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1

Modulation of heart activity in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus by the feeding motor program, small cardioactive peptides and stimulation of buccal neuron B1.  

PubMed

Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by abdominal ganglion nerves N9 and N11. Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the heart causes dose-dependent increases in the force of ventricular contractions. In addition, the SCPs induce rhythmic contractions in quiescent heart preparations. The effects of the SCPs appear to be specific in that the neuropeptide FMRFamide has an inhibitory effect on ventricular activity. SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material is found in the heart, kidney and pericardium and in the nerves that innervate these organs. Unilateral intracellular stimulation of buccal neuron B1, which contains SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material, mimics the FMP- and SCP-induced increases in ventricular activity. The effect of B1 on ventricular activity is frequency dependent and requires innervation of the heart by N11. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the SCPs are involved in feeding-related alterations in heart activity in Limax and that the control of this effect involves neuron B1. PMID:2016573

Welsford, I G; Prior, D J

1991-01-01

2

MODULATION OF HEART ACTIVITY IN THE TERRESTRIAL SLUG LIMAX MAXIMUS BY THE FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM, SMALL CARDIOACTIVE PEPTIDES AND STIMULATION OF BUCCAL NEURON Bl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart\\/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by ahdominal ganglion nerves N9 and Nil . Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the

IAN G. WELSFORD; DAVID J. PRIOR

3

DOPAMINE ELICITS FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM IN LIlMAx MAXIMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in uiuo and in uitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells and in the

STEVEN J. WIELAND; ALAN GELPERIN

4

Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus.  

PubMed

A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in vivo and in vitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells in and the neuropil of the cerebral ganglia at a concentration of 62 pmol/ganglion; a large proportion of such dopamine-containing cells projected to the lips. The buccal ganglia contained several small dopaminergic cells and large amounts of dopamine in the neuropil; the measured concentration was 10 pmol/ganglion. Exogenous dopamine applied to the cerebral and buccal ganglia in vitro between 10(-7) M and 3 X 10(-6) M excited an autoactive salivary duct motor neuron (FB) and inhibited an autoactive secretomotor neuron (BSN). Concentrations of dopamine between 3 X 10(-6) M and 3 X 10(-5) M triggered FMP output, with an increased probability of triggering at higher concentrations of dopamine. ADTN and SK&F38393 were potent agonists in this system, whereas ergonovine was the only potent antagonist found; none of the neuroleptics tested was effective. Thus, the Limax system shows agonist responses similar to the vertebrate D1 receptors, but its antagonist-binding properties appear to have requirements quite different from vertebrate receptors. The effects of exogenous serotonin differed from dopamine's effects; serotonin excited BSN and several buccal motor neurons, could not elicit synchronized motor program cycling, and was not efficiently blocked by ergonovine. These data suggest that dopamine is a good candidate as an endogenous triggering and sustaining transmitter for the Limax feeding motor program. PMID:6886743

Wieland, S J; Gelperin, A

1983-09-01

5

Feeding motor program in Limax. I. Neuromuscular correlates and control by chemosensory input.  

PubMed

The feeding motor program(FMP) of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus was examined in vivo and in vitro. The feeding pattern of intact animals shows an initial increase in bite frequency followed by a plateau phase. Recordings obtained from semi-intact preparations of the lips, brain, and buccal mass established the correlation of activity in buccal ganglion nerve roots with the protraction-retraction bite cycle. A preparation of the lips, cerebral ganglia, and buccal ganglia was developed, such that, repetitive chemostimulation of the lips yields reproducible bouts of FMP. Sources of proprioceptive feedback from buccal muscles were demonstrated. The feasibility of computer scoring of the FMP is documented. The results demonstrate that aspects of in vivo feeding behavior are retained and identifiable in highly dissected, in vivo preparations. PMID:681926

Gelperin, A; Chang, J J; Reingold, S C

1978-07-01

6

Testosterone Buccal  

MedlinePLUS

... decreased sexual desire and ability, extreme tiredness, low energy, depression, and loss of certain male characteristics such as muscular build and deep voice. Testosterone buccal systems work by replacing testosterone that is normally produced ...

7

The molluscan neuropeptide, SCPB, increases the responsiveness of the feeding motor program of Limax maximus.  

PubMed

Small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) has an excitatory effect on both buccal neurons and musculature in numerous molluscan species. The present study reports the effects of SCPB on the activity of specified buccal neurons and the expression of the feeding motor program of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus. Superfusion of an isolated CNS preparation with 10(-6)M SCPB results in a 3-4-fold increase in the burst frequency of the fast salivary burster neuron (FSB), while having no effect on the activity of another endogenous burster, the bilateral salivary neuron (BSN). The response of the FSB to SCPB is dose dependent, with a threshold concentration of 2 X 10(-8)M. The response of the FSB to SCPB showed no indication of desensitization, even after long-term exposure (20 min). The feeding motor program (FMP) in Limax is a discrete pattern of cyclical motor activity that can be initiated by lip nerve stimulation. In the presence of SCPB a previously subthreshold stimulus can initiate the full FMP. The pattern of the FMP, once initiated, appears unaffected by SCPB. Thus it is the responsiveness of the initiation process that is enhanced by SCPB. Histochemical studies revealed a number of buccal neuron somata and fibers that stain for SCPB-like immunoreactive material (SLIM). PMID:3346657

Prior, D J; Watson, W H

1988-01-01

8

Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

2008-01-01

9

Acetylcholine activates cerebral interneurons and feeding motor program in Limax maximus.  

PubMed

The cellular and network effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on the control system for feeding in Limax maximus were measured by intracellular recordings from feeding command-like interneurons and whole nerve recordings from buccal ganglion motor nerve roots that normally innervate the ingestive feeding muscles. The buccal ganglion motor nerve root discharge pattern that causes rhythmic feeding movements, termed the feeding motor program (FMP), was elicited either by attractive taste solutions applied to the lip chemoreceptors or by ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia. The ability of exogenous ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia to trigger FMP was blocked by the cholinergic antagonists curare and atropine. If the strength of the lip-applied taste stimulus was in the range of 1-2 times threshold, cerebral application of the cholinergic antagonists blocked or greatly decreased the ability of lip-applied taste solutions to trigger FMP (5 of 8 trials). The cerebral feeding interneurons, some of which activate FMP when stimulated intracellularly, are excited by small pulses of ACh applied directly to the cell body from an ACh-filled micropipette. A pulse of ACh that activates several of the feeding interneurons simultaneously triggers FMP. The data suggest that under certain stimulus conditions an obligatory set of cholinergic synapses onto the feedininterneurons must be activated for taste inputs to trigger ingestion. The determination of ACh's action within the feeding control system is necessary for understanding how enhanced cholinergic transmission leads to prolonged associative memory retention (Sahley, et al., 1986). PMID:3694192

King, M S; Delaney, K; Gelperin, A

1987-11-01

10

Variable neuronal participation in stereotypic motor programs.  

PubMed

To what extent are motor networks underlying rhythmic behaviors rigidly hard-wired versus fluid and dynamic entities? Do the members of motor networks change from moment-to-moment or from motor program episode-to-episode? These are questions that can only be addressed in systems where it is possible to monitor the spiking activity of networks of neurons during the production of motor programs. We used large-scale voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging followed by Independent Component Analysis spike-sorting to examine the extent to which the neuronal network underlying the escape swim behavior of Tritonia diomedea is hard-wired versus fluid from a moment-to-moment perspective. We found that while most neurons were dedicated to the swim network, a small but significant proportion of neurons participated in a surprisingly variable manner. These neurons joined the swim motor program late, left early, burst only on some cycles or skipped cycles of the motor program. We confirmed that this variable neuronal participation was not due to effects of the VSD by finding such neurons with intracellular recording in dye-free saline. Further, these neurons markedly varied their level of participation in the network from swim episode-to-episode. The generality of such unreliably bursting neurons was confirmed by their presence in the rhythmic escape networks of two other molluscan species, Tritonia festiva and Aplysia californica. Our observations support a view that neuronal networks, even those underlying rhythmic and stereotyped motor programs, may be more variable in structure than widely appreciated. PMID:22815768

Hill, Evan S; Vasireddi, Sunil K; Bruno, Angela M; Wang, Jean; Frost, William N

2012-01-01

11

Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program  

E-print Network

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge program is an industry/government collaborative that is working to increase the market penetration of efficient motor-driven systems. In support of the program's Showcase Demonstrations, a variety...

Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

12

MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS  

E-print Network

MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS Observe Speed Limits and Traffic Laws ­ Allow - Employees who drive Institute or privately owned vehicles on Institute business must possess and carry person. Insurance - Employees who operate their privately owned vehicles on Institute business shall

13

Using Crude Corrective Movements to Learn Accurate Motor Programs for  

E-print Network

Using Crude Corrective Movements to Learn Accurate Motor Programs for Reaching Andrew H. Fagg University School of Medicine Chicago, IL 60611 Abstract A computational model that uses crude corrective of #12; Fagg, Zelevinsky, Barto, & Houk: Crude Corrective Movements for Learning Accurate Motor Programs

Fagg, Andrew H.

14

Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

2011-01-01

15

Hydraulic blowdown TVA system for the Castor 120 motor program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and reliability of a low-cost hydraulic blowdown system for expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are demonstrated in the context of the Castro 120 motor program. Test results are reported which show that the blowdown system meets or exceeds the performance objectives for an ELV motor in a Stage I, Stage II, or strap-on application. The primary cost savings include

R. G. Lee; G. E. Olsen; C. G. Trowbridge; D. M. Griffis

1993-01-01

16

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. ...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. ...provide an additional source of motor vehicle support to...contiguous States and Washington, DC. However, agencies...

2010-07-01

17

The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China  

SciTech Connect

Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

2001-05-31

18

Hydraulic blowdown TVA system for the Castor 120 motor program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance and reliability of a low-cost hydraulic blowdown system for expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are demonstrated in the context of the Castro 120 motor program. Test results are reported which show that the blowdown system meets or exceeds the performance objectives for an ELV motor in a Stage I, Stage II, or strap-on application. The primary cost savings include replacement of the expensive turbine pump and auxiliary power source and the use of a simplified actuator design.

Lee, R. G.; Olsen, G. E.; Trowbridge, C. G.; Griffis, D. M.

1993-06-01

19

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional...

2011-07-01

20

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional...

2013-07-01

21

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional...

2014-07-01

22

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional...

2012-07-01

23

Best antibiotics for buccal delivery  

E-print Network

The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

2011-01-01

24

Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.  

PubMed

A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

2014-04-18

25

Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong.  

PubMed

Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of "how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions...remains unanswered" and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233-267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity. PMID:11943843

Suthers, Roderick A; Goller, Franz; Wild, J Martin

2002-04-16

26

40 CFR 1048.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle program...NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Compliance Provisions § 1048.605 What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor vehicle...

2010-07-01

27

Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

28

Buccal and coronal bone augmentation using forced eruption and buccal root torque: a case report.  

PubMed

The following case report describes the buccal and coronal bone augmentation around an irretrievable tooth using forced eruption and buccal root torque for immediate nonsubmerged implant placement. A mandibular left second premolar with degree 2 mobility, severe buccal bone resorption, and interproximal angular bony defects was subjected to forced eruption and buccal root torque. Five months after this process, the tooth was displaced 15 mm coronally and the root apex faced buccally. Buccal and coronal bone augmentation and soft tissue enlargement were evident at reentry surgery. This technique enabled proper implant placement in a situation where the bone was compromised. PMID:14703762

Nozawa, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ramos, Tristan; Komatsu, Shigeki; Enomoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Koichi

2003-12-01

29

Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons.  

PubMed

Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia, respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs, the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 versus C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axodendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely located neurons. PMID:22031890

Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

2011-10-26

30

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

2014-07-01

31

Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

2010-01-01

32

Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes  

PubMed Central

Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio?=?0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

2009-01-01

33

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2013-07-01

34

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2011-07-01

35

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2012-07-01

36

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2014-07-01

37

A critique of therapeutic intervention programming with reference to an alternative approach based on motor learning theory.  

PubMed

As an alternative to current therapeutic intervention programming for developmentally delayed children, a rationale for intervention programming based on theories of motor control and learning is presented. The authors believe that the keys to successful motor training programs are repetition, correctly performed practice of functional skills, and sufficient learning time to facilitate skill retention and transfer. In order for therapists to construct and implement the most appropriate motor training programs for developmentally delayed children, they must be knowledgeable of the sensory-motor basis of motor skill acquisition. Some of the more important concepts of motor control and learning are presented. PMID:15772033

Croce, R; DePaepe, J

1989-01-01

38

Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.  

PubMed

Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spie?, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

2014-06-01

39

Optimal Control and Simulation of Brushed Direct-Current Motor Stability Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a principal model of a brushed direct-current (DC) motor that has become a benchmark is described. Then it stability program was designed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory and the controllability and observability were studied. Choosing brushed DC motor output angle ? as control variables. Simulation on this control system in Matlab\\/Simulink software environment was described

Chibing Hu; Yazhou Wang

2010-01-01

40

Monoaminergic Orchestration of Motor Programs in a Complex C. elegans Behavior  

E-print Network

that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a Gao pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor, intracellular fluid; IPSC, inhibitory post-synaptic current; NGM, nematode growth media; NMJ, neuromuscular of independent motor programs in which neurotransmitters and neuromodulators orchestrate the output of neural

41

Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of utility and state demand-side management (DSM) programs that address efficient motor systems (EMS). The paper discusses the incentive structures in place at the state and utility level to encourage...

Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

42

The effects of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program on motor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic motor skills development is achieved through the implementation of different types of physical education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program and of a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the development of jumping and dynamic balance in children ages 4–6 years. Ninety children,

Evridiki Zachopoulou; Aggeliki Tsapakidou; Vassiliki Derri

2004-01-01

43

Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

Vonderesch, A. H.

1972-01-01

44

CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) modeling of brushless DC motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use in flight control actuators for tactical missiles. This thesis develops a low-order mathematical model for the simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor performance. This model is implemented in CSMP language. It is used to predict such motor performance curves as speed, current and power versus torque. Electronic commutation based on Hall effect sensor positional feedback is simulated. Steady state motor behavior is studied under both constant and variable air gap flux conditions. The variable flux takes two different forms. In the first case, the flux is varied as a simple sinusoid. In the second case, the flux is varied as the sum of a sinusoid and one of its harmonics.

Thomas, S. M.

1984-09-01

45

Effect of perioperative buccal fracture of the proximal segment on postoperative stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Buccal fracture of the mandibular proximal bone segment during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) reduces the postoperative stability. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this type of fracture on bone healing and postoperative stability after mandibular setback surgery. Materials and Methods Ten patients who experienced buccal fracture during SSRO for mandibular setback movement were evaluated. We measured the amount of bone generation on a computed tomography scan, using an image analysis program, and compared the buccal fracture side to the opposite side in each patient. To investigate the effect on postoperative stability, we measured the postoperative relapse in lateral cephalograms, immediately following and six months after the surgery. The control group consisted of ten randomly-selected patients having a similar amount of set-back without buccal fracture. Results Less bone generation was observed on the buccal fracture side compared with the opposite side (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior postoperative relapse between the group with buccal fracture and the control group. The increased mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height after the surgery in the group with buccal fracture manifested as a postoperative clockwise rotation of the mandible. Conclusion Bone generation was delayed compared to the opposite side. However, postoperative stability in the anterior-posterior direction could be maintained with rigid fixation. PMID:24471048

Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Han, Jeong-Joon

2013-01-01

46

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures  

PubMed Central

Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

2011-01-01

47

Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control  

PubMed Central

Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections. PMID:25408677

Sherwood, David E.

2014-01-01

48

"Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

Braun, David; Noon, Don

1998-01-01

49

The structure of motor programming: Evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.  

PubMed

There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage. PMID:25082470

Xu, Lu; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

2015-01-01

50

Control of Octopus Arm Extension by a Peripheral Motor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms

German Sumbre; Yoram Gutfreund; Graziano Fiorito; Tamar Flash; Binyamin Hochner

2001-01-01

51

Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central

Roderick A. Suthers; Franz Goller; J. Martin Wild

2002-01-01

52

Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs  

PubMed Central

Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

2014-01-01

53

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

54

The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were…

Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

55

Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.  

PubMed

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

56

Manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films.  

PubMed

The buccal route of administration has a number of advantages including bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and the hepatic first pass effect. Mucoadhesive films are retentive dosage forms and release drug directly into a biological substrate. Furthermore, films have improved patient compliance due to their small size and reduced thickness, compared for example to lozenges and tablets. The development of mucoadhesive buccal films has increased dramatically over the past decade because it is a promising delivery alternative to various therapeutic classes including peptides, vaccines, and nanoparticles. The "film casting process" involves casting of aqueous solutions and/or organic solvents to yield films suitable for this administration route. Over the last decade, hot-melt extrusion has been explored as an alternative manufacturing process and has yielded promising results. Characterization of critical properties such as the mucoadhesive strength, drug content uniformity, and permeation rate represent the major research areas in the design of buccal films. This review will consider the literature that describes the manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films. PMID:21130875

Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

2011-02-01

57

Physical Verbalization: A Motor-Language Based Developmental Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical Verbalization (PV) is a program designed to encourage language/speech development by combining movement with appropriate verbal patterns. Using the normal developmental stages of listening/watching, imitating, and initiating, the program allows the child to "play" with standard English in a nonthreatening and rhythmic fashion and to be…

Smith, Norma D.

58

MP MP: A Program of Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of color and symbol-coded cards comprises an activity program designed to help parents, teachers, or tutors teach basic movements to children. The 10 sets of activities included in the program are (1) relaxation, (2) flip flops and crawling, (3) lifting and rolling, (4) limb movements, (5) rolling, (6) creeping, (7) locomotion…

Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

59

Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

2013-01-01

60

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

1995-01-01

61

Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films  

PubMed Central

A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4), which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h) and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied. PMID:21394260

Nappinnai, M.; Chandanbala, R.; Balaijirajan, R.

2008-01-01

62

Effect of permeation enhancers on buccal absorption.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation on matrices based on the mucoadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate, intended for sublingual administration of 1 mg lorazepam (LZ, 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, CAS 846-49-1). The effect of different amounts of three permeation enhancers, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), polyethoxylated castor oil (PCO) and polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (PGDE) on LZ permeation from the matrices was investigated using three models: (a) cultured monolayer of human buccal epithelial cells; (b) hamster cheek pouch mucosa in vitro, and (c) buccal administration to rabbits in vivo. In the first two models the presence of promoters, except when present at the higher concentrations, increased the drug permeation rate. The permeation-reducing effect was rationalized on the basis of micellar complexation of the drug. In the living rabbit (c) model, only CPC at the highest tested concentration was moderately active, while in the cultured cell model activity differences among the enhancers were less evident. Different effects of the promoters in the ex vivo and in vivo models were tentatively explained on the basis of the structural characteristics of the absorbing membranes. The present study, while confirming the efficacy of CPC as promoter in models involving biological membranes, does not provide conclusive data on the validity of the cultured cells model for assessment of buccal drug absorption. PMID:16927540

Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Dini, Laura; Najarro, Marcela; Monti, Daniela; Morelli, Paolo; Saettone, M Fabrizio

2006-01-01

63

Critical buccal bone dimensions along implants.  

PubMed

The buccal bone plate is a component of the alveolar process tightly related to the tooth it supports. A plethora of physiological and pathological events can induce its remodeling. Understanding this remodeling process and its extent is of major importance for the practitioner as it can affect the functional and esthetic outcome of implant surgery at the involved sites. Bone remodeling and resorption of the buccal bone plate are inevitable after tooth loss or extraction. To limit resorption, several ridge-preservation techniques of varying efficacy have been described. Bone resorption is equally found to occur upon implant placement and is thought to be a result of the surgical trauma inflicted as well as an adaptation process of the tissues to the new foreign body. Because of the implications of bone resorption on the soft-tissue levels and the general esthetic outcome, it is of primary importance for the practitioner to be able to evaluate the hard tissues and the inherent resorption risks in an effort to optimize the treatment strategies. Based on limited short-term data, the present general opinion advises the need for a 2-mm-thick buccal bone plate in order to avoid vertical bone resorption. PMID:25123763

Merheb, Joe; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim

2014-10-01

64

Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

NONE

1996-09-01

65

Reducing Motor Vehicle Trauma through Health Promotion Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests programs and educational approaches in which safety belt and child restraint use are promoted as preventive health practices. Health educators are encouraged to view these protective behaviors as part of a healthy life-style and promote occupant protection as a life-style behavior. (Author/CT)

Sleet, David A.

1984-01-01

66

Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

Babbitt, Norman E., III

1992-07-01

67

Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System  

PubMed Central

A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch.

Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

2014-01-01

68

A single pair of interneurons commands the Drosophila feeding motor program  

PubMed Central

Summary Many feeding behaviors represent stereotyped, organized sequences of motor patterns that have been the subject of neuroethological studies1,2 such as electrophysiological characterization of neurons governing prey capture in toads1,3. Technical limitations, however, have prevented detailed study of the functional role of these neurons as in other studies on vertebrate organisms. Complexities involved in studies of whole animal behavior can be resolved in Drosophila, where remote activation of brain cells by genetic means4 allows one to interrogate the nervous system in freely moving animals to identify neurons that govern a specific behavior, and then to repeatedly target and manipulate these neurons to characterize their function. Here we show finding of neurons that generate the feeding motor program in Drosophila. We performed an unbiased screen using remote neuronal activation and identified a critical pair of brain cells that induces the entire feeding sequence when activated. These Fdg (feeding)-neurons are also essential for normal feeding as their suppression or ablation eliminates the sugar-induced feeding behavior. Activation of a single Fdg-neuron induced asymmetric feeding behavior and ablation of a single Fdg-neuron distorted the sugar-induced feeding behavior to be asymmetric, indicating the direct role of these neurons in shaping motor program execution. Simultaneously recording neuronal activity with calcium imaging during feeding behavior5 further revealed that the Fdg-neurons respond to food presentation, but only in starved flies. Our results demonstrate that Fdg-neurons operate firmly within the sensori-motor watershed, downstream of sensory and metabolic cues and at the top of the feeding motor hierarchy to execute the decision to feed. PMID:23748445

Flood, Thomas; Iguchi, Shinya; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

2013-01-01

69

Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports  

PubMed Central

Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

2014-01-01

70

The pharmacology of buccal mass smooth muscle of Arion ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pharmacologica l investigation into the buccal mass of the common terrestrial slug, Arion ater, on several occasions the buccal mass smooth muscle, at 10°C, showed irregular spontaneous rhythmical activity. These natural activities were reduced at 5°C. This suggest that low temperature may have an adverse effect on the slug muscular activity. High K +-saline resulted in tension development in

71

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2010-07-01

72

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2013-07-01

73

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2014-07-01

74

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2011-07-01

75

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2012-07-01

76

Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

Clayton, Louie

2011-01-01

77

A single pair of interneurons commands the Drosophila feeding motor program.  

PubMed

Many feeding behaviours are the result of stereotyped, organized sequences of motor patterns. These patterns have been the subject of neuroethological studies, such as electrophysiological characterization of neurons governing prey capture in toads. However, technical limitations have prevented detailed study of the functional role of these neurons, a common problem for vertebrate organisms. Complexities involved in studies of whole-animal behaviour can be resolved in Drosophila, in which remote activation of brain cells by genetic means enables us to examine the nervous system in freely moving animals to identify neurons that govern a specific behaviour, and then to repeatedly target and manipulate these neurons to characterize their function. Here we show neurons that generate the feeding motor program in Drosophila. We carried out an unbiased screen using remote neuronal activation and identified a critical pair of brain cells that induces the entire feeding sequence when activated. These 'feeding neurons' (here abbreviated to Fdg neurons for brevity) are also essential for normal feeding as their suppression or ablation eliminates sugar-induced feeding behaviour. Activation of a single Fdg neuron induces asymmetric feeding behaviour and ablation of a single Fdg neuron distorts the sugar-induced feeding behaviour to become asymmetric, indicating the direct role of these neurons in shaping motor-program execution. Furthermore, recording neuronal activity and calcium imaging simultaneously during feeding behaviour reveals that the Fdg neurons respond to food presentation, but only in starved flies. Our results demonstrate that Fdg neurons operate firmly within the sensorimotor watershed, downstream of sensory and metabolic cues and at the top of the feeding motor hierarchy, to execute the decision to feed. PMID:23748445

Flood, Thomas F; Iguchi, Shinya; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

2013-07-01

78

Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

2013-01-01

79

Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahăo

2012-01-01

80

Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches.

Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

2014-01-01

81

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

1983-08-01

82

Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

83

Effects of a Structured Program of Perceptual-Motor Training on the Development and School Achievement of Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 102 educable mentally handicapped children in special classes, 54 were identified by the Purdue Perceptual Motor Survey (PMS) as deficient in perceptual motor abilities. These 54 children were assigned to one of the following groups: training, which participated in an individualized, structured perceptual motor program twice a week for 4 1/2…

Fisher, Kirk L.

84

Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

2014-06-01

85

The timing of activity in motor neurons that produce radula movements distinguishes ingestion from rejection in Aplysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have studied the neural circuitry mediating ingestion and rejection in Aplysia using a reduced preparation that produces ingestion-like and rejection-like motor patterns in response to physiological stimuli.2.We have characterized 3 buccal ganglion motor neurons that produce specific movements of the radula and buccal mass. B8a and B8b act to close the radula. B10 acts to close the jaws and

D. W. Morton; H. J. Chiel

1993-01-01

86

75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motor with a power rating of more than 200 horsepower, but not greater than 500 horsepower, manufactured (alone or as a component...six-pole open motors rated 250, 300, and 350 horsepower are not consistent with the EISA 2007...

2010-12-22

87

76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motor with a power rating of more than 200 horsepower, but not greater than 500 horsepower, manufactured (alone or as a component...models of electric motors according to rated horsepower or kilowatts, number of poles, and...

2011-09-23

88

A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aims: Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Methods: Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. Results: TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. Conclusions: The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity. PMID:25397665

Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

2014-11-14

89

75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75...case of a small electric motor which...average full load efficiency of not less...

2010-04-05

90

Influence of NEMA T Rerate Program on Integral Horsepower Motors for the Petroleum Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factual information is presented to show that rerate T-frame motors offer users substantially more value than motors of prior vintage. The gain is not alone a matter of size-weight reduction nor the obvious economic one of avoiding, in industrial ac motors, the inflationary price spiral that generally afflicts American manufactured products. Gains are also evident in: insulation life expectancy, bearing

Richard F. Woll

1969-01-01

91

Development and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches of flurbiprofen.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate mucoadhesive buccal patches of flurbiprofen (FBN) in order to enhance solubility. Solubity enhancement was attempted by making solid dispersion of drug with beta-CD (cyclodextrin). Initially preformulation were carried out using reported methods. Buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using polymers like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The prepared patches were evaluated for their weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, in vitro permeation studies, drug content uniformity and bioadhesion test. PMID:22125962

Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Garud, Navneet; Singh, Ranjit

2011-01-01

92

A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

2013-01-01

93

Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eukaryotic cells, cargo is transported on self-organized networks of microtubule trackways by kinesin and dynein motor proteins. Synthetic microtubule networks have previously been assembled in vitro, and microtubules have been used as shuttles to carry cargoes on lithographically defined tracks consisting of surface-bound kinesin motors. Here, we show that molecular signals can be used to program both the architecture and the operation of a self-organized transport system that is based on kinesin and microtubules and spans three orders of magnitude in length scale. A single motor protein, dimeric kinesin-1, is conjugated to various DNA nanostructures to accomplish different tasks. Instructions encoded into the DNA sequences are used to direct the assembly of a polar array of microtubules and can be used to control the loading, active concentration and unloading of cargo on this track network, or to trigger the disassembly of the network.

