noticeably brighter. If one uses the brightness of the bulb as a qualitative measure of current, then there is clearly more current when the motor is not moving. This provides an opportunity to introduce some very interesting physics.

  11. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...conditions under which motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft,...

  12. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...conditions under which motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft,...

  13. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...conditions under which motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft,...

  14. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...conditions under which motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft,...

  15. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft, mechanical transport, structures, and installations...conditions under which motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft,...

  16. Dynamically timed electric motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  17. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  18. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  19. Motor neurone disease

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Bhagwan; Davies-Jones, G. A. B.; Russell, W. Ritchie

    1971-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies were carried out on 16 patients with motor neurone disease (MND). It was confirmed that the peripheral nerves in cases of MND are often unusually resistant to ischaemia especially as regards the large sensory fibres. Biochemical investigations demonstrated a tendency to carbohydrate intolerance and abnormal pyruvate metabolism. When compared with other related studies in MND it seems very likely that there is a metabolic abnormality present in MND which demands further study. Images PMID:4328410

  20. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  1. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  2. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  3. MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS

    E-print Network

    or improper driving habits of other drivers. Potentially dangerous acts include speeding, improper turn - Employees who drive Institute or privately owned vehicles on Institute business must possess and carry employees driving on Institute business have a copy of the state's General Liability Insurance

  4. Assessing methods to measure motor efficiency in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, J.; Wohlgemuth, C.; Wainwright, G.

    1997-07-01

    Managing electric motor systems is one of the most important aspects of improving reliability and increasing energy efficiency in the industrial environment. Unfortunately, unknown performance data for existing motors often frustrates good motor systems management intentions. Determining motor efficiency is not easy. Nonetheless, several existing methods and dedicated instruments estimated in-situ efficiency well enough to support economic decisions. The off-voltage conditions did not subvert results as much as the authors have expected. However, performance of the different methods varied by the motor under test, revealing that developers need to tune their designs for better accuracy with older, rewound, and/or damaged motors. For most methods, the best correlation with lab-determined efficiency was for the new energy efficient 300 HP motor. With the diverse veteran motors the methods diverged more, not only from lab efficiency, but also from each other. The most accurate methods were more invasive, requiring shutdown and uncoupling. However, with a structured motor systems management program, these procedures could be accomplished conveniently at different times with the results combined later to compute efficiency. For example, winding resistance could be measured and recorded at the receiving inspection of new and repaired motors. No-load power consumption could be accomplished either at the repair shop or during initial or post-repair installation. Performance under load could be recorded any time the motor is installed and operating at normal load. The authors believe that all methods can benefit from more validation studies with a diversity of typical veteran motors (i.e. other than new, efficient, and healthy motors). Where divergence occurs, case studies should pursue the causes of divergence. Several methods perform well enough that their adoption should be encouraged. However, the need to keep the techniques simple and user friendly for use in the industrial environment should not be forgotten. Field demonstration and testing (with feedback to developers) is needed. This will expand the practice of in situ efficiency testing, while supporting improvements in user friendliness.

  5. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products. PMID:25046638

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the buccal epithelial cells of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with three light-cured bonding composites by using micronucleus testing

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Sengul; Ozturk, Firat; Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Yalcin, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fixed orthodontic treatment with three different light-cured orthodontic bonding composites by analyzing micronucleus (MN) formation in the buccal mucosa during a 6-month period. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers were selected from consecutive patients referred for orthodontic treatment. Equilibrium 2 brackets and molar tubes (Dentaurum) were bonded with three different light-cured orthodontic bonding composites-Transbond XT (3M Unitek), Kurasper F (Kuraray Europe), or GrenGloo (Ormco Corporation)- to all teeth in both arches. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were scraped from the middle part of the inner cheeks with sterile cement spatulas before treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. MNs and nuclear alterations, such as karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL), and binucleated cells (BNs), were scored under a light microscope. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to calculate statistical differences in degenerative nuclear abnormalities. Results MN rates did not significantly differ among different time points within the same cell type (p > 0.05). In contrast, the number of BNs in buccal epithelial cells significantly increased in all composite groups (p < 0.01, Transbond XT; p < 0.001, Kurasper F and GrenGloo). KL frequency significantly increased between the beginning and end of the study in the Kurasfer F (0.80 ± 0.79 to 1.90 ± 1.10; p < 0.05) and GrenGloo (1.30 ± 1.06 to 2.40 ± 1.08; p < 0.05) groups. Conclusions After 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment with different light-cured composites, morphological signs of cytotoxicity were observed but genotoxic effects were absent. PMID:24892026

