Sample records for buccal motor programs

  1. Cerebral and buccal neurons involved in buccal motor pattern generation in Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    In the African giant snail, Achatina fulica, two pairs of cerebral neurons, v-CDNs and Cls, and ten pairs of buccal neurons, Bls-B10s, were identified. B1-B6 and B10 were the excitatory motoneurons of buccal muscles. B7 and B8 innervated salivary ducts and B9 extended its axons to the cerebral ganglia although their functions were not clear yet. Serotonergic v-CDN exerted excitatory effects on various neurons in the buccal ganglia and had modulatory effects on buccal muscles. When v-CDN, Cl or B1 was continuously fired, each one could initiate and maintain the rhythmic motor activity (RMA) in the buccal ganglia of reduced preparation. Taste stimulation of the lip often elicited RMA. Nevertheless, v-CDN and B1 were not always excited by taste stimuli, and they appeared not to be critical elements in the generation of feeding rhythm. In contrast, Cl responded to taste stimuli with burst of spikes. Thus, C1 may play a role in taste-induced rhythm generation in intact animal. PMID:1299123

  2. Motor carrier evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of the Motor Carrier Evaluation Program is to develop a set of standards or guidelines that can be used to evaluate the ability of motor carriers to safely transport Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive and hazardous materials or wastes owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This program document consists of a narrative report detailing the criteria and methodology used to objectively evaluate potential motor carriers. A sample Motor Carrier Evaluation/Carrier Profile and a Motor Carrier Inspection Data Sheet are included as appendices to this report. Organizations offering hazardous materials, such as radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals or wastes for transportation, have a regulatory and ethical responsibility to select transporters that are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations related to the transportation of these commodities. 8 refs.

  3. Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

  4. Evidence for homologous peptidergic neurons in the buccal ganglia of diverse nudibranch mollusks.

    PubMed

    Watson, W H; Willows, A O

    1992-03-01

    The buccal ganglia of seven nudibranches (Aeolidia papillosa, Armina californica, Dirona albolineata, D. picta, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea) were examined to explore possible homologies between large cells that reacted with antibodies directed against small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB). The buccal ganglion of each species possessed a pair of large, dorsal-lateral, whitish neurons that contained an SCPB-like peptide. We refer to these neurons as the SLB (SCPB-immunoreactive Large Buccal) cells. In all species examined, the SLB cells project out the gastroesophageal nerves and appear to innervate the esophagus. In each species, an apparent rhythmic feeding motor program (FMP) was observed by intracellular recording from both SLB neurons and other neurons in isolated preparations of the buccal ganglia. SLB cells often fire at a high frequency, and usually burst in a specific phase relation to the FMP activity. Stimulation of SLB cells enhances expression of the feeding motor program, either by potentiating existing activity or eliciting the FMP in quiescent preparations. Finally, perfusion of isolated buccal ganglia with SCPB excites the SLB cells and activates FMPs. Thus, both the immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the SLB cells within three suborders of the opisthobranchia (Dendronotacea, Arminacea, and Aeolidacea) are homologous. A comparison of our data with previously published studies indicates that SLB cell homologs may exist in other gastropods as well. PMID:1527526

  5. Young Athletes program: impact on motor development.

    PubMed

    Favazza, Paddy C; Siperstein, Gary N; Zeisel, Susan A; Odom, Samuel L; Sideris, John H; Moskowitz, Andrew L

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7-9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3-5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed. PMID:23860506

  6. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program

    E-print Network

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge program is an industry/government collaborative that is working to increase the market penetration of efficient motor-driven systems. In support of the program's Showcase Demonstrations, a variety...

  7. The buccal bifurcation cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia R Pompura; George K. B Sándor; Douglas W Stoneman

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst were studied to further define this lesion. The treatment and outcomes were also analyzed.Study design. This prospective study, which spanned 3 years, included 32 patients. Their ages ranged from 5.5 to 11 years (mean of 7.5). A total of 44 buccal bifurcation cysts were treated solely with

  8. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  9. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  10. Motor programs for abdominal positioning in crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Larimer; Alan C. Eggleston

    1971-01-01

    Using chronically implanted suction electrodes (Fig. 2), records were obtained from the tonic abdominal flexor motor neurons of crayfish while they were undergoing various self-generated movements (Fig. 3). The main behavior examined in this study was one of abdominal extension (Fig. 1), a response which could be evoked repeatedly. Other stereotyped movements were also observed. Each class of behavior we

  11. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  12. Neuromuscular organization of the buccal system in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L; Govind, C K; Kirk, M D

    1991-10-01

    The intrinsic muscles and peripheral nerves in the buccal system of the sea hare Aplysia californica were studied to build a foundation on which to base future investigations of feeding in intact animals. A detailed description of the bilaterally paired intrinsic muscles is given identifying previously unreported muscles. Each of the six buccal nerves (n1-n6) and the cerebrobuccal connective (CBC) have been characterized in several respects. Cell bodies in the buccal ganglion with projections into each of the buccal nerves have been identified via the cobalt backfilling technique. All nerves contain axons of cell bodies in the ipsilateral as well as the contralateral ganglia. For each nerve, there is a consistent pattern in the distribution of cell bodies in the paired ganglia with the number of cell bodies in the contralateral ganglion being less than or equal to the number in the ipsilateral ganglion. Although the total number of backfilled cell bodies varies among the nerves, their size ranges are similar with the majority being small. Nerves 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 provide motor innervation to the intrinsic buccal muscles in varying degrees with nerve 4 supplying all the intrinsic muscles; nerve 2 supplies only one. The axon composition of each nerve was scrutinized and revealed large numbers of axon profiles, the majority of which were less than 2 microns in diameter. The present study provides a framework for analysis of feeding behavior in Aplysia californica. PMID:1748728

  13. Masticatory motor programs in Australian herbivorous mammals: diprotodontia.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Alfred W

    2011-08-01

    Movement of the jaw during molar occlusion is determined by the sequence of activity in the adductor muscles and this sequence is one way to define a masticatory motor program. Based on the similarity of molar structure, it is probable that the American opossum and the early Tertiary mammals that gave rise to all Australian marsupials probably shared a common "primitive" masticatory motor program. The distinct and various patterns of movement of the jaw in the major groups of Australian marsupial herbivores (diprotodontids) are achieved by both subtle and substantial shifts in the timing of the primitive sequence. All diprotodonts divide jaw movements during occlusion into a vertical Phase Im and horizontal Phase IIm, but the number of muscles involved and the level of activity associated with each phase varies considerably. In macropodids (potoroos and kangaroos) Phase Im dominates; in wombats Phase IIm dominates and in koalas the two phases are more evenly divided, with a more equal distribution of muscles between them. The motor program of koalas parallels that of some placental ungulates, while both macropodids and wombats have motor programs unique among mammals. PMID:21700567

  14. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  15. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. PMID:24911355

  16. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Babbitt III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered

  17. Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Goller, Franz; Wild, J. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of “how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions…?remains unanswered” and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233–267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity. PMID:11943843

  18. Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Goller, Franz; Wild, J Martin

    2002-04-16

    Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of "how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions...remains unanswered" and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233-267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity. PMID:11943843

  19. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  20. 40 CFR 1048.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle program...NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Compliance Provisions § 1048.605 What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle...

  1. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  2. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  3. Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2011-10-26

    Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia, respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs, the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 versus C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axodendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely located neurons. PMID:22031890

  4. Age-Related Differences in the Preparatory Processes of Motor Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Olivier; Michel Audiffren; Hubert Ripoll

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanisms underlying the age-related differences in information processing in the production of motor responses, especially the development of feedforward mechanisms. No age-related differences have emerged from developmental studies aiming at analyzing motor programming. Nevertheless, age effects have seldom been studied in function of motor preparation. The aim of the present experiment was (1) to study age

  5. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement. PMID:21858019

  6. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  7. Modular deconstruction reveals the dynamical and physical building blocks of a locomotion motor program.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Angela M; Frost, William N; Humphries, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    The neural substrates of motor programs are only well understood for small, dedicated circuits. Here we investigate how a motor program is constructed within a large network. We imaged populations of neurons in the Aplysia pedal ganglion during execution of a locomotion motor program. We found that the program was built from a very small number of dynamical building blocks, including both neural ensembles and low-dimensional rotational dynamics. These map onto physically discrete regions of the ganglion, so that the motor program has a corresponding modular organization in both dynamical and physical space. Using this dynamic map, we identify the population potentially implementing the rhythmic pattern generator and find that its activity physically traces a looped trajectory, recapitulating its low-dimensional rotational dynamics. Our results suggest that, even in simple invertebrates, neural motor programs are implemented by large, distributed networks containing multiple dynamical systems. PMID:25819612

  8. Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors

    E-print Network

    Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

    amount ranges from $1 to $3 per horsepower for motors and from $1 to $5 per hp for ASDs. Programs offering incentives greater than $1 per hp place limits on the total rebate amount. New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) does not have a specific... motors program, but does provide motor rebates as a part of each of three programs that it runs. NYSEG has been offering a vendor incentive equivalent to approximately 10% of the customer incentive, which equates to $2 per hp for motors and from $14...

  9. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  10. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio?=?0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  11. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  12. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  13. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  14. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  15. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  16. What Roles Do Tonic Inhibition and Disinhibition Play in the Control of Motor Programs?

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Paul R.; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2010-01-01

    Animals show periods of quiescence interspersed with periods of motor activity. In a number of invertebrate and vertebrate systems, quiescence is achieved by active suppression of motor behavior is due to tonic inhibition induced by sensory input or changes in internal state. Removal of this inhibition (disinhibition) has the converse effect tending to increase the level of motor activity. We show that tonic inhibition and disinhibition can have a variety of roles. It can simply switch off specific unwanted motor behaviors, or modulate the occurrence of a motor response, a type of ‘threshold’ controlling function, or be involved in the selection of a particular motor program by inhibiting ‘competing’ motor mechanisms that would otherwise interfere with the carrying out of a desired movement. A suggested general function for tonic inhibition is to prevent unnecessary non-goal directed motor activity that would be energetically expensive. The reason why basic motor programs might be a particular target for tonic inhibition is that many of them involve central pattern generator circuits that are often spontaneously active and need to be actively suppressed for energy saving. Based on this hypothesis, tonic inhibition represents the default state for energy saving and motor programs are switched-on when required by removal of this inhibition. PMID:20589095

  17. New prospective in treatment of Parkinson's disease: studies on permeation of ropinirole through buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    De Caro, V; Giandalia, G; Siragusa, M G; Sutera, F M; Giannola, L I

    2012-06-15

    The aptitude of ropinirole to permeate the buccal tissue was tested using porcine mucosa mounted on Franz-type diffusion cells as ex vivo model. Drug permeation was also evaluated in presence of various penetration enhancers and in iontophoretic conditions. Ropinirole, widely used in treatment of motor fluctuations of Parkinson's disease, passes the buccal mucosa. Flux and permeability coefficient values suggested that the membrane does not appear a limiting step to the drug absorption. Nevertheless, an initial lag time is observed but the input rate can be modulated by permeation enhancement using limonene or by application of electric fields. Absorption improvement was accompanied by the important reduction of the lag time; at once the time required to reach the steady state plasma concentration was drastically decreased. On the basis of these results we could assume that clinical application of ropinirole by buccal delivery is feasible. PMID:22465630

  18. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  19. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  20. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spie?, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  1. Buccal Fat Pad in Intraoral Defect Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saurab Bither; Rajshekhar Halli; Yogesh Kini

    The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently\\u000a used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. Buccal fat pad was used to reconstruct 3 medium sized defects\\u000a due to tumoral resection and oro-antral communication. It was used as an unlined pedicled graft. Three cases are discussed

  2. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  3. Still Jumping on the Balance Beam : Continued Use of Perceptual Motor Programs in Australian Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Stephenson; Mark Carter; Kevin Wheldall

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual motor programs (PMPs) are used widely in Australian schools. This study reports on an analysis of the information about the uses and the rationales for these programs drawn from the websites of Australian schools. Wide-ranging claims are made for the benefits of these programs for students with difficulties and for typically developing students but there is evidence that they

  4. Still Jumping on the Balance Beam: Continued Use of Perceptual Motor Programs in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark; Wheldall, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual motor programs (PMPs) are used widely in Australian schools. This study reports on an analysis of the information about the uses and the rationales for these programs drawn from the websites of Australian schools. Wide-ranging claims are made for the benefits of these programs for students with difficulties and for typically developing…

  5. CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) modeling of brushless DC motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use in flight control actuators for tactical missiles. This thesis develops a low-order mathematical model for the simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor performance. This model is implemented in CSMP language. It is used to predict such motor performance curves as speed, current and power versus torque. Electronic commutation based on Hall effect sensor positional feedback is simulated. Steady state motor behavior is studied under both constant and variable air gap flux conditions. The variable flux takes two different forms. In the first case, the flux is varied as a simple sinusoid. In the second case, the flux is varied as the sum of a sinusoid and one of its harmonics.

  6. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...definition, DOE added a note to clarify that the descriptive elements in this definition...Commission Standards. The note also stated that 10...outliers to the general population of small electric motors...25 at p. 19) DOE notes that it did not...

  7. How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys??

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia. PMID:25206440

  8. How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys?

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-06-01

    The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia. PMID:25206440

  9. New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre-and postmetamorphic tadpoles

    E-print Network

    1 New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded in facial nerve of premetamorphic use the fact that cranial nerve outputs of the isolated brainstem preparations from tadpoles and frogs

  10. Effect of perioperative buccal fracture of the proximal segment on postoperative stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Han, Jeong-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Buccal fracture of the mandibular proximal bone segment during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) reduces the postoperative stability. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this type of fracture on bone healing and postoperative stability after mandibular setback surgery. Materials and Methods Ten patients who experienced buccal fracture during SSRO for mandibular setback movement were evaluated. We measured the amount of bone generation on a computed tomography scan, using an image analysis program, and compared the buccal fracture side to the opposite side in each patient. To investigate the effect on postoperative stability, we measured the postoperative relapse in lateral cephalograms, immediately following and six months after the surgery. The control group consisted of ten randomly-selected patients having a similar amount of set-back without buccal fracture. Results Less bone generation was observed on the buccal fracture side compared with the opposite side (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior postoperative relapse between the group with buccal fracture and the control group. The increased mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height after the surgery in the group with buccal fracture manifested as a postoperative clockwise rotation of the mandible. Conclusion Bone generation was delayed compared to the opposite side. However, postoperative stability in the anterior-posterior direction could be maintained with rigid fixation. PMID:24471048

  11. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

  12. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  13. Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections. PMID:25408677

  14. The structure of motor programming: evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage. PMID:25082470

  15. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  16. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Wriessnegger, Selina C; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  17. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  18. Distributed Representation of Limb Motor Programs in Arrays of Adjustable

    E-print Network

    Baveja, Satinder Singh

    University Medical School Abstract This paper describes the current state of our exploration of how motor information processing modules that function as adjustable pattern generators (APGs) capable of the storage from a long line of studies in experimental psychology (cf. Schmidt, 1988).The basic idea

  19. Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick A. Suthers; Franz Goller; J. Martin Wild

    2002-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central

  20. The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were…

  1. Annulus: A motorized tree ring measuring program. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, J.

    1995-09-01

    A computer program, called ANNULUS, has been developed for measuring tree rings. The equipment configuration for the program includes a microscope, video camera, motor-driven slide with stage, and a video capture card. The user can measure one ring at a time or a series of rings on the screen.

  2. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazila Salamat-Miller; Montakarn Chittchang; Thomas P. Johnston

    2005-01-01

    Buccal delivery of the desired drug using mucoadhesive polymers has been the subject of interest since the early 1980s. Advantages associated with buccal drug delivery have rendered this route of administration useful for a variety of drugs. This review highlights the use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery. Starting with a review of the oral mucosa, mechanism of drug

  3. Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

  4. Executive Functioning, Motor Programming, and Functional Independence: Accounting for Variance, People, and Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Kraybill; Yana Suchy

    2011-01-01

    Assessing functional independence is an important part of making diagnostic decisions and treatment recommendations but is often complicated by the limitations of self-report and behavioral measures. Alternatively, it may be worthwhile to investigate neurocognitive correlates of incipient functional declines including using tests of executive functioning (EF) and motor programming (MP). The current study examined an electronic MP task and pitted

  5. Improving Developmentally Appropriate Practices in the Kindergarten Program by Introducing Therapeutic Sensory Motor and Play Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakes-Greenway, Doris

    This practicum was designed to increase teacher knowledge base in developmentally appropriate practices and increase understanding of the need for play and sensory motor activities in the kindergarten program. The primary goal was that the kindergarten teachers would use more developmentally appropriate practices in achieving curriculum…

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films

    PubMed Central

    Nappinnai, M.; Chandanbala, R.; Balaijirajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4), which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h) and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied. PMID:21394260

  7. Buccal fat pad - a simple, underutilised flap.

    PubMed

    Meyer, E; Liebenberg, S J R; Fagan, J J

    2012-05-01

    The pedicled buccal fat pad is a reliable flap for the repair of small oral defects. It is durable, easy to harvest and should be considered in settings where access to free flaps is limited and in cases where previous flaps have failed. We discuss a case where this flap was used successfully for closure of an oro-antral fistula. The indications, anatomy and techniques of successful harvest are discussed. PMID:22622104

  8. Palatal myoclonus associated with orofacial buccal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Nae; Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Do Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2012-03-01

    Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition in which there are rhythmic jerky movements of the soft palate and sometimes of the other muscles innervated by the brainstem A particularly annoying symptom is a rhythmic clicking sound in the ear due to the opening and closing of the Eustachian tube. Orofacial buccal dystonia is a focal dystonia with sustained spasms of the masticatory, facial or lingual muscles. The frequent symptoms of this disease have mainly been reported to be involuntary and possibly painful jaw opening, closing, deflecting and retruding, or a combination of the above. However, the subtle and unnoticeable involuntary movement of multiple facial muscles, which might be an infrequent symptom of orofacial buccal dystonia, makes this disease hard to diagnose. Understanding the functional orofacial anatomy that is responsible for the clinical signs and symptoms is necessary for making a proper diagnosis. Here we report on a rare case of palatal myoclonus that was associated with orofacial buccal dystonia, and such a case has not been previously reported. We describe the diagnostic approach and excellent treatment results after Botulinum toxin A (Dysport) injection and proper counseling. PMID:22468202

  9. Palatal Myoclonus Associated with Orofacial Buccal Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Do Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition in which there are rhythmic jerky movements of the soft palate and sometimes of the other muscles innervated by the brainstem A particularly annoying symptom is a rhythmic clicking sound in the ear due to the opening and closing of the Eustachian tube. Orofacial buccal dystonia is a focal dystonia with sustained spasms of the masticatory, facial or lingual muscles. The frequent symptoms of this disease have mainly been reported to be involuntary and possibly painful jaw opening, closing, deflecting and retruding, or a combination of the above. However, the subtle and unnoticeable involuntary movement of multiple facial muscles, which might be an infrequent symptom of orofacial buccal dystonia, makes this disease hard to diagnose. Understanding the functional orofacial anatomy that is responsible for the clinical signs and symptoms is necessary for making a proper diagnosis. Here we report on a rare case of palatal myoclonus that was associated with orofacial buccal dystonia, and such a case has not been previously reported. We describe the diagnostic approach and excellent treatment results after Botulinum toxin A (Dysport) injection and proper counseling. PMID:22468202

  10. Staged buccal mucosa urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, R. B.; Neelagund, S. E.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Siddayya C.; Jali, Sujata M.; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Repeated attempts at surgical repair of serious complications involving either the partial or complete breakdown of the hypospadias repair are less likely to succeed because the penis is densely scarred, or significantly shortened, and the skin over the penis is immobile and hypovascular. Buccal mucosa (BM) has become the preferred material for reconstruction, whenever a child with skin-deficient hypospadias needs reoperation. We report the results of our surgical experience with staged reoperation using BM, in the repair of hypospadias in children with complications after multiple failed repairs. Materials and Methods: Children needing reoperation for hypospadias underwent a staged repair using buccal mucosa. The complications were noted. Results: Twenty-one children aged 3 – 16 years underwent this staged repair during the period May 2000 – April 2010. Two of these 21 children had a failed first stage. One child developed a urethro-cutaneous fistula following the second stage, which was corrected in an additional stage. Conclusions: The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in a child with hypospadias, needing a reoperation, is a successful method, with a low incidence of complications. PMID:21814309

  11. Modular program for grain design and performance analysis of solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantharam, K. V.; Santha, V.

    1992-05-01

    A modular software program is described for conducting parametric analyses of solid-rocket-motor (SRM) grain designs to obtain preliminary propulsion data. The analysis package is described with particular attention given to the modular nature of the interactive subroutines, since the method is intended to give flexibility for inputs including port geometries, propellant characteristics, and motor variables. The software is applied to configurations typical of SRMs for launch vehicles, and sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impacts of different parameters on SRM performance. The software permits the evaluation of the effects of grain deformation on internal ballistics, and partial inhibition effects in some propellant grains can be assessed.

  12. Aberrant Fat Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants with Defects in the Defecation Motor Program

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ming; Gaur, Rahul; Selstam, Eva; Tuck, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are absorbed by the intestine, and the way in which the process is regulated are poorly understood. In a genetic screen for mutations affecting fat accumulation in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, nematode worms, we have isolated mutations in the aex-5 gene, which encodes a Kex2/subtilisin-family, Ca2+-sensitive proprotein convertase known to be required for maturation of certain neuropeptides, and for a discrete step in an ultradian rhythmic phenomenon called the defecation motor program. We demonstrate that aex-5 mutants have markedly lower steady-state levels of fat in the intestine, and that this defect is associated with a significant reduction in the rate at which labeled fatty acid derivatives are taken up from the intestinal lumen. Other mutations affecting the defecation motor program also affect steady-state levels of triglycerides, suggesting that the program is required per se for the proper accumulation of neutral lipids. Our results suggest that an important function of the defecation motor program in C. elegans is to promote the uptake of an important class of dietary nutrients. They also imply that modulation of the program might be one way in which worms adjust nutrient uptake in response to altered metabolic status. PMID:25849533

  13. A tyramine-gated chloride channel coordinates distinct motor programs of a Caenorhabditis elegans escape response

    PubMed Central

    Pirri, Jennifer K.; McPherson, Adam D.; Donnelly, Jamie L.; Francis, Michael M.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A key feature of escape responses is the fast translation of sensory information into a coordinated motor output. In C. elegans anterior touch initiates a backward escape response in which lateral head movements are suppressed. Here we show that tyramine inhibits head movements and forward locomotion through the activation of a tyramine-gated chloride channel, LGC-55. lgc-55 mutant animals have defects in reversal behavior and fail to suppress head oscillations in response to anterior touch. lgc-55 is expressed in neurons and muscle cells that receive direct synaptic inputs from tyraminergic motor neurons. Therefore, tyramine can act as a classical inhibitory neurotransmitter. Activation of LGC-55 by tyramine coordinates the output of two distinct motor programs, locomotion and head movements that are critical for a C. elegans escape response. PMID:19477154

  14. Overview of CFD Analyses Supporting the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Program at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric; McConnaughey, P.; Lin, J.; Reske, E.; Doran, D.; Whitesides, R. H.; Chen, Y.-S.