Wollman, Adam J. M.; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Carstairs, Helen M. J.; Cross, Robert A.; Turberfield, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

94

Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification  

E-print Network

Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification Andrew J. Radosevich1 *, Nikhil N, United States of America Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with .150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated

Ottino, Julio M.

95

Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.  

PubMed

No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

2014-04-01

96

METHODOLOGICAL NOTE Evaluation of buccal cell collection protocols for  

E-print Network

number of cells collected. Mouthwashes had the highest DNA yield per sample (20.8 mg) compared). However, mouthwash samples may contain signi®cant non-human DNA and other contaminants that could mouthwash samples compared with ¯uorometry or quantitative PCR. Keywords: buccal cells, susceptibility

California at Berkeley, University of

97

In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

2011-01-01

98

Integrated Systems and Technologies Optical Detection of Buccal Epithelial Nanoarchitectural  

E-print Network

the cost-effectiveness (3). This highlights the need for an accurate, minimally intrusive prescreening field carcinogenesis. We performed PWS analysis from microscopically normal buccal epithelial brushings nanoarchitecture (Ld), was mark- edly (>50%) elevated in patients harboring lung cancer compared with neoplasia

Ottino, Julio M.

99

Peptidergic modulation of patterned motor activity in identified neurons of Helisoma  

PubMed Central

The neuroactive peptides SCPB (small cardioactive peptide B) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2), both originally isolated from molluscs, have potent modulatory effects upon the production of patterned motor activity in identified neurons (e.g., B5 and B19) in the buccal ganglia of the snail Helisoma. Such patterned motor activity has previously been shown to underlie feeding behavior. Micromolar concentrations of SCPB initiate patterned motor activity in quiescent ganglia and increase the rate of activity in ganglia that are spontaneously active. Micromolar concentrations of FMRFamide inhibit patterned motor activity in Helisoma buccal ganglia, and 10 ?M FMRFamide completely suppresses such activity. In addition, there are both anti-SCPB-and anti-FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Helisoma buccal ganglia. Our results suggest that peptides may play a prominent role in the regulation of feeding behavior in Helisoma. Images PMID:16593621

Murphy, A. D.; Lukowiak, Ken; Stell, W. K.

1985-01-01

100

Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

1992-11-01

101

Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.  

PubMed

The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

2013-06-01

102

EPRI's program with large horsepower single-phase written-pole motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPRI is continuing the commercialization of many advanced technologies. One such effort is in the area of large horsepower single-phase written pole motor design and development. This project has a number of benefits, especially in the rural utility sector, where single-phase distribution systems are commonplace, and their conversion to three-phase would be cost prohibitive. Additionally, large horsepower written-pole motors provide

B. Ben Baneriee; T. P. Singh

1995-01-01

103

Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated.\\u000a CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and\\u000a pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa\\u000a (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic

M M Vaidya; Sharda S. Sawant; Anita M. Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C. Purandare; A N Bhisey

2000-01-01

104

Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the same (first layer) mucoadhesive polymers and hydrotalcite containing flurbiprofen. Nonmedicated tablets were evaluated in terms of swelling, mucosal adhesion, and organoleptic characteristics; in vitro and in vivo release studies of flurbiprofen-loaded tablets were performed as well. The best results were obtained from the tablets containing 20 mg of flurbiprofen, which allowed a good anti-inflammatory sustained release in the buccal cavity for 12 hours, ensuring efficacious salivary concentrations, and led to no irritation. This mucoadhesive formulation offers many advantages over buccal lozenges because it allows for reduction in daily administrations and daily drug dosage and is suitable for the treatment of irritation, pain, and discomfort associated with gingivitis, sore throats, laryngopharyngitis, cold, and periodontal surgery. Moreover, it adheres well to the gum and is simple to apply, which means that patient compliance is improved. PMID:17915804

Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

2007-01-01

105

The buccal fad pad lined with a metabolic active dermal replacement (Dermagraft) for treatment of defects of the buccal plane.  

PubMed

The buccal fad pad flap (BFPF) is an easy to raise pedicled flap for closure of intraoral defects with barely any donor defect. The major disadvantage of the BFPF is the missing epithelial lining, which can induce fibrous tissue formation with resulting functional impairment. To overcome this problem we lined the BFPF with a dermal replacement (Dermagraft) consisting of living metabolic active fibroblasts. In six patients, defects resulting from tumour removal were reconstructed with a combination of the BFPF and Dermagraft and followed up for at least 2 years. In all patients a defect closure was achieved with no functional impairment. The clinical character which was achieved was more a type of defect regeneration than a flap closure. The availability of bioengineered metabolic active tissue can overcome the major problem of the BFPF as an option for defect closure of the buccal side. Furthermore the regeneration of the defects optimises clinical tumour monitoring. PMID:15544774

Raguse, J D; Gath, H J

2004-12-01

106

C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L. René

2012-01-01

107

Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit IV: Motor Development in Young Children. Module 1: Fostering the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Young Children. Unit Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module enables CDA interns to identify, prescribe, plan and implement activities and lessons which foster the development of gross motor skills in young children. At a satisfactoy level of proficiency the trainee will be able to identify levels of gross motor maturation, select appropriate equipment,…

Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

108

Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

109

Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration. PMID:20144297

Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

2009-01-01

110

Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fc?-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

2015-01-22

111

Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain  

PubMed Central

Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

2013-01-01

112

Implementing Motor Management  

E-print Network

cost of the motor. As you can see from the graphic (figure 1), if you are to implement a motor management program lifetime cost of operation must be taken into consideration. For example, a typical 50 Hp motor costs $25,000 to operate continuously... manufactured for sale in the United States. The original intent was to improve the efficiencies of 80% of the installed motor base in the U.S. The "EPAct" bill regulated the minimum efficiencies of motors that fall into the 1 - 200 Hp, three phase, TEFC...

Colip, R. L.

113

Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers  

PubMed Central

The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

2010-01-01

114

Transcription factor-induced lineage programming of noradrenaline and motor neurons from embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

An important goal in stem cell biology is to develop methods for efficient generation of clinically interesting cell types from relevant stem cell populations. This is particularly challenging for different types of neurons of the central nervous system where hundreds of distinct neuronal cell types are generated during embryonic development. We previously used a strategy based on forced transcription factor expression in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors to generate specific types of neurons, including dopamine and serotonin neurons. Here, we extend these studies and show that noradrenergic neurons can also be generated from pluripotent embryonic stem cells by forced expression of the homeobox transcription factor Phox2b under the signaling influence of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and bone morphogenetic proteins. In neural progenitors exposed to FGF8 and sonic hedgehog both Phox2b and the related Phox2a instead promoted the generation of neurons with the characteristics of mid- and hindbrain motor neurons. The efficient generation of these neuron types enabled a comprehensive genome-wide gene expression analysis that provided further validation of the identity of generated cells. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the generated cell types are amenable to drug testing in vitro and we show that variants of the differentiation protocols can be applied to cultures of human pluripotent stem cells for the generation of human noradrenergic and visceral motor neurons. Thus, these studies provide a basis for characterization of yet an additional highly clinically relevant neuronal cell type. PMID:24549637

Mong, Jamie; Panman, Lia; Alekseenko, Zhanna; Kee, Nigel; Stanton, Lawrence W; Ericson, Johan; Perlmann, Thomas

2014-03-01

115

Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

Sforzini, R. H.

1973-01-01

116

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...amendments to its low emission vehicle (LEV) program to address both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to...

2012-08-31

117

Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

1972-01-01

118

Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

Sforzini, R. H.

1972-01-01

119

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605 What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor...

2010-07-01

120

Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.  

PubMed

Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools. PMID:10794205

Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S

2000-04-01

121

Exploiting the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the delivery of donepezil hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of donepezil (DPZ) hydrochloride, and the impact of various skin penetration enhancers on DPZ buccal permeability, was assessed using an in vitro model. DPZ was applied to porcine buccal mucosa in modified Ussing chambers either alone (20 ?g/mL) or with different treatment protocols of various enhancers including Azone® (AZ), deoxycholic acid (DA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and oleic acid (OA)-PEG 400. DPZ permeated the buccal mucosa very rapidly with a permeability coefficient of 35.6 ± 4.9 × 10(-6) cm/s, which was not significantly affected by AZ pretreatment. Coapplication of DA 0.6% (w/w), but not DA 0.01% (w/w), reduced the buccal permeation of DPZ (3.5-fold), and PEG 400 reduced the absorption of DPZ in a dose-dependent manner (1.6- and 18.0-fold reduction at 5% and 50%, w/w, PEG 400, respectively). Coapplication of a combination of OA 1% (v/w) and PEG 400 5% (w/w) further reduced DPZ permeability (5.5-fold), which was demonstrated to result from excipient-induced DPZ precipitation as assessed by light microscopy analysis. These results confirm the feasibility of a novel buccal delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, and suggest various approaches that may be exploited for controlled buccal delivery of DPZ. PMID:24687969

Caon, Thiago; Pan, Yijun; Simőes, Cláudia M O; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

2014-06-01

122

The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

2010-01-01

123

The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and occupational therapists to have handwriting difficulties. They were matched according to their age and then randomly

K. W. Poon; C. W. P. Li-Tsang; T. P. L. Weiss; S. Rosenblum

2010-01-01

124

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

2014-01-01

125

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report.  

PubMed

Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

Reddy, Indira; G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

2014-08-01

126

Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

2013-01-01

127

Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months. PMID:24963257

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

2014-01-01

128

Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

2014-01-01

129

Demystifying induction motor behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motors are very simple devices, but, ever since they were introduced by Tesla, they have mystified many practicing engineers. The INSPEC interactive program that runs in Microsoft Windows on 386 or higher PCs, is designed to calculate accurate equivalent circuit models from induction motor standard specifications. It has a full graphical user interface (GUI), created using Microsoft's Visual Basic.

Graham J. Rogers

1994-01-01

130

78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

2013-11-06

131

Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns: A Program for Establishing Neurological Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a brief description of human neurological development and outlines a program for children designed to establish neurological organization through movement. The patterns of movement are divided into six areas: (1) General Movement Patterns (such as head rolls, crawling, cross-pattern creeping and walking, running, skipping,…

Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

132

Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

1992-01-01

133

Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum  

E-print Network

Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum Kelly A including feeding, lung ventilation, buccopharyngeal respiration, thermoregulation, olfaction, defense blowhole pneumotachography show no evidence that above water hyobranchial move- ments contribute to lung

Brainerd, Elizabeth

134

[A case of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection causing a buccal abscess complicated with multiple lung abscesses].  

PubMed

A 51 year-old man fitted with a dental prosthesis was hospitalized with buccal swelling, fever and chest pain. Laboratory data showed marked inflammatory changes, and chest radiography and CT scanning revealed small nodular shadows within the lung. A diagnosis of multiple lung abscesses secondary to a buccal abscess possibly caused by the prosthesis was made from needle aspiration biopsies of the lung nodules and of a buccal lesion. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from these lesions and from a blood culture. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and by surgical drainage of the buccal abscess. It is important to note that the patient was immunodeficient at the time as a result of diabetes and alcohol intoxication. PMID:11019572

Kosugi, E; Yoshida, K; Aoike, N; Shimizu, K; Higa, M; Sakai, N; Nakamura, Y; Uchida, K; Tateda, K

2000-07-01

135

Advanced Motors  

SciTech Connect

Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14

136

Use of Buccal Swabs for Sampling DNA from Nestling and Adult Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells from small (2- to 13-g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4- to 8-day-old) black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from 6 4-day-old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica).

COLLEEN M. HANDEL; LISA M. PAJOT; SANDRA L. TALBOT; GEORGE K. SAGE

2006-01-01

137

The use of silicone sheet to improve buccal fat pad healing in palatal reconstruction.  

PubMed

The author presents a new method involving the use of a silicone sheet to achieve an improved, faster healing of pedicled buccal fat pad flaps used in palatal reconstructions. This method was applied in 3 patients with excellent final results. The procedure is quick and easy to implement, and it efficiently improves the healing of buccal fat pad used in palatal reconstruction surgery. PMID:20462819

Robiony, Massimo

2010-10-01

138

Chemopreventive effect of Ocimum sanctum on DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum sanctum L., a plant having multi-medicinal properties, has been investigated for its chemopreventive activity against 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. O. sanctum, in the form of fresh leaf paste, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract were topically applied and the extracts were orally administered to buccal pouch mucosa of animals exposed to 0.5% of DMBA. Incidence of

K Karthikeyan; P Ravichandran; S Govindasamy

1999-01-01

139

General Motors Goes Metric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

Webb, Ted

1976-01-01

140

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

141

A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.  

PubMed

We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500× stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000× stiffness fin rays. PMID:22162853

Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

2012-01-01

142

Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule  

PubMed Central

Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

143

Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor behavior, motor performance, and motor learning are discussed at length within the context of infant and child development. Individual chapters focus on the following: the sensory-motor behavior of infants; analysis of selected perceptual-motor programs; beginnings of movement in infants; gross motor attributes in early childhood; visual…

Cratty, Bryant J.