  7. Topical chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Lee, Jeng-Woei; How, Mon-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has become a prominent cancer because of its highest annual increase rate among all cancer diseases. Betel quid chewing habit is a major risk factor for oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and there are more than two million people who have this habit in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative (CPD)-mediated PDT is very effective for killing of SCC-4 cell lines in vitro. In order to decrease the systemic phototoxic effect of CPD, this study was designed to use a topical CPD-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical CPD-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when CPD reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of CPD gel. We found that CPD reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 1 hour (range, 0 to 30 hours) after topical application of CPD gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical CPD-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 200 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 100 J/cm2) using the portable WonderLight LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device once or twice a week. Visual and histological examination demonstrated that topical CPD-mediated PDT was partially effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  8. Induction Machine Modelling for Electromagnetic Transient Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Rogers; D. Shirmohammadi

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented by which an accurate dynamic induction motor model may be developed from a knowledge of standard specification data for the motor. The incorporation of the model into the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is described. Examples are given of its use in the study of the starting performance of a large induction motor and of the response

  9. Somatosensory Plasticity and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, David J.; Darainy, Mohammad; Mattar, Andrew A.G.; Wong, Jeremy; Gribble, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Motor learning is dependent upon plasticity in motor areas of the brain, but does it occur in isolation or does it also result in changes to sensory systems? We examined changes to somatosensory function that occur in conjunction with motor learning. We found that even after periods of training as brief as 10 minutes, sensed limb position was altered and the perceptual change persisted for 24 hours. The perceptual change was reflected in subsequent movements; limb movements following learning deviated from the pre-learning trajectory by an amount that was not different in magnitude and in the same direction as the perceptual shift. Crucially, the perceptual change was dependent upon motor learning. When the limb was displaced passively such that subjects experienced similar kinematics but without learning, no sensory change was observed. The findings indicate that motor learning affects not only motor areas of the brain but changes sensory function as well. PMID:20392960

  10. Use of motor current signature analysis at the EPRI M D Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Haynes; R. C. Kryter; B. K. Stewart

    1990-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA), a machinery monitoring technology developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been used to monitor a variety of electric-motor-driven devices at the Philadelphia Electric Company's Eddystone Generating Station as part of a program conducted by the EPRI Monitoring and Diagnostics Center. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the ability of MCSA

  11. A Strategy for Assessing Motorically-Impaired Infants. Working Papers in Developmental Disabilities. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Cordelia

    The document describes a process-oriented strategy for assessing children with atypical motor development. The Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development in Infancy by I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt are used as the content base. The intervention program focuses on teaching parents techniques for enhancing the child's functioning in sensorimotor, motor,…

  12. Design and Simulation of An Inverter-fed Induction motor for Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huijuan liu; Yihuang zhang; Qionglin zheng; Sizhou guo

    2007-01-01

    The variable-frequency induction motor used in electric vehicle is investigated in this paper. Firstly the design method of a voltage inverter-fed induction motor is introduced, and then the calculation methods of electromagnetic parameter are presented and programmed in VB (Visual Basic) software. Based on the geometrical dimensions and parameters, a simulation model in the vector control system is used to