    1996-01-01

    During the past year, various computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program. The successful completion of these analyses involved application of the CFD codes FDNS and CELMINT. The topics addressed by the analyses were: (1) the design and prediction of slag pool accumulation within the five inch test motor, (2) prediction of slag pool behavior and its response to lateral accelerations, (3) the clogging of potential insulation debonds within the nozzle by slag accumulation, (4) the behavior of jets within small voids inside nozzle joint gaps, (5) The effect of increased inhibitor stiffness on motor acoustics, and (6) the effect of a nozzle defect on particle impingement enhanced erosion. The emphasis of this presentation will be to further discuss the work in topics 3, 4, and 5.

  15. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  16. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...FDA-2010-P-0593] Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms...FDA) has determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg,...

  17. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babbitt, Norman E., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

  18. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  19. Contamination Control Changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program: A Ten Year Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.

    1998-01-01

    During the post Challenger period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Thiokol implemented changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) contract to include provisions for contamination control to enhance the production environment. During the ten years since those agreements for contamination controls were made, many changes have taken place in the production facilities at Thiokol. These changes have led to the production of much higher quality shuttle solid rocket motors and improved cleanliness and safety of operations in the production facilities. The experience in contamination control over this past decade highlights the value these changes have brought to the RSRM program, and how the system can be improved to meet the challenges the program will face in the next ten years.

  20. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. DeLafosse; G. A. Tibbitts; A. D. Black; B. G. DiBona

    1983-01-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing\\/seal

  1. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

  2. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Louie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  3. Research on a psychomotor program for children with severe motor or multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Nakken, H; den Ouden, W J

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with help for brain-injured children with severe motor or multiple disabilities. It is argued that these children lack experiences due to their motor-disabilities. On the basis of an analysis of psychomotor programs the program by Le Gay Brereton was chosen for further research. This program was judged to be suitable because it is designed for teaching disabled children in the preschool age and because it emphasizes interaction between teacher and child. The authors, however, did not follow all her recommendations. Three experimental studies on the effects of this program are reported here. A special topic is the construction and use of the evaluation instruments. These instruments were designed for evaluating individual changes. One instrument serves to evaluate the training process. The other one tests for changes in specific cognitive skills. A statistically significant improvement was reported in all three experiments. Finally the authors present a plan for further research which concentrates on formulating individual goals for the children and on an instruction method for teachers. PMID:3159695

  4. Applicability of buccal fat pad grafting for oral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Toshihiro, Y; Nariai, Y; Takamura, Y; Yoshimura, H; Tobita, T; Yoshino, A; Tatsumi, H; Tsunematsu, K; Ohba, S; Kondo, S; Yanai, C; Ishibashi, H; Sekine, J

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of pedicled buccal fat pad grafting for the reconstruction of defects surgically created during oral surgery. A buccal fat pad graft was applied in 23 patients (5 males, 18 females; mean age 68.3 years) between 2003 and 2011. The graft was used to cover surgical defects of the palate, maxilla, upper gingiva, buccal mucosa, lower gingiva, oral floor, and temporomandibular joint region. Size of the surgical defects ranged from 15mm×12mm to 30mm×40mm; size of the buccal fat pad ranged from 15mm×12mm to 43mm×38mm. A pedicled buccal fat pad was prepared by incising the maxillary vestibule following primary surgery, and the surrounding connective tissue was preserved to supply nutrition to the pedicle during surgery. The buccal fat pad was placed on the raw surface of soft tissue or bone surface and sutured to the surrounding tissue of the defect. Complete epithelialization was observed within 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no complications or functional disorders during follow-up. Buccal fat pad grafting appears to be feasible for the reconstruction of surgically induced defects, and can be extended to the palate, mandible, mouth angle, and temporomandibular joint region. PMID:22902877

  5. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  6. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  7. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  8. StartReact restores reaction time in HSP: evidence for subcortical release of a motor program.

    PubMed

    Nonnekes, Jorik; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B; de Niet, Mark; de Bot, Susanne T; Pasman, Jacobus W; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C

    2014-01-01

    Startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) can accelerate reaction times ("StartReact" effect), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Both direct release of a subcortically stored motor program and a subcortically mediated trigger for a cortically stored motor program have been hypothesized. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we examined the StartReact effect in humans with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Delayed reaction times in HSP patients in trials both with and without a SAS would argue in favor of a cortically stored response. We instructed 12 HSP patients and 12 matched controls to respond as rapidly as possible to a visual imperative stimulus, in two different conditions: dorsiflexion of the dominant ankle; or flexion of the dominant wrist. In 25% of trials, a SAS was delivered simultaneously with the imperative stimulus. Before these tests, subjects received five SAS while standing to verify normal function of the reticulospinal tract in HSP. Latencies of startle responses in sternocleidomastoid and tibialis anterior muscles were comparable between patients and controls. During the ankle dorsiflexion task, HSP patients had an average 19 ms delay in reaction times compared with controls. Administration of a SAS accelerated ankle dorsiflexion in both groups, but more so in the patients, which completely normalized their latencies. The wrist flexion task yielded no differences in onset latencies between HSP patients and controls. The reticulospinal tract seems unaffected in HSP patients, because startle reflex onsets were normal. The corticospinal tract was affected, as reflected by delayed ankle dorsiflexion reaction times. These delayed onsets in HSP were normalized when the imperative stimulus was combined with a SAS, presumably through release of a subcortically stored motor program conveyed by the preserved reticulospinal tract. PMID:24381288

  9. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of...energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on March...energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error,...

  10. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  11. Training with inedible food in Aplysia causes expression of C/EBP in the buccal but not cerebral ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in Aplysia increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1–2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA. Stimulating the lips and inducing feeding responses do not lead to long-term memory and did not cause increased C/EBP expression. Blocking polyADP-ribosylation, a process necessary for long-term memory after training, did not affect the increased C/EBP mRNA expression in the buccal ganglia. PMID:18509115

  12. The Effect of a Perceptual-Motor Training Program Upon the Readiness and Perceptual Development of Culturally Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Robert V.; Fisher, Maurice D.

    As a part of a Title III project, a program was initiated to provide disadvantaged kindergarten children with planned perceptual-motor training exercises. This study investigates the effects of that program on the perceptual development and academic readiness of a group of 76 such children. The exercises, derived from the Kephart developmental…

  13. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

  14. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  15. Enhancing the buccal mucosal delivery of peptide and protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Jin, Liang; Simões, Cláudia M O; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    With continuing advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, there has been a dramatic increase in the availability of new biomacromolecules, such as peptides and proteins that have the potential to ameliorate the symptoms of many poorly-treated diseases. Although most of these macromolecular therapeutics exhibit high potency, their large molecular mass, susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, immunogenicity and tendency to undergo aggregation, adsorption, and denaturation have limited their ability to be administered via the traditional oral route. As a result, alternative noninvasive routes have been investigated for the systemic delivery of these macromolecules, one of which is the buccal mucosa. The buccal mucosa offers a number of advantages over the oral route, making it attractive for the delivery of peptides and proteins. However, the buccal mucosa still exhibits some permeability-limiting properties, and therefore various methods have been explored to enhance the delivery of macromolecules via this route, including the use of chemical penetration enhancers, physical methods, particulate systems and mucoadhesive formulations. The incorporation of anti-aggregating agents in buccal formulations also appears to show promise in other mucosal delivery systems, but has not yet been considered for buccal mucosal drug delivery. This review provides an update on recent approaches that have shown promise in enhancing the buccal mucosal transport of macromolecules, with a major focus on proteins and peptides. PMID:25168518

  16. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  17. Energy-efficient motor systems: A handbook on technology, program and policy opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nadel; M. Shepard; S. Greenburg; G. Katz; A. de Almeida

    1992-01-01

    Motors use more than half of all electricity, yet efforts to improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of drive power systems have received relatively little attention. This book outlines an approach for increasing motor and motor system efficiency through high-efficiency motors, optimized controls, improved component sizing and repair, better transmission hardware, and more comprehensive monitoring and maintenance. In addition to explaining technical

  18. Optimal control strategy design based on dynamic programming for a dual-motor coupling-propulsion system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  19. Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  20. Foxp1-mediated programming of limb-innervating motor neurons from mouse and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Katrina L; Rousso, David L; Umbach, Joy A; Novitch, Bennett G

    2015-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons (MNs) control diverse motor tasks including respiration, posture and locomotion that are disrupted by neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Methods directing MN differentiation from stem cells have been developed to enable disease modelling in vitro. However, most protocols produce only a limited subset of endogenous MN subtypes. Here we demonstrate that limb-innervating lateral motor column (LMC) MNs can be efficiently generated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells through manipulation of the transcription factor Foxp1. Foxp1-programmed MNs exhibit features of medial and lateral LMC MNs including expression of specific motor pool markers and axon guidance receptors. Importantly, they preferentially project axons towards limb muscle explants in vitro and distal limb muscles in vivo upon transplantation-hallmarks of bona fide LMC MNs. These results present an effective approach for generating specific MN populations from stem cells for studying MN development and disease. PMID:25868900

  1. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  2. Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol; And Others

    The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

  3. Program for the Improvement of Downhole Drilling-Motor Bearings and Seals. Phase III, Part 2: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Six months of activity to improve downhole drilling-motor bearings and seals for geothermal applications are reported. The following are covered: seal testing and evaluation, bearing-seal package testing and evaluation, lubricant testing and evaluation, and program status, plans and schedule. (MHR)

  4. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...or Design Close-coupled pump motors are...define a close-coupled pump electric motor...has little to no effect on its efficiency...procured a close-coupled pump motor with...with a solid or hollow shaft. An example...e., an empty cylinder that runs...

  5. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...Additions Close-coupled pump motors are...define a close-coupled pump electric motor...has little to no effect on its efficiency...procured a close-coupled pump motor with...with a solid or hollow shaft. An example...e., an empty cylinder that runs...

  6. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  7. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  8. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

  9. DORSAL ONLAY GRAFT URETHROPLASTY USING PENILE SKIN OR BUCCAL MUCOSA IN ADULT BULBOURETHRAL STRICTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUIDO BARBAGLI; ENZO PALMINTERI; MICHELANGELO RIZZO

    1998-01-01

    PurposePreputial skin graft is used routinely for urethral reconstruction in patients with stricture disease. Alternative donor sites include extrapenile skin, bladder mucosa and buccal mucosa. Recently buccal mucosa graft has been suggested when local epithelial tissue is not available. We describe our experience with 37 patients undergoing 1-stage correction of bulbar urethral stricture using a penile skin (31) or buccal

  10. Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wollman, Adam J M; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Carstairs, Helen M J; Cross, Robert A; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, cargo is transported on self-organised networks of microtubule trackways by kinesin and dynein motor proteins1,2. Synthetic microtubule networks have previously been assembled in vitro3–5 and microtubules have been used as shuttles to carry cargoes on lithographically-defined tracks consisting of surface-bound kinesin motors6,7. Here we show that molecular signals can be used to program both the architecture and the operation of a self-organized transport system based on kinesin and microtubules and spans three orders of magnitude in length scale. A single motor protein - dimeric kinesin 18 - is conjugated to various DNA nanostructures to accomplish different tasks. Instructions encoded into the DNA sequences are used to direct the assembly of a polar array of microtubules and can be used to control the loading, active concentration and unloading of cargo on this track network or to trigger the disassembly of the network. PMID:24213281

  11. The reconstruction of oral defects with buccal fat pad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Alkan; Dogan Dolanmaz; Emel Uzun; Erdal Erdem

    Questions under study: 1) to evaluate the success of buccal fat pad used in the reconstruction of oral defects, 2) to clarify its indications and size limita- tions, 3) to identify risk factors if there were any. Methods: in this prospective clinical study, buc- cal fat pad was used in 26 patients with different indications which included 5 defects resulting

  12. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification Andrew J. Radosevich1 *, Nikhil N, United States of America Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with .150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated

  13. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  14. Analysis of Diadochokinesis in Ataxic Dysarthria Using the Motor Speech Profile Program™

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The Diadochokinetic Rate Analysis (DRA) in the KayPENTAX Motor Speech Profile is a computer program for the analysis of diadochokinesis (DDK). The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability, reliability, and concurrent validity of the results from the DRA protocol and hand measurement for individuals with ataxic dysarthria, which is characteristically associated with dysdiadochokinesis. Methods Twenty-one participants with ataxic dysarthria were recorded as they repeated various syllables as quickly and steadily as possible. The DDK samples were executed by the DRA protocol at different thresholds and were also hand-measured. Analyses were based on the percentage of nonexecutable DDK samples, defined as samples in which the lowest peak intensity during CV syllables is lower than the highest peak intensity during intersyllable pauses, and the comparisons of the results between repeated analyses at different thresholds and between automatic and manual measuring methods. Results (1) More than one third of the DDK samples were nonexecutable; (2) the reliability at different thresholds and concurrent validity between different measuring methods were both satisfactory, and (3) temporal variation parameters were more inconsistent between different measuring methods than intensity variation parameters. Conclusion DRA has notable limitations in its clinical application but there is a considerable potential for improving its performance. PMID:19088478

  15. Comparison of pedicled buccal fat pad flap with buccal flap for closure of oro-antral communication.

    PubMed

    Nezafati, S; Vafaii, A; Ghojazadeh, M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results of pedicled buccal fat pad flap (PBFPF) with the standard buccal flap in the closure of oro-antral fistula (OAF). Twenty-two patients aged 25-56 years with oro-antral communication were randomly divided into two groups using Rand List 1.2 software. In group 1, OAF was treated with the classic buccal sliding flap and in group 2 a pedicled buccal fat pad was used. All patients were visited 48 h, 1 week and 1 month after surgery for assessment of primary (success of surgery) and secondary outcomes (pain, swelling, maximum mouth opening (MMO) reduction). Both methods were equally successful for the closure of OAF. The pain score was statistically greater in the experimental group (U=9, P=0.001). MMO was statistically less in the experimental group 2 and 7 days after surgery (P<0.001). 1 month after surgery, no statistically significant difference was found in MMO between the two groups (P=0.09). In general, the PBFPF group had more pronounced swelling than the control group. Despite the statistical evidence, none of the patients complained of pain and swelling following the PBFPF procedure. PMID:22192386

  16. DNA elution from buccal cells stored on Whatman FTA Classic Cards using a modified methanol fixation method.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Helene C; Hyland, Valentine; Wicking, Carol; Sturm, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    We describe here a method for DNA elution from buccal cells and whole blood both collected onto Whatman FTA technology, using methanol fixation followed by an elution PCR program. Extracted DNA is comparable in quality to published Whatman FTA protocols, as judged by PCR-based genotyping. Elution of DNA from the dried sample is a known rate-limiting step in the published Whatman FTA protocol; this method enables the use of each 3-mm punch of sample for several PCR reactions instead of the standard, one PCR reaction per sample punch. This optimized protocol therefore extends the usefulness and cost effectiveness of each buccal swab sample collected, when used for nucleic acid PCR and genotyping. PMID:19450238

  17. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisci?nas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the rehabilitation of stroke patients (p< 0.05). PMID:14515053

  18. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

  19. Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

    2009-01-01

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

  20. Comparative buccal permeability enhancement of didanosine and tenofovir by potential multifunctional polymeric excipients and their effects on porcine buccal histology.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Mackraj, Irene; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-02-01

    This study identified and compared the buccal permeability properties of antiretroviral drugs, didanosine (ddI) and tenofovir (TNF), and the permeability effects of polymeric excipients - i.e. carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sodium alginate (SA), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) - as potential multifunctional excipients for buccal drug delivery. Permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed and the drug was quantified using UV spectrophotometry. The mean flux for both ddI (113-181 µg/cm(2)h) and TNF (40-102 µg/cm(2)h) increased linearly with increasing donor concentration. All polymeric excipients improved permeability of TNF while only PEG was effective for ddI. Permeability enhancement ratios at 20 mg/mL for ddI and TNF were 1.63 and 1.74, respectively, using PEG (0.5% w/v) and CMC (0.5% w/v), respectively. The maximum enhancement ratio of 2.13 for TNF was achieved with 4% w/v PEG. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed no significant loss in cellular integrity of mucosa treated with either TNF or ddI alone or when coupled with PEG as a polymeric enhancer. Histomorphological observations correlated with flux values obtained for TNF and ddI alone, as well as with PEG's effects on drug mass flux. TNF and ddI have demonstrated buccal delivery potential. Selective polymeric excipients provide an effective means to increase their penetration and may serve as potential formulation multifunctional excipients in a delivery system for delivery via the buccal route. PMID:23323967

  1. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

  2. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  3. Simplified buccal DNA extraction with FTA Elute Cards.

    PubMed

    Wolfgramm, Eldamária de Vargas; de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; Aguiar, Vitor Rezende da Costa; Sartori, Mariana Penha De Nadai; Hirschfeld-Campolongo, Gabriela C R; Tsutsumida, Weslley M; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2009-03-01

    DNA isolation is the initial step of most genetic studies, and ideally it should use a reliable and non-invasive method. Buccal samples are adequate for such purposes, being painless, easy to collect and a very reliable DNA source. FTA Elute Cards are relatively new on the market and are designed for rapid blood DNA extraction, in which DNA is solubilized in water, instead of attached to the paper matrix. In this study, we sought to test if FTA Elute Cards are suitable for buccal DNA extraction. Furthermore, several time and temperature conditions were analyzed in order to determine the best concentration/time ratio. Twenty-five different conditions were tested in quadruplicate and extracted DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. PMID:19215882

  4. Formulation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Glipizide

    PubMed Central

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, A.; Kumar, G.

    2008-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5 mg glipizide in 4.9% w/v hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 1.5% w/v sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time and promising drug release. The formulation was found to be suitable candidate for the development of buccal films for therapeutic use. PMID:20390079

  5. Multiple neural oscillators and muscle feedback are required for the intestinal fed state motor program.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jordan D; Bornstein, Joel C; Thomas, Evan A

    2011-01-01

    After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40-60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40-200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle. PMID:21573176

  6. C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L. René

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

  7. Fusion protein Isl1-Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2012-02-28

    Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1-Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1-Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1-Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1-Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells. PMID:22343290

  8. Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity

    E-print Network

    Mazzoni, Esteban O

    Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors ...

  9. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-02-01

    To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

  10. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-01-01

    To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

  11. Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum

    E-print Network

    Brainerd, Elizabeth

    Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum Kelly A including feeding, lung ventilation, buccopharyngeal respiration, thermoregulation, olfaction, defense of these buccal oscillations is 7.8 times smaller than the mean tidal volume of lung ventilation (combined mean

  12. Functional Morphology of the Cephalopod Buccal Mass: A Novel Joint Type

    E-print Network

    Kier, William M.

    Functional Morphology of the Cephalopod Buccal Mass: A Novel Joint Type Theodore A. Uyeno that the buccal mass of coleoid cephalopods may represent a previously unexamined flexible joint mechanism of such a joint. J. Morphol. 264:211­222, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS: joint; cephalopod; muscle

  13. Rehabilitation following motor nerve transfers.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christine B

    2008-11-01

    Cortical mapping and relearning are key factors in optimizing patient outcome following motor nerve transfers. To maximize function following nerve transfers, the rehabilitation program must include motor reeducation to initiate recruitment of the weak reinnervated muscles and to establish new motor patterns and cortical mapping. Patient education and a home program are essential to obtain the optimal functional result. PMID:18928890

  14. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  15. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption...that it has developed an Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control...coordinated package of requirements for passenger cars, light-duty trucks and...

  16. Health and wellness programs for commercial motor-vehicle drivers: organizational assessment and new research directions.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Michael; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-02-01

    The workplace is an invaluable venue for health protection and promotion interventions, particularly for truck drivers due to their overreliance on their work environments, a plethora of work-related stressors, and their morbidity rates. Extant efforts of trucking companies to address driver health through worksite health and wellness programs have been inadequate, producing unsustainable results. The Driver Health and Wellness Program Survey was designed for and disseminated to 46 trucking companies to assess the current state of health and wellness programs in the trucking industry, including program participation rates and longevity, program evaluation procedures, and program activities and resources. Findings indicate that programmatic efforts in trucking companies continue to fall short, and health and wellness programs are insufficient to improve health outcomes in a sustainably positive direction. A new integrated, systems-based paradigm is proposed as a conceptual and methodological framework with the potential to meaningfully advance interventions in blue-collar work settings. PMID:25881658

  17. Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

  18. Monoaminergic Orchestration of Motor Programs in a Complex C. elegans Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Andrew M.; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Haburcak, Marian; Francis, Michael M.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamines provide chemical codes of behavioral states. However, the neural mechanisms of monoaminergic orchestration of behavior are poorly understood. Touch elicits an escape response in Caenorhabditis elegans where the animal moves backward and turns to change its direction of locomotion. We show that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a G?o pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor neurons that synapse onto ventral body wall muscles. Extrasynaptic activation of SER-2 facilitates ventral body wall muscle contraction, contributing to the tight ventral turn that allows the animal to navigate away from a threatening stimulus. Tyramine temporally coordinates the different phases of the escape response through the synaptic activation of the fast-acting ionotropic receptor, LGC-55, and extrasynaptic activation of the slow-acting metabotropic receptor, SER-2. Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence. PMID:23565061

  19. Effects of a training program based on the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on post-stroke motor recovery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa e Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Sousa Silva, Wagner Henrique; de Alencar Caldas, Vescia Vieira; Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; Costa Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    This preliminary study sought to analyze the effects of a training program based on the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on motor recovery of individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis (mean lesion time of 19.64 months) after unilateral and non-recurrent stroke underwent training based on PNF method for twelve sessions, being evaluated for motor function - using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) instrument; functionality, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM); and gait kinematic (using the Qualisys Motion Capture System), at baseline and post-training. Significant changes in FIM (from median 67 to median 68; P = .043) and STREAM scores (from median 47 to median 55; P = .003) were observed. Data showed significant changes in motor function and functionality after training, suggesting that this program can be useful for rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors. PMID:25440202

  20. Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus using Cytomorphometry of Buccal Cells and Correlation with Glycosylated Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, K Raghavendhar; Malathi, N; Poornima, K; Prakash, Sunil; Kadhiresan, R; Arunmozhi, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study cytological alterations in the exfoliated buccal cells of diabetic patients. To analyze the cytomorphometric findings in the smears of uncontrolled and controlled diabetic patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. To establish a correlation between cytomorphometric changes and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetics and normal controls, for evaluation of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 confirmed diabetic patients from a hospital out-patient diabetic ward and 20 healthy individuals as controls (Group A: n = 20), in Chennai. Specific exclusion criteria were used to select the study group from a larger group of subjects. Based on HbA1c values, the diabetic patients were categorized into Group B = Controlled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c <7%) and Group C = Uncontrolled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c >9%). After informed consent, buccal smear was collected from clinically normal appearing mucosa and stained with papanicoloau (PAP) stain. Cytomorphometric analysis of selective PAP stained cells was done using image analysis software, Image Pro Plus 5.5 (Olympus) and parameters determined were average cytoplasmic area (CA), average nuclear area (NA) and cytoplasmic:nuclear (C: N) ratio for an average of 50 cells/patient. Results: Comparing the average NA among three groups, an increase through Group A, B, C, with a maximum significance between Group C and A was seen. The average C: N ratio showed a statistically significant difference between all three groups. Significant correlation existed between the HbA1c values and both the C: N ratio and average NA in all the three groups. Conclusions: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal smears using the C: N ratio alteration as a reliable criteria, may serve as yet another non-invasive tool for screening programs for diabetic detection. And the technique may possibly be used also for evaluation of glycemic control in known diabetics.