144

Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-12-01

145

Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

Robinson, Leah E.

2011-01-01

146

Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

1993-01-01

147

Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

Brown, Gerald V.

2004-01-01

148

Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy  

PubMed Central

Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r?=?0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P?=?.001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

2014-01-01

149

DNA from Buccal Swabs Suitable for High-Throughput SNP Multiplex Analysis  

PubMed Central

We sought a convenient and reliable method for collection of genetic material that is inexpensive and noninvasive and suitable for self-collection and mailing and a compatible, commercial DNA extraction protocol to meet quantitative and qualitative requirements for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex analysis on an automated platform. Buccal swabs were collected from 34 individuals as part of a pilot study to test commercially available buccal swabs and DNA extraction kits. DNA was quantified on a spectrofluorometer with Picogreen dsDNA prior to testing the DNA integrity with predesigned SNP multiplex assays. Based on the pilot study results, the Catch-All swabs and Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit were selected for our high-throughput application and extended to a further 1140 samples as part of a large cohort study. The average DNA yield in the pilot study (n=34) was 1.94 ?g ± 0.54 with a 94% genotyping pass rate. For the high-throughput application (n=1140), the average DNA yield was 2.44 ?g ± 1.74 with a ?93% genotyping pass rate. The Catch-All buccal swabs are a convenient and cost-effective alternative to blood sampling. Combined with the Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit, they provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis. PMID:19949693

McMichael, Gai L.; Gibson, Catherine S.; O’Callaghan, Michael E.; Goldwater, Paul N.; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Haan, Eric A.; MacLennan, Alastair H.

2009-01-01

150

Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

2013-01-16

151

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. PRESENTATION OF CASE 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. DISCUSSION Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. CONCLUSION The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. PMID:24727208

Dereci, Ömür; Çimen, Emre

2014-01-01

152

Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarăes

2014-12-01

153

40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle...IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Special Compliance Provisions § 1039.605 What provisions apply to engines certified under the...

2010-07-01

154

CT and MR Imaging of the Buccal Space: Normal Anatomy and Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

The buccal space is an anatomical compartment lying anterior to the masticator space and lateral to the buccinator muscle. Since the major purpose of imaging is to define the likely anatomic origin and also the extent of a given lesion, thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of the buccal space is essential, and this knowledge can aid the physician in narrowing down the list of possible maladies on the differential diagnosis. We illustrate here in this paper the important anatomic landmarks and typical pathologic conditions of the buccal space such as the developmental lesions and the neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of the expected pathologic conditions is useful for the radiologist when interpreting facial CT and MR images. PMID:15782016

Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Moon, Min Hoan; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Chang, Kee-Hyun

2005-01-01

155

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the right buccal region: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare malignant cartilaginous tumor arising from the soft tissues. The most common areas of extraskeletal origin are the lower extremities, the orbits and the central nervous system, among others. In this study, the case of primary EMCS arising from the right buccal region in a 26-year old female is presented. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EMCS. Subseqently, the patient was treated with radical surgery, but declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which was recommended. One year after surgery, no recurrence had been identified in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of primary EMCS of the buccal region has been reported previously. In the current study, a case of primary EMCS of the buccal region is presented. PMID:25364427

Yu, Lijiang; Li, Mingliang; Lin, Runtai; Mu, Yue; Zhao, Jizhi

2014-12-01

156

High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

2014-05-01

157

10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Confidentiality-Electric Motors. 431.407 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...407 Confidentiality—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors...

2013-01-01

158

10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Confidentiality-Electric Motors. 431.407 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...407 Confidentiality—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors...

2014-01-01

159

10 CFR 431.407 - Confidentiality-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Confidentiality-Electric Motors. 431.407 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...407 Confidentiality—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...manufacturer or private labeler of electric motors...

2012-01-01

160

Molecular Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discover what controls how fast tiny molecular motors in our body pull through a single strand of DNA. How hard can the motor pull in a tug of war with the optical tweezers? Discover what helps it pull harder. Do all molecular motors behave the same?

Simulations, Phet I.; Perkins, Kathy; Malley, Chris; Perkins, Tom; Dubson, Mike; Adams, Wendy

2007-12-01

161

The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.  

PubMed

The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

2012-05-01

162

Applying energy-efficient motors in the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several US and Canadian utilities have implemented demand side management (DSM) programs for retrofitting energy efficient (EE) motors. This article examines some of the practical problems associated with this. When determining the energy savings achievable by retrofitting standard efficient (SE) motors with EE motors, the nominal efficiency difference between the SE and EE motors is often used. However, EE motors

P. Pillay

1997-01-01

163

Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive-motor performance in advanced Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive-motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive-motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20061324

Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C; Vitek, Jerrold L; McIntyre, Cameron C; Alberts, Jay L

2010-03-01

164

Functional Morphology of the Cephalopod Buccal Mass: A Novel Joint Type  

E-print Network

Carolina 27599-3280 ABSTRACT The arrangement of the musculature and connective tissues of the buccal mass the muscles and connective tissues responsible for beak movements and stability and to describe beak, they do not connect to the lower beak and instead insert on a connective tissue sheath

Kier, William M.

165

Persistent lung oscillator response to CO2 after buccal oscillator inhibition in the adult frog.  

PubMed

The automatic ventilatory drive in amphibians depends on two oscillators interacting with each other, the gill/buccal and lung oscillators. The lung oscillator would be homologous to the mammalian pre-Bötzinger complex and the gill/buccal oscillator homologous to the mammalian parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN). Dysfunction of the pFRG/RTN has been involved in the development of respiratory diseases associated to the loss of CO(2) chemosensitivity such as the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Here, on adult in vitro isolated frog brainstem, consequences of the buccal oscillator inhibition (by reducing Cl(-)) were evaluated on the respiratory rhythm developed by the lung oscillator under hypercapnic challenges. Our results show that under low Cl(-) concentration (i) the buccal oscillator is strongly inhibited and the lung burst frequency and amplitude decreased and (ii) it persists a powerful CO(2) chemosensitivity. In conclusion, in frog, the CO(2) chemosensitivity depends on cellular contingent(s) whose the functioning is independent of the concentration of Cl(-) and origin remains unknown. PMID:22772313

Leclčre, Renaud; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Bodineau, Laurence; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle

2012-08-15

166

Statistical optimization of insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for buccal delivery of basal insulin.  

PubMed

The principle of statistical optimization was employed to fabricate insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin. A two-level resolution III fractional factorial design was applied to simultaneously evaluate five independent formulation variables: PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, sodium sulfate concentration, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration, and presence of sodium glycocholate. The amount of insulin released and permeated from gels as well as gelation time and mucoadhesion force of gels were measured and used as dependent response variables for formulation optimization. Optimization of a gel formulation was achieved by applying constrained optimization via regression analysis. In vitro permeation flux of insulin from the optimized formulation through procine buccal mucosa was 93.17 (±0.058, n?=?3) ?g/cm(2). Plasma insulin levels following buccal administration of the optimized formulation at 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg to healthy rats were found to be dose dependent and basal insulin levels were maintained at least for 8 h. Furthermore, continuous hypoglycemia for at least 8 h was observed with 89%, 51% and 25% of blood glucose reduction, respectively, for these three doses. The results of this investigation conclude the feasibility of development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for basal insulin delivery. PMID:21214425

Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

2012-01-01

167

Abnormal anatomy of inferior orbital fissure and herniation of buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the inferior orbital fissure has been well studied, and its reported dimensions vary little. It is encountered during exploration of the orbital floor and when possible is not disturbed. We describe a case of herniation of buccal fat through the inferior orbital fissure that was found during exploration and repair of the orbital floor. PMID:25451070

Aldridge, T; Thomson, A; Ilankovan, V

2015-01-01

168

Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in Peripheral Tissues; Focus on Buccal Cells  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease. Therefore, if population screening of individuals is to be performed, more suitable, easily accessible tissues would need to be used for a diagnostic test that would identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary prevention. This need for minimally invasive tests could be achieved by targeting surrogate tissues, since it is now well recognized that AD is not only a disorder restricted to pathology and biomarkers within the brain. Human buccal cells for instance are accessible in a minimally invasive manner, and exhibit cytological and nuclear morphologies that may be indicative of accelerated ageing or neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. However, to our knowledge there is no review available in the literature covering the biology of buccal cells and their applications in AD biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some of the main findings of biomarkers reported for AD in peripheral tissues, with a further focus on the rationale for the use of the buccal mucosa (BM) for biomarkers of AD and the evidence to date of changes exhibited in buccal cells with AD. PMID:24938500

François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

2014-01-01

169

Comparisons of norcantharidin cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells and normal buccal keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norcantharidin (NCTD) is the demethylated analogue of cantharidin. In this study, multi-parameter assessments of morphological alterations, clonogenic efficiency, cell growth curves, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand break were employed to determine and compare the cytotoxic effects of NCTD on oral cancer KB cell line and normal buccal keratinocytes. The results showed NCTD induced significant cytotoxicity in KB cells after 24

S. H Kok; C. Y Hong; M. Y. P Kuo; C. H. K Lee; J. J Lee; I. U Lou; M. S Lee; M Hsiao; S. K Lin

2003-01-01

170

A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods  

PubMed Central

Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

2011-01-01

171

Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and biocompatible hydrogel system for buccal drug delivery. PMID:25453967

Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

2014-10-26

172

Biopolymeric mucoadhesive bilayer patch of pravastatin sodium for buccal delivery and treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive bilayer buccal patch has been developed to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy along with providing sustained release of pravastatin sodium. Buccal patches comprising of varying composition of Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M were designed and characterized for surface pH, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics performance. All formulations exhibited satisfactory technological parameters and followed non-fickian drug release mechanism. Bilayer buccal patch containing Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M in 4:6 ratio (PBP5) was considered optimum in terms of swelling, mucoadhesion, mechanical properties and in vitro release profile. Pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) Cmax (75.63 ± 6.98 ng/mL), AUC(0-8) (311.10 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) and AUC(0-?) (909.42 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) than pravastatin oral tablet (Cmax - 67.40 ± 9.23 ng/mL, AUC(0-8)-130.33 ± 10.25 ng/mL/h and AUC(0-?)-417.17 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h)). While, increased tmax of buccal patch indicated its sustained release property in comparison to oral tablet. Pharmacodynamic studies in rabbits showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) in the reduction of TG (131.10 ± 10.23 mg/dL), VLDL (26.00 ± 2.56 mg/dL) and LDL level (8.99 ± 3.01 mg/dL) as compared to oral conventional tablet. In conclusion, bioavailability from the developed buccal patch of pravastatin was 2.38 times higher than the oral dosage form, indicating its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22630116

Yedurkar, Pramod; Dhiman, Munish Kumar; Petkar, Kailash; Sawant, Krutika

2013-05-01

173

Evidence of a functional role in lung inflation for the buccal pump in the agamid lizard, Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis.  

PubMed

This study has demonstrated that the agamid desert lizard Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis ventilates its lungs both with a triphasic, thoracic aspiratory pump and by gulping air, using a buccal pump. These two mechanisms never occur simultaneously because bouts of buccal pumping are always initiated after the passive expiration that terminates a thoracic breath. Lung inflation arising from thoracic and buccal ventilation was confirmed by direct recording of volume changes using a whole-body plethysmograph. This observation was further confirmed by mechanical separation of the inflationary pressures associated with these two breathing mechanisms, enabling the effects of lung inflation on buccal breathing to be observed. This revealed that the buccal pump is influenced by a powerful Hering-Breuer-type reflex, further confirming its role in lung inflation. Bilateral thoracic vagotomy tended to increase the variance of the amplitude and duration of the breaths associated with the aspiration pump and abolished the effects of lung inflation on the buccal pump. Uromastyx has vagal afferents from pulmonary receptors that respond to changes in lung volume and appear not to be sensitive to CO2. This study describes two lung-inflation mechanisms (an amphibian-like buccal pump and a mammalian-like aspiration pump) in a single extant amniote, both of which are subject to vagal feedback control. PMID:11171303

Al-Ghamdi, M S; Jones, J F; Taylor, E W

2001-02-01

174

77 FR 40947 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Membership Solicitation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FMCSA Administrator on Federal motor carrier safety programs. As...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs...

2012-07-11

175

78 FR 50014 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard AGENCY...administers a program for reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature of this program is the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, 49...

2013-08-16

176

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

2012-08-20

177

Motor Bird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a bird that flies in place with help from a motor, wire, and some straws. This engineering activity introduces learners to circuits and motors, automata, and rotational motion. Note: a drill and drill bit are required for this project, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Fresno Community Science Workshop

2011-01-01

178

Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

Pyfer, Jean L.

179

Molecular motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

2015-10-01

180

AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, AC Motors, is the thirteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Synchronous Motors, Tesla polyphase induction motors; Wound rotor induction motors; and Selsyn (synchro) motors. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-04

181

Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

182

Displacement and stress distribution of the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal versus palatal plates: finite element analysis.  

PubMed

Summary OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the displacement and stress distribution in the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal and palatal plates using three-dimensional finite element analysis. PMID:25090997

Kim, Kwang Yoo; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Mo, Sung-Seo; Kook, Yoon-Ah

2014-08-01

183

A comparative light-microscopic, electron-microscopic and chemical study of human vaginal and buccal epithelium.  