  13. DESIGN AND OPERATION OF A WIRELINE RETRIEVABLE MOTOR DRIVEN CORE BARREL

    E-print Network

    DESIGN AND OPERATION OF A WIRELINE RETRIEVABLE MOTOR DRIVEN CORE BARREL OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM) Ocean Research Institute of the University of Tokyo (Japan) National Science Foundation (United States of a Motor-Driven Core Barrel 9 1.0 Introduction 9 1.1 Conceptual Design 9 Chapter 2: NCB1: Development, Land

  14. Environmental testing of class IE AC motor control center for nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Aggarwal; M. Husain; J. A. Maxwell

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the testing of a Class IE AC Motor Control Center, which was subjected to high temperature\\/humidity environment and pressure pulses. The test programs, simulating the effects of a high-energy steam line break in a BWR Mark I Containment nuclear power plant, are described. The motor control center functioned satisfactorily during and after the test.

  15. Potential role of mental practice using motor imagery in neurologic rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip L. Jackson; Martin F. Lafleur; Francine Malouin; Carol Richards; Julien Doyon

    2001-01-01

    Jackson PL, Lafleur MF, Malouin F, Richards C, Doyon J. Potential role of mental practice using motor imagery in neurologic rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1133-41. For many patients with damage to the central nervous system (CNS), execution of motor tasks is very difficult, sometimes impossible, even after early participation in an active rehabilitation program. Several investigators have recently proposed

  16. Using a Multi-touch Tabletop for Upper Extremity Motor Rehabilitation

    E-print Network

    Alberta, University of

    261 Using a Multi-touch Tabletop for Upper Extremity Motor Rehabilitation Michelle Annett, Fraser,frasera}@cs.ualberta.ca Darrell Goertzen, Jonathan Halton, Quentin Ranson Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital Edmonton, Alberta into rehabilitation programs to improve their motor functioning and quality of life. Currently, many of the activities

  17. Program

    Cancer.gov

    Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

  18. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Shoykhet; R. Schiferl; R. Duckworth; C. M. Rey; S. W. Schwenterly; M. J. Gouge

    2008-01-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the

  19. Servo motor selection criterion for mechatronic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman J. Van de Straete; Pascal Degezelle; J. De Schutter; R. J. M. Belmans

    1998-01-01

    Modern mechatronic applications often involve complex motions, resulting in highly dynamic motor loads. The selection of an appropriate motor is based on the characteristics of the load, besides other technical, as well as economic, considerations. However, motor characteristics, such as rotor inertia, affect the motor load, which complicates the analysis. The selection criterion presented in this paper separates the motor

  20. Simulation studies of Brownian motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwada, Nathan James

    Biological molecular motors achieve directed motion and perform work in an environment dominated by thermal noise and in most cases incorporate thermally driven motion into the motor process. Inspired by bio-molecular motors, many other motor systems that incorporate thermal motion have been developed and studied. These motors are broadly referred to as Brownian motors. This dissertation presents simulation studies of two particular Brownian motors, the feedback-controlled flashing ratchet and an artificial molecular motor concept, the results of which not only drive experimental considerations but also illuminate physical behaviors that may be applicable to other Brownian motors. A flashing ratchet rectifies the motion of diffusive particles using a time dependent, asymmetric potential energy landscape, and the transport speed of the ratchet can be increased if information about the particle distribution is incorporated as feedback in the time dependency of the landscape. Using a Langevin Dynamics simulation, we compare two implementations of feedback control, a discrete algorithm and a continuous algorithm, and find that the discrete algorithm is less sensitive to fluctuations in the particle distribution. We also model an experimental system with time delay and find that the continuous algorithm can be improved by adjusting the feedback criteria to react to the expected state of the system after the delay time rather than the real-time state of the system. Motivated by the desire to understand bio-molecular linear stepping motors, we present a bottom-up approach of designing an artificial molecular motor. We develop a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics model that is used to understand physical contributions to the diffusive stepping time of the motor and discover that partially reducing the diffusional space from 3D to 1D can dramatically increase motor speed. We also develop a stochastic model based on the classical Master equation for the system and explore the sensitivity of the motor to currently undetermined experimental parameters. We find that a reduced diffusional stepping time is critical to maintain motor attachment for many successive steps and explore an experimental design effect that leads to motor misstepping.