  1. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations. PMID:9876546

  2. Exploiting the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the delivery of donepezil hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Pan, Yijun; Simões, Cláudia M O; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    The potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of donepezil (DPZ) hydrochloride, and the impact of various skin penetration enhancers on DPZ buccal permeability, was assessed using an in vitro model. DPZ was applied to porcine buccal mucosa in modified Ussing chambers either alone (20 ?g/mL) or with different treatment protocols of various enhancers including Azone® (AZ), deoxycholic acid (DA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and oleic acid (OA)-PEG 400. DPZ permeated the buccal mucosa very rapidly with a permeability coefficient of 35.6 ± 4.9 × 10(-6) cm/s, which was not significantly affected by AZ pretreatment. Coapplication of DA 0.6% (w/w), but not DA 0.01% (w/w), reduced the buccal permeation of DPZ (3.5-fold), and PEG 400 reduced the absorption of DPZ in a dose-dependent manner (1.6- and 18.0-fold reduction at 5% and 50%, w/w, PEG 400, respectively). Coapplication of a combination of OA 1% (v/w) and PEG 400 5% (w/w) further reduced DPZ permeability (5.5-fold), which was demonstrated to result from excipient-induced DPZ precipitation as assessed by light microscopy analysis. These results confirm the feasibility of a novel buccal delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, and suggest various approaches that may be exploited for controlled buccal delivery of DPZ. PMID:24687969

  3. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605 What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605 What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor...

  5. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report

    PubMed Central

    G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

  6. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

  7. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

  8. BricxCC Programming: NxC for Motor Speed and for Data Acquisition Copyright 2011 Paul Oh

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    Num("deltaAngle = %ld", deltaAngleInDegrees); curTick = CurrentTick(); // read timer value deltaT = curTick - prev.031 // STAT: Works! #define MOTOR OUT_A // set constant MOTOR for Port A #define FULL_SPEED 100 // 100 percentAngleInDegrees; // placeholder for degree read by motor encoder long curAngleInDegrees; // current motor angle [DEG] long delta

  9. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  10. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

  11. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  12. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  13. Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns: A Program for Establishing Neurological Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

    This booklet presents a brief description of human neurological development and outlines a program for children designed to establish neurological organization through movement. The patterns of movement are divided into six areas: (1) General Movement Patterns (such as head rolls, crawling, cross-pattern creeping and walking, running, skipping,…

  14. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichat´s buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, Rocío; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichat´s ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichat’s fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  15. Use of Buccal Swabs for Sampling DNA from Nestling and Adult Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    COLLEEN M. HANDEL; LISA M. PAJOT; SANDRA L. TALBOT; GEORGE K. SAGE

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells from small (2- to 13-g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4- to 8-day-old) black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from 6 4-day-old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica).

  16. Bioavailability and Metabolism of Prochlorperazine Administered via the Buccal and Oral Delivery Route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Finn; Jason Collins; Robert Voyksner; Celeste Lindley

    2005-01-01

    Prochlorperazine has been accepted as an effective anti-emetic for more than 50 years; however, its therapeutic success has been limited by its low and variable absorption and high first-pass metabolism. A buccal dosage form of prochlorperazine has been developed. This article discusses 2 clinical studies conducted to characterize the single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of prochlorperazine and its metabolites after buccal

  17. In-vitro comparative study of buccal mucoadhesive performance of different polymeric films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Eouani; Ph Piccerelle; P Prinderre; E Bourret; J Joachim

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of the buccal mucoadhesive performance of different polymeric films was carried out using texture analyzer TA-XT2i. A large range of putative polymers differing in their chemical nature, molecular structure as well as hydration status was used. The used polymeric films were classified in rank order of buccal mucoadhesive performance, namely carbopol 971P>polycarbophil>Carrrageenan type ? > Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Swelling

  18. Development and evaluation of buccal films impregnated with selegiline-loaded nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Poor peroral therapeutic efficiency of selegiline is primarily due to the extensive hepatic metabolism and hence the need for an alternative route of administration. The present study is based on evaluation of a buccal film which is impregnated with selegiline nanospheres to enhance the systemic bioavailability. Selegiline-loaded nanospheres prepared using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) was embedded into buccal films (F1-F4) with varying polymer composition [hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and eudragit]. The developed films were evaluated for their physicomechanical properties, hydration, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation in order to identify the ideal system suitable for further development. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the comparative pharmacokinetics profile of the selected buccal film with oral solution. Preliminary studies indicated that the prepared films exhibited excellent physical properties, adequate mucoadhesive strength and moderate hydration. In vitro drug release data of the buccal films (F1, F2 and F3) showed distinct profiles. Permeation studies indicated higher steady-state flux from film F3 (p?buccal delivery of selegiline using the developed buccal film (F3) would be a promising alternative approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25182182

  19. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  20. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  1. Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishnu M; Prajapati, Bhupendra G; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934 (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal devices were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, surface pH, swelling index, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, and in vitro drug permeation. As compared with bilayered tablets, multilayered tablets showed slow release rate of drug with improved ex vivo bioadhesive strength and enhanced ex vivo mucoadhesion time. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion (value of n between 0.5 and 1.0) for both the buccal devices. The stability of drug in both the optimized buccal devices was tested for 6 hours in natural human saliva; both the buccal devices were found to be stable in natural human saliva. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal devices of PRH can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of PRH. PMID:17408221

  2. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    PubMed

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. PMID:25496850

  3. Outcomes of Dorsal and Ventral Buccal Graft Urethroplasty at a Tertiary Hospital in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kaggwa, S.; Galukande, M.; Dabanja, H.; Luweesi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Although the use of buccal mucosa in substitution urethroplasty has been practiced for some years, it has not been free of controversy over which surgical technique is the most appropriate to use. There is paucity of data in Sub-Saharan Africa about its success; this study presents the outcomes of dorsal and ventral buccal graft urethroplasty at a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital. Methods. This is a prospective study in which buccal mucosa was used for ventral and dorsal grafts; followup was up to two years. All patients provided informed written consent for the procedures. Results. Seventy-two patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent buccal graft one-stage urethroplasty. Mean age was 55 years; etiology of the strictures was postinflammatory due to urethritis from sexually transmitted infections 97% (70/72) and trauma 3% (2/72). Buccal mucosa grafts were harvested from the cheek using a two-team approach. Grafts were placed on the ventral and dorsal urethral surfaces in 32 and 40 cases, respectively; the success rate was 84 and 80%, respectively. Repeated urethroplasty was successfully done among 10% (7/72) and patients reported resolution of symptoms in the follow-up period. Conclusion. There was no difference between dorsal and ventral onlay buccal graft outcomes for bulbar urethral strictures. The success rate was 80 to 84%. PMID:24944835

  4. A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2012-01-01

    We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500× stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000× stiffness fin rays. PMID:22162853

  5. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3?±?0.6, BMI 16.3?±?1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n?=?201), children in the intervention group (n?=?187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (?0.8 to 0.3), p?=?0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p?program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460 PMID:23835207

  6. Motor Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

  7. Motor Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

  8. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  9. 40 CFR 1045.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle or Large SI programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions...1045.605 What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor...

  10. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

  11. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  12. Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Sherrill, C; Gench, B

    1981-08-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children, ages 4 to 6 yr., were investigated. The experimental group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of integrated physical education/music instruction based upon concepts of Kodaly and Dalcroze. The control group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Analysis of covariance indicated that significant improvement occurred only in the experimental group, with discharges changes in the motor, auditory, and language aspects of perceptual-motor performance as well as total score. PMID:7290863

  13. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon.

  14. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2014-09-16

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  15. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  16. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision--and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  17. Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2013-01-01

    In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool. This extracellular technique has advantages. First, extracellular electrodes can stimulate and record neurons through the sheath5, so it does not need to be removed. Thus, neurons will be healthier in extracellular experiments than in intracellular ones. Second, if ganglia are rotated by appropriate pinning of the sheath, extracellular electrodes can access neurons on both sides of the ganglion, which makes it easier and more efficient to identify multiple neurons in the same preparation. Third, extracellular electrodes do not need to penetrate cells, and thus can be easily moved back and forth among neurons, causing less damage to them. This is especially useful when one tries to record multiple neurons during repeating motor patterns that may only persist for minutes. Fourth, extracellular electrodes are more flexible than intracellular ones during muscle movements. Intracellular electrodes may pull out and damage neurons during muscle contractions. In contrast, since extracellular electrodes are gently pressed onto the sheath above neurons, they usually stay above the same neuron during muscle contractions, and thus can be used in more intact preparations. To uniquely identify motor neurons for a motor pool (in particular, the I1/I3 muscle in Aplysia) using extracellular electrodes, one can use features that do not require intracellular measurements as criteria: soma size and location, axonal projection, and muscle innervation4,6,7. For the particular motor pool used to illustrate the technique, we recorded from buccal nerves 2 and 3 to measure axonal projections, and measured the contraction forces of the I1/I3 muscle to determine the pattern of muscle innervation for the individual motor neurons. We demonstrate the complete process of first identifying motor neurons using muscle innervation, then characterizing their timing during motor patterns, creating a simplified diagnostic method for rapid identification. The simplified and more rapid diagnostic method is superior for more intact preparations, e.g. in the suspended buccal mass preparation8 or in vivo9. This process can also be applied in other motor pools10,11,12 in Aplysia or in other animal systems2,3,13,14. PMID:23568081

  18. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle...IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Special Compliance Provisions § 1039.605 What provisions apply to engines certified under the...

  19. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...State safety agencies, motor carriers, motor carrier associations, owner-operators...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: January 13,...

  20. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Regulation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...Transportation to establish a Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: May 19,...

  1. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the right buccal region: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YU, LIJIANG; LI, MINGLIANG; LIN, RUNTAI; MU, YUE; ZHAO, JIZHI

    2014-01-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare malignant cartilaginous tumor arising from the soft tissues. The most common areas of extraskeletal origin are the lower extremities, the orbits and the central nervous system, among others. In this study, the case of primary EMCS arising from the right buccal region in a 26-year old female is presented. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EMCS. Subseqently, the patient was treated with radical surgery, but declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which was recommended. One year after surgery, no recurrence had been identified in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of primary EMCS of the buccal region has been reported previously. In the current study, a case of primary EMCS of the buccal region is presented. PMID:25364427

  2. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  3. Altered cytological parameters in buccal cells from individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Hecker, Jane; Faunt, Jeffrey; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be reflective of the early stages of more pronounced neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a need for a minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic to identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of MCI and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary preventative measures. The hypothesis was that a minimally invasive approach using cytological markers in isolated buccal mucosa cells can be used to identify individuals of both MCI and AD. An automated buccal cell assay was developed using laser scanning cytometry (LSC) to measure buccal cell type ratios, nuclear DNA content and shape, and neutral lipid content of buccal cells from clinically diagnosed AD (n?=?13) and MCI (n?=?13) patients prior to treatment compared to age- and gender-matched controls (n?=?26). DNA content was significantly higher in all cell types in both MCI (P?2N nuclei. Abnormal nuclear shape (circularity) was significantly increased in transitional cells in MCI (P?buccal cells was significantly lower in the MCI group (P?buccal basal cells for both MCI and AD was significantly higher compared to the control group, with ratios for MCI being approximately 2.8-fold greater (P?buccal cell DNA content and ORO content in the AD group (r(2) ?=?0.75, P?buccal cell cytome observed in this study could prove useful as potential biomarkers in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:24616437

  4. Control of feeding movements in the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus. I. Rhythmical neurons of buccal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky YuI; Deliagina, T G; Meizerov, E S; Orlovsky, G N; Panchin YuV

    1988-01-01

    (1) The buccal mass of the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus, dissected together with the buccal ganglia, performs rhythmic feeding movements. Radula movements and the electrical activity in various nerves of buccal ganglia were recorded in such a preparation. The cycle of radula movements consisted of three phases: quiescence (Q), protraction (P) and retraction (R). The activity in the radular nerve was observed mainly in the P-phase and that in the dorsobuccal nerve, largely in the R-phase. (2) Isolated buccal ganglia were capable of generating a feeding rhythm, the activity in buccal nerves being similar to that observed in the buccal mass-buccal ganglion preparation, i.e., a burst in the radular nerve preceded a burst in the dorsobuccal nerve. The activity of neurons in isolated buccal ganglia during generation of the feeding rhythm has been studied with intracellular microelectrodes. About 10% of ganglion neurons exhibited periodic activity related to the feeding rhythm ("rhythmic" neurons). (3) Rhythmic neurons have been divided into 7 groups according to the phase of their activity and to the characteristics of slow oscillations of the membrane potential during the feeding cycle. Group 1 neurons revealed a gradual increase of depolarization during the Q- and P-phases. In subgroup 1e neurons, spike discharges began in the Q-phase, while in subgroup 1d neurons activity started in the P-phase. During the R-phase, group 1 neurons were strongly hyperpolarized, and their discharges terminated. In group 2 neurons, small depolarization gradually increased during the Q- and P-phases. Then, in the R-phase, a large (20-50 mV) rectangular wave of depolarization arose with superimposed high-frequency oscillations. Group 3 neurons exhibited an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the P-phase and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) in the R-phase. The neurons of group 4 revealed two EPSPs: a small one in the P-phase and a larger one in the R-phase. Group 5 neurons exhibited an EPSP in the P-phase, those of group 7 - an IPSP in the R-phase, and those of group 9 - IPSPs in the P- and R-phases. Neurons within each of the groups 1, 2 and 4 were electrically coupled, and in addition, there were also electrical connections between neurons of groups 2 and 4. (4) Data are presented showing that neurons of groups 1 and 2 are the main source of postsynaptic potentials in rhythmic neurons in the P-phase and in the R-phase of the cycle, respectively. PMID:3384034

  5. Impact of New Federal Efficiency Performance Standards on the Industrial Motor Marketplace

    E-print Network

    Elliott, R. N.

    the motor marketplace. In part, this confusion lead to the development of NEMA’s Premium® label, which has since helped guide motor purchasers to buy efficient motors. As a companion activity, the awareness program Motor Decisions Matter was established...

  6. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

    2011-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds. PMID:21753876

  7. Adherence of Candida Species to Human Epidermal Comeocytes and Buccal Mucosal Cells: Correlation with Cutaneous Pathogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Ray; Kathleen B. Digre; Candia D. Payne

    1984-01-01

    Adherence of microorganisms to epidermal corneocytes may be a prerequisite for cutaneous colonization and infection. Six species of Candida were assayed in vitro for adherence to human epidermal corneocytes and buccal mucosal cells, and compared to previous studies of pathogenicity in a rodent model of cutaneous candidiasis. C. albicans and C. stellatoidea exhibited marked adherence to both epithelial cell types

  8. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  9. Formation of DNA adducts in human buccal epithelial cells exposed to acetaldehyde and methylglyoxal in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos E Vaca; Jan Anders Nilsson; Jia-Long Fang; Roland C Grafström

    1998-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) and methylglyoxal (MG) are reactive, ubiquitous aldehydes, present in the environment and endogenously formed in animals and humans. They have both been shown to readily form DNA adducts under simulated physiological conditions. We report here on the use of cultured normal and SV40T antigen-immortalized human buccal epithelial cells as model systems for aldehyde exposure of the oral epithelium,

  10. Pharmacokinetics of albuterol and butorphanol administered intravenously and via a buccal patch

    E-print Network

    Vaughan, Deirdre Faye

    2004-09-30

    administration were 10.28 ± 2.77 and 57.74 ± 9.04 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 2.13 ± 1.30 L/kg and Cl was 4.73 ± 3.91 ml/min/kg. A significant difference existed between the disappearance rate constant of buccal...

  11. Abnormal anatomy of inferior orbital fissure and herniation of buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, T; Thomson, A; Ilankovan, V

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the inferior orbital fissure has been well studied, and its reported dimensions vary little. It is encountered during exploration of the orbital floor and when possible is not disturbed. We describe a case of herniation of buccal fat through the inferior orbital fissure that was found during exploration and repair of the orbital floor. PMID:25451070

  12. Using Buccal Mucosa for Urethral Reconstruction in Primary and Re-Operative Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kröpfl; A. Tucak; D. Prlic; A. Verweyen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa grafts finds increased broader use in patients with congenital or acquired urethral defects. The authors present their experience of 20 such treated patients. 12 repeatedly operated patients (11 congenital defects, 1 war injury) showed urethral defects of 4.5–20 cm in length. In 8 patients, 6 with hypospadias and 2 with prior straightening of the

  13. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200?g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  14. [Two-stage urethral reconstruction with buccal mucosa for hypospadias cripples : Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Riechardt, S; Isbarn, H; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

    2013-10-01

    So-called hypospadias cripples are a challenging group of patients who present with multiple previous repair operations with unsatisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Attempts at renewed correction can be carried out with various techniques and different materials and staged repair with buccal mucosa according to Bracka has shown good results. PMID:23982464

  15. In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.

    PubMed

    Cid, Yara Peluso; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma

    2012-03-01

    Celecoxib (Cx) shows high efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as a result of its high specificity for COX-2, without gastrolesivity or interference with platelet function at therapeutic concentrations. Besides of anti-inflammatory effects, Cx also has a potential role for oral cancer chemoprevention. For these conditions, oral administration in long-term treatment is a concern due to its systemic side effects. However, local application at the site of injury (e.g., buccal inflammation conditions or chemoprevention of oral cancer) is a promising way to reduce its toxicity. In this study, the in vitro characterization of mucoadhesive chitosan (CHT) gels associated to Azone® was assessed to explore the potential buccal mucosal administration of Cx in this tissue. Rheological properties of gels were analyzed by a rheometer with cone-plate geometry. In vitro Cx release and permeability studies used artificial membranes and pig cheek mucosa, respectively. Mucoadhesion were measured with a universal test machine. CHT gels (3.0%) containing 2.0% or 3.0% Az showed more appropriate characteristics compared to the others: pH values, rheology, higher amount of Cx retained in the mucosa, and minimal permeation through mucosa, besides the highest mucoadhesion values, ideal for buccal application. Moreover, the flux (J) and amounts of drug released decreased with increased CHT and Az concentrations. CHT gels (3.0%) associated with 2.0% or 3.0% Az may be considered potential delivery systems for buccal administration of Cx. PMID:22160883

  16. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in Peripheral Tissues; Focus on Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease. Therefore, if population screening of individuals is to be performed, more suitable, easily accessible tissues would need to be used for a diagnostic test that would identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary prevention. This need for minimally invasive tests could be achieved by targeting surrogate tissues, since it is now well recognized that AD is not only a disorder restricted to pathology and biomarkers within the brain. Human buccal cells for instance are accessible in a minimally invasive manner, and exhibit cytological and nuclear morphologies that may be indicative of accelerated ageing or neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. However, to our knowledge there is no review available in the literature covering the biology of buccal cells and their applications in AD biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some of the main findings of biomarkers reported for AD in peripheral tissues, with a further focus on the rationale for the use of the buccal mucosa (BM) for biomarkers of AD and the evidence to date of changes exhibited in buccal cells with AD. PMID:24938500

  17. Effects of an Integrated Physical Education/Music Program in Changing Early Childhood Perceptual-Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…

  18. Targeted isometric force impulses in patients with traumatic brain injury reveal delayed motor programming and change of strategy.

    PubMed

    Cantagallo, Anna; Di Russo, Francesco; Favilla, Marco; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-04-15

    The capability of quickly (as soon as possible) producing fast uncorrected and accurate isometric force impulses was examined to assess the motor efficiency of patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and good motor recovery at a clinical evaluation. Twenty male right-handed patients with moderate to severe TBI and 24 age-matched healthy male right-handed controls participated in the study. The experimental task required subjects to aim brief and uncorrected isometric force impulses to targets visually presented along with subjects' force displays. Both TBI patients and controls were able to produce force impulses whose mean peak amplitudes varied proportionally to the target load with no detectable group difference. Patients with TBI, however, were slower than controls in initiating their responses (reaction times [RTs] were longer by 125?msec) and were also slower during the execution of their motor responses, reaching the peak forces requested 23?msec later than controls (time to peak force: 35% delay). Further, their mean dF/dt (35?kg/sec) was slower than that of controls (53?kg/sec), again indicating a 34% impairment with respect to controls. Overall, patients with TBI showed accurate but delayed and slower isometric force impulses. Thus, an evaluation taking into account also response time features is more effective in picking up motor impairments than the standard clinical scales focusing on accuracy of movement only. PMID:25273979

  19. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and biocompatible hydrogel system for buccal drug delivery. PMID:25453967

  20. Fetal developmental change in topographical relationship between the human lateral pterygoid muscle and buccal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Katori, Y; Yamamoto, M; Asakawa, S; Maki, H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G; Abe, S

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) is usually divided into the upper and lower heads, between which the buccal nerve passes. Using sagittal or horizontal sections of 14 fetuses and seven embryos (five specimens at approximately 20–25 weeks; five at 14–16 weeks; four at 8 weeks; seven at 6–7 weeks), we examined the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve. In large fetuses later than 15 weeks, the upper head of the LPM was clearly discriminated from the lower head. However, the upper head was much smaller than the lower head in the smaller fetuses. Thus, in the latter, the upper head was better described as an ‘anterior slip’ extending from the lower head or the major muscle mass to the anterior side of the buccal nerve. The postero-anterior nerve course seemed to be determined by a branch to the temporalis muscle (i.e. the anterior deep temporal nerve). At 8 weeks, the buccal nerve passed through the roof of the small, fan-like LPM. At 6–7 weeks, the LPM anlage was embedded between the temporobuccal nerve trunk and the inferior alveolar nerve. Therefore, parts of the LPM were likely to ‘leak’ out of slits between the origins of the mandibular nerve branches at 7–8 weeks, and seemed to grow in size during weeks 14–20 and extend anterosuperiorly along the infratemporal surface of the prominently developing greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Consequently, the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve appeared to ‘change’ during fetal development due to delayed development of the upper head. PMID:22352373

  1. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  2. Electrical motor with superconducting winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugeat, J. P.; Petit, R.