PubMed

The scarcity of sizeable specimens of normal oral mucosa for experimental purposes has hampered research on oral epithelium. Because large specimens of viable human vaginal mucosa are readily available and because vaginal and buccal epithelia are microscopically similar, vaginal mucosa has been used successfully to establish a human cyst model in experimental animals. The ultrastructure and distribution of keratin filaments in these epithelia are also similar, as is their permeability to water and a number of chemical substances. Therefore, if vaginal mucosa could be substituted for buccal mucosa it would expedite research on the epithelium of buccal mucosa. To strengthen further the concept that vaginal epithelium could replace buccal epithelium in certain experimental studies, the thickness of these epithelia, their patterns of surface keratinization, the presence or absence of intercellular lipid lamellae and their lipid contents were now compared. Thirty-three specimens of vaginal mucosa from postmenopausal women and 36 of buccal mucosa were investigated. To compare the thickness of the epithelial layers the number of cell layers in sections of 20 vaginal and 20 buccal mucosal specimens were counted in the three thickest and three thinnest regions of each specimen. Surface keratinization was evaluated on sections stained with the Picro-Mallory method. To demonstrate lipid lamellae two vaginal and two buccal mucosa specimens were examined electron microscopically after normal fixation and postfixation in ruthenium tetroxide. Following solvent extraction of 11 vaginal and 14 buccal epithelia, quantitative lipid analyses were performed using thin-layer chromatography. No statistically significant differences were found between the maximum and minimum number of epithelial cell layers. The patterns of surface keratinization and the distribution and appearance of the lipid lamellae in the intercellular spaces were similar. The lipid composition of the two epithelia corresponded, except for the cholesterol esters and glycosylceramides, which were higher in buccal epithelium. Ceramides for vaginal epithelium and triglycerides for buccal epithelium were not determined. Based on structural similarities, a similar lipid composition and earlier findings, it is concluded that vaginal epithelium can be used as a substitute for buccal epithelium in certain in vitro, and possibly for in vivo, studies. PMID:11684027

Thompson, I O; van der Bijl, P; van Wyk, C W; van Eyk, A D

2001-12-01

184

Chemopreventive potential of neem ( Azadirachta indica) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All hamsters painted on their buccal pouch with DMBA for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of neem leaf extract effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence

S Balasenthil; S Arivazhagan; C. R Ramachandran; V Ramachandran; S Nagini

1999-01-01

185

Transmission of the respiratory rhythm to trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons in the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana).  

PubMed

Spatially distinct, interacting oscillators in the bullfrog medulla generate and coordinated buccal and lung ventilatory rhythms, but how these rhythms are transmitted onto trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons is unknown. Using a vertically-mounted isolated brainstem preparation, the Sheep Dip, we identified the regions of the brainstem containing motor nuclei using a solution capable of blocking synaptic release and, following washout, locally exposed these regions to 5 ?M NBQX and/or 50 ?M AP5. Local application of NBQX significantly reduced the amplitude of buccal and lung bursts on the trigeminal nerve, and lung bursts on the hypoglossal nerve. Local AP5 caused a significant reduction in lung burst amplitude on both nerves, but for buccal bursts, hypoglossal amplitude increased and trigeminal amplitude was unchanged. Local co-application of NBQX and AP5 eliminated fictive respiratory motor output completely in both nerves. These results are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting a critical role for glutamate in transmission of respiratory activity from oscillators to motor neurons. PMID:23791823

Kottick, Andrew; Baghdadwala, Mufaddal I; Ferguson, Erin V; Wilson, Richard J A

2013-08-15

186

Buccal microRNA dysregulation in lung field carcinogenesis: Gender-specific implications  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be reliable early biomarkers in a variety of cancers including that of lung. We ascertained whether the biomarker potential of miRNAs could be validated in microscopically normal and easily accessible buccal epithelial brushings from cigarette smokers as a consequence of lung cancer linked ‘field carcinogenesis’. We found that compared to neoplasia-free subjects, a panel of 68 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 downregulated in the normal appearing buccal mucosal cells collected from patients harboring lung cancer (n=76). The performance characteristics of selected miRNAs (with ?1-fold change) were excellent with an average under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of >0.80. Several miRNAs also displayed gender specificity between the groups. These results provide the first proof-of-concept scenario in which minimally intrusive cheek brushings could provide an initial screening tool in a large at-risk population. PMID:24919547

WALI, RAMESH K.; HENSING, THOMAS A.; RAY, DANIEL W.; DELA CRUZ, MART; TIWARI, ASHISH K.; RADOSEVICH, ANDREW; JEPEAL, LISA; FERNANDO, HIRAN C.; LITLE, VIRGINIA R.; CHARLOT, MARJORY; MOMI, NAVNEET; BACKMAN, VADIM; ROY, HEMANT K.

2014-01-01

187

Stress distribution produced by correction of the maxillary second molar in buccal crossbite.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution produced in the dentoalveolar system by a maxillary posterior crossbite appliance used for the correction of maxillary second molars in buccal crossbite. A photoelastic model was fabricated using a photoelastic material (PL-3) to simulate alveolar bone and ivory-colored resin teeth. The model was anteriorly and posteriorly observed with a circular polariscope and photographically recorded before and after activation of the maxillary posterior crossbite appliance. An uncontrolled palatal tipping and a rotating force were generated when the traction force was applied on the palatal surface of the maxillary second molar. A controlled tipping and an intrusive force were generated when the traction force was applied on the buccal surface of the maxillary second molar. PMID:12401047

Yoon, Young-Jooh; Jang, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Gab-Woon; Kim, Kwang-Won

2002-10-01

188

Design and evaluation of chitosan\\/ethylcellulose mucoadhesive bilayered devices for buccal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of new buccal bilayered devices comprising a drug-containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug-free backing layer, by two different methods. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting\\/solvent evaporation technique and bilayered tablets were obtained by direct compression. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of a mixture of drug and chitosan, with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer

Carmen Remuńán-López; Ana Portero; José Luis Vila-Jato; Mar??a José Alonso

1998-01-01

189

In vitro photodynamic inactivation of Candida spp. growth and adhesion to buccal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, photodynamic inactivation (PDI) was used to inhibit in vitro growth and adhesion of different Candida isolates to buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Experimental conditions were optimized and 25?M toluidine blue O (TBO) and 15min of irradiation time by light emitting diode (LED) (energy density of 180J\\/cm2) were selected due to higher reductions in cellular viability obtained after treatment.

Betânia Maria Soares; Danielle Letícia da Silva; Gerdal Roberto Sousa; José Cláudio Faria Amorim; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Marcos Pinotti; Patrícia Silva Cisalpino

2009-01-01

190

Evaluation of polyoxyethylene homopolymers for buccal bioadhesive drug delivery device formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to evaluate the application of polyoxyethylene homopolymers in buccal bioadhesive drug (BBD) delivery device\\u000a formulations. The bioadhesive strength of four different molecular weight (MW) polyoxyethylene polymers was measured by Instronâ\\u000a tensile tester using glass plate and bovine sublingual tissue as substrate surfaces. Several BBD device formulations containing\\u000a polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) were prepared by direct compression and

Deepak Tiwari; Robert Sause; Parshotam L. Madan; David Goldman

1999-01-01

191

Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. Objective: To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Materials and methods: Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Results: Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy. PMID:25311426

De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

2014-10-14

192

Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n?=?6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n?=?5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6?weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

Torres?Bugarín, O; Covarrubias?Bugarín, R; Zamora?Perez, A L; Torres?Mendoza, B M G; García?Ulloa, M; Martínez?Sandoval, F G

2007-01-01

193

Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhăes; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

2012-01-01

194

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

2005-01-01

195

Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content. PMID:25639306

Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

2014-12-01

196

Invasive aspergillosis presenting as swelling of the buccal mucosa in an immunocompetent individual.  

PubMed

Fungi are ubiquitous in nature but have low virulence and cause disease usually when the host defenses are compromised. Fungal infections of the central nervous system are rare and are usually seen in immunocompromised patients. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of central nervous system fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Intracranial fungal granulomas are rare space-occupying lesions. Among these, Aspergillus granuloma is the most common. Craniocerebral involvement by aspergillosis usually occurs via the hematogenous route or through contiguous spread from the paranasal sinuses. Predominant symptoms associated with cranial fungal granuloma include headache, vomiting, proptosis, and visual disturbances. Common signs include papilledema, cranial neuropathy, hemiparesis, and meningismus. We present a case of invasive Aspergillus granuloma in an immunocompetent individual, who presented with a palpable mass in the buccal mucosa following removal of an impacted mandibular third molar but with no other characteristic signs and symptoms of invasive fungal granuloma. To our knowledge, there is no documentation of aspergillosis presenting as a swelling in the buccal mucosa. Unexplained swellings in the buccal mucosa should be viewed with a high degree of suspicion and investigated thoroughly at the earliest. PMID:25487984

Ganesh, Praveen; Nagarjuna, Muralidhara; Shetty, Samarth; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhat, Venkatraman; Salins, Paul C

2014-10-15

197

Development of novel bioadhesive buccal formulation of diltiazem: in vitro and in vivo characterization.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation was to develop and evaluate buccoadhesive tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DZH) using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and Carbopol 934 as mucoadhesive polymers. Formulations A1, A2, A3, A4, and B1, B2, and B3, were composed of HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934 at ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, respectively. The developed formulations were evaluated for physicochemical, in vitro drug release, in vitro adhesion and in vivo studies in healthy human volunteers. The buccal absorption study in healthy volunteers revealed that about 36.86% of the drug was absorbed. Formulation A3 showed maximum release in 8 h. As the concentration of polymer in the formulation increased, the drug release decreased. The bioavailability of diltiazem from buccoadhesive tablets was 1.57-fold higher than oral tablets. The basic pharmacokinetic parameters, C(Max), T(Max), and the area under the curve, were calculated and showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) when the drug was given by the buccal route compared to that of oral tablet. The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal tablets with improved bioavailability could be prepared. PMID:20158046

Shayeda; Gannu, Ramesh; Palem, Chinna Reddy; Rao, Y Madhusudan

2009-01-01

198

Balancing speed and efficiency in motor selection  

SciTech Connect

Motor speed can be just as important as efficiency in selecting the most economical induction motor to drive so-called ``cube-law`` loads such as HVAC fans or centrifugal pumps. The amount of energy used in these loads is very sensitive to rotational speed. An increase in motor efficiency can be quickly negated by the extra energy consumed by a faster turning cube-law load. For induction motors, operating speed is always less than the synchronous speed, the familiar round number usually associated with motors (1,200 rpm, 1,800 rpm, 3,600 rpm and so on). The difference between the synchronous speed of an induction motor -- how fast it would spin if the rotor kept perfect pace with the rotating magnetic field that it is chasing -- and the rotor`s actual speed of rotation is called ``slip.`` Slip ranges from about half a percent of the synchronous speed in large motors to over 5 percent in small units; the higher the slip, the slower the motor. Induction motors of identical synchronous speed can differ significantly in operating speed. Most utility motor programs provide incentives simply on the basis of motor efficiency, ignoring the potential impact of a motor`s speed on the system`s energy use. In many cases, then, utilities are overestimating the energy savings in motor installations on cube-law loads.

Howe, B.; Shepard, M.

1993-12-31

199

Advanced motor and motor control development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

1988-08-01

200

Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD\\/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors

S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

2000-01-01

201

Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2012-01-01

202

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation... (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which included a credit claim,...

2010-07-01

203

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation... (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which included a credit claim,...

2014-07-01

204

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation... (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which included a credit claim,...

2012-07-01

205

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation... (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which included a credit claim,...

2013-07-01

206

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation... (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which included a credit claim,...

2011-07-01

207

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive buccal oxytocin tablet prepared with Dillenia indica fruit mucilage.  

PubMed

Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBT) of oxytocin were prepared as core in cup fashion to release the drug unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa. Adhesive cups were prepared with a mucilage isolated from edible Dillenia indica fruits (DIM). Shear, tensile and peel strengths of prepared adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using permeation enhancers viz. sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBT were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 mL of phosphate buffer pH 6.6 at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa. In vivo studies on anaesthetized New Zealand albino male rabbits were conducted and drug levels in plasma were estimated at 220 nm by reverse phase HPLC using BDS Hypersil C8 column using acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 6.6 (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/ min. Optimized formulation showed C(max), T(max), t1/2 and AUC(total), 688 pg/mL, 2 h, 0.079 h, and 1999.72 h x pg/mL respectively. The NMBT containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 27% bioavailability without damaging the buccal mucosasuggesting its suitability as an alternative to noninvasive administration of oxytocin. PMID:18468385

Metia, P K; Bandyopadhyay, A K

2008-04-01

208

Clinical utility of chromosomal microarray analysis of DNA from buccal cells: detection of mosaicism in three patients.  

PubMed

Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities are relatively common. However, mosaicism may be missed due to multiple factors including failure to recognize clinical indications and order appropriate testing, technical limitations of diagnostic assays, or sampling tissue (s) in which mosaicism is either not present, or present at very low levels. Blood leukocytes have long been the "gold standard" sample for cytogenetic analysis; however, the culturing process for routine chromosome analysis can complicate detection of mosaicism since the normal cell line may have a growth advantage in culture, or may not be present in the cells that produce metaphases (the lymphocytes). Buccal cells are becoming increasingly utilized for clinical analyses and are proving to have many advantages. Buccal swabs allow for simple and noninvasive DNA collection. When coupled with a chromosomal microarray that contains single nucleotide polymorphic probes, analysis of buccal cells can maximize a clinician's opportunity to detect cytogenetic mosaicism. We present three cases of improved diagnosis of mosaic aberrations using buccal specimens for chromosomal microarray analysis. In each case, the aberration was either undetectable in blood or present at such a low level it likely could have gone undetected. These cases highlight the limitations of certain laboratory methodologies for identifying mosaicism. We also present practice implications for genetic counselors, including clinic workflow changes and counseling approaches based on increasing use of buccal samples. PMID:25120037

Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Baldwin, Erin E; South, Sarah T; Rope, Alan F; Allen, William P; Kearney, Hutton

2014-12-01

209

Premium Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

Moser, P. R.