  1. A linear induction motor conveyer 

    E-print Network

    Solinsky, Kenneth Sheldon

    1973-01-01

    , for their assistance in setting up f'acilities for testing the linear motor, and for their hoLp in clarifying some poLnts regardIng the mo- toz ' s operation. The author is most grateful to hi wife, Grace. Not only did she do all the typing for the thesis, 'but... of the Motor VI. LINEAR MOTOR CONSTRUCTION VII. LINEAR MOTOR PERFORMANCE Evaluation of Graphs Page iii 3X 7 8 13 23 23 32 51 55 60 62 67 69 69 71 86 91 ChaPter VIII. COST AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS INVOLVED IN TRE SELECTION OF A LINEAR...

  2. Relative bioavailability of the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) 1080 pg versus Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate 1600 pg and dose proportionality of FEBT 270 to 1300 ?g: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period study in healthy adult volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Darwish; Kenneth Tempero; Mary Kirby; Jeffrey Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Background: The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) was designed to enhance the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FEBT is being investigated for the management of breakthrough pain.Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of FEBT 1080 ?g with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®) 1600 ?g, and

  3. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  4. Light-driven motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Hideki

    2011-02-01

    A light-driven motor operated by a single source of light is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wire initially trained straight shape. The SMA wire was formed in a loop and put around two wheels. In the experiment a steady and continuous rotation was achieved with a bundled loop of 0.3-mm diameter wire. The rotational speed was proportional to the incident light power and 60 rpm was obtained at 3.6 W of light power. The experimental result was consistent with the theory.

  5. 27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. Five-Year Follow-Up of Concomitant Accelerated Hypofractionated Radiation in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Hassan; Jamshed, Arif; Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez; Hussain, Raza; Jamshed, Sarah; Irfan, Muhammad; Hameed, Natasha; Illyas, Adeel

    2015-01-01

    In resource limited settings, induction chemotherapy with Gemcitabine and Cisplatinum and concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of buccal mucosa (BMSCC) are a cost effective option but remain under reported. The objective of this study was to report long term survival outcome after concurrent hypofractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced BMSCC. Between February 2005 and 2009, 63 patients received treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) regimen consisted of two drugs: Gemcitabine and Cisplatin. All patients received 55?Gy of radiation in 20 fractions with concurrent single agent Cisplatin (75?mg/m2). Five-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined. Based on AJCC staging, 7 (11%) patients were stage III, 31 (49%) stage IV a, and 25 (40%) stage IVb at presentation. After IC, 8 (18%) patients had complete radiological response, 33 (73%) had partial response, and 4 (9%) had stable disease. After concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation, thirty-nine (62%) patients were complete responders and 24 (38%) had stable disease. With a minimum follow-up of 60 months, 5-year OS, DFS, and PFS were 30%, 49%, and 30%, respectively. In locally advanced buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma, concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation results in acceptable survival and regimen related toxicity.

  7. Heritability of motor skill.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R; Gross, J B

    1980-01-01

    A total of 22 monozygotic (MZ) and 41 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were given 72 trials on a stabilometer balance task over six days to study the extent of the genetic contribution to learning and performance of a gross motor skill. The expectations that interindividual differences would be less for the MZ than for the DZ twins and that intraindividual variability would not be different between the two groups were supported. Intraclass correlations were used to provide estimates for the proportions of total phenotypic variance accounted for by heritability (h2), systematic environmental variance (E2), and nonsystematic environmental effects (e2). Heritability was found to be low during the early stages of learning, before it increased to stabilize at approximately 65% for the remaining practice. E2 was highest during these early stages (24%), then declined quickly to stabilize at half that level. Error variance (e2) constituted the remaining variance. Learning profiles of the twin pairs were also analyzed, with a greater intrapair resemblance being found for the MZ twins. The present findings indicate that, for gross motor skills, there is considerable potential for influencing both the levels of performance (and learning) and the differences between individuals by judicious use of systematic environmental effects. PMID:7196128

  8. Developing a Motor Management Policy at BASF 

    E-print Network

    Zickefoose, B.; Theising, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1998 Thomas R. Theising, BASF Corporate Engineering initiated the formation of a motor management team. The goal of the team was to develop a Motor Management Guideline to better manage the purchase and repair of motors used throughout...