    1985-01-01

    The winding of an electrical motor tested under vaccum and at cryogenic temperature (10K) was modified. The niobium-titanium copper wire used allows the motor to run from room temperature to liquid helium temperature. Under the transition temperature (9.5K) heat dissipation in the coil is 0 whereas in a copper wound motor this dissipation is 30 mW. The motor sustained a complete test program including: functional test including torque measurement at cryogenic temperature; endurance test: 750,000 turns performed; environment test: vibration test at qualification level at cryogenic temperature. The tests reveal no degradation of mechanical (plays, friction torque) or electrical (transition temperature) performances.

  3. Motorized Car

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

  4. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  5. Displacement and stress distribution of the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal versus palatal plates: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Yoo; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Mo, Sung-Seo; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2014-08-01

    Summary OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the displacement and stress distribution in the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal and palatal plates using three-dimensional finite element analysis. PMID:25090997

  6. Transmission of the respiratory rhythm to trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons in the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Kottick, Andrew; Baghdadwala, Mufaddal I; Ferguson, Erin V; Wilson, Richard J A

    2013-08-15

    Spatially distinct, interacting oscillators in the bullfrog medulla generate and coordinated buccal and lung ventilatory rhythms, but how these rhythms are transmitted onto trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons is unknown. Using a vertically-mounted isolated brainstem preparation, the Sheep Dip, we identified the regions of the brainstem containing motor nuclei using a solution capable of blocking synaptic release and, following washout, locally exposed these regions to 5 ?M NBQX and/or 50 ?M AP5. Local application of NBQX significantly reduced the amplitude of buccal and lung bursts on the trigeminal nerve, and lung bursts on the hypoglossal nerve. Local AP5 caused a significant reduction in lung burst amplitude on both nerves, but for buccal bursts, hypoglossal amplitude increased and trigeminal amplitude was unchanged. Local co-application of NBQX and AP5 eliminated fictive respiratory motor output completely in both nerves. These results are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting a critical role for glutamate in transmission of respiratory activity from oscillators to motor neurons. PMID:23791823

  7. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  8. Chemopreventive potential of neem ( Azadirachta indica) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Balasenthil; S Arivazhagan; C. R Ramachandran; V Ramachandran; S Nagini

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All hamsters painted on their buccal pouch with DMBA for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of neem leaf extract effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence

  9. Role of a 22-kilodalton pilin protein in binding of Pseudomonas cepacia to buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, U S; Forstner, J F

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have shown that many isolates of Pseudomonas cepacia obtained from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis exhibit specific binding to purified mucins. The binding was mediated by a 22-kDa protein located on peritrichous pili of the bacteria. Nonpiliated bacteria did not bind to mucin. In the present study we found that both piliated and nonpiliated P. cepacia bind to buccal epithelial cells (BECs) obtained from health human volunteers. Scatchard plot analyses of binding data with the LIGAND computer program suggest the presence of at least two classes of cell receptors (A and B) for piliated P. cepacia (isolates PC 5 and PC 7) and a single class of receptors (A) for nonpiliated P. cepacia (isolates PC 45 and PC 61). The affinity constants for receptor A varied from 1.7 x 10(-9) to 4.7 x 10(-8) ml/CFU. Receptor B had a lower affinity constant (2.5 x 10(-10) to 1.2 x 10(-9) ml/CFU) but a greater saturation capacity. Receptor B was similar in affinity to the mucin receptor for piliated P. cepacia (3.3 x 10(-10) to 1.3 x 10(-9) ml/CFU). Purified mucin partially inhibited the binding of piliated bacteria to BECs by competing with BEC receptor site B. The purified 22-kDa pilin adhesin and an antiadhesin antibody also caused partial inhibition. One BEC receptor for piliated isolates of P. cepacia was identified as a 55-kDa protein as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of BEC homogenate supernatants, Western blotting (immunoblotting), and bacterial overlay assays. Preincubation of piliated bacteria with either mucin or the antiadhesin antibody abolished binding to the 55-kDa BEC receptor. In summary, our results indicate that piliated P. cepacia interacts with BECs by using at least two different adhesin-receptor systems. One adhesin (not examined) is common to piliated and nonpiliated P. cepacia, but the other system is the pilus-localized 22-kDa mucin-binding adhesin and its 55-kDa BEC receptor protein. Because it mediates adherence to both mucin and epithelial cells, the 22-kDa adhesin may be an important virulence determinant in cystic fibrosis lung infections in which mucins are abnormally adhesive on mucosal surfaces. Images PMID:7687582

  10. Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.

    PubMed

    De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2014-10-14

    Abstract Context: Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. Objective: To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Materials and methods: Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Results: Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy. PMID:25311426

  11. Impact of Graft Position on Failure of Single-Stage Bulbar Urethroplasties with Buccal Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Figler, Bradley D; Malaeb, Bahaa S; Dy, Geolani W.; Voelzke, Bryan B; Wessells, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patency rates after bulbar urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft onlay differ based on whether the graft is placed ventrally or dorsally. METHODS This was a retrospective, single-center study of all single-stage bulbar urethroplasties performed from 2001- 2011 by two surgeons in which buccal mucosa was used as an onlay graft. Failure was defined as the need for endoscopic or open revision of the reconstruction, or placement of a suprapubic catheter for urinary retention. RESULTS A total of 103 patients were reviewed; 41 underwent dorsal onlay, and 62 underwent ventral onlay. Mean age was 40.8 years. Most (84%) patients underwent a prior procedure, which consisted of DVIU in 69%, dilation in 53%, and urethroplasty in 14%. Mean stricture length was 3.9cm. At a mean follow-up of 36 months, failure occurred in 19 patients (12 ventral, 7 dorsal). The vast majority of these patients (79%) were successfully treated with a single dilation or DVIU. There was no difference in failure rate or time to failure according to whether graft position was ventral or dorsal. In multivariate analysis, diabetes was predictive of failure (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.6-46.5, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Single-stage bulbar urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft is an effective procedure for patients with a bulbar urethral stricture that is not amenable to primary anastomosis. From our experience, we cannot conclude that dorsal or ventral graft position is inherently superior. Patients with diabetes may be more likely to require additional procedures following bulbar urethroplasty with buccal grafting. PMID:24055240

  12. A review of the gross anatomy, functions, pathology, and clinical uses of the buccal fat pad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saad Yousuf; R. Shane Tubbs; Christopher T. Wartmann; Theodoros Kapos; Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol; Marios Loukas

    2010-01-01

    The buccal fat pad is a trigone-shaped adipose tissue located in the cheek that assumes numerous functional and aesthetic\\u000a clinical uses. It has been studied extensively within the past four decades, and its use in repairing common and debilitating\\u000a oral defects is the motive for continued research on this topic. It is vital to understand the etiology of any oral

  13. Evaluation of Quality of DNA Extracted from Buccal Swabs for Microarray Based Genotyping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Livy; Sayhean Lye; Chahil K. Jagdish; Nurul Hanis; Velapasamy Sharmila; Lian Wee Ler; Bagali Pramod

    Buccal cell usage has been shown by many to be a cost effective and safe method to isolate DNA for various biological experiments\\u000a especially large epidemiological studies (Garcia-Closas et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:687–696, 2001). Non-invasive DNA collection methods are preferred over phlebotomy in order to increase study participation and compliance\\u000a in research centers and for sick patients in

  14. Evaluation of polyoxyethylene homopolymers for buccal bioadhesive drug delivery device formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Tiwari; Robert Sause; Parshotam L. Madan; David Goldman

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the application of polyoxyethylene homopolymers in buccal bioadhesive drug (BBD) delivery device\\u000a formulations. The bioadhesive strength of four different molecular weight (MW) polyoxyethylene polymers was measured by Instronâ\\u000a tensile tester using glass plate and bovine sublingual tissue as substrate surfaces. Several BBD device formulations containing\\u000a polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) were prepared by direct compression and

  15. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, L.-Y. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fan, K.-H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] (and others)

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  16. Development and in vitro/in vivo evaluations of bioadhesive buccal tablets for nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Ikinci, G; Senel, S; Tokgözo?lu, L; Wilson, C G; Sumnu, M

    2006-03-01

    Buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations of nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were developed using chitosan and carbomer at different ratios. Magnesium hydroxide was incorporated into the formulations as pH increasing agent. In vitro release and bioadhesion properties of the tablets were investigated. Release of NHT from the tablets was increased with the increasing amount of chitosan in formulations whilst the bioadhesion of the tablet was decreased. In vivo studies were carried out in healthy, non-smoker volunteers in comparison to a commercially available transdermal patch. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. No significant difference was found between the maximum plasma nicotine concentrations (Cmax) obtained with the buccal tablet and the transdermal patch (p > 0.05). Time to reach the Cmax was 2.9 +/- 0.2 h and 11.5 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-24 values were 59.3 +/- 5.1 ng x h x mL(-1) (0-12 h) and 204.1 +/- 31.2 ng x h x mL(-1) for buccal tablet and transdermal patch, respectively. PMID:16599260

  17. In vivo, in vitro evaluation of linseed mucilage based buccal mucoadhesive microspheres of venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Nerkar, Pankaj Padmakar; Gattani, Surendra

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to extract linseed mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent and to develop mucoadhesive microspheres for buccal delivery with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Linseed mucilage was extracted and used to prepare microspheres with varying concentrations of mucilage from formulation F1-F4 (1-2.5%) by spray-drying technique. The microspheres were evaluated for the yield, particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling property, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, histological study, and stability. Microspheres were characterized by differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction study. Further, the bioavailability study using the New Zealand rabbits was carried out. Formulation F4 showed the maximum mucoadhesion 89.37?±?1.35%, 92.10?±?1.37% incorporation efficiency, highest swelling index 0.770?±?1.23. F4 showed a marked increase in the bioavailability after buccal administration (51.86?±?3.95) as compared to oral route (39.60?±?6.16). Also it took less time to reach maximum plasma concentration of 21.38?±?1.05?ng/ml as compared to oral solution where it required 180?min to reach maximum plasma concentration of 17.98?±?1.14. It is concluded from the results that linseed mucilage can be used in the production of the mucoadhesive microspheres. PMID:20954808

  18. Invasive aspergillosis presenting as swelling of the buccal mucosa in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Praveen; Nagarjuna, Muralidhara; Shetty, Samarth; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhat, Venkatraman; Salins, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature but have low virulence and cause disease usually when the host defenses are compromised. Fungal infections of the central nervous system are rare and are usually seen in immunocompromised patients. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of central nervous system fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Intracranial fungal granulomas are rare space-occupying lesions. Among these, Aspergillus granuloma is the most common. Craniocerebral involvement by aspergillosis usually occurs via the hematogenous route or through contiguous spread from the paranasal sinuses. Predominant symptoms associated with cranial fungal granuloma include headache, vomiting, proptosis, and visual disturbances. Common signs include papilledema, cranial neuropathy, hemiparesis, and meningismus. We present a case of invasive Aspergillus granuloma in an immunocompetent individual, who presented with a palpable mass in the buccal mucosa following removal of an impacted mandibular third molar but with no other characteristic signs and symptoms of invasive fungal granuloma. To our knowledge, there is no documentation of aspergillosis presenting as a swelling in the buccal mucosa. Unexplained swellings in the buccal mucosa should be viewed with a high degree of suspicion and investigated thoroughly at the earliest. PMID:25487984

  19. Six years clinical experience with the dorsally pedicled buccal musculomucosal flap.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin A; Seitz, Oliver; Ballon, Alexander; Stübinger, Stefan; Robert, Sader; Kovács, Adorján F

    2009-06-01

    A dorsal pedicled buccal musculomucosal flap was developed to reconstruct medium-sized intraoral defects, too large for primary closure if major functional and esthetic impairment is to be avoided. Although free flaps, axial, or perforator flaps are excellent in large defects, they may not provide mucosal sensitivity, motility, volume, and texture to replace lost structures with similar tissue. Twenty-five flaps were performed in 24 patients, 1(bilateral) up to a flap-size of 60 x 35 mm, in average 45 x 34 mm. Reconstructed became the lateral mouth floor, lateral oral vestibule, lateral tongue margin, the oropharynx, hard and soft palate. Partial necrosis occurred in 1 flap, 22 (92%) patients recovered with good objective as subjective speech and swallowing, esthetics, and if necessary prosthetic rehabilitation. The donor site was closed primarily, mimics and mouth opening resolved after less than 3 months. The parotid duct had to be marsupialized in large flap preparations, never provoking stasis or infection. The 2-point sensitivity of the flaps was in average equal to the nonoperated mucosa in intraindividual correlation and the flaps lost in average 10% of their original size; 5 (21%) had weakness inflating their cheeks postoperatively. The results indicate dorsal pedicled buccal musculomucosal flap to be reliable and technically easy for reconstructing lateral intraoral, medium-sized defect that yields sensitivity, merely risking occasional buccal muscle weakness but facilitating the rehabilitation of oral function. PMID:19461278

  20. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    Torres?Bugarín, O; Covarrubias?Bugarín, R; Zamora?Perez, A L; Torres?Mendoza, B M G; García?Ulloa, M; Martínez?Sandoval, F G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n?=?6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n?=?5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6?weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

  1. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  2. Automation of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay using laser scanning cytometry.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; François, Maxime; Thomas, Philip; Luther, Ed; Holden, Elena; Fenech, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) can be used to quantify the fluorescence intensity or laser light loss (absorbance) of localized molecular targets within nuclear and cytoplasmic structures of cells while maintaining the morphological features of the examined tissue. It was aimed to develop an automated LSC protocol to study cellular and nuclear anomalies and DNA damage events in human buccal mucosal cells. Since the buccal micronucleus cytome assay has been used to measure biomarkers of DNA damage (micronuclei and/or nuclear buds), cytokinesis defects (binucleated cells), proliferative potential (basal cell frequency), and/or cell death (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, and pyknotic and karyolytic cells), the following automated LSC protocol describes scoring criteria for these same parameters using an automated imaging LSC. In this automated LSC assay, cells derived from the buccal mucosa were harvested from the inside of patient's mouths using a small-headed toothbrush. The cells were washed to remove any debris and/or bacteria, and a single-cell suspension prepared and applied to a microscope slide using a cytocentrifuge. Cells were fixed and stained with Feulgen and Light Green stain allowing both chromatic and fluorescent analysis to be undertaken simultaneously with the use of an LSC. PMID:21704845

  3. Identification of novel transcripts deregulated in buccal cancer by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Sajnani, Manisha R; Patel, Amrutlal K; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Tripathi, Ajai K; Ahir, Viral B; Shankar, Vangipuram; Shah, Siddharth; Shah, Tejas M; Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2012-10-10

    The differential transcriptome analysis provides better understanding of molecular pathways leading to cancer, which in turn allows designing the effective strategies for diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and prediction of therapeutic outcome. This study describes the transcriptome analysis of buccal cancer and normal tissue by CLC Genomics Workbench from the data generated by Roche's 454 sequencing platform, which identified total of 1797 and 2655 genes uniquely expressed in normal and cancer tissues, respectively with 2466 genes expressed in both tissues. Among the genes expressed in both tissues, 1842 were up-regulated whereas 624 were down-regulated in cancer tissue. Besides transcripts known to be involved in cancer, this study led to the identification of novel transcripts, with significantly altered expression in buccal cancer tissue, providing potential targets for diagnosis and cancer therapeutics. The functional categorization by the KEGG pathway and gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of differentially expressed transcripts to various pathways leading to cancer, including the p53 signaling pathway. Moreover, the gene ontology analysis unfolded suppression of transcripts involved in actin mediated cell contraction process. The down-regulation of four of these transcripts MYL1, ACTA1, TCAP and DESMIN in buccal cancer were further supported by quantitative PCR signifying its possible implication in the cancer progression. PMID:22846364

  4. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  5. Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the Monkey Premotor Cortex Machiko Ohbayashi or movement sequences, appear to mediate the generation of a motor program from the maintained information stimuli (1, 2). Motor planning is carried out in motor-related areas that include the dorsal premotor

  6. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  7. Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    García-Crescioni, Keyla

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five “large” motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four “small” premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns transmitted to the myocardium. PMID:21775716

  8. How to make spinal motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Williams, Luis A; Klim, Joseph R; Eggan, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    All muscle movements, including breathing, walking, and fine motor skills rely on the function of the spinal motor neuron to transmit signals from the brain to individual muscle groups. Loss of spinal motor neuron function underlies several neurological disorders for which treatment has been hampered by the inability to obtain sufficient quantities of primary motor neurons to perform mechanistic studies or drug screens. Progress towards overcoming this challenge has been achieved through the synthesis of developmental biology paradigms and advances in stem cell and reprogramming technology, which allow the production of motor neurons in vitro. In this Primer, we discuss how the logic of spinal motor neuron development has been applied to allow generation of motor neurons either from pluripotent stem cells by directed differentiation and transcriptional programming, or from somatic cells by direct lineage conversion. Finally, we discuss methods to evaluate the molecular and functional properties of motor neurons generated through each of these techniques. PMID:24449832

  9. Hot gas thrust vector control motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Berdoyes; Russell A. Ellis

    1992-01-01

    A hot gas thrust vector control (HGTVC) motor developed in the framework of a Foreign Weapon Evaluation program is discussed. Two HGTVC versions were evaluated on the two nozzles of the program, normal injection with a blunt pintle and 10 deg upstream injection with a tapered pintle. The HGTVC system was tested on a modified ORBUS-1 motor which is based

  10. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  11. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  12. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. PMID:22564009

  13. 77 FR 18914 - National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical Corrections...National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Program (NMVTIS) in order...National Motor Vehicle Title Information System was established pursuant...

  14. 77 FR 69918 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: November...

  15. 78 FR 17751 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...FMCSA exemptions allowing motor carriers to use windshield-mounted...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: March 19,...

  16. 78 FR 52233 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) and Medical Review Board (MRB): Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...joint meeting of its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: August 16,...

  17. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: January...

  18. 78 FR 32295 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC); Public Meetings of the CSA and Motorcoach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: May 22,...

  19. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...through Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: September...

  20. An extraction socket classification developed using analysis of bone type and blood supply to the buccal bone in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Levi, Paul; Rudy, Robert; Al-Jandan, Badar; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    Bone modeling and remodeling following tooth extraction has been studied extensively. The reason for bone loss during the remodeling process is multifactorial, and the primary reason for this loss is still yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the type of bone and the blood supply to the buccal bone in monkeys. Six maxillary arches from six monkeys were used. The arches were divided into three sections: right posterior, anterior from canine to canine, and left posterior. Blocks were decalcified and prepared for histologic processing and examination. Modified Masson trichrome and retic staining were used. Histologic sectioning demonstrated that the blood supply to the buccal bone came from the inner (socket) side of the alveolus, the periodontal ligament, the adjacent interdental bone, and the supraperiosteal vessels emanating from the covering gingiva or mucosa. Histologic examination showed that the buccal bone was composed of bundle and cortical bone. The thickness of the buccal bone was not uniform coronoapically, and the thinnest area of buccal bone was the coronal portion. PMID:21837308

  1. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  2. Motor Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  3. Wave motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solell

    1979-01-01

    A wave motor is described comprising a float, a displaceable member coupled to the float so as to be displaced by the ascent and descent of the float, a pair of shafts, and a transmission including a pair of one-way clutches coupling the displaceable member to the shafts to rotate one in one direction during the ascent of the float

  4. Motor oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-02-11

    Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

  5. [Motor assymetry].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-02-01

    Although the study of handedness and its association with hemispheric specialisation represents the prevailing focus of motor dominance research, recent inquiry into footedness and other motoric asymmetries has stimulated several interesting propositions. The present review show the variability of assessing motoric asymmetries. Asymmetry in hand use takes two forms: differential hand preference and differential dexterity between the hands. Motoric asymmetries are strongest and most manifest for handedness (hand preference, performance and dexterity), descending through footedness and other less known asymmetries (tonguedness, chewing preference). Handedness is the most easily observed expression of cerebral lateralization. The alpha and omega of relating handedness to other neuropsychological variables or indices of lateral specialization lies in the classification of handedness. A vast range of testing techniques have been used to assess handedness. Writing hand and self-report are two of the most popular techniques. Other preference measures include observation of how people use tools and questionnaires. Performance tests assess speed and accuracy in tasks stressing manipulative dexterity. Although questionnaires are generally thought to be reliable and valid instruments, there is a disagreement as to the nature, the number and weighting of the items to be included. The least stable results will be obtained if a categorization into "right-handers" and "non-right-handers" is made on the basis of exclusive "right" answers. Slightly more stable is a classification that is based on "right-handers", "mixed preference handers" and "left-hander" based on extreme choices in either direction and intermediate choices. We present shortly a possible inventory assessing motoric asymmetries. PMID:10719660

  6. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy Th; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety-enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P?0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  7. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID:25657792

  8. ?H2AX responses in human buccal cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Sabbir; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F; Leifert, Wayne R

    2015-04-01

    DNA double strand breaks are induced by ionizing radiation (IR), leading to the phosphorylation of the core histone protein H2AX (termed ?H2AX). The understanding of the ?H2AX responses in irradiated human buccal cells is still very limited. We used visual scoring and laser scanning cytometry (LSC) methods to investigate ?H2AX signaling following exposure of human buccal cells (from six individuals) to ionizing radiation at 0-4 Gy. The frequency of nuclei containing 15-30 ?H2AX foci was significantly elevated 30 min post-IR exposure (by visual scoring). Concomitantly, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of cells without foci following exposure to IR. IR-induced ?H2AX signal as determined by laser scanning cytometry (which included ?H2AX integral and MaxPixel value) increased significantly in all individual's 2N nuclei 30 min post-IR and was similar for all three nuclear shapes identified. Individuals with the lowest baseline ?H2AX integral (i.e., in nonirradiated cells) showed the greatest fold stimulation of ?H2AX and significant dose-responses to IR doses of 1, 2, and 4 Gy. In 5 out of 6 individuals, the frequency of visually scored ?H2AX in nuclei showed a strong correlation (up to r?=?0.999) with LSC scored ?H2AX integrals. The ?H2AX response and subsequent decline varied between individuals but remained elevated above baseline levels 24 h post IR exposure. ?H2AX response in irradiated human buccal cells has potential to be used as an index of baseline DNA damage in population studies. The variable response to IR exposure between individuals should be taken into consideration when using the ?H2AX assay for radiation biodosimetry. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515017

  9. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  10. Preparation and solid-state characterization of bupivacaine hydrochloride cyclodextrin complexes aimed for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Jug, Mario; Maestrelli, Francesca; Bragagni, Marco; Mura, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Binary products of bupivacaine hydrochloride (BVP HCl), an amide type local anesthetic, with parent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and its soluble beta-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (EPI-beta-CD) were prepared and evaluated as a first phase in the development of a novel mucoadhesive formulation aimed for buccal delivery of this drug. The solid products were obtained by physical mixing, ball milling in high-energy mills, co-evaporation and lyophilisation, in order to rationally select the most effective preparation technique. The solid products obtained were carefully characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The impact of the preparation techniques on the physicochemical properties of plain drug was also studied. Results of solid-state analysis revealed more intense interactions of BVP HCl with EPI-beta-CD than with native beta-CD, accompanied by stronger reduction of drug crystallinity in the samples, probably favoured by the amorphous nature of the polymeric carrier. While summarising the results of DSC and XRPD analyses, it seems that ball milling of drug/cyclodextrin binary mixtures was particularly efficient in inducing solid-state interaction between the components and it can be considered as the method of choice for preparation of complexes of BVP HCl with beta-CD and EPI-beta-CD. In vitro dissolution properties in artificial saliva of ball-milled BVP HCl and corresponding CD complexes were investigated by simulating the conditions present at the surface of the buccal mucosa. The obtained results confirmed that complexation of BVP HCl with beta-CD and EPI-beta-CD is a suitable tool for properly tailoring the dissolution properties of the drug and it can be favourably exploited for the development of an effective buccal drug delivery system. PMID:20004541

  11. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (?28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P?0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  12. In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-02-01

    Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

  13. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film.