1984-01-01

210

Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ethanolic neem leaf extract during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract. PMID:16110755

Subapriya, R; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

2005-06-01

211

Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

2014-01-01

212

Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film  

PubMed Central

Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release.

Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

2014-01-01

213

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

214

Motor Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

1984-01-01

215

Starting motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an

T. Tanaka; I Hamano

1989-01-01

216

10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Maintenance of records for electric motors. (a) Manufacturers of electric motors must...

2013-01-01

217

10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Maintenance of records for electric motors. (a) Manufacturers of electric motors must...

2012-01-01

218

10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 ...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.381 Purpose and scope for electric motors. This...

2013-01-01

219

10 CFR 431.403 - Maintenance of records for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Maintenance of records for electric motors. 431.403 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Maintenance of records for electric motors. (a) Manufacturers of electric motors must...

2014-01-01

220

10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 ...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.381 Purpose and scope for electric motors. This...

2012-01-01

221

10 CFR 431.381 - Purpose and scope for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Purpose and scope for electric motors. 431.381 ...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.381 Purpose and scope for electric motors. This...

2014-01-01

222

77 FR 26815 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs...

2012-05-07

223

78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs...

2013-01-24

224

78 FR 32295 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC); Public Meetings of the CSA and Motorcoach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs...

2013-05-29

225

Transdermal and buccal delivery of methylxanthines through human tissue in vitro.  

PubMed

We examined the in vitro permeation of central nervous stimulants - caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine across human skin with the aid of six chemical enhancers. It was found that oleic acid was the most potent enhancer for all three methylxanthines. Further optimization studies with different solvents showed that caffeine transport could be enhanced to give flux values up to 585 microg/cm2.hr-1. Theobromine and theophylline delivery rates proved insufficient. An additional study involving a buccal tissue equivalent showed that this membrane was more permeable than skin for all model actives tested and would offer an alternate way of delivery. PMID:17520442

Thakur, Rashmi A; Michniak, Bozena B; Meidan, Victor M

2007-05-01

226

Minor salivary gland mucinous adenocarcinoma of buccal mucosa - case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract but head and neck localisations are very rare. This article presents the case of a 67-year-old patient suffering from a minor salivary gland MAC of the left buccal mucosa, who was treated in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in Krakow due to multiple recurrences of the tumour. The results of immunohistochemical staining, the course of surgical treatment and follow-up, as well as a review of literature are also discussed. PMID:24375048

Wyszy?ska-Pawelec, G; Koryczan, P; Zapa?a, J; Gontarz, M; Opach, M; Ku?nierz, P; Kosowski, B; Adamek, D

2013-12-01

227

Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

2000-05-01

228

10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...

2013-01-01

229

10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...

2014-01-01

230

10 CFR 431.406 - Subpoena-Electric Motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Subpoena-Electric Motors. 431.406 Section 431...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...Provisions § 431.406 Subpoena—Electric Motors. Pursuant to...

2012-01-01

231

10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 ...EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test...

2010-01-01

232

10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 ...EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test...

2011-01-01

233

28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s)...

2010-07-01

234

Biopolymeric film containing bioactive naphthoquinone (shikonin) in combined therapy of inflammatory destructive lesions in the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Clinical morphological efficiency of local application of a new biopolymeric film was studied. The film was based on methylcellulose derivatives and contained shikonin (preparation of plant origin) and its esters isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon L. cell culture. Combined therapy of 30 patients (34-72 years) with erosive ulcerative lichen planus and leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa was carried out. Local application of the new drug led to more rapid pain relief, epithelialization of the inflammatory destructive foci in the buccal mucosa, and reduced the intensity of morphological signs of lesions in the studied patient population. PMID:24319756

Zagorodnyaya, E B; Oskol'skii, G I; Basharov, A Ya; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Zagorodnii, A S

2013-12-01

235

Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.  

PubMed

This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion. PMID:19883251

Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

2009-01-01

236

A study on cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliative buccal cells in iron deficiency anemic patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear diameter (ND), cytoplasmic diameter (CD) and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) in cytological buccal smears of iron deficiency anemic patients by comparing with normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 40 healthy individuals and 40 iron deficiency anemic patients who were selected on clinical history, hematological investigations, and confirmed by serum ferritin levels. Exfoliative buccal smears stained with PAP stain were evaluated for cytoplasimic, nuclear diameters, and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C) using Image Proexpress Version 6.0 image analysis system. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: A significant increase is seen in the average nuclear diameter (ND) and N/C ratio of the anemic group when compared to the control group. The average cytoplasmic diameter (CD) did not show any statistical difference among the two groups. Conclusion: Oral exfoliative cytological techniques could possibly be a noninvasive alternative diagnostic tool for iron deficiency anemia. PMID:23230352

Sumanthi, J.; Reddy, G. Sridhar; Anuradha, C. H.; Sekhar, P. Chandhra; Prasad, L. Krishna; Reddy, B. V. Ramana

2012-01-01

237

Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH  

SciTech Connect

Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

238

Preparation, in vitro characterization and preliminary in vivo evaluation of buccal polymeric films containing chlorhexidine.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some polymeric films as buccal systems for the delivery of the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine diacetate, considered as a valid adjunct in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Six different film formulations, mono- or double-layered, containing 5 or 10 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate, respectively, and alginate and/or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and/or chitosan as excipients, were prepared by a casting-solvent evaporation technique and characterized in terms of drug content, morphology (scanning electron microscopy), drug release behavior, and swelling properties. Moreover, the in vivo concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate in saliva were evaluated after application of a selected formulation on the oral mucosa of healthy volunteers. The casting-solvent evaporation proved to be a suitable technique for preparing soft, flexible, and easily handy mono- or double-layered chlorhexidine-loaded films. Some prepared formulations showed favorable in vitro drug release rates and swelling properties. The behavior of a selected formulation, chosen on the basis of its in vitro release results, was preliminarily investigated in vivo after application in the oral cavity of healthy volunteers. The films were well tolerated and the salivary chlorhexidine concentrations were maintained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for Candida albicans for almost 3 h. These preliminary results indicate that polymeric films can represent a valid vehicle for buccal delivery of antifungal/antimicrobial drugs. PMID:19015998

Juliano, Claudia; Cossu, Massimo; Pigozzi, Paola; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo

2008-01-01

239

Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

2012-01-01

240

Serum-responsive expression of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes in normal and transformed human buccal keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Gene expression of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes (CMEs) was investigated in normal buccal keratinocytes (NBK) and the transformed buccal keratinocyte lines SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1. Studies were performed at a serum concentration known to induce terminal squamous differentiation (TSD) in normal cells. Overall, 39 of 58 evaluated CMEs were found to be expressed at the transcript level. Together the transformed cell lines showed altered transcription of eight CME genes compared to NBK, substantiating earlier results. Serum increased transcript levels of ALDH1A3, DHRS3, HPGD and AKR1A1, and decreased those of ALDH4A1 in NBK; of these, the transformed, TSD-deficient cell lines partly retained regulation of ALDH1A3 and DHRS3. Activity measurements in crude cell lysates, including relevant enzymatic inhibitors, indicated significant capacity for CME-mediated xenobiotic metabolism among the cell lines, notably with an increase in serum-differentiated NBK. The results constitute the first evidence for differential CME gene expression and activity in non-differentiated and differentiated states of epithelial cells. PMID:18854940

Staab, C A; Ceder, R; Roberg, K; Grafström, R C; Höög, J-O

2008-11-01

241

Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

2014-01-01

242

Small computer interface to a stepper motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

Berry, Fred A., Jr.

1986-01-01

243

Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook  

SciTech Connect

Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

1990-10-01

244

[Motor neuron diseases. Present].  

PubMed

Recent progress in our understanding of motor neuron diseases, particularly those of degenerative pathogenesis such as spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have to be described as historic. They are essentially of three types: 1) In first place are advances afforded by molecular genetics both in SMA (with the discovery of survival motor neurons and neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, which are markers of the disease and their pathogenetic mechanism) and in ALS (with the discovery of the super oxide dismutase [SOD1] gene, involved in the genesis of familial forms of ALS and other types of SMA such as certain forms of familial juvenile ALS, bulbar-spinal atrophy with gynecomasty and others). 2) In second place are biological data detailing the mechanisms of neuron death, whether programed or not, and emphasizing the importance of the so-called trophic or neurotrophin factors-whether nerve growth factor, brain-derived-neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 or others whose effect of preventing neuron death has been demonstrated in vitro-as well as that of other substances such as Ca(2+)-activated neutral protease, which stabilizes synapses during development. It is assumed that one or another of these data will lead to therapeutic strategies for blocking the cascade of events that lead to neuron degeneration. 3) Finally, the strong impact of neuroimmunology in the field of neuromuscular pathology has been of interest mainly in neurogenic diseases marked purely and essentially be motor expression. As markers and pathogens, antiganglioside antibodies must necessarily be determined at this time in such entities as multifocal motor neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute axon motor neuropathy, Miller-Fisher syndrome and others, as their presence can inform therapeutic approaches. These three aspects and others currently under discussion will be treated in this course. At the same time the basic diagnostic aspects of motor neuron diseases will be emphasized: electrophysiologic assessment, on the one hand, and clinical features on the other. Establishing an exhaustive classification of SMA, from the earliest forms of infancy to adult types, is of great priority, as is exposing the full range of SMA according to whether distal or proximal predominance of atrophy is present. Our current understanding of the field is summarized in ten chapters on degenerative motor neuron diseases. PMID:9044569

Pou, A

1996-12-01

245

Filament overwrapped motor case technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

Compton, Joel P.

1993-11-01

246

Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the expression of p75NGFR, a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75NGFR, BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium. PMID:25392568

Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

2014-01-01

247

Maturation of static sensitivity is related to expansion of the capsular space in rat buccal stretch receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental relationship between static sensitivity and structure of the buccal stretch receptor (BSR) in rats was investigated. When responses to ramp-and-hold stretches were recorded from isolated BSRs, their static sensitivities suddenly increased between 2 and 4 weeks after birth. However, no apparent change was observed throughout other developmental stages examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed a conspicuous expansion of the

Tetsu Yamamoto; Satoru Ozono; Kazuko Watanabe; Sachio Nagasaki; Minoru Onozuka

1995-01-01

248

A comparison of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in the serum and buccal mucosa of chronic cigarette smokers versus nonsmokers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols are implicated as potential chemoprotective agents for oropharyngeal cancer. Serum and buccal mucosal cells (BMC) were therefore analyzed in smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=21) for these nutrients to determine how chronic tobacco ...

249

Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

1994-12-01

250

Differences in molar relationships and occlusal contact areas evaluated from the buccal and lingual aspects using 3-dimensional digital models  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to use a 3-dimensional (3D) system to compare molar relationship assessments performed from the buccal and lingual aspects, and to measure differences in occlusal contact areas between Class II and Class I molar relationships. Methods Study casts (232 pairs from 232 subjects, yielding a total of 380 sides) were evaluated from both the buccal and lingual aspects, so that molar relationships could be classified according to the scheme devised by Liu and Melsen. Occlusal contact areas were quantified using 3D digital models, which were generated through surface scanning of the study casts. Results A cusp-to-central fossa relationship was observed from the lingual aspect in the majority of cases classified from the buccal aspect as Class I (89.6%) or mild Class II (86.7%). However, severe Class II cases had lingual cusp-to-mesial triangular fossa or marginal ridge relationships. Mean occlusal contact areas were similar in the Class I and mild Class II groups, while the severe Class II group had significantly lower values than either of the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Buccal and lingual assessments of molar relationships were not always consistent. Occlusal contact areas were lowest for the Class II-severe group, which seems to have the worst molar relationships - especially as seen from the lingual aspect. PMID:23112949

Jang, Sook-Yoon; Kim, Minji

2012-01-01

251

Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

1974-01-01

252

Performance calculation for tunnel boring machine motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) is dependent upon the mine power distribution system providing adequate voltage. The voltage at the motors may be calculated using a standard computer load flow program. These calculated voltages are compared to measured voltages in the tunnel. The classical induction motor equivalent circuit is used to calculate the torque output for a

Peter E. Sutherland

2000-01-01

253

Implementing Motor Decision Plans  

E-print Network

The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

Elliott, R. N.