  9. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  10. Wireless and Powerless Sensing Node System Developed for Monitoring Motors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    Reliability and maintainability of tooling systems can be improved through condition monitoring of motors. However, it is difficult to deploy sensor nodes due to the harsh environment of industrial plants. Sensor cables are easily damaged, which renders the monitoring system deployed to assure the machine's reliability itself unreliable. A wireless and powerless sensing node integrated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) sensor, a signal processor, a communication module, and a self-powered generator was developed in this study for implementation of an easily mounted network sensor for monitoring motors. A specially designed communication module transmits a sequence of electromagnetic (EM) pulses in response to the sensor signals. The EM pulses can penetrate through the machine's metal case and delivers signals from the sensor inside the motor to the external data acquisition center. By using induction power, which is generated by the motor's shaft rotation, the sensor node is self-sustaining; therefore, no power line is required. A monitoring system, equipped with novel sensing nodes, was constructed to test its performance. The test results illustrate that, the novel sensing node developed in this study can effectively enhance the reliability of the motor monitoring system and it is expected to be a valuable technology, which will be available to the plant for implementation in a reliable motor management program.

  11. Auto Indexer Auto-Indexer for Percussive Hammers: Vane Motor Dynamometer Testing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Su, Jiann

    The development of the motor will help to achieve program technical objectives by improving well construction capabilities. This includes enabling high-temperature drilling as well as enhancing directional drilling. A key component in the auto indexer is the drive motor. It is an air-driven vane motor that converts the energy stored in the compressed air to mechanical energy. The motor is attached to hammer-like components which impart an impulsive load onto the drive shaft. The impulsive force on the drive shaft in turn creates an indexing action. A controlled test was performed to characterize the performance of the the vane motor for a given pressure. The Sandia dynamometer test station was used to determine the performance of the motor for a given input pressure.

  12. Fuzzy logic control of a switched reluctance motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Rodrigues; W. I. Suemitsu; P. Branco; J. A. Dente; L. G. B. Rolim

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the use of fuzzy logic control (FLC) for switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. The PLC performs a PI-like control strategy, giving the current reference variation based on speed error and its change. The performance of the drive system was evaluated through digital simulations through the toolbox Simulink of the Matlab program

  13. Instabilities and pressure oscillations in solid rocket motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Fabignon; Jöel Dupays; Gérard Avalon; Francois Vuillot; Nicolas Lupoglazoff; Grégoire Casalis; Michel Prévost

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the main results obtained on instabilities and pressure oscillations in segmented solid rocket motors. A major part of this work was carried out in the framework of the ASSM and POP R&T programs supported by the French national space agency CNES during the last decade. ASSM is related to

  14. Analytical model for permanent magnet motors with surface mounted magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Proca; A. Keyhani; A. El-Antably; Wenzhe Lu; Min Dai

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method of modeling permanent magnet (PM) motors. The model is dependent only on geometrical and materials data which makes it suitable for insertion into design programs, avoiding long finite element analysis (FEA) calculations. The modeling procedure is based on the calculation of the air gap field density waveform at every time instant. The waveform is

  15. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered. 490.304 Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

  16. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered. 490.304 Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

  17. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered. 490.304 Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

  18. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered. 490.304 Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

  19. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered. 490.304 Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate §...