    PubMed

    Bahri-Najafi, R; Tavakoli, N; Senemar, M; Peikanpour, M

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID:25657792

  14. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  15. Radicular Cyst with Severe Destruction of the Buccal Cortical Plate Secondary to Endodontic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pavaskar, Rajdeep; Gera, Tarun; Boyapati, Chandra Mohan; Chalakkal, Paul; Bommannavar, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    This case report highlights a massive radicular cyst with respect to the lower left premolars, that developed secondary to endodontic failure and resulted in buccal cortical bone destruction. It also discusses the investigation and the surgical approach which were carried out with regard to the cyst. Following surgical closure, the teeth were endodontically retreated. It also highlights the fact that mandibular true occlusal radiographs could be misleading with regard to the extent of bone destruction, which can otherwise be confirmed on CT scans. PMID:24086925

  16. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

  17. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  18. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  19. Motor resonance meets motor performance.

    PubMed

    Barchiesi, Guido; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to explore which of two different models better explains facilitation/interference effects when participants have to conditionally react to an observed action with a movement. The Dimensional Overlap model assumes two parallel routes, an automatic route and a rule-based one, that interact only when the stimulus-set and the response-set share some dimensions. In the alternative model, a motor resonance for rule-based reaction, the automatic visuo-motor transformation is always an obligatory step that provides the correct categorization of the observed action as the input for the rule-based route, thus linking the two routes in a serial fashion. We explicitly tested which of the hypotheses fits better the data by asking participants to perform one of two different actions in a two-choice reaction paradigm. In one condition participants were required to perform the opposite action compared to the one they saw (COUNTER task: see A?do B, see B?do A), while in the other they were required to perform two actions that did not share any dimension with the stimulus-set (NEUTRAL task: see A?do C, see B?do D). We predicted an advantage for the NEUTRAL task if the Dimensional Overlap model was correct, while a similar performance was foreseen if the motor resonance-based model was correct. Since the interpretation of these results was not straightforward, we conducted a distributional analysis of participants' response accuracies in order to understand whether a serial or a general parallel model explained better the data. We found clear evidence that participants responded above chance before the motor representation of the action observed was activated. We conclude that two separate systems in the human brain can transform observed actions in own motor representations. One is stimulus-driven, while the second is rule-driven. Likely, their activity is mutually independent along parallel pathways. PMID:25619846

  20. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  1. Pathogen and host differences in bacterial adherence to human buccal epithelial cells in a northeast Brazilian community.

    PubMed Central

    Walser, B L; Newman, R D; Lima, A A; Guerrant, R L

    1992-01-01

    The adherence of several strains of Escherichia coli to human buccal epithelial cells was studied, using cells obtained from five groups: healthy adults, healthy children, children with acute diarrhea, children with persistent diarrhea associated with cryptosporidial parasites, and children with noncryptosporidial persistent diarrhea. All groups lived or worked in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil. Samples of buccal epithelial cells from subjects in each of these groups were incubated with wild-type E. coli K-12 (strain C600), the enteroaggregative E. coli strains 17-2 and PDAS 30-5, CFA/II-positive E. coli 1392+ and its plasmid-cured derivative 1392-, and hydrophobic E. coli 132-3. Samples were evaluated microscopically to determine background contamination and the percentage of cells with more than 15% of their surface area obscured by adherent bacteria after incubation and washing. The assay was tested under field conditions and was shown to produce reliable and consistent results. Both enteroaggregative strains of E. coli were shown to adhere to a significantly higher percentage of all groups of human buccal epithelial cells than any of the other tested strains. In addition, buccal epithelial cells from children with nonparasitic persistent diarrhea showed substantially more bacterial adherence in both the native state and with all tested strains of E. coli than did cells from children with persistent cryptosporidial diarrhea or acute diarrhea or from healthy controls. This study provides evidence that enteroaggregative strains of E. coli demonstrate increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells (as well as to cultured HEp-2 cells) and that buccal epithelial cells from children with noncryptosporidial persistent diarrhea appear to be more susceptible to bacterial adherence and colonization than buccal epithelial cells from control groups. These findings suggest that host differences as well as pathogen differences are important in the pathogenesis of persistent diarrhea and have implications for a potential role for buccal epithelial cell analysis in the diagnosis or risk stratification of children susceptible to noncryptosporidial persistent diarrhea. Images PMID:1398990

  2. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  3. Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients. PMID:23850817

  4. Development of a buccal mucoadhesive film for fast dissolution: mathematical rationale, production and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marta M D C; Tardelli, Edgard R; Chaud, Marco V; Tubino, Matthieu; Balcão, Victor M

    2014-11-01

    The validity of a mathematical rationale for preparation of a fast-dissolving buccal mucoadhesive was tested. A buccal mucoadhesive biopolymeric formulation has been developed having pullulan as the main component. The formulation was duly evaluated physicochemically, via assays for intrinsic viscosity (resulting in 71.61?cm3?g(-1)), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (resulting in a Tg?=?63?°C), thermogravimetric analysis (244-341?°C), moisture content determinations (14%, w/w), dissolution timeframe (41.6?s), mucoadhesion force (40?kg/cm2), scanning electron microscopy analyses (critical ray under 1.0??m), mechanic strength (tensile strength?=?58?N/mm2, deformation?=?4.4%). The mucoadhesive formulation exhibited important characteristics for a drug carrier, that is, a 6?cm2 area, a fast dissolution timeframe, an adequate mucoadhesivity, resistance to both oxygen and water vapor penetration, increased viscosity in solution (ranging from 33.2?cm3/g to 71.61?cm3/g), easy molding, suitable water solubility and transparency. PMID:24191772

  5. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  6. A Program of Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training to Determine Its Effects upon Primary Level Children with Reading and Learning Deficiencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Ticknor B.

    The purpose of the project was to determine to what extent visual, motor, and perceptual training would improve the reading and general achievement of children with visual, motor, and perceptual deficiencies. Eighty first, second, and third graders, identified as having such handicaps by gross and fine screening instruments, were randomly divided…

  7. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by the body that contributes to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Symptoms of low testosterone include decreased sexual desire and ability, extreme tiredness, low energy, depression, and loss of certain male characteristics such ...

  8. Filament overwrapped motor case technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Joel P.

    1993-11-01

    Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

  9. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  10. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors: overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Uchino

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.

  11. A comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols are implicated as potential chemoprotective agents for oropharyngeal cancer. Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were therefore analyzed in smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=21) for these nutrients to determine how chronic tobacco ...

  12. A comparison of buccal nitroglycerin and sublingual nitroglycerin in the prophylaxis and treatment of exertional (situation-provoked) angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Bray, C L; Jain, S; Faragher, E B; Myers, A; Myers, P; MacIntyre, P; Rae, A; Goldman, M; Alcorn, M

    1991-05-01

    Suscard is a buccally administered formulation which provides rapid introduction of nitroglycerin directly into the systemic circulation and, by virtue of its sustained-release properties, may confer protection against anginal attacks for several hours. Its efficacy has been established in angina pectoris and more recently its usefulness has been extended to include the management of unstable angina and acute heart failure. Buccal nitroglycerin combines the possibilities of short-term treatment and more extended prophylaxis. In a multicentre double-blind study the efficacy of buccal nitroglycerin and sublingual nitroglycerin were compared in patients with proven chronic stable exercise-induced angina as regards anginal attacks and capacity for physical activity. The conclusion is that the two formulations of nitroglycerin have a comparable effect in the treatment of acute attacks of angina pectoris. Buccal nitroglycerin has many advantages when used prophylactically. This is documented by less frequent anginal attacks and a more prolonged duration of effect resulting in an increased physical activity. PMID:1908385

  13. A subgroup of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in the cat is strongly activated during oral-buccal movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casimir A. Fornal; Christine W. Metzler; Franco Marrosu; Barry L. Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    A subgroup of ~ 25% of dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurons in cat was strongly activated in association with oral-buccal movements, such as chewing, licking, and grooming. The mean magnitude of increase in neuronal activity for these cells was approximately 100% above the spontaneous waking level. However, some of these cells were activated by as much as 200–300%. The neuronal

  14. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  15. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Ceschel; P. Maffei; A. Sforzini; S. Lombardi Borgia; A. Yasin; C. Ronchi

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do

  16. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  18. Collection of genomic DNA by buccal swabs for polymerase chain reaction-based biomarker assays.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A H; Najarian, D; White, D L; Jaffe, J F; Kanetsky, P A; Rebbeck, T R

    1999-01-01

    Studies in molecular and genetic epidemiology require a high-throughput, low cost, and reliable means of genomic DNA collection. Buccal (cheek) swabs have been proposed as a means of achieving these goals, but there is little information about the practical application of this approach. From January 1995 to December 1997, we processed 995 buccal swabs for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotype assays in the context of ongoing molecular epidemiologic studies. Six hundred forty-seven of these swabs were processed immediately after collection and 348 were received by mail. We were able to obtain at least one genotype from 99.7% (645 of 647) of fresh-processed and 97.4% (330 of 339) of mailed biosamples. A PCR success rate of 90.3% (2,546 genotypes from 2,819 assays) was achieved. Genotypes were obtained from 96.1% (1, 865 genotypes from 1,941 assays) of fresh-processed biosamples and 77.6% (681 genotypes from 878 assays) of mailed biosamples. PCR success rates at any single locus ranged from 92.6 to 98.8% (fresh-processed) and 75.5 to 79.6% (mailed). The PCR success rate among fresh-processed biosamples was significantly higher than among mailed biosamples (Fisher's exact test p < 0.0001), and more attempts were required to obtain a successful PCR result for mailed biosamples as compared to fresh-processed biosamples. For one locus (CYP3A4), a subset of mailed biosamples was purified if two or more PCR failures occurred. Additional genotypes were obtained in 58.3% of these previously failed biosamples. Time from biosample receipt to DNA extraction had no effect on PCR success. After storage of processed biosamples for as long as 3 years, there was no appreciable decrease in the rate of PCR success. These results suggest that adequate DNA for PCR-based applications can be obtained from buccal swabs, but sampling or processing considerations may be important in obtaining optimal results. PMID:10378997

  19. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  20. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  1. Adaptive motor control in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Cattaert, D; Le Ray, D

    2001-02-01

    This article reviews the principles that rule the organization of motor commands that have been described over the past five decades in crayfish. The adaptation of motor behaviors requires the integration of sensory cues into the motor command. The respective roles of central neural networks and sensory feedback are presented in the order of increasing complexity. The simplest circuits described are those involved in the control of a single joint during posture (negative feedback-resistance reflex) and movement (modulation of sensory feedback and reversal of the reflex into an assistance reflex). More complex integration is required to solve problems of coordination of joint movements in a pluri-segmental appendage, and coordination of different limbs and different motor systems. In addition, beyond the question of mechanical fitting, the motor command must be appropriate to the behavioral context. Therefore, sensory information is used also to select adequate motor programs. A last aspect of adaptability concerns the possibility of neural networks to change their properties either temporarily (such on-line modulation exerted, for example, by presynaptic mechanisms) or more permanently (such as plastic changes that modify the synaptic efficacy). Finally, the question of how "automatic" local component networks are controlled by descending pathways, in order to achieve behaviors, is discussed. PMID:11124446

  2. Adult human buccal epithelial stem cells: identification, ex-vivo expansion, and transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Priya, C G; Arpitha, P; Vaishali, S; Prajna, N V; Usha, K; Sheetal, K; Muthukkaruppan, V

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To identify adult human buccal epithelial stem cells (SCs) on the basis of two parameters (high p63 expression and greater nucleus/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio) and to evaluate clinical efficacy of ex-vivoexpanded autologous epithelium in bilateral limbal SC-deficient (LSCD) patients. Methods The epithelial cells were isolated from buccal biopsy and cultured on human amnion in culture inserts with 3T3 feeder layer. The SCs were identified on the basis of two-parameter analysis using confocal microscopy, surface markers, and colony-forming efficiency (CFE). The cultured epithelium was transplanted in 10 LSCD patients followed by penetrating keratoplasty in 4 patients. The clinical outcome was followed up to 3 years. Results A distinct population (3.0±1.7%) of small cells expressing high levels of p63 with greater N/C ratio was observed in buccal epithelium. The N/C ratio was found to be more appropriate than cell diameter for two-parameter analysis. These cells located in the basal layer were negative for connexin-43 and positive for melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, containing holoclones with 0.2% CFE, thus representing the SC population. After transplantation of cultured epithelium with increased (sixfold) SC content, anatomical and visual improvement was observed at 13–34 months in 3/10 LSCD patients. Conclusions The two-parameter SC marker is useful to identify and quantify buccal epithelial SCs. The transplantation of bioengineered SC-rich buccal epithelium is a strategy for corneal surface reconstruction in bilateral LSCD. However, further studies are required to optimize the culture conditions and to look for other sources of adult SCs for better visual outcome. PMID:21941360

  3. Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Stewart D.

    2001-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

  4. Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

  5. Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect

    PubMed Central

    Sobhana, C. R.; Beena, V. T.; Soni, Ashish; Choudhary, Kanaram; Sapru, Deepthy

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to non-existent. Hemangiomas of the oral cavity are not common pathological entities, but the head and neck are common sites. Furthermore some time histologically lymphatic channels may be evident in hemangiomas, and then it will be categorized according predominant component, e.g.; hemangiolymphangiomas or lymphangiohemangiomas, vice versa is true for lymphangiomas. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but 10-20% of true hemnagioma in completely involute and required post- adolescent ablative treatment. In the present article we are reporting a case of hemangiolypmangiomas of left buccal mucosa in an 18-year-old male patient. We have also reviewed various treatment modalities and their clinical implication. PMID:23833496

  6. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T. P.

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient's profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch. PMID:22557914

  7. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted. PMID:25536824

  8. 49 CFR 385.301 - What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning interstate operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.301 What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning...

  9. 49 CFR 385.301 - What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning interstate operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.301 What is a motor carrier required to do before beginning...

  10. Buccal metastasis in a case of carcinoma breast: A rare case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sunny; Kadian, Mohit; Khandelwal, Rohan; Agarwal, Usha; Bhowmik, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Metastatic lesions to oral cavity from distant tumours account for 1% of all oral cavity malignancies. Oral cavity is a rare site of metastasis from the breast. We describe case report of breast cancer patient with metastasis to buccal mucosa. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of pre-menopausal woman with left side infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast – T4aN1M0. She received three cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and loco-regional EBRT. She presented with a lump in region of MRM scar and a painful swelling in the right cheek, one year afterwards. Core needle biopsy from scar site revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. CECT revealed a heterogeneous lesion (1.1 cm × 1.7 cm) in right masticator space, which on biopsy revealed metastatic deposit consistent with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. DISCUSSION Metastatic lesions to oral cavity from distant tumours are uncommon. They mainly involve bony structures. Primary metastases to soft tissues are rare and accounts for 0.1% of oral malignancies. In our case, patient presented with scar recurrence and distant metastasis at an unusual site. Had it not been for scar recurrence, patient might not have presented to the OPD with oral swelling. A high degree of clinical suspicion and previous history of breast cancer led to detection of metastatic deposit. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of a metastatic lesion in buccal mucosa is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. PMID:23500744

  11. Single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for navicular fossa strictures

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Puskar Shyam; Nayak, Prasant; Mallick, Sujata; Gurumurthy, Srinivasan; David, Deepak; Mossadeq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The correction of fossa navicularis strictures poses a distinct reconstructive challenge as it requires attention to cosmesis, in addition to urethral patency. Different graft and flap based repairs have been described with variable success rates. However, the ideal management remains unclear. The feasibility and efficacy of a single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (VOBMGU) for navicular fossa strictures (NFS) was evaluated in the present study. Subjects and Methods: All patients with NFS attending urology out-patient department from March, 2009 onward accepting VOBMGU were evaluated prospectively. Patients with minimum 1 year of follow-up were included for analysis. The technique involves opening the diseased stenosed meatus ventrally up to the corona. The diseased mucosa is excised leaving a midline strip of native urethral mucosa on the dorsal side. The buccal mucosal graft (BMG) is fixed on either side of this strip over a 24 Fr. silicone catheter. The glans wings are apposed in midline taking anchoring bites on the mucosal graft ventrally. Post-operatively patients were reviewed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. Cosmetic acceptance and splaying of the urinary stream was assessed with individual questionnaires. Results: A total of six patients underwent VOBMGU. Average flow rate at 3 months post-operatively was 12 ml/s. The end result was cosmetically highly acceptable. There was no fistula in any of the cases. With a median follow-up of 37 months, only one patient had a recurrence of stricture in a proximal site. Conclusions: VOBMGU is a viable technique for reconstruction of NFS with promising short term results. However, long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:24497676

  12. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  13. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  14. Investigating motors and magnetism.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Reierson

    This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

  15. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  16. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. PMID:23907052

  17. Transposed firing activation of motor units.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C; Contessa, Paola

    2014-08-15

    Muscles are composed of groups of muscle fibers, called motor units, each innervated by a single motoneuron originating in the spinal cord. During constant or linearly varying voluntary force contractions, motor units are activated in a hierarchical order, with the earlier-recruited motor units having greater firing rates than the later-recruited ones. We found that this normal pattern of firing activation can be altered during oscillatory contractions where the force oscillates at frequencies ?2 Hz. During these high-frequency oscillations, the activation of the lower-threshold motor units effectively decreases and that of the higher-threshold motor units effectively increases. This transposition of firing activation provides means to activate higher-threshold motor units preferentially. Our results demonstrate that the hierarchical regulation of motor unit activation can be manipulated to activate specific motoneuron populations preferentially. This finding can be exploited to develop new forms of physical therapies and exercise programs that enhance muscle performance or that target the preferential atrophy of high-threshold motor units as a result of aging or motor disorders such as stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24899671

  18. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  19. Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  20. Risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Duffy, S W; Padmakumary, G; Day, N E; Krishan Nair, M

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India. DESIGN--The investigation was a case-control study. SETTING--Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, and local teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were all those registered with oral cancers at the Regional Cancer Centre during 1983 and 1984 (n = 414). Controls (n = 895) were selected from admissions to the cancer centre who were found to have non-malignant conditions, or from patients attending outpatients in teaching hospitals of Trivandrum medical college with non-malignant conditions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The risk in males of the following habits was investigated: pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking snuff. Only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated in females as very few indulged in other habits. Among males predisposing effects were found for pan-tobacco chewing (p less than 0.001), bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001), and taking snuff (p less than 0.01). As in males, pan-tobacco chewing also had a predisposing effect in females (p less than 0.001). Duration of use was a better predictor of risk than either daily frequency of use or total lifetime exposure, both for pan-tobacco chewing (especially if the habit started before age 21 years) and bidi smoking. However, there were also very high risks associated with the current occasional use of both factors. Pan-tobacco chewing was the most important risk factor, with relative risk of 13.24 with 31-40 years' use, and 37.75 with greater than 40 years' use among males. Corresponding relative risks in females were 21.30 and 54.93. No effect of cigarette smoking was observed (relative risk 0.64, p greater than 0.1). CONCLUSIONS--A substantial majority of cases of buccal and labial cancers are attributable to chewing pan-tobacco. This has obvious implications for instituting preventive measures. PMID:2277249

  1. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  2. Recovery of consummatory feeding behavior after bilateral lesions of the cerebral-buccal connectives in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L; Kirk, M D

    1992-07-10

    In the sea hare, Aplysia californica, consummatory feeding behavior is selectively abolished by bilateral crushes of the cerebral-buccal connectives and recovers by postlesion day 13. Recovered biting responses are initially weak and increase in magnitude gradually with time. The lesions do not affect appetitive feeding behavior or unrelated reflexive behaviors. Thus, feeding in Aplysia can be used to examine the neural basis of behavioral recovery after CNS injury. PMID:1511310

  3. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  4. Specific Noninvasive Detection of Leishmania donovani in Desquamated Buccal Cell Swab Samples from Human Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Halder, Avishek; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Mandal, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection is challenging. Specific diagnosis of VL in HIV-coinfected patients was evaluated by molecular methods in desquamated buccal swab samples, demonstrating 86.3% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity in controls. This test holds significant potential for development as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for VL in HIV-coinfected patients. PMID:24478413

  5. Effects of onion extract on the development of hamster buccal pouch carcinomas as expressed in Tumor Burden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadjik Niukian; Joel Schwartz; Gerald Shklar