254

"Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

2004-01-01

255

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

256

Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris  

PubMed Central

Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to support its efficacy claims by long term pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in human beings. PMID:23799205

Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

2013-01-01

257

Adult human buccal epithelial stem cells: identification, ex-vivo expansion, and transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify adult human buccal epithelial stem cells (SCs) on the basis of two parameters (high p63 expression and greater nucleus/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio) and to evaluate clinical efficacy of ex-vivoexpanded autologous epithelium in bilateral limbal SC-deficient (LSCD) patients. Methods The epithelial cells were isolated from buccal biopsy and cultured on human amnion in culture inserts with 3T3 feeder layer. The SCs were identified on the basis of two-parameter analysis using confocal microscopy, surface markers, and colony-forming efficiency (CFE). The cultured epithelium was transplanted in 10 LSCD patients followed by penetrating keratoplasty in 4 patients. The clinical outcome was followed up to 3 years. Results A distinct population (3.0±1.7%) of small cells expressing high levels of p63 with greater N/C ratio was observed in buccal epithelium. The N/C ratio was found to be more appropriate than cell diameter for two-parameter analysis. These cells located in the basal layer were negative for connexin-43 and positive for melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, containing holoclones with 0.2% CFE, thus representing the SC population. After transplantation of cultured epithelium with increased (sixfold) SC content, anatomical and visual improvement was observed at 13–34 months in 3/10 LSCD patients. Conclusions The two-parameter SC marker is useful to identify and quantify buccal epithelial SCs. The transplantation of bioengineered SC-rich buccal epithelium is a strategy for corneal surface reconstruction in bilateral LSCD. However, further studies are required to optimize the culture conditions and to look for other sources of adult SCs for better visual outcome. PMID:21941360

Priya, C G; Arpitha, P; Vaishali, S; Prajna, N V; Usha, K; Sheetal, K; Muthukkaruppan, V

2011-01-01

258

Long-term effects of orthodontic magnets on human buccal mucosa--a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this intra-individual study was to examine human buccal mucosa clinically, histologically and immunohistochemically after 9 months' exposure to orthodontic magnets. In each of eight subjects (17.8-42.4 years), a magnet and a demagnetized equivalent of parylene coated neodymium-iron-boron was bonded alternately on the left and right side, to the buccal surface of maxillary premolars. The buccal mucosa was clinically examined and photographed, and three punch biopsies (6 mm diameter) of the buccal mucosa were taken from each subject at the site of contact with the magnet (test), in contact with the demagnetized magnet (control), and also at a site on the control side without contact with the demagnetized magnet (normal). The biopsies were snap-frozen for histological and immunohistochemical investigation, using antibodies to PD7 (lymphocyte 'naive T'), UCHL 1 ('memory T'), HLADR, ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. Clinically, the buccal mucosa showed normal features before and after the experimental period. In four of the eight subjects, the epithelium was 1.4-2.3 times thicker in the control and test tissues than in normal tissues. The difference between controls and tests was negligible, and there were no signs of increased keratinization or other surface abnormalities. Compared with normal sites, all control and test sites showed slightly increased ELAM-1/ ICAM-1 vascular staining, accompanied in three subjects by small infiltrates of PD7/UCHL 1-positive lymphocytic cells and in all subjects by focal keratinocyte HLADR-staining. The minor tissue reactions found in test and control tissues were interpreted to be a result of microtrauma (contact irritation) and not caused by the static magnetic field per se, since there was no difference between test and control tissues. PMID:9699399

Bondemark, L; Kurol, J; Larsson, A

1998-06-01

259

Acquired toxoplasmosis of the buccal area with extranodular involvement: report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

Acquired toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in humans. It can be caused by ingestion of infected meat or other food that has been contaminated by the feces of infected cats. Approximately 90% of immunocompetent patients with acquired toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic and undiagnosed; in the other 10%, toxoplasmosis manifests as a nonspecific, self-limited illness that usually does not require treatment. In symptomatic cases, cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical findings. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who experienced unilateral facial swelling secondary to toxoplasmosis. In addition to the atypical location of her disease (i.e., the buccal area), the atypical histopathologic findings in this case (e.g., extranodular involvement) constituted a very unusual presentation of toxoplasmosis. PMID:20013663

Köyba?i, Serap; Süslü, Ahmet Emre; Yigit, Beyhan; Boran, Cetin

2009-12-01

260

[Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].  

PubMed

The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted. PMID:25536824

2014-01-01

261

Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

2010-01-01

262

Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

2014-11-01

263

Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model solves the coupled differential equations for an electric motor driven by a dynamo (generator). The model can be used as to illustrate elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses about nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. The main window displays the dynamo angular velocity ?1, motor angular velocity ?2 and current I time series and a second window displays the phase space. The stator current Is (A), torque T (Nâ˘m), and resistance R (ohm) are adjustable. The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_chaos_FixedTorqueDynamoAndMotor.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-23

264

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

265

Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

Friedman, Stewart D.

2001-01-01

266

10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections...Act, any person importing an electric motor into the United...

2014-01-01

267

10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections...part does not apply to any electric motor if: (a)...

2013-01-01

268

10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections...Act, any person importing an electric motor into the United...

2013-01-01

269

10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections...part does not apply to any electric motor if: (a)...

2014-01-01

270

10 CFR 431.405 - Exported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Exported electric motors. 431.405 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.405 Exported electric motors. Under Sections...part does not apply to any electric motor if: (a)...

2012-01-01

271

10 CFR 431.404 - Imported electric motors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Imported electric motors. 431.404 Section...ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...Provisions § 431.404 Imported electric motors. (a) Under sections...Act, any person importing an electric motor into the United...

2012-01-01

272

Augmenting cognitive processes in robot-assisted motor rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive processes, such as motor intention, attention, and higher level motivational states are important factors that govern motor performance and learning. Current robot-assisted rehabilitative programs focus only on the physical aspects of training. In this paper, we propose a framework for motor rehabilitation based on the augmentation of cognitive channels of patient-robot interactions and using it to deliver a more

Keng Peng Tee; Cuntai Guan; Kai Keng Ang; Kok Soon Phua; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

2008-01-01

273

Motor neglect associated with loss of action inhibition.  

PubMed

Motor neglect, underuse of one side of the body not explained by weakness or sensory impairment, is a common consequence of stroke that is surprisingly little understood. Behavioural and neuroanatomical hallmarks of the disorder are investigated. Using a masked prime task, it was shown that when patients with left motor neglect plan to move their left hand, irrelevant right limb motor programmes intrude, causing delay. Lesion analysis reveals that such asymmetry of motor programming occurs after infarcts of the right putamen and motor association areas. This demonstration of failure to inhibit ipsilesional limb motor plans suggests potential benefit from interventions that might act to restore balance in action planning. PMID:19010953

Coulthard, E; Rudd, A; Husain, M

2008-12-01

274

Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

1983-01-01

275

Starting motor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

1989-05-23

276

Motor control for a brushless DC motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

277

Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in NS-treated group and those in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Significant therapeutic efficacy was observed in the group receiving Xianhuayin. Conclusion Xianhuayin is effective in the reversal of DMBA-induced premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of golden hamsters. PMID:20690419

Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

2010-01-01

278

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

279

Reversing cognitive–motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive–motor performance in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive–motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive–motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20061324

Frankemolle, Anneke M. M.; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

2010-01-01

280

Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.  

PubMed

Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

Aboutaleb, Hamdy

2014-12-01

281

Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique  

PubMed Central

Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

2014-01-01

282

Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p < 0.0001). Distinct profiles were also evident for each AD severity group. An increase in telomere number and aggregation concomitant with a decrease in telomere length from normal to severe AD defines the individual stages of the disease (p < 0.0001). PMID:24121960

Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

2014-01-01

283

Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

2015-02-10

284

Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application  

PubMed Central

Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH with optimum swelling approaching zero order release. PMID:23351403

2012-01-01

285

Bio-monitoring for the genotoxic assessment in road construction workers as determined by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

PubMed

Buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay monitors genetic damage, cell proliferation and cell death in humans exposed to occupational and environmental agents. BMCyt is used as an indicator of genotoxic exposure, since it is associated with chromosomal instability. There is little research on the occupational exposure among road construction workers for genotoxicity testing. In the present study, we evaluated MN frequencies and other nuclear changes, karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL), broken egg (BE), binucleate (BN), condensed chromatin cell (CCC), and picnotic cell (PC) in buccal mucosa cells of 40 road construction workers (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers) and 40 control groups consisting of healthy persons (twenty smokers and twenty non-smokers). Microscopic observation was performed of 2000 cells per individual in both road construction workers and control group. In control and worker groups, for each person repair index (RI) was calculated via formula KR+L/BE+MN. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of MN in buccal epithelial cells of exposed group compared with control group (p<0.001). There is no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers for incidence of MN or nuclear changes and value of RI in exposed group. In road construction workers, RI is lower than the control group. There is a significant difference between workers and control group (p<0.001) for RI. Our data reveal that asphalt fumes during road paving operations are absorbed by workers and that asphalt fume exposure is able to significantly induce cytogenetic damage in buccal mucosa cells of workers after controlling some possible confounding factors, such as age, sex and smoking habits. In addition to determination of nuclear changes and the micronucleus, the determination of RI value presents a new approach to genotoxic bio-monitoring assessment studies of occupationally exposed population. PMID:23474067

Çelik, Ayla; Yildirim, Seda; Ekinci, Seda Yaprak; Ta?delen, Bahar

2013-06-01

286

A Study of the Effects of an Intensive Training Program on the Motor Skills of Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study on improvement of basic motor skills by educable mentally retarded (EMR) children with special training in a sport and game situation, 21 EMR boys and 19 EMR girls (aged 4-1 to 10-1) were divided into an experimental and a control group, matched by chronological age, IQ, sex, and pretest scores on the Basic Skills Test (reliability .97)…

Ross, Sheila A.

287

Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation  

PubMed Central

Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50?=?12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Ĺsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

2014-01-01

288

From the mouths of monkeys: detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques.  

PubMed

Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here, we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

Wilbur, Alicia K; Engel, Gregory A; Rompis, Aida; A Putra, I G A; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Aggimarangsee, Nantiya; Chalise, Mukesh; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A; Jones-Engel, Lisa

2012-07-01

289

[Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].  

PubMed

Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

Abakarova, D S

2004-01-01

290

Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in healthy and diabetic individuals and the impact of a dietary intervention.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the frequencies of nuclear anomalies in buccal cells between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and to assess the impact of a 'healthy diet'-a cornerstone in the treatment of diabetes. Seventy-six diabetic and 21 non-diabetic individuals participated in this parallel, randomised, intervention trial. All participants received information about the importance of a healthy diet, while participants randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300g of vegetables and 25ml of plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) per day for 8 weeks. Cytogenetic damage in buccal cells was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Micronucleus (MN) frequency at baseline was significantly higher in participants with diabetes (0.58±0.30‰) compared with non-diabetic individuals (0.28±0.29‰). Further analysis of baseline data revealed significantly higher MN levels in participants of the highest tertile of waist circumference (+40%), fasting plasma glucose (+55%), glycated haemoglobin (+41%) and cardiovascular disease risk (+39%) relative to participants of the lowest tertile. The dietary intervention had no effect on MN frequencies. Glycated haemoglobin and biomarkers reflecting cytokinetic defect or acute cell death were reduced in both the intervention and 'information only' groups. The results of this study suggest a strong impact of abdominal obesity and glucose metabolism on genomic stability. Similar effects on nuclear anomalies were observed in the 'information only' group and the intervention group receiving vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil. PMID:24311117

Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Nersesyan, Armen; Nitz, Marlies; Petschnig, Alice; Wallner, Marlies; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

2014-01-01

291

Surface ultrastructure of intact and in situ chlorhexidine-treated human buccal cells. A method for scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Air-dried and ethanol-fixed buccal epithelial cell smears from five subjects were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The mucous pellicle was precipitated as a smooth haze covering the cells, and outlines of bacteria were found embedded within it. Rinsing the preparations under running water gradually diminished the mucous pellicle but not the cell-adherent bacteria. A more complete dissolution of the pellicle was accomplished by washing the buccal epithelial cells before smearing. After a chlorhexidine mouthrinse the buccal cells appeared distorted, with only a few adherent bacteria. Three days after the rinsing, the denatured appearance still persisted on many cells, however, simultaneously with the emergence of undenatured epithelial cells with adherent bacteria. The method introduced in this study is useful to investigate the bacteria-mucus-epithelial cell interactions. A possible mode of antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine in vivo may be that it destroys bacterial adhesins. The substantivity of chlorhexidine in the oral cavity may be linked to the turnover rate of the oral epithelial cells. PMID:9370024

Vaahtoniemi, L H

1997-10-01

292

From the mouths of monkeys: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques  

PubMed Central

Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the PCR amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

Wilbur, AK; Engel, G; Rompis, A; Putra, IGA A; Lee, BP Y-H; Aggimarangsee, N; Chalise, M; Shaw, E; Oh, G; Schillaci, MA; Jones-Engel, L

2012-01-01

293

Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r˛=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

2014-03-10

294

Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.  

PubMed

Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

2014-03-15

295

Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip. PMID:23784986

Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

2013-09-01

296

Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

2012-06-01

297

Statistical optimisation of the mucoadhesivity and characterisation of multipolymeric propranolol matrices for buccal therapy.  

PubMed

A Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimise a polymeric blend for the preparation of propranolol HCl matrices with maximum mucoadhesivity and was thereafter modified for achieving controlled drug release. The quantitative effects of the polymers used i.e. poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) on mucoadhesion could be predicted using polynomial equations. A formulation of 20% PAA, 20% CMC and 20% PVP was identified for maximising mucoadhesivity and obtaining a controlled drug release profile. Reproducibility of the optimal formulation in terms of mucoadhesivity and controlled drug release was confirmed. The optimal formulation was characterised in terms of mucoadhesivity, release kinetics, swelling/erosion, hydration dynamics and surface pH. From the model fitting analyses, drug release was found to be diffusion, polymeric relaxation and erosion based with the former two being more dominant over erosion. This was in agreement with the erosion and swelling studies which showed swelling and erosion occurring in the tablet matrix. Textural profiling showed initial rapid hydration, which could be beneficial for enhanced mucoadhesivity. Surface pH of the multipolymeric matrices was similar to salivary pH and did not show extremes in changes over the test period. The optimal preparation of multipolymeric propranolol matrices identified in this study shows potential for buccal administration. PMID:16863686

Munasur, A P; Pillay, V; Chetty, D J; Govender, T

2006-10-12

298

Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

2014-01-01

299

Application of hydrogel polymers for development of thyrotropin releasing hormone-loaded adhesive buccal patches.  