  20. Lessons Learned from the U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Projects 

    E-print Network

    Szady, A. J.; Jallouk, P. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the practical lessons learned to date from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Showcase Demonstration Projects. These projects are part of the DOE Motor Challenge Program, and are aimed at demonstrating increased...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1674 - Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1674 Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles. New York's adopted LEV program must be revised to...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1674 - Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1674 Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles. New York's adopted LEV program must be revised to...

  3. 77 FR 1892 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...Implementation Plan. (vi) The...Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program...IM240 emissions test will fail the...motor vehicle inspection and maintenance...on an IM240 inspection test. The IM240...maintenance plans for...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1674 - Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1674 Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles. New York's adopted LEV program must be revised to...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1674 - Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1674 Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles. New York's adopted LEV program must be revised to...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1674 - Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1674 Requirements for state implementation plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles. New York's adopted LEV program must be revised to...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.4902-1781 - GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.49-Illustrations of Forms § 101-26.4902-1781 GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition—Delivery Order. Note: The...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.4902-1398 - GSA Form 1398: Motor vehicle purchase and inspection label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.49-Illustrations of Forms § 101-26.4902-1398 GSA Form 1398: Motor vehicle purchase and inspection label. Note: The...

  9. Breakthrough pain management using fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in combination with around-the-clock (ATC) opioids based on the efficacy and safety of FBT, and its relationship with ATC opioids: results from an open-label, multi-center study in Japanese cancer patients with detailed evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, Chizuko; Goto, Fumio; Tanda, Shigeru; Shima, Yasuo; Yomiya, Kinomi; Matoba, Motohiro; Adachi, Isamu; Yoshimoto, Tetsusuke; Eguchi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rapid analgesic onset opioids, particularly fentanyl buccal tablet, is preferable for managing breakthrough pain. The efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal tablet and its association with around-the-clock opioids needs to be explored with an option of dose adjustments, more closely reflecting administration in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal tablet in breakthrough pain management in combination with around-the-clock opioids with the dose adjustment option, and explore the dose adjustment's influence on breakthrough pain management using detailed evaluation. Methods The 12-week open-label, multi-center study was conducted throughout Japan. Cancer patients aged 20 years or older, experiencing persistent pain controlled with around-the-clock opioids and breakthrough pain with supplemental medications were enrolled. Fentanyl buccal tablet and around-the-clock opioid doses could be adjusted under protocol-specified conditions. Efficacy variables were assessed at each fentanyl buccal tablet administration. Safety was assessed mainly by adverse events. Results All efficacy variables showed sustained analgesic effect. Nearly half the patients stayed on the same dose; most fentanyl buccal tablet administrations did not require additional supplemental medications. Dose increase of fentanyl buccal tablet and around-the-clock opioids seemed to improve breakthrough pain intensity and frequency, respectively. Fentanyl buccal tablet and around-the-clock opioid doses were not strongly associated. Treatment-related adverse events were all common with opioid treatment and did not increase over time. Conclusions Fentanyl buccal tablet can stably and safely manage breakthrough pain in cancer patients with independent dose adjustment based on detailed evaluation of each patient's condition. Breakthrough pain management using fentanyl buccal tablet with around-the-clock opioids at optimal doses may be an important factor in palliative care for cancer patients with breakthrough pain. PMID:25381384

  10. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  11. Verification of Motor Repair Quality 

    E-print Network

    Butler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

  12. Perceptual Aspects of Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallahue, David L.

    Perceptual-motor functioning is a cyclic process involving: (1) organizing incoming sensory stimuli with past or stored perceptual information; (2) making motor (internal) decisions based on the combination of sensory (present) and perceptual (past) information; (3) executing the actual movement (observable act) itself; and (4) evaluating the act…

  13. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  14. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  15. Harmonic piezodrive — miniaturized servo motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Barth

    2000-01-01

    Miniaturised dc-motors used in servomotor applications show some disadvantages like very high speed and therefore are combined with gearsets of a high gear ratio which introduce backlash and low efficiency. This article proposed a different kind of motor principle by the combination of a harmonic drive gearbox and stack piezoactuators. The actuators replace the functionality of the wave generator generating

  16. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  17. Fine-tuning motor torque

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, L.