    1987-01-01

    One?hundred male, young?adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were divided into five equal groups of 20 animals each. Groups 1,2, and 3 were painted three times a week in the left buccal pouches with a 0.5% solution of 7,12?dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil. Group 1 animals also received a 20% onion extract in their drinking water and were also painted in

  6. A novel approach to enhance the mucoadhesion of lipid drug nanocarriers for improved drug delivery to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Joanne D; Liu, Qingtao; Salentinig, Stefan; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J

    2014-08-25

    Targeted drug delivery to the buccal mucosa offers distinct advantages over oral delivery to the gastrointestinal tract including by-passing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, the buccal route is often limited by low bioavailability, low drug loading and reduced residence time due to salivary excretion and clearance. To overcome these limitations, a novel mucoadhesive formulation based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles was designed. Utilising a pH induced in situ transition from a stable vesicle formulation to dispersed inverse hexagonal phase nanoparticles (hexosomes) enhanced adsorption onto the mucosal surface was enabled. Firstly, the phase behaviour of the amphiphilic lipid phytantriol (PHY) and oleic acid (OA) was assessed from pH 2-9 using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to determine the appropriate composition for the vesicle to hexosome transition. The colloidal stability of the formulation was determined using turbidity studies. Dispersions comprising 30% w/w OA in PHY were able to form stable vesicles at pH 8 and transition to hexosomes when exposed to pH<7 (as encountered on the buccal mucosal surface). Subsequent ex vivo studies utilising excised porcine buccal tissue indicated significant retention of the in situ-formed PHY/OA hexosomes when compared to control DOPC vesicles (p<0.005), confirmed independently using confocal fluorescence microscopy, radioactive scintillation counting and HPLC analysis for incorporated drug. Thus, a novel approach providing a stable vesicle formulation, with in situ transformation to mucoadhesive hexosomes has been identified with the potential to enhance drug delivery to mucosal surfaces. PMID:24879939

  7. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the ?-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

  8. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual ?-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to ?-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  9. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

  10. From the mouths of monkeys: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, AK; Engel, G; Rompis, A; Putra, IGA A; Lee, BP Y-H; Aggimarangsee, N; Chalise, M; Shaw, E; Oh, G; Schillaci, MA; Jones-Engel, L

    2012-01-01

    Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the PCR amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

  11. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  12. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  13. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50?=?12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  14. Buccal delivery of metformin: TR146 cell culture model evaluating the use of bioadhesive chitosan discs for drug permeability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-12-31

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses. PMID:24148665

  15. Berberine prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis: a biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Sindhu, Ganapathy; Vinothkumar, Veerasamy; Kowsalya, Raju

    2012-03-01

    Chemoprevention, a novel and useful approach in experimental oncology, deals with the prevention, suppression, or inhibition of carcinogenesis using natural or synthetic entities. This study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of berberine on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Tumor incidence, tumor volume, tumor burden, phase I and phase II carcinogen detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, and histopathological changes were assessed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone and in DMBA+berberine-treated animals. Hundred percent tumor incidences with an imbalance in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cellular redox status were observed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of berberine at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight (bw) to DMBA-treated hamsters completely prevented tumor incidence and restored the status of the above-mentioned biochemical markers. Berberine, a traditional drug from Southeast Asia, shows promising chemopreventive efficacy in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:21968688

  16. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

    1982-09-01

    Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

  17. IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

  18. Teacher Manual in Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramapo Central School District 1, Suffern, NY.

    The experimental program in visual-motor-perceptual training in Ramapo Central School District No. 1, Suffern, New York, was used as a guideline to prepare a detailed description of specific activities and exercises to be used by administrators and teachers. In the program, 80 visual-motor-perceptual handicapped children in first, second, and…

  19. Utilizing Oral-Motor Feedback in Auditory Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marilyn

    The Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program, an oral-motor approach to beginning reading instruction, trains first grade children in auditory skills by a process in which language and oral-motor feedback are used to integrate auditory properties with visual properties. This emphasis of the ADD program makes the child's perceptual…

  20. Expression of survivin and XIAP for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis is associated with p53 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hsue, Shue-Sang; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is regulated by a number of inhibitory or stimulatory factors. One such family of antiapoptotic proteins is the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), of which survivin and X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) are members. The expression of survivin and XIAP, as well as their association with p53, in chemically-induced experimental oral carcinogenesis is not completely understood. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the protein expression of these two IAP family members and their relationship with p53 status, in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin, XIAP and p53 protein expression was performed in DMBA-induced pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis. Fifty outbred, young (6 weeks), male Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricatus auratus) were randomly divided into three experimental groups (each group consisting of 10 animals treated with DMBA for 3-, 7- or 14-weeks), and two control groups (with 10 animals in each). The pouches of the three experimental groups were painted bilaterally with a 0.5% DMBA solution three times a week. The treatment protocol for animals in one of the control groups was identical with only mineral oil applied, while the other control group remained untreated throughout the experiment. Survivin staining could not be detected by immunohistochemistry in any of the untreated or mineral oil treated hamster pouch-tissue specimens. Cytoplasmic staining of survivin proteins was apparent in the entire epithelial layer (excluding the keratinized layer) in all 3-week DMBA treated pouch-tissue analyzed. In addition, cytoplasmic survivin staining was observed in all specimens of 7- and 14-week DMBA treated pouch-tissue. XIAP positivity was confined to the outermost keratinized layer of the pouch-tissue from control animals and those treated with DMBA for 3-weeks. However, XIAP staining was detected in the whole epithelial layer (except the basal layer) in 7- and 14-week DMBA treated pouch-tissue. p53 was not detected in any untreated and mineral oil treated pouch-tissue, whereas nuclear p53 staining was observed for all 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA treated pouch-tissue. The results of this study demonstrate the association between survivin/XIAP and p53 expression in this experimental model system for oral carcinogenesis, although their exact interactions remain to be clarified. Moreover, our findings suggest that the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch mucosa may serve as an appropriate experimental model for investigation of potential novel therapeutic tools for oral squamous-cell carcinomas. PMID:17306609

  1. Cognitive motor processes: The role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörn Munzert; Britta Lorey; Karen Zentgraf

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery is viewed as a window to cognitive motor processes and particularly to motor control. Mental simulation theory [Jeannerod, M., 2001. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103–109] stresses that cognitive motor processes such as motor imagery and action observation share the same representations as motor execution. This article presents an overview of

  2. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  3. Electrical transmission among neurons in the buccal ganglion of a mollusc, Navanax inermis.

    PubMed

    Levitan, H; Tauc, L; Segundo, J P

    1970-04-01

    The opisthobranch mollusc, Navanax, is carnivorous and cannibalistic. Prey are swallowed whole by way of a sudden expansion of the pharynx. The buccal ganglion which controls this sucking action was isolated and bathed in seawater. Attention was focused upon 10 identifiable cells visible on the ganglion's rostral side. Two cells were observed simultaneously, and each was penetrated with two glass microelectrodes, one for polarizing the membrane and the other for recording membrane potential variations. The coupling coefficients for direct current flow and action potentials of several identified cells were tabulated. Attenuation was essentially independent of the direction of current flow, but depended upon the relative size of the directly and indirectly polarized cells. The attenuation of subthreshold sinusoidally varying voltages increased with frequency above about 1 Hz. The coupling coefficient for spikes was lower than for DC due to greater high frequency attenuation. There is considerable similarity in the spontaneous PSP's of all cells, which is not due to the electrical coupling but to input from a common source. The 10 cells were not chemically interconnected but some were electrically connected to interneurons which fed back chemically mediated PSP's. The feedback can be negative or positive depending upon the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell. We conclude that electrical coupling among the 10 cells plays a minor role in sudden pharyngeal contractions but that the dual electrical-chemical coupling with interneurons may be important in this respect. PMID:4314176

  4. Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L.; Pook, Mark A.; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the iron–sulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

  5. Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

    2012-06-01

    A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

  6. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  7. A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  8. Amidated pectin-based wafers for econazole buccal delivery: Formulation optimization and antimicrobial efficacy estimation.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Mennini, Natascia; Kosalec, Ivan; Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Jug, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Combinations of low-methoxy amidated pectin (LMAP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to develop a lyophilized wafer formulation, aimed to obtain prolonged residence and controlled release of econazole nitrate (ECN) in the oral cavity. Ternary ECN/sulphobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin/citric acid complex, resulted as the most efficient system against selected Candida strains, was loaded into this formulation. The final product with the desired and predicted quality was developed by an experimental design strategy. The experimental values of mucoadhesion strength (28.37±0.04mg/cm(2)) and residence time (88.1±0.1min) obtained for the optimized wafer formulation were very close to the predicted ones, thus demonstrating the actual reliability and usefulness of the assumed model in the preparation of buccal wafers. The optimized formulation provided a constant ECN in situ release of 5mg/h and was efficacious against selected Candida strains in vitro. This clearly proved its potential as a novel effective delivery system for the therapy of oral candidiasis. PMID:25659694

  9. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  10. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  11. Asynchronous induction roller motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Gusel’nikov; V. S. Baklin; P. R. Baranov

    2008-01-01

    Problems of designing special modifications of roller induction motors of ARM2P type for variable-frequency electric drives\\u000a have been considered. Motor designs, energy indices, and adjustment properties are presented.

  12. Stepping Motor Control System

    E-print Network

    Larson, Noble G.

    This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

  13. Implementing Motor Management

    E-print Network

    Colip, R. L.

    Electric motors account for sixty five percent of industrial energy consumed today. There are many opportunities to conserve electricity by using more energy efficient motors and drives. Proven technologies and practices can reduce energy...

  14. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small...

  15. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small...

  16. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small...

  17. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small...

  18. FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

  19. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  20. Status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Projects

    E-print Network

    Szady, A. J.; Jallouk, P. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    This paper describes the status of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Showcase Demonstration Projects. These projects are part of the DOE Motor Challenge Program, and are aimed at demonstrating increased electric motor system efficiency through...

  1. 77 FR 26815 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...procedures for drivers and carriers, and ensuring that vehicles operated by motor carriers comply with the Federal...Friday, except Federal holidays. Issued on: May 1,...

  2. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? 80.532 Section 80...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  3. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? 80.532 Section 80...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  4. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? 80.532 Section 80...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  5. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? 80.532 Section 80...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  6. The sensitivity of biomarkers for genotoxicity and acute cytotoxicity in nasal and buccal cells of welders.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Jakse, Robert; Beham, Alfred; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Welders are inhalatively exposed to fumes which contain genotoxic carcinogens and it was found in epidemiological studies that they have increased cancer rates which may be causally related to DNA damage. In order to assess their health risks and to find out which chemicals cause the adverse effects, bioassays can be performed which enable the detection of genetic damage. The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation with exfoliated buccal and nasal cells in regard to induction of chromosomal alterations and acute cytotoxicity in welders and unexposed controls (n=22 per group). To elucidate the factors which account for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, additional biochemical parameters were monitored reflecting the redox status as well as concentrations of different metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in body fluids. We found in the nasal cells significant induction of alterations which are indicative for DNA damage, i.e. of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds, while elevated rates of nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, karyolylsis) were detected in cells from both organs. The levels of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni), but not markers of oxidative damage were significantly higher in the body fluids of the welders. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses indicate that exposure to Mo (15% MNi increase by one standard deviation increase of Mo in serum), Ni (9% increase) and Mn (14% increase) are positively associated with the induction of MNi in nasal cells while Ni was associated with cytotoxic effects in both types of cells (12 and 16% increase). Taken together, our findings indicate that epithelial cells from the respiratory tract are suitable for the detection of DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects in welders and can be used to assess health risks associated with genomic instability. PMID:24698449

  7. Arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from human buccal mucosal fibroblasts is mediated by ZEB1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lai, You-Liang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chi, Wan-Yu; Li, Jung Jung; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is considered as a pre-cancerous condition of the oral mucosa and is highly associated with habitual areca quid chewing. Arecoline is the major alkaloid in areca quid and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. Our previous studies have demonstrated that arecoline could induce epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Therefore, we investigated the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which is a well-known transcriptional factor in EMT, in OSF tissues and its role in arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. The expression of ZEB1, as well as the myofibroblast marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), was significantly increased in OSF tissues, respectively. With immunofluorescence analysis, arecoline induced the formation of ?-SMA-positive stress fibres in BMFs expressing nuclear ZEB1. Arecoline also induced collagen contraction of BMFs in vitro. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the binding of ZEB1 to the ?-SMA promoter in BMFs was increased by arecoline. The promoter activity of ?-SMA in BMFs was also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of ZEB1 abolished arecoline-induced ?-SMA promoter activity and collagen contraction of BMFs. Long-term exposure of BMFs to arecoline induced the expression of fibrogenic genes and ZEB1. Silencing of ZEB1 in fibrotic BMFs from an OSF patient also suppressed the expression of ?-SMA and myofibroblast activity. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 could suppress arecoline-induced ZEB1 activation in BMFs. Our data suggest that ZEB1 may participate in the pathogenesis of areca quid–associated OSF by activating the ?-SMA promoter and inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. PMID:24400868

  8. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies. PMID:24873758

  9. Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frédéric; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Séverine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

  10. Comparative evaluation of porous versus nonporous mucoadhesive films as buccal delivery system of glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Bali, Vikas; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla

    2013-12-01

    The present research work focused on the comparative assessment of porous versus nonporous films in order to develop a suitable buccoadhesive device for the delivery of glibenclamide. Both films were prepared by solvent casting technique using the 3(2) full factorial design, developing nine formulations (F1-F9). The films were evaluated for ex vivo mucoadhesive force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release (using a modified flow-through drug release apparatus), and ex vivo drug permeation. The mucoadhesive force, mucoadhesion time, swelling index, and tensile strength were observed to be directly proportional to the content of HPMC K4M. The optimized porous film (F4) showed an in vitro drug release of 84.47?±?0.98%, ex vivo mucoadhesive force of 0.24?±?0.04 N, and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 539.11?±?3.05 min, while the nonporous film (NF4) with the same polymer composition showed a release of 62.66?±?0.87%, mucoadhesive force of 0.20?±?0.05 N, and mucoadhesive time of 510?±?2.00 min. The porous film showed significant differences for drug release and mucoadhesion time (p?buccal mucosa indicated improved drug permeation in porous films versus nonporous films. The present investigation established porous films to be a cost-effective buccoadhesive delivery system of glibenclamide. PMID:23990119

  11. Induction of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells of coca chewers: results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Barcelos, Gustavo; Mišík, Miroslav; Wultsch, Georg; Carrion, Juan; Carrion-Carrera, Gladys; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2013-03-01

    The leaves of coca (Erythroxylum coca var. coca), a South American shrub which contains cocaine, other alkaloids and phenolics are widely used by indigenous populations of the Andes. It is currently not known if coca consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans. This information is important to predict potential long-term toxic effects such as cancer induction. Therefore, the buccal cytome assay was used to analyze oral cells from 45 uni- and bilateral chewers and 23 controls living in the Altiplano of the Peruvian Andes. In total, 123,471 cells were evaluated from chewers and 57,916 from controls. Information concerning the consumption levels and habits and also use of lime were collected with questionnaires. Chewing of the leaves did not induce nuclear anomalies reflecting genetic damage such as micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds; in the highest exposure group (but not in the overall group) even a significant decrease in the frequencies of cells with MNi (by 64 %) was observed. However, we found significantly elevated levels of other nuclear anomalies (karyorrhexis and karyolysis) which reflect cytotoxic effects in the coca users. The frequencies of these anomalies increased with the daily consumption and when lime was used to improve the release of the alkaloids. In contrast to other chewing habits (betel, tobacco and khat), consumption of coca leaves does not induce genetic instability in cells from the oral cavity and our findings indicate that no adverse health effects take place in chewers which are associated with DNA damage. However, the significant increase in certain anomalies shows that acute toxic effects are caused by coca consumption. PMID:23128829

  12. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-?-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  13. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  14. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  15. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

  16. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  17. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis.

    PubMed

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Sforzini, A; Lombardi Borgia, S; Yasin, A; Ronchi, C

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do so, a mucoadhesive topical gel was prepared to apply to the buccal mucosa. The gel was formulated in such a way as to improve the solubility of the propolis, conducting to an increase of the flux. The mucosal permeation of CAPE from the formulation was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulation (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chamber. The diffusion through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of CAPE present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by HPLC analysis. From the results, CAPE allowed a high permeability coefficient in comparison to the coefficient of other molecules, as expected from its physical-chemical structure. Moreover, the developed gel improved the CAPE flux approximately 35 times more with respect to an ethanol solution formulated at the same gel concentration. The developed gel was also tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive behaviour and comfort in vivo on 10 volunteers in a period of 8 h. The in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive gel revealed adequate comfort and non-irritancy during the period of study and it was well accepted by the volunteers. PMID:12495709

  18. Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  19. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  20. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  1. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Maslowski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium-speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm and powered via a transistor-inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high-speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm and powered via a thyristor-inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium-speed motor and for a high-speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium-cobalt permanent magnet material.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Li, Yubo; Xu, Daoqing; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Jinlei; Guo, Xuejun; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

  3. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

  4. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

  5. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Stoianovici; Alexandru Patriciu; Doru Petrisor; Dumitru Mazilu; Louis Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special

  6. Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode

    PubMed Central

    Kamburo?lu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yüksel, S; Paksoy, C S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n?=?22) and buccal periodontal defects (n?=?22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax® 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as ??=?0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p?Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

  7. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altu?, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Ar?, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Dö?ero?lu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the determination of BEC-MN frequency (per mille) and frequency of BEC with MN (per mille). The same children were also recruited for lung function measurements within a MATRA project ("Together Towards Clean Air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun") Measured NO2 and SO2 concentrations did not exceed the European Union (EU) limit levels either in urban-traffic or suburban regions. Higher O3 concentrations were measured in the suburban site especially in the summer period. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels which did not differ statistically between two regions were above the EU limits in general. Although BEC-MN frequencies of children living in the suburban sites were higher in general, the difference between two regions was not significant either in the summer or winter periods. BEC-MN frequencies of the urban-traffic children were found to be significantly higher in summer period (mean ± SD, 2.68?±?1.99) when compared to winter period (1.64?±?1.59; p?=?0.004). On the other hand, no seasonality was observed for the suburban children. Similar results have been obtained in the BEC frequency with MN in our study. In summer, BEC-MN frequencies were significantly increased with the decrease in pulmonary function levels based on forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) levels (p?

  8. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

  9. Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes.

    PubMed

    Schmidgall, J; Schnetz, E; Hensel, A

    2000-02-01

    Aqueous extracts of polysaccharide-containing plants are widely used in therapy for irritated mucus membranes in the pharynx region. In order to prove the existence of mucilaginous effects of polysaccharide hydrocolloids on epithelia an ex vivo system based on porcine buccal membranes was established. The tissue culture was stable and there was no indication of cytolytic processes during the 5 hour incubation period. This was confirmed through histological studies and the respective LDH values as toxicity marker. The test system was shown to discriminate the adhesive effects of different raw polysaccharides, obtained from a variety of medicinal plants. While polysaccharides from Altheae officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Malva moschata, or Tilia cordata showed only moderate bioadhesion to epithelial tissue, strong adhesive processes were observed with polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus and Calendula officinalis. The adhesive effects were concentration-dependent. Histological studies of membranes, incubated with a fluorescence-labelled rhamnogalacturonan, indicated the presence of distinct polysaccharide layers on the apical membrane surface. With these results, adsorption effects of certain polysaccharides on mucus membranes were shown for the first time. Such effects suggest that this may account, at least in part, for the therapeutic effects of mucilage-containing plants in the treatment of irritated buccal membranes. PMID:10705734

  10. Beckwith Wiedemann imprinting defect found in leucocyte but not buccal DNA in a child born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of methylation (LOM) at imprinting control region (ICR) 1 or LOM at ICR 2 on chromosome 11p15 in leucocyte DNA is commonly used to diagnose the imprinting disorders Silver Russell syndrome (SRS) characterized by growth restriction or Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) characterized by overgrowth, respectively. Case presentation A child was normally conceived and born by caesarian section to a healthy 19 year old smoking mother (G2P1) at 38 weeks gestation, with SGA (birthweight SDS ?2.44), placenta weight 250g (normal histology), with an umbilical hernia and transient neonatal hypoglycemia but no other features of BWS. The methylation status at 11p15 region was initially investigated by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Subsequently, methylation-specific (ms) PCR was performed to screen for this and other imprinted loci abnormalities at PLAG1 (6q24), IGF2R (6q27), GRB10 (7p12), PEG1/MEST (7q32), DLK1 (14q32), SNRPN (15q11); PEG3 (19q32), NESPAS/GNAS (20q13). Leucocyte DNA methylation was normal at ICR1 but markedly reduced at ICR2 using both MLPA and ms-PCR, and no other anomalies of imprinting were detected. Buccal DNA methylation was normal at all imprinted sites tested. Conclusion This is the first report of an isolated LOM at ICR2 in leucocyte but not buccal DNA in a normally conceived singleton SGA child without overt SRS or BWS. PMID:23116464

  11. Modulation of the buccal muscle contraction by identified serotonergic and peptidergic neurons in the snail Achatina fulica

    PubMed

    Yoshida; Kobayashi

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic and peptidergic modulation of buccal muscle contraction at an identified neuromuscular synapse in the African giant snail Achatina fulica was examined. A pair of excitatory motoneurons of the radula protractor was identified in the buccal ganglia and these were named B10 neurons. Pharmacological experiments revealed the B10s to be cholinergic. The serotonergic cerebral neuron v-CDN enhanced B10-evoked contraction of the radula protractor, and it is suggested that this effect is mediated postsynaptically by serotonin released from the v-CDN terminals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the B10 motoneurons contained an Achatina cardioexcitatory peptide-1 (ACEP-1)-like substance in their cell body, axon and terminals in the radula protractor. From electron microscopic observation, the ACEP-1-like immunoreactive substance was found to be localized in dense-cored vesicles but not in clear vesicles in the nerve terminals. ACEP-1 applied to the radula protractor markedly enhanced B10-evoked contraction of the muscle by increasing the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs). The increase of EJP amplitude in the presence of the peptide was probably due to the increased release of acetylcholine from the terminals of B10. It is suggested that the cholinergic motoneuron B10 uses ACEP-1 as an excitatory cotransmitter. PMID:9318489

  12. Time-dependent reduction of structural complexity of the buccal epithelial cell nuclei after treatment with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pantic, I; Paunovic, J; Perovic, M; Cattani, C; Pantic, S; Suzic, S; Nesic, D; Basta-Jovanovic, G

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may affect cell DNA structure in in vitro conditions. In this paper, we present the results indicating that AgNPs change nuclear complexity properties in isolated human epithelial buccal cells in a time-dependent manner. Epithelial buccal cells were plated in special tissue culture chamber / slides and were kept at 37°C in an RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine. The cells were treated with colloidal silver nanoparticles suspended in RPMI 1640 medium at the concentration 15 mg L?¹. Digital micrographs of the cell nuclei in a sample of 30 cells were created at five different time steps: before the treatment (controls), immediately after the treatment, as well as 15 , 30 and 60 min after the treatment with AgNPs. For each nuclear structure, values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, circularity, as well as parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture, were determined. The results indicate time-dependent reduction of structural complexity in the cell nuclei after the contact with AgNPs. These findings further suggest that AgNPs, at concentrations present in today's over-the-counter drug products, might have significant effects on the cell genetic material. PMID:24118045

  13. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  14. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  15. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  16. Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

  17. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty?four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  18. Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study

    E-print Network

    Dautovich, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

  19. > DD-10 loudspeaker motors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    > DD-10 loudspeaker motors B. Merit1,2 , G. Lemarquand2 calculations are used to study existing loudspeaker motors totally made of permanent magnets. When the iron is removed from a loudspeaker, Eddy currents and reluctant effects are also removed, improving the linearity

  20. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  1. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  2. Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    ', Rudolph A. KoegP lectric motors play a very important role in the safe and efficient running of any current signature analy- sis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based mainte nance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well

  3. Serotonin and motor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry L Jacobs; Casimir A Fornal

    1997-01-01

    The activity of brain serotonergic neurons in both the pontine-mesencephalic and medullary groups is positively correlated with the level of behavioral arousal and\\/or the behavioral state. This, in turn, appears to be related to the level of tonic motor activity, especially as manifested in antigravity muscles and other muscle groups associated with gross motor activity. In addition, a subset of

  4. Implementing Motor Decision Plans

    E-print Network

    Elliott, R. N.

    are made at the time of motor failure, and the quickest option to get a working motor is chosen with limited regard to the short or long-term cost. This paper discusses how to develop a plan appropriate to the needs of a particular facility....

  5. Stripped-down Motor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

  6. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  7. Improved perceptual-motor performance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Reilly, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Battery of tests determines the primary dimensions of perceptual-motor performance. Eighteen basic measures range from simple tests to sophisticated electronic devices. Improved system has one unit for the subject containing test display and response elements, and one for the experimenter where test setups, programming, and scoring are accomplished.

  8. Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil D.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

  9. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  10. Improved SCR ac-motor controller for battery-powered urban electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Latos

    1982-01-01

    An electric vehicle propulsion system controller which uses an ac induction electric motor as the electrical to mechanical energy conversion unit was designed and developed. The contract program was to design and test an improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery, would provide a complete electric vehicle power train

  11. Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

  12. MOTOR COGNITION Neurophysiological underpinning of planning and predicting upcoming actionsNeurophysiological underpinning of planning and predicting upcoming actions

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    Brain imagingMotor performance electroencephalography Transcranial magnetic stimulation #12? The curse of dimensionality (Bellman, 1957) 1) MOTOR PROGRAM1) MOTOR PROGRAM FORCE, DIRECTION, TRAJECTORY of a particular context is the probability of the current sensory feedback given that context. #12;INTERNAL MODELS

  13. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

  18. Using Inflatables with Severely Motorically Involved Infants and Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasari, Connie; Filler, John W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Inflatable swim rings are inexpensive, familiar, compact, and facilitate appropriate positioning for the educational programing of severely motorically involved infants and preschoolers. Case studies of two infants illustrate use of the inflatables. (DB)

  19. RoadsideAssistancefrom SignatureMotorClubofCalifornia,Inc.is

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    division of Allstate). We are happy to be of service to you and trust you will enjoy the program. Anthony M Motor Club of California, Inc., a division of The Allstate Corporation. AT&T Navigator is provided

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to toxins, elevated temperature, injury, and disease. They block signals that lead to programmed cell death. In ... motor neuropathy, type II change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the protein sequence. If either ...

  1. Immediate placement of a porous-tantalum, trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant with demineralized bone matrix into a socket with deficient buccal bone: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Byrd, Warren C; Hosseini, Bashir

    2015-04-01

    A missing or deficient buccal alveolar bone plate is often an important limiting factor for immediate implant placement. Titanium dental implants enhanced with porous tantalum-based trabecular metal material (PTTM) are designed for osseoincorporation, a combination of vascularized bone ingrowth and osseointegration (bone on-growth). Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) contains growth factors with good handling characteristics. However, the combination of these 2 materials in facial alveolar bone regeneration associated with immediate implant therapy has not been reported. A 65-year-old Asian woman presented with a failing central incisor. Most of the buccal alveolar bone plate of the socket was missing. A PTTM enhanced implant was immediately placed with DBM. Cone beam computed tomography scans 12 months after the insertion of the definitive restoration showed regeneration of buccal alveolar bone. A combination of a PTTM enhanced implant, DBM, and a custom healing abutment may have an advantage in retaining biologically active molecules and form a scaffold for neovascularization and osteogenesis. This treatment protocol may be a viable option for immediate implant therapy in a failed tooth with deficient buccal alveolar bone. PMID:25702965

  2. CHRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKING IS ASSOCIATED WITH DIMINISHED FOLATE STATUS, ALTERED FOLATE FORM DISTRIBUTION, AND INCREASED GENETIC DAMAGE IN THE BUCCAL MUCOSA OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Smoking causes genetic damage in buccal cells and increases the risk of oral cancer. Since folate is instrumental in DNA synthesis and repair, it is a determinant of genetic stability and therefore might attenuate the genotoxic effects of smoking. Objective: To compare folate metabolites...

  3. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    PubMed Central

    El Bakary, Neveen El Said Reda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea. PMID:24144124

  4. One-stage complex primary hypospadia repair combining buccal mucosa graft, preputial flap and tunical vaginalis flap (the three-in-one technique)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Macedo; Riberto Liguori; Gilmar Garrone; Sérgio Ottoni

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveComplex hypospadia repair can be performed according to different strategies, mostly in one or two stages. We present a detailed video of one patient operated according to the three-in-one technique, which combines dorsal buccal mucosa grafting for reconstruction of the incised urethral plate and a preputial flap onlay urethroplasty covered by a tunica vaginalis graft.

  5. The long-term efficacy and safety of a testosterone mucoadhesive buccal tablet in testosterone-deficient men.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Wallace W; Wyllie, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Striant® SR is the only available buccal delivery system for testosterone replacement therapy. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have shown that Striant SR effectively produces physiological serum testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. Efficacy and safety data from previously unpublished studies over 2 years of continuous use indicate that Striant SR is effective long term in maintaining serum testosterone within a physiological range, is well tolerated and has a high level of patient acceptance. Striant® sustained-release (SR) is a mucoadhesive buccal tablet (30 mg testosterone, The Urology Company) that adheres to the gum surface in the mouth providing controlled- and sustained-release of testosterone over a 12-h dosing period, offering a unique and rational method of testosterone delivery. Striant SR is indicated for testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism when testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by clinical features and biochemical tests. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that testosterone is released from Striant SR in a manner similar to the normal daily rhythm of endogenous testosterone secretion, with serum levels rising rapidly after insertion and peak levels reached by the second 12-hourly dose with no accumulation over time. In clinical trials involving hypogonadal men receiving Striant SR for up to 2 years, mean serum testosterone levels have always remained within the normal range. Striant SR is well tolerated, with gum-related disorders (such as irritation, inflammation and gingivitis) and taste perversion being the most commonly reported adverse events, reported by 5.6-16.3% and 3.0-4.1% of patients, respectively. Once patients have become accustomed to it, Striant SR has a high level of patient acceptance. In a long-term study, 90% of patients rated the twice-daily dosing as acceptable, just under half preferred it to other forms of TRT that they have used and 96% found it to be cosmetically acceptable. There is no clinically significant risk of testosterone transfer from Striant SR, as any testosterone that may be present in the saliva when swallowed is subject to extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. It is pertinent to note that the saliva of eugonadal men contains similar levels of endogenous testosterone. Buccal delivery is particularly suitable where easy and rapid reversal of treatment might be required (such as in late-onset hypogonadism) and where there is a need to avoid the potential for transfer of testosterone to women and young children. PMID:22288877

  6. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

  7. Research on speech motor control and its disorders: a review and prospective.

    PubMed

    Kent, R D

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders. Speech motor control refers to the systems and strategies that regulate the production of speech, including the planning and preparation of movements (sometimes called motor programming) and the execution of movement plans to result in muscle contractions and structural displacements. Traditionally, speech motor control is distinguished from phonologic operations, but in some recent phonologic theories, there is a deliberate blurring of the boundaries between phonologic representation and motor functions. Moreover, there is continuing discussion in the literature as to whether a given motor speech disorder (especially apraxia of speech and stuttering) should be understood at the phonologic level, the motoric level, or both of these. The motor speech disorders considered here include: the dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. PMID:11081787

  8. Sphere-forming-like cells (squamospheres) with cancer stem-like cell traits from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Lin, Li-Min

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that spheroid type cells grown under suspension culture conditions have cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in a number of cancers, but this phenomenon has not yet been reported in the VX2 rabbit oral cancer model. Hence, this study aimed to study the spheroid cells from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and assess their CSC characteristics. Five adult male New Zealand white outbred rabbits were used to generate VX2 rabbit buccal SCC. Sphere-forming cell culture was performed for the VX2 rabbit buccal SCC specimens. The self-renewal capability; cluster of designation (CD) 44, CD133, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), Nestin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and reduced expression protein-1 (Rex-1) expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); chemoresistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil; and in vivo tumorigenicity of spheroid cell transplantation in nude mice were evaluated to determine the CSC characteristics of the resulting spheroid cells. We successfully obtained spheroid cells from the VX2 rabbit OSCC tissues. The spheroid cells exhibited CSC traits, including the expression of CSC and stem cell markers (CD44, Bmi-1, Nestin, Oct4 and Rex-1), capacity to generate new spheroid colonies within 1 week of reseeding from single-dissociated spheroid cells, chemoresistance capacity and generation of tumour xenografts (with histological features resembling those of the original VX2 rabbit buccal SCC) from the transplantation of 10(3) undifferentiated spheroid cells into nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that spheroid cells with CSC cell traits can be derived from VX2 rabbit buccal SCCs, indicating that this animal cancer model is applicable for studying CSCs in human oral cancers. PMID:25012868

  9. 40 CFR 80.594 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.594 Section 80.594 Protection of Environment...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  11. Update of the Status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Projects

    E-print Network

    Szady, A. J.; Jallouk, P. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    This paper presents an update on the status of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Showcase Demonstration Projects. These projects are part of the DOE Motor Challenge Program, and are aimed at demonstrating increased electric motor system...

  12. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  13. The Integral Motor — A new variable-speed motor drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Henze

    1996-01-01

    ABB Motors has developed a new, energy-saving variable-speed motor drive for the 0.75 to 7.5 kW power range. A combination of standard induction motor and integrated frequency inverter, the Integral Motor is designed for industrial applications such as driving pumps or fans.

  14. Motor and coordinationMotor and coordination phenotypesphenotypes

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    .htm Normal horizontal swimming Abnormal vertical swimming Kalueff et al., 2006 #12;Motor skills tests · DrugMotor and coordinationMotor and coordination phenotypesphenotypes 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Assessing motor phenotypes · SHIRPA battery: a widely-accepted neurological battery involving a three- stage

  15. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: A novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-01-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:25685305

  16. Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Polystomatidae), a parasite of buccal cavity of Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Testudinata: Emydidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lenis, Carolina; García-Prieto, Luis

    2009-08-01

    Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. is described from the buccal cavity of the Colombian slider Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Gray, 1856) in the middle of Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. The new species is characterized by a combination of traits, i.e., 29-35 genital spines, outer and inner hamuli length (123-150 and 54-63, respectively), testis size (261.4-554.5 x 388.2-768.4), marginal hook lengths (45-51), and pharynx length (150-333), as well as testis length/oral sucker length, testis length/pharynx length, and testis width/pharynx width ratios. This is the first species described from turtles in Colombia and the fifth reported in chelonians from South America. PMID:20049992

  17. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: A novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease.

    PubMed

    Kovell, Robert Caleb; Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-02-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:25685305

  18. BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University; Department of Biological Science)

    2007-04-06

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

  19. Electric 'LEGO' Motor II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pino, Jose

    This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

  20. DNA Damage in Buccal Mucosa Cells of Pre-School Children Exposed to High Levels of Urban Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Feretti, Donatella; Viola, Gaia C V.; Zerbini, Ilaria; Limina, Rosa M.; Zani, Claudia; Capelli, Michela; Lamera, Rossella; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1–3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age±SD: 4.3±0.9 years) were investigated. The mean±SD MN frequency was 0.29±0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution. PMID:24789200

  1. Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-02-11

    In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

  2. Towards a microrotary motor driven by motor proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Hiratsuka; Shoji Takeuchi

    2007-01-01

    Biological molecular motors, motor proteins, have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures. This paper describes a bio- hybrid micro rotary motor using kinesin\\/ microtubule motor. We developed a simple fabrication process for a micro-structure by one-time deposition of parylene and a

  3. Experimenting with Theoretical Motor Neuroscience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ajemian; Neville Hogan

    2010-01-01

    Motor neuroscience is well over 100 years old, with seminal work such as G. T. Fritz and E. Hitzig's discovery of motor cortex occurring in 1870. Theoretical motor neuroscience has been ongoing for at least the last 50 years. How mature a scientific discipline is motor neuroscience? Are experimentalists and theoreticians working together productively to help the field progress? This

  4. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  5. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  6. Stepper Motors Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource presents tutorials about stepper motors. Topics include unipolar, bipolar, current control, and micro stepping. Clicking on each topic provides an in-depth tutorial complete with graphics.

  7. Dielectric fluid motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan)] [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)] [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  9. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

  10. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  11. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    E-print Network

    Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

    2007-06-20

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  12. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  13. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  14. Cryogenic testing of stepper motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

    1982-10-01

    Stepper motors may be used in several subsystems of the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Very high reliability is required in all considered applications. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to study the operational reliability of stepper motors, taking into account tests with a type of stepper motor which had previously performed well in uncooled spectrographic instruments. Two stepper motors were tested, in vacuum, at liquid nitrogen temperature. One motor was lubricated with a vacuum stable grease, while the other used unlubricated bearings. Both motors failed after less than 18,000 revolutions. The failure of the unlubricated motor indicated that motor modifications would have to be made to achieve operation at liquid helium temperature. The motor was modified to compensate for the magnitude of different thermal contractions. It was then found that modified stepper motors can perform reliably at LHe temperature for extended periods.

  15. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  16. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  17. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  18. Chapter 16: Lower Motor Neuron Circuits

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Chapter 16: Lower Motor Neuron Circuits #12;#12;Upper motor neurons: CNS ( premotor & primary motor cortex) Lower motor neurons: Motor neurons from the spinal cord #12;Wilder Penfield WWW I 1934 he founded #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Motor unit · Alpha motor neuron and muscle Types Slow, fast fatigable, fast

  19. Visual learning by imitation with motor representations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manuel; Santos-Victor, José

    2005-06-01

    We propose a general architecture for action (mimicking) and program (gesture) level visual imitation. Action-level imitation involves two modules. The viewpoint Transformation (VPT) performs a "rotation" to align the demonstrator's body to that of the learner. The Visuo-Motor Map (VMM) maps this visual information to motor data. For program-level (gesture) imitation, there is an additional module that allows the system to recognize and generate its own interpretation of observed gestures to produce similar gestures/goals at a later stage. Besides the holistic approach to the problem, our approach differs from traditional work in i) the use of motor information for gesture recognition; ii) usage of context (e.g., object affordances) to focus the attention of the recognition system and reduce ambiguities, and iii) use iconic image representations for the hand, as opposed to fitting kinematic models to the video sequence. This approach is motivated by the finding of visuomotor neurons in the F5 area of the macaque brain that suggest that gesture recognition/imitation is performed in motor terms (mirror) and rely on the use of object affordances (canonical) to handle ambiguous actions. Our results show that this approach can outperform more conventional (e.g., pure visual) methods. PMID:15971913

  20. Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

  1. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  2. Motor considerations for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Halfpap, R.F.; Brotherhood, R. (Louis Allis Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Customers who use large rotating equipment realize motors can be subjected to hostile environmental conditions, nonstandard voltage levels and a variety of load requirements. The motor specifications they write reflect this change and have become far more detailed. Too often in the past, when large projects were being organized and highly technical equipment purchased, induction motors were thought of as standard pieces of equipment not requiring much in the way of specialized design. High-speed compressor applications are good examples of the need for specific compressor torque characteristics and starting requirements to allow for proper motor design. Not only different compressor designs, but adjustments in compressor valves and changes in gas process conditions, can produce a diversity of speed-torque curves. Therefore, it is not practical for a motor designer to be told to assume a standard compressor load torque during acceleration. An example of compressor speed-torque curves illustrates this point. The paper also presents the example of centrifugal pumps to further illustrate the need for properly matching driver torque and power requirements.

  3. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication. PMID:25810829

  4. Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Oh, Ji-Su

    2014-01-01

    For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of the failed replacement, at which point the prosthetic treatment was considered complete. In all of the six cases that we were able to follow-up with, the sinus-bone graft was healing favorably. We observed that the sinus bone height decreased gradually with time. Based on these case series, we conclude that our procedure of repairing large sinus-membrane perforations with a pedicled buccal fat pad and a collagen membrane is a reliable technique. PMID:25247149

  5. The Bronze Age burials from Cova Dels Blaus (Vall d'Uixó, Castelló, Spain): an approach to palaeodietary reconstruction through dental pathology, occlusal wear and buccal microwear patterns.

    PubMed

    Polo-Cerdá, M; Romero, A; Casabó, J; De Juan, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a palaeodietary investigation of the human remains found in the collective Bronze Age burial cave from Vall d'Uixó (Castelló, Spain). Dental pathology, tooth wear as well as buccal dental microwear were analysed. Percentages of dental pathologies were compared with Chalcolithic and Bronze Age sites from the same territory. Dental caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, periodontal disease and abscess frequencies indicate a diet rich in carbohydrate foods. However, dental calculus percentages and macroscopic wear patterns suggest a diet not exclusively relying on agricultural resources. In addition, buccal dental microwear density and length by orientation recorded on micrographs using a scanning electron microscope showed inter-group differences with regard to carnivorous hunter-gatherers and farming populations related to the amount of abrasives in the diet that could correspond to a different dependence on agricultural resources or food preparation technology. PMID:17675006

  6. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication.

  7. The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

  8. Henderson-hasselbalch equation is inadequate for the measurement of transmembrane diffusion of drugs and buccal drug absorption is a useful alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Randhawa; A. Iqbal; M. Nasimullah; M. Akhtar; S. M. Yousaf; P. Turner

    1995-01-01

    1.1. The transmembrane diffusion of weakly acidic or basic drugs is being commonly assessed from their degree of ionization or ratio unionized\\/ionized forms (ratio U\\/I) as calculated from Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (HHEq).2.2. Buccal drug absorption (BA) at pH 5–9 has been proposed as an in vivo model for passage of drugs across lipid membranes.3.3. Area under the curve (AUC) of BA

  9. Effects of Platelet-Poor Plasma, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Healing of Extraction Sockets with Buccal Dehiscence in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3?mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-?. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence. PMID:24098948

  10. Basics of AC Motors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in AC Motors. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course covers: motor basics, NEMA motors, Siemens motorr, final exam, a glossary, plus a 116 page study guide.

  11. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  12. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  13. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  14. Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control

    E-print Network

    Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

  15. Cognitive motor processes: the role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Lorey, Britta; Zentgraf, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Motor imagery is viewed as a window to cognitive motor processes and particularly to motor control. Mental simulation theory [Jeannerod, M., 2001. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103-109] stresses that cognitive motor processes such as motor imagery and action observation share the same representations as motor execution. This article presents an overview of motor imagery studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience that support and extend predictions from mental simulation theory. In general, behavioral data as well as fMRI and TMS data demonstrate that motor areas in the brain play an important role in motor imagery. After discussing results on a close overlap between mental and actual performance durations, the review focuses specifically on studies reporting an activation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery. This focus is extended to studies on motor imagery in patients. Motor imagery is also analyzed in more applied fields such as mental training procedures in patients and athletes. These findings support the notion that mental training procedures can be applied as a therapeutic tool in rehabilitation and in applications for power training. PMID:19167426

  16. Special Panel Session: Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Barlow, Steven; Smith, Anne; Caviness, John

    2008-01-01

    The following report is a summary of the Special Panel Session, entitled, “Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech,” that was conducted at the Conference on Motor Speech, March 2008, in Monterey California. Don Finan (Program Chair for Speech Motor Control) and Julie Liss (Program Chair for Motor Speech Disorders) invited four distinguished scientists (Drs. Gary Weismer, Steven Barlow, Anne Smith, and John Caviness) to share, briefly, their opinions and views on selected topics. This was followed by an hour-long general discussion session with conference attendees. This report contains an introductory statement followed by the panel members' own summaries of the opinions and ideas expressed in their talks. We then summarize the major topics that were considered during the discussion session. This summary reflects the biases and opinions of the participants, and is meant to serve as a thought-piece for the readership of JMSLP, rather than as a scientific report. PMID:19421339

  17. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  18. Multiple propellant solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Allan J.

    1994-03-01

    An integrated stage solid propellant rocket motor arrangement provides boost and repeated throttling post-boost operations on demand and includes an attitude control system. The rocket motor includes a plurality of casings for enclosing an initial boost motor, a post-boost motor, and gas generator means for producing gases that are used for reignition of the post-boost motor and as a motive source for the attitude control system. The boost motor and the post-boost motor are contained within the same enclosure but are separated by an internal bulkhead. The rocket motor has a plurality of nozzles, one of which is located aft of the boost motor and another located within the internal bulkhead that separates the boost and post-boost motors. The rocket motor of the invention has application in many propulsion systems, including strategic systems requiring both boost and post-boost propulsion, advanced antiballistic missile interceptors requiring boost/sustain thrust and on/off operation, and in space motors for deploying satellites by accomplishing both perigee and apogee burns with a single motor or as an on-demand orbit transfer vehicle for changing orbits.

  19. Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market

    E-print Network

    Wroblewksi, R. G.

    EFFICIENT, INEXPENSIVE MOTORS: A NEW TREND IN THE MOTORS MARKET Ronald G. Wroblewski, P.E. Trainer and Consultant ABSTRACT The Consortiwn for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACf... standard. CEE has set a wrifonn efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some end-users however, have been reluctant to specify these motors because they think they are too expensive...