    1996-01-01

    Direct-torque control, a new method of regulating the output of ac induction motors, provides a swift response to input commands. A new variable-speed ac motor drive system that responds to torque input commands 10 times faster than current state-of-the-art drives has been developed by ABB Industrial Systems Inc. in New Berlin, Wis. The new control system, called the ACS 600, provides an alternative to drive systems that use sophisticated flux vector control or more routine pulse width modulation--the primary methods of regulating the output of ac induction motors. The ACS 600 is suitable for use in single motor applications that require a standard level of performance, such as conveyors, fans, and pumps. But it will likely be more valuable in applications that require the linking of multiple motors, such as textile production, and in applications that require tight control over torque, such as cranes, elevators, and centrifuges.

  18. Control Performance of an Air Motor: Can Air Motors Replace Electric Motors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunmugham R. Pandian; F. Takemura; Yasuhiro Hayakawa; Sadao Kawamura

    1999-01-01

    Pneumatic actuators are among a variety of actuators under active study by the robotics community, for the advantages they offer over conventional electric actuators widely used in present-day robots. So far, however, only pneumatic cylinders which provide linear actuation have been mainly studied in literature. Air motors are the pneumatic counterparts of electric motors, providing rotary actuation. They have several

  19. Changes in the neural control of a complex motor sequence during learning

    PubMed Central

    Otchy, Timothy M.; Goldberg, Jesse H.; Aronov, Dmitriy; Fee, Michale S.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of complex motor sequences often proceeds through trial-and-error learning, requiring the deliberate exploration of motor actions and the concomitant evaluation of the resulting performance. Songbirds learn their song in this manner, producing highly variable vocalizations as juveniles. As the song improves, vocal variability is gradually reduced until it is all but eliminated in adult birds. In the present study we examine how the motor program underlying such a complex motor behavior evolves during learning by recording from the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), a motor cortex analog brain region. In young birds, neurons in RA exhibited highly variable firing patterns that throughout development became more precise, sparse, and bursty. We further explored how the developing motor program in RA is shaped by its two main inputs: LMAN, the output nucleus of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, and HVC, a premotor nucleus. Pharmacological inactivation of LMAN during singing made the song-aligned firing patterns of RA neurons adultlike in their stereotypy without dramatically affecting the spike statistics or the overall firing patterns. Removing the input from HVC, on the other hand, resulted in a complete loss of stereotypy of both the song and the underlying motor program. Thus our results show that a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit drives motor exploration required for trial-and-error learning by adding variability to the developing motor program. As learning proceeds and the motor circuits mature, the relative contribution of LMAN is reduced, allowing the premotor input from HVC to drive an increasingly stereotyped song. PMID:21543758

  20. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  1. Reciprocating linear motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  2. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  3. Stimulation of motor tracts in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed Central

    Berardelli, A; Inghilleri, M; Formisano, R; Accornero, N; Manfredi, M

    1987-01-01

    The muscle responses evoked by cortical and cervical stimulation in 11 patients with motor neuron disease were studied. The muscle potential in the abductor pollicis brevis, evoked by median nerve stimulation and the somatosensory potential evoked by wrist stimulation were also studied. In eight of 11 patients there was absence or increased central delay of the responses evoked by cortical stimulation. In four patients muscle responses on cervical stimulation and muscle action potentials on median nerve stimulation were also altered, indicating peripheral abnormalities. Somatosensory responses evoked by wrist stimulation were normal. Electrophysiological techniques are helpful in estimating the site of motor involvement in motor neuron disease. PMID:3612154

  4. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  5. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  6. Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market 

    E-print Network

    Wroblewksi, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    The Consortiun for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACT standard. CEE has set a uniform efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.90 - What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? 102-34...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? Unless...180, Government motor vehicles must display the following identification:...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.90 - What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? 102-34...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? Unless...180, Government motor vehicles must display the following identification:...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.90 - What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? 102-34...What motor vehicle identification must we display on Government motor vehicles? Unless...180, Government motor vehicles must display the following identification:...