  20. Enhanced Large Solid Rocket Motor Understanding Through Performance Margin Testing: RSRM Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppi, Hal; Tobias, Mark; Seiler, James

    2003-01-01

    The Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) is an extended length reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) intended to increase motor performance and internal environments above the current four-segment RSRM flight motor. The principal purpose of ETM-3 is to provide a test article for RSRM component margin testing. As the RSRM and Space Shuttle in general continue to age, replacing obsolete materials becomes an ever-increasing issue. Having a five-segment motor that provides environments in excess of normal opera- tion allows a mechanism to subject replacement materials to a more severe environment than experienced in flight. Additionally, ETM-3 offers a second design data point from which to develop and/or validate analytical models that currently have some level of empiricism associated with them. These enhanced models have the potential to further the understanding of RSRM motor performance and solid rocket motor (SRM) propulsion in general. Furthermore, these data could be leveraged to support a five-segment booster (FSB) development program should the Space Shuttle program choose to pursue this option for abort mode enhancements during the ascent phase. A tertiary goal of ETM-3 is to challenge both the ATK Thiokol Propulsion and NASA MSFC technical personnel through the design and analysis of a large solid rocket motor without the benefit of a well-established performance database such as the RSRM. The end result of this undertaking will be a more competent and experienced workforce for both organizations. Of particular interest are the motor design characteristics and the systems engineering approach used to conduct a complex yet successful large motor static test. These aspects of ETM-3 and more will be summarized.

  1. Comparison of Oral and Buccal Midazolam for Pediatric Dental Sedation: A Randomized, Cross-Over, Clinical Trial for Efficacy, Acceptance and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Mehran, Majid; Haghgoo, Roza; Tohid-Rahbari, Monireh; Ahmadi, Rahil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective Providing a safe and efficient dental treatment for a young patient is a challenge for the dentist and the child. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of buccal midazolam in dental pediatric patients and to compare it with oral Midazolam. Methods Eighteen uncooperative healthy children aged 2.5-6 years were randomized to each of buccal midazolam (0.3mg/kg) or oral midazolam (0.5mg/kg) at the first visit, the alternative has been used at the second visit in a cross-over manner. The study took place at pediatric dentistry clinic of Shahed University, Tehran, from November 2011 to June 2012. The patients‘ vital signs and behavioral scores were recorded. The patient, the operator and the observer were blinded to the applied medication. Post operatively, patients‘ and parents‘ satisfaction were assessed by Visual Analogue Score and a questionnaire respectively. The P-value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Findings There were no significant differences in physiologic factors in the medication groups at time 0, 10, 20, 30 minutes and discharge. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in behavioral parameters. The majority of parents rated both sedative agents as “effective” or “very effective” and their children mostly were without anxiety or with minor anxiety. Conclusion Buccal midazolam may be safely and efficiently used in sedation of pediatric dental patients. PMID:25535540

  2. Reproducibility and intraindividual variation over days in buccal cell DNA methylation of two asthma genes, interferon ? (IFN?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The biological mechanisms responsible for the onset and exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children may involve the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory genes after environmental exposures. Using buccal cells, we hypothesized that DNA methylation in promoter regions of two asthma genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interferon ? (IFN?), can vary over several days. Repeat buccal samples were collected 4 to 7 days apart from 34 children participating in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study. Several field duplicates (sequential collection of two samples in the field) and replicates (one sample pyrosequenced twice) also were collected to ensure consistency with collection and laboratory procedures. DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing a PCR of bisulfite-treated DNA. We found that replicate and field duplicate samples were correlated strongly (r = 0.86 to 0.99, P < 0.05), while repeat samples demonstrated low within-subject correlations (r = 0.19 to 0.56, P = 0.06 to 0.30). Our data reveal DNA methylation as a dynamic epigenetic mechanism that can be accessed safely and reproducibly in an inner city pediatric cohort using non-invasive buccal swabs and pyrosequencing technology. PMID:22414378

  3. The use of a xenogeneic collagen matrix at the time of implant placement to increase the volume of buccal soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Froum, Stuart J; Khouly, Ismael; Tarnow, Dennis P; Froum, Scott; Rosenberg, Edwin; Corby, Patricia; Kye, Wayne; Elian, Nicolas; Schoor, Robert; Cho, Sang-Choon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Mucograft (MG; a porcine-derived purified collagen membrane) to increase the thickness and height of the buccal soft tissue when placed at the time of implant placement in patients with thin or deficient keratinized tissue (KT). The primary endpoint of the study was the change in thickness and height of the buccal KT. Secondary endpoints included stability of the midbuccal soft tissue level; clinician rating of color, texture, and contour of treatment site; probing pocket depths (PPDs); assessment of satisfaction outcome; and patient assessment of pain/discomfort. Thirty-two patients were enrolled and 31 patients completed the study. There were no statistically significant (SS) differences between the MG and control groups for height measures. There was no SS difference for KT thickness (P = .117) between the groups at the final measurement (3 months postsurgery). However, there was an SS difference (P = .009) in favor of the MG group when comparing the difference in presurgical KT thickness to that 3 months postsurgery. Thus, MG was successful (compared to the control) in increasing the buccal KT. There were no SS differences between the groups for any of the other endpoints, including color, texture, contour, and pain assessment at any visit or successful outcome between the treatment group and the control. More cases and longer follow-up of implants placed with MG are needed to verify the results of this randomized prospective study. PMID:25738338

  4. Reconsidering the motor recovery plateau in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen J; Gater, David R; Bach-Y-Rita, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Termination of motor rehabilitation is often recommended as patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) become more chronic and/or when they fail to respond positively to motor rehabilitation (commonly termed a "plateau"). Managed-care programs frequently reinforce this practice by restricting care to patients responding to therapy and/or to the most acute patients. When neuromuscular adaptation occurs in exercise, rather than terminating the current regimen, a variety of techniques (eg, modifying intensity, attempting different modalities) are used to facilitate neuromuscular adaptations. After presenting the concepts of the motor recovery plateau and adaptation, we similarly posit that patients with CVA adapt to therapeutic exercise but that this is not indicative of a diminished capacity for motor improvement. Instead, like traditional exercise circumstances, adaptive states can be overcome by modifying regimen aspects (eg, intensity, introducing new exercises). Findings suggesting that patients with chronic CVA can benefit from motor rehabilitation programs that apply novel or different parameters and modalities. The objectives of this commentary are to (1) to encourage practitioners to reconsider the notion of the motor recovery plateau, (2) to reconsider chronic CVA patients' ability to recover motor function, and (3) to use different modalities when accommodation is exhibited. PMID:15295770

  5. Results of a 24-inch Hybrid Motor Performance Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Joseph D.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    The subscale (11 and 24-inch) hybrid motors at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been used as versatile and cost effective testbeds for developing new technology. Comparisons between motor configuration, ignition systems, feed systems, fuel formulations, and nozzle materials have been carried out without detailed consideration as to haw "good" the motor performance data were. For the 250,000 lb/thrust motor developed by the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program consortium, this shortcoming is particularly risky because motor performance will likely be used as put of a set of downselect criteria to choose between competing ignition and feed systems under development. This analysis directly addresses that shortcoming by applying uncertainty analysis techniques to the experimental determination of the characteristic velocity, theoretical characteristic velocity, and characteristic velocity efficiency for a 24-inch motor firing. With the adoption of fuel-lined headends, flow restriction, and aft mixing chambers, state of the an 24-inch hybrid motors have become very efficient However, impossibly high combustion efficiencies (some computed as high as 108%) have been measured in some tests with 11-inch motors. This analysis has given new insight into explaining how these efficiencies were measured to be so high, and into which experimental measurements contribute the most to the overall uncertainty.

  6. Performance characteristics of three-phase induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation into the characteristics of three phase, 400 Hz, induction motors of the general type used on aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. Results of laboratory tests are presented and compared with results from a computer program. Representative motors were both tested and simulated under nominal conditions as well as off nominal conditions of temperature, frequency, voltage magnitude, and voltage balance. Good correlation was achieved between simulated and laboratory results. The primary purpose of the program was to verify the simulation accuracy of the computer program, which in turn will be used as an analytical tool to support the shuttle orbiter.

  7. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  8. Central motor conduction is abnormal in motor neuron disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Ingram; M Swash

    1987-01-01

    Conduction in the central motor pathways of the brain and spinal cord was studied in 12 patients with motor neuron disease. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the cortex, cervical cord, thoracic cord and conus medullaris was used to determine motor latencies to the biceps brachii, thenar eminence and tibialis anterior muscles. Prominent, and often asymmetrical,

  9. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  10. Project Success for the SLD Child, Motor-Perception Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne - Carroll Public Schools, Wayne, NE.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for a perceptual motor program which was developed by Project Success (Nebraska) through a Title III grant for language learning disabled elementary level students in kindergarten through grade 3. The program is said to be arranged in a hierarchy of skills ranging from simple to complex and to be written so that the…

  11. Programs

    Cancer.gov

    The Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch is responsible for the direction and management of several programs. These include the Biospecimen Research Network, the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, the Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) and the Biospecimen Pre-Analytical Variables Program. Each program has specific goals and targeted outcomes which lend themselves to supporting the mission and vision of the Branch as well as the other NCI and NIH initiatives. More information about each program can be found on their respective pages.

  12. Dopaminergic action beyond its effects on motor function: Imaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Brooks

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Along with motor programming, it is now thought that tonic release of dopamine in the striatum acts to focus and filter non-motor\\u000a activities such as working memory, implicit learning, decision making, and planning. Additionally, thresholds to painful stimuli\\u000a may well be dopamine dependant. Phasic (burst) release of dopamine in the basal ganglia and frontal areas is thought to play

  13. Solid rocket motor cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  14. Technical Evaluation Motor 3 (TEM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, Diane

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of the technical evaluation motor program is to recover the case, igniter and nozzle hardware for use on the redesigned solid rocket motor flight program. Two qualification objectives were addressed and met on TEM-3. The Nylok thread locking device of the 1U100269-03 leak check port plug and the 1U52295-04 safe and arm utilizing Krytox grease on the barrier-booster shaft O-rings were both certified. All inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-3 static test firing conducted 23 May 1989 was successful. The test was conducted at ambient conditions with the exception of the field joints (set point of 121 F, with a minimum of 87 F at the sensors), igniter joint (set point at 122 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors) and case-to-nozzle joint (set point at 114 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors). Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. Nozzle performance was nominal with typical erosion. The nozzle and the case joint temperatures were maintained at the heaters controlling set points while electrical power was supplied. The water and the CO2 quench systems prevented damage to the metal hardware. All other test equipment performed as planned, contributing to a successful motor firing. All indications are that the test was a success, and all expected hardware will be refurbished for the RSRM program.

  15. One’s motor performance predictably modulates the understanding of others’ actions through adaptation of premotor visuo-motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Barchiesi, Guido; Tabarelli, Davide; Arfeller, Carola; Sato, Marc; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons firing both during self and other’s motor behavior (mirror neurons) have been described in the brain of vertebrates including humans. The activation of somatic motor programs driven by perceived behavior has been taken as evidence for mirror neurons’ contribution to cognition. The inverse relation, that is the influence of motor behavior on perception, is needed for demonstrating the long-hypothesized causal role of mirror neurons in action understanding. We provide here conclusive behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for that causal role by means of cross-modal adaptation coupled with a novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-adaptation paradigm. Blindfolded repeated motor performance of an object-directed action (push or pull) induced in healthy participants a strong visual after-effect when categorizing others’ actions, as a result of motor-to-visual adaptation of visuo-motor neurons. TMS over the ventral premotor cortex, but not over the primary motor cortex, suppressed the after-effect, thus localizing the population of adapted visuo-motor neurons in the premotor cortex. These data are exquisitely consistent in humans with the existence of premotor mirror neurons that have access to the action meaning. We also show that controlled manipulation of the firing properties of this neural population produces strong predictable changes in the way we categorize others’ actions. PMID:21186167

  16. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties - DSM for motors popular with utilities and customers alike

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Demand-site management (DSM) programs for energy-efficient electric motors are effective cost-cutting strategies that utilities can use to help customers reduce their electricity consumption. Electric motor applications and motor-driven systems account for more than 50% of the total electricity used in the United States at a cost between $70 and $90 billion per year. Improving the energy efficiency of motors and motor systems can save 9% to 23% of all the electricity used in the United States. Improving motor system efficiency offers opportunities to save cities and counties substantial amounts of money and energy.

  17. Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Kuding Tea Polyphenols in Human Buccal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line BcaCD885

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Li, Jing; Song, Jia-Le; Qiu, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Tea polyphenols are functional substances present in tea. Kuding tea as a traditional drink also contains these compounds. After 25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenol treatment for 48 h, cell proliferation of human buccal squamous cell carcinoma cell line BcaCD885 was inhibited, and the 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenol showed the highest inhibitory rate at 72.3%. Compared to the lower concentration, the 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenols significantly (p < 0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry analysis, the content of sub-G1 cancer cells was 32.7%. By RT-PCR and western blot assays, Kuding tea polyphenol significantly induced apoptosis in BcaCD885 cancer cells (p < 0.05) by upregulating caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Fas/FasL, Bax, p53, p21, E2F1, p73 and downregulating Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, HIAP-1, and HIAP-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Kuding tea polyphenols thus present apoptosis inducing effects in vitro. PMID:25100434

  18. A rare case of extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with dedifferentiation arising from the buccal space in a young male.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shalini R; Saran, Ravinder K; Sharma, Pankaj; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-03-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare and aggressive pathological variant of chondrosarcoma arising from soft tissues of mainly the extremities, meninges/dura, trunk, and orbits. EMCS comprises only 2 % of all soft tissue sarcomas and only 6 % of them arise from soft tissue in the head and neck region. It usually affects in the second and third decade of life and is common in women. It runs a very rapid clinical course with distant metastases and has poor prognosis and survival rates. Histologically it has a dimorphic presentation of small round mesenchymal cells interspersed with foci of cartilaginous differentiation. Radiographically it appears as a soft tissue lobulated mass with various patterns of calcification. This is the first case of primary and recurrent EMCS originating in the buccal space with unusual features of dedifferentiation. The diagnostic challenges in this case were the inconclusive FNAC results, lack of radiographic evidence of characteristic calcifications and presence of areas of myxoid material and dedifferentiation on histopathology. The clinical, cytological, histological, immunohistochemical, radiographic, PET-CT findings and management with review of literature is presented. The diagnostic and management pitfalls of this extremely rare tumor are also discussed. PMID:25838713

  19. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad combined with sequestrectomy in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Junquera, L; Pelaz, A; Hernando, J; Megías, J

    2012-03-01

    The use of pedicled buccal fat pad flap (BFP) has proved of value for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications and is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Otherwise, the perceived limitations of surgical therapy for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) have been widely discussed, and recommendations have largely been made to offer aggressive surgery only to stage 3 patients refractary to conservative management. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy and bone debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We report a case series of stage 3 recalcitrant maxillary BRONJ surgically treated with extensive sequestrectomy and first reconstruction using pedicled BFP. All the cases presented an uneventful postoperative healing was uneventful without dehiscence, infection, necrosis or oroantral communication. We postulate that managing initially the site with BFP and primary closure may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur. This technique may represent a mechanic protection and an abundant source of adipose-derived adult stem cells after debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We evaluate in this work results, advantages and indications of this technique. PMID:22143692

  20. Proteomics of Buccal Cavity Mucus in Female Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis spp.): A Comparison between Parental and Non-Parental Fish

    PubMed Central

    Iq, Koe Chun; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.) display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase. PMID:21533134

  1. Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2010-12-01

    Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

  2. Chitosan lactate wafer as a platform for the buccal delivery of tizanidine HCl: in vitro and in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    El-Mahrouk, Galal M; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Taha, Maie S

    2014-06-01

    Tizanidine HCl is a skeletal muscle relaxant that suffers from extensive hepatic metabolism resulting in 34-40% oral bioavailability. It also suffers from short half-life (2.1-4.2h) that necessitates frequent administration thus reducing patient compliance. In addition, tizanidine HCl is water soluble, so it is a challenging candidate for controlled drug delivery. In our study, tizanidine was encapsulated in chitosan lactate beads cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate. The beads were further incorporated into chitosan lactate wafer to be easily applied to buccal mucosa, aiming to bypass the hepatic metabolism. A central composite face-centered design was applied to statistically optimize the formulation variables; tripolyphosphate concentration, chitosan lactate concentration and polymer/drug ratio. The optimized formula suggested by the software composed of; 3.03% tripolyphosphate, 4.92% chitosan lactate and 2.13 polymer/drug ratio. It provided encapsulation efficiency of 56.5% and controlled tizanidine release over 8h. It is also characterized by being mucoadhesive and nonirritant. Pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine from the optimized formula were compared to those of the immediate release tablet, Sirdalud(®), as reference in human volunteers using a randomized crossover design. Significant increase was observed for Tmax and AUC(0-?). The increase in relative bioavailability of TIZ from the optimized formula was 2.27 fold. PMID:24680961

  3. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6?mL/min and mean residual urine of 27?mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32?mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique. PMID:24194754

  4. Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Arindam; Biswas, Nidhan K.; Amin, Kishore; Kowtal, Pradnya; Kumar, Shantanu; Das, Subrata; Sarin, Rajiv; Majumder, Partha P.; Bagchi, I; Bairagya, B. B.; Basu, A.; Bhan, M. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Das, D.; D'Cruz, A.; Dhar, R.; Dutta, D.; Ganguli, D.; Gera, P.; Gupta, T.; Mahapatra, S.; Mujawar, M. H. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Nair, S.; Nikam, S.; Nobre, M.; Patil, A.; Patra, S.; Rama-Gowtham, M.; Rao, T. S.; Roy, B.; Roychowdhury, B.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar-Roy, N.; Sutradhar, D.

    2013-01-01

    Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n=50) and recurrence testing (n=60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C>G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies. PMID:24292195

  5. A multi-centre, double-blind study of serrapeptase versus placebo in post-antrotomy buccal swelling.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, M; Mizukoshi, O; Harada, Y; Kawamoto, K; Nakai, Y

    1984-01-01

    A multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the clinical efficacy of the anti-inflammatory enzyme serrapeptase in a total of 174 patients who underwent Caldwell-Luc antrotomy for chronic empyema. Eighty-eight patients received 10 mg serrapeptase 3 times on the day before operation, once on the night of the operation and 3 times daily for 5 days after operation; the other 86 received placebo. Changes in buccal swelling after operation were observed as a parameter of the response to treatment. The degree of swelling in the serrapeptase-treated patients was significantly less than that in the placebo-treated patients at every point of observation after operation up to the 5th day (p less than 0.01 to p less than 0.05). Maximal swelling throughout all the post-operative points of observation was also significantly smaller in size in the serrapeptase-treated group than in the placebo-treated group. No side-effects were reported. PMID:6366808

  6. DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    PubMed Central

    LI, YA-TING; XIE, MING-KUN; WU, JIN

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT. PMID:25279149

  7. DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ting; Xie, Ming-Kun; Wu, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT. PMID:25279149

  8. The effect of an alendronate-eluting titanium system to induce osteogenic differentiation in human buccal fat cells (HBFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Su-Young; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days. Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.

  9. Tandem motors reduce well costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, M.; Daigle, C. [Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States); Crowe, R. [Halliburton Energy Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    The new generation of tandem mud motors that recently appeared on the drilling scene is significantly affecting drilling efficiency worldwide. These motors provide drillers with increased horsepower at the bit, higher torque, and faster rates of penetration (ROP). With advanced engineering and more durable materials, motor life is being extended, thereby increasing the time between bit trips and reducing drilling costs. This article reviews the performance, design, and operation of these motors.

  10. Motor Imagery: Does Strategy Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CINDY HOVINGTON

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Motor imagery requires individuals to form an internal representation of a specific action within working memory,without any overt output. Motor imagery has proven effective in improving motor performance,of specific skills. This study explored whether different motor imagery strategies influence corticospinal excitability in young (20-35 years) and older subjects (over 55 years). In addition, the effectiveness of these strategies in

  11. Multiple Changes to Reusable Solid Rocket Motors, Identifying Hidden Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.; McCann, Bradley Q.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) baseline is subject to various changes. Changes are necessary due to safety and quality improvements, environmental considerations, vendor changes, obsolescence issues, etc. The RSRM program has a goal to test changes on full-scale static test motors prior to flight due to the unique RSRM operating environment. Each static test motor incorporates several significant changes and numerous minor changes. Flight motors often implement multiple changes simultaneously. While each change is individually verified and assessed, the potential for changes to interact constitutes additional hidden risk. Mitigating this risk depends upon identification of potential interactions. Therefore, the ATK Thiokol Propulsion System Safety organization initiated the use of a risk interaction matrix to identify potential interactions that compound risk. Identifying risk interactions supports flight and test motor decisions. Uncovering hidden risks of a full-scale static test motor gives a broader perspective of the changes being tested. This broader perspective compels the program to focus on solutions for implementing RSRM changes with minimal/mitigated risk. This paper discusses use of a change risk interaction matrix to identify test challenges and uncover hidden risks to the RSRM program.

  12. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  13. Wind motor machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goedecke

    1984-01-01

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the

  14. The primate motor thalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Percheron; C. François; B. Talbi; J. Yelnik; G. Fénelon

    1996-01-01

    The functional parcellation of the motor thalamus of primates has suffered from serious historical and technical drawbacks, which have led to extreme confusion. This is a problem when thalamic stereotaxy is again being use clinically. The cause usually imputed is the historical conflict between two main schools, the Vogt and the ‘Anglo-American’ (Michigan), which used different nomenclatures. In fact, the

  15. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  16. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 solid rocket motor at the ATK test facility in Utah in support of the Ares/CLV first stage. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  17. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellaton/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  18. Motor Learning and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Hartmut

    Two recent conferences on the science of sport have focused on the topic of sports for older people. Investigations have been made on the special demand in motor learning, in table-tennis, family-tennis, gymnastics, and dancing. This paper summarizes some experiences and conclusions drawn from these studies, including special notes on isolated…

  19. Tandem motors reduce well costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hooper; C. Daigle; R. Crowe

    1995-01-01

    The new generation of tandem mud motors that recently appeared on the drilling scene is significantly affecting drilling efficiency worldwide. These motors provide drillers with increased horsepower at the bit, higher torque, and faster rates of penetration (ROP). With advanced engineering and more durable materials, motor life is being extended, thereby increasing the time between bit trips and reducing drilling

  20. Fluid motor and telemetry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A motor for driving a rotary drilling bit within a well through which mud is circulated during a drilling operation, with the motor being driven by a secondary fluid which is isolated from the circulating mud but derives energy therefrom to power the motor. A pressure drop in the circulating mud across a choke in the drill string is utilized