  10. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  11. 26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. The U-bolt and concrete deadman which anchors the cable of the tramway is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  12. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Wei (Los Angeles, CA); Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Nowak, Michael P. (Menomonee Falls, WI); Dimino, Steven A. (Wauwatosa, WI)

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  13. Analysis of HB Type Vernier Motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Suda; Yoshitaro Matsushima; Li Xu; Yoshihisa Anazawa

    2005-01-01

    Direct drive motors are used as actuators in numerous applications in which they must rotate at low speeds with high torque and low torque ripple. Recently, various types of vernier motor have been developed. The HB type vernier motor is one of them. The structure of rotor is the same as HB type stepping motor. Our model of HB type

  14. Proprioception and Motor Control in Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Konczak; Daniel M. Corcos; Fay Horak; Howard Poizner; Mark Shapiro; Paul Tuite; Jens Volkmann; Matthias Maschke

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a progressive decline in motor function. Growing evidence indicates that PD patients also experience an array of sensory problems that negatively impact motor function. This is especially true for proprioceptive deficits, which profoundly degrade motor performance. This review specifically address the relation between proprioception and motor impairments in PD. It

  15. High-speed stepper motor for mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Oudet; François Pagnon

    2003-01-01

    The hybrid stepper motor are particularly well suited for motorization requirement in space mechanism. These applications are characterised by accurate positioning and slow speed or quasi-steady state, and are usually based on open loop control. Hybrid Stepper Motor driving is usually easy. A high speed stepper motor size 35 was developed to satisfy this requirement. The first step consisted in

  16. High temperature superconductivity applied to electric motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Edick; R. F. Schiferl; H. E. Jordan

    1992-01-01

    The application of high temperature superconductors to electric motors is discussed. Both the advantages and limitations of using superconductors in motors are reviewed. A synchronous motor with a high-temperature superconductor field winding for pump and fan drive applications is described and some of its unique features are identified. A 10000-hp superconducting motor design and its advantages in terms of improved

  17. Rotary protein motors George Oster1

    E-print Network

    Oster, George

    unambiguously iden- tified as rotary engines: the bacterial flagellar motor and the two motors that constituteRotary protein motors George Oster1 and Hongyun Wang2 1 Depts Molecular and Cellular Biology review the current understanding of how these protein motors convert their energy supply into a rotary

  18. Rotary protein motors George Oster1

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hongyun

    unambiguously iden- tified as rotary engines: the bacterial flagellar motor and the two motors that constitute#12;Rotary protein motors George Oster1 and Hongyun Wang2 1 Depts Molecular and Cellular Biology review the current understanding of how these protein motors convert their energy supply into a rotary

  19. Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PRAGASAN PILLAY; R. Krishnan

    1988-01-01

    Research has indicated that the permanent magnet motor drives, which include the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the brushless DC motor (BDCM) could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back EMF and requires

  20. Overview of 10 inch Diameter HTPB Hybrid Motor Testing with Liquid Oxygen at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy E.; Kearney, Darren; Roberts, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    To further explore the operation of hybrid rocket motors and to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the motor design Lockheed Martin funded research on a series of 10 inch diameter hybrid motors that produce less than 10 klbf sea level thrust. This test series was given the name "Hybrid Technology Test Program." These motors were fired in the existing test stand at the SSC E-3 complex Cell 1. The fuel and oxidizer for these 10 inch diameter motors are HTPB and LO2, respectively. The original goal of the testing was to verify that the predicted performance matched the actual performance of these 10 inch motors (ref. figure 1) and then confirm that the motors performed acceptably. For this element of testing horizontally fired hybrid motors will be tested using LO2 supplied from the existing facility 100 gallon LO2 tank that is pressurized with facility GN2. The thrust produced by the motor will be measured by a Lockheed Martin supplied load cell.