PubMed

To utilize hydrogels for fabricating thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) adhesive buccal patches, type of hydrogels such as polyacrylic acids (Polycarbophil AA1, Carbopols 934P, 974P and 971P), celluloses (HPMC K4M, K4MCR and K15M), polysaccharide (sodium alginate) and polyacrylic acid combinations with either cellulose or polysaccharide were evaluated for adhesion force, water uptake and swelling capacity. Upon the characterization of hydrogel polymers, TRH-loading of patches fabricated from these hydrogels was evaluated at various polymer concentrations, combinations and ratios and then in vitro release kinetics of TRH from these patches were studied. Results indicated that maximum adhesion force was shown by polyacrylic acids. Adhesive force of polymer combination mainly resulted from combination of adhesive force, according to ratio proportion used, of each polymer without any superimposed effect of polymer combination. Polycarbophil AA1 showed highest water uptake and swelling capacity. Maximum TRH-loading was obtained with sodium alginate and Polycarbophil AA1 and sodium alginate combination. TRH release profiles revealed that release was sustained from Polycarbophil AA1 and its combination with celluloses or polysaccharide at 2:1 level of polymer ratio. Based on adhesion, loading and release characteristics, patches of Polycarbophil AA1 with K4M, K4MCR and sodium alginate were concluded to be suitable for further development. PMID:22716472

Chinwala, Maimoona G; Lin, Senshang

2010-06-01

300

Amidated pectin-based wafers for econazole buccal delivery: Formulation optimization and antimicrobial efficacy estimation.  

PubMed

Combinations of low-methoxy amidated pectin (LMAP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to develop a lyophilized wafer formulation, aimed to obtain prolonged residence and controlled release of econazole nitrate (ECN) in the oral cavity. Ternary ECN/sulphobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin/citric acid complex, resulted as the most efficient system against selected Candida strains, was loaded into this formulation. The final product with the desired and predicted quality was developed by an experimental design strategy. The experimental values of mucoadhesion strength (28.37±0.04mg/cm(2)) and residence time (88.1±0.1min) obtained for the optimized wafer formulation were very close to the predicted ones, thus demonstrating the actual reliability and usefulness of the assumed model in the preparation of buccal wafers. The optimized formulation provided a constant ECN in situ release of 5mg/h and was efficacious against selected Candida strains in vitro. This clearly proved its potential as a novel effective delivery system for the therapy of oral candidiasis. PMID:25659694

Mura, Paola; Mennini, Natascia; Kosalec, Ivan; Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Jug, Mario

2015-05-01

301

Thermal Endurance of Silicone Magnet Wire Evaluated by Motor Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1952 a motor test program was started at Dow Corning Corporation to evaluate a series of new modified silicone magnet-wire enamels. The purpose of this program is to determine by functional test methods the thermal life of these new enamels. Twelve 7˝ horsepower induction motors insulated with silicone components and wound with wire enameled with Dow Corning 1360

W. J. Bush; J. F. Dexter

1954-01-01

302

IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

303

Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

Toland, Ronald W.

2004-01-01

304

Directed flux motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2011-01-01

305

Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

1972-01-01

306

Energy-efficient electric motors study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

1981-03-01

307

Chronic motor tic disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

308

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. When there are disruptions in these signals, the ...

309

Teamwork in microtubule motors.  

PubMed

Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

2013-11-01

310

Smart motor technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

1984-01-01

311

Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics  

E-print Network

industrial plant. Early Edetection of abnormalities in the motors will help avoid expensive failures. Motor current signature analy- sis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based mainte nance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well

Yazici, Birsen

312

Motor oversizing outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-phase induction motors are intrinsically efficient machines. Due to its common misapplication they are considered a great potential of energy conservation in industries. This paper presents a set of methodologies and a road map to evaluate if a motor is oversized or not, and proposes some overtaking solutions to increase the energy efficiency of the whole motor-load system.

Edson da Costa Bortoni

2007-01-01

313

Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

Pickering, Gisčle; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frédéric; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Séverine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

2014-01-01

314

The influence of recrystallized caffeine on water-swellable polymethacrylate mucoadhesive buccal films.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of particles on the properties of polymethacrylate films intended for buccal delivery. A solvent casting method was used with Eudragit RS and RL (ERS and ERL, respectively) as film-forming rate-controlling polymers, with caffeine as a water-soluble model drug. The physicochemical properties of the model films for a series of formulations with increasing concentrations of caffeine were determined in terms of morphology, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug content uniformity, and drug release and associated kinetics. Typically regarded as non-mucoadhesive polymers, ERS and mainly ERL, were found to be good mucoadhesives, with ERL01 exhibiting a work of mucoadhesion (WoA) of 118.9 ?J, which was about five to six times higher than that observed for commonly used mucoadhesives such as Carbopol(®) 974P (C974P, 23.9 ?J) and polycarbophil (PCP, 17.4 ?J). The mucoadhesive force for ERL01 was found to be significantly lower yet comparable to C974P and PCP films (211.1 vs. 329.7 and 301.1 mN, respectively). Inspection of cross-sections of the films indicated that increasing the concentration of caffeine was correlated with the appearance of recrystallized agglomerates. In conclusion, caffeine agglomerates had detrimental effects in terms of mucoadhesion, mechanical properties, uniformity, and drug release at large particle sizes. ERL series of films exhibited very rapid release of caffeine while ERS series showed controlled release. Analysis of release profiles revealed that kinetics changed from a diffusion controlled to a first-order release mechanism. PMID:23456475

Morales, Javier O; Su, Rong; McConville, Jason T

2013-06-01

315

Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students  

PubMed Central

Objective Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. Materials and methods A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18–29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Results Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p < 0.001). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259–1.790, p < 0.001), crowding (OR = 2.102, 95% CI = 1.706–2.590, p < 0.001) and overjet (OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.418–0.818, p = 0.002). On the other hand, BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Conclusions Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration. PMID:23692316

Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

2014-01-01

316

Comparative evaluation of porous versus nonporous mucoadhesive films as buccal delivery system of glibenclamide.  

PubMed

The present research work focused on the comparative assessment of porous versus nonporous films in order to develop a suitable buccoadhesive device for the delivery of glibenclamide. Both films were prepared by solvent casting technique using the 3(2) full factorial design, developing nine formulations (F1-F9). The films were evaluated for ex vivo mucoadhesive force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release (using a modified flow-through drug release apparatus), and ex vivo drug permeation. The mucoadhesive force, mucoadhesion time, swelling index, and tensile strength were observed to be directly proportional to the content of HPMC K4M. The optimized porous film (F4) showed an in vitro drug release of 84.47?±?0.98%, ex vivo mucoadhesive force of 0.24?±?0.04 N, and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 539.11?±?3.05 min, while the nonporous film (NF4) with the same polymer composition showed a release of 62.66?±?0.87%, mucoadhesive force of 0.20?±?0.05 N, and mucoadhesive time of 510?±?2.00 min. The porous film showed significant differences for drug release and mucoadhesion time (p?buccal mucosa indicated improved drug permeation in porous films versus nonporous films. The present investigation established porous films to be a cost-effective buccoadhesive delivery system of glibenclamide. PMID:23990119

Kumar, Ajay; Bali, Vikas; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla

2013-12-01

317

Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

1992-01-01

318

Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive sol-gel composites of paclitaxel/dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin for buccal delivery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

Choi, Soon Gil; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

2014-01-01

319

Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurological deficits in auditory and motor processes using computational modeling with the DIVA model. Method In a series of computer simulations, we investigated the effect of a motor processing deficit alone (MPD), and the effect of a motor processing deficit in combination with an auditory processing deficit (MPD+APD) on the trajectory and endpoint of speech motor development in the DIVA model. Results Simulation results showed that a motor programming deficit predominantly leads to deterioration on the phonological level (phonemic mappings) when auditory self-monitoring is intact, and on the systemic level (systemic mapping) if auditory self-monitoring is impaired. Conclusions These findings suggest a close relation between quality of auditory self-monitoring and the involvement of phonological vs. motor processes in children with pediatric motor speech disorders. It is suggested that MPD+APD might be involved in typically apraxic speech output disorders and MPD in pediatric motor speech disorders that also have a phonological component. Possibilities to verify these hypotheses using empirical data collected from human subjects are discussed. PMID:24491630

Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

2014-01-01

320

Topical treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron beam.  

PubMed

In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation. PMID:23467084

Choi, Soon Gil; Baek, Eun Jung; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Nho, Young-Chang; Lim, Youn-Mook; Park, Jong-Seok; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Huh, Kang Moo; Park, Jeong-Sook

2013-04-15

321

Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

Narumanchi, S.

2014-09-01

322

77 FR 69918 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Room W12- 140, Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery:...

2012-11-21

323

77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...to the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Room W12- 140, Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery:...

2012-10-03

324

FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

325

Motor/generator  

DOEpatents

A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-05-13

326

Solid propellant motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1978-01-01

327

Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations  

PubMed Central

Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

2013-01-01

328

Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-01-01

329

Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

Horowitz, Jordan M.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2013-07-01

330

Imitating chemical motors with optimal information motors.  

PubMed

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. PMID:23862988

Horowitz, Jordan M; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M R

2013-07-01

331

Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors  

SciTech Connect

Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

2008-05-01

332

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

2015-01-01

333

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

Wu, Xin; Li, Yubo; Xu, Daoqing; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Jinlei; Guo, Xuejun; Zhang, Yanjun

2015-01-01

334

A finite element code for electric motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

Campbell, C. Warren

1994-01-01

335

Energy-efficient electric motors study  

SciTech Connect

The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-03-23

336

Effect of interferon alpha on HLA-DR expression by human buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

/We have studied the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) on MHC class II expression by human buccal epithelial cells (BEC), and mRNA expression by BEC and mucosal-associated mononuclear cells (MAMC). In 6 experiments, freshly collected BEC were suspended at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(5)/ml in RPMI 1640 and incubated in the presence of 0-10,000 IU/ml of human lymphoblastoid IFN-alpha (HuIFN-alpha). Zero and six hour samples were analyzed by single color flow cytometry using FITC-labeled murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody to HLA-DR. Preparations were also analyzed for expression of cytokine transcripts (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Increasing concentrations of IFN-alpha resulted in proportionate increases in the percentage of HLA-DR + BEC (r = 0.7897, p = 0.0627) and in the percentage of HLA-DR+ staining at higher intensities (10(1) to 10(2) log fluorescence intensity) (LFI) (r = 0.4010, p = 0.0424). The percentage of HLA-DR + BEC rose from a mean of 1.5% with no IFN-alpha to 7% with 10,000 IU/ml IFN-alpha (p < 0.05). The percentage of HLA-DR + BEC staining at 10(1) to 10(2) LFI rose from a mean of 8.3% with no added IFN-alpha to 19.2% with 10,000 IU/ml IFN-alpha (p < 0.05). Unstimulated BEC constitutively expressed IL-8 and GM-CSF. IFN-alpha stimulated preparations also expressed IFN-gamma, possibly due to the presence of MAMC, which comprised 2-9% of the total cell population. These data indicated that HuIFN-alpha upregulates MHC class II expression by human BEC, possibly by enhancing IFN-gamma production by MAMC present in the culture preparations. PMID:8915510

Smith, J K; Chi, D S; Krishnaswamy, G; Srikanth, S; Reynolds, S; Berk, S L

1996-01-01

337

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the determination of BEC-MN frequency (per mille) and frequency of BEC with MN (per mille). The same children were also recruited for lung function measurements within a MATRA project ("Together Towards Clean Air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun") Measured NO2 and SO2 concentrations did not exceed the European Union (EU) limit levels either in urban-traffic or suburban regions. Higher O3 concentrations were measured in the suburban site especially in the summer period. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels which did not differ statistically between two regions were above the EU limits in general. Although BEC-MN frequencies of children living in the suburban sites were higher in general, the difference between two regions was not significant either in the summer or winter periods. BEC-MN frequencies of the urban-traffic children were found to be significantly higher in summer period (mean ± SD, 2.68?±?1.99) when compared to winter period (1.64?±?1.59; p?=?0.004). On the other hand, no seasonality was observed for the suburban children. Similar results have been obtained in the BEC frequency with MN in our study. In summer, BEC-MN frequencies were significantly increased with the decrease in pulmonary function levels based on forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) levels (p?

Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altu?, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Ar?, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Dö?ero?lu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

2014-01-01

338

Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate  

PubMed Central

For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

2011-01-01

339

Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate.  

PubMed

For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It's oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

2011-10-01

340

An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37°C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1?g/cm(2)/h and 4×10(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

2013-12-01

341

Effects of buccal nitrate on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume at rest and during exercise-induced angina.  

PubMed Central

A novel approach has been employed to characterize the effects of a cardioactive drug on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume by simultaneously determining cardiac stroke volume (thermodilution) and left ventricular ejection fraction (nuclear probe). The effects of glyceryl trinitrate were evaluated in 12 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease at rest and 3, 7, 15 and 30 min following 10 mg buccal nitroglycerin (Suscard) administration. The impact of the drug on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume during exercise-induced angina was determined by repeating exercise 30 min following drug administration, at the workload that reliably induced angina during control exercise. At rest buccal nitroglycerin reduced systemic arterial pressure, cardiac and stroke volume indices, and increased heart rate. The left ventricular ejection fraction (E.F.) increased; its filling pressure together with end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly reduced. Compared with control supine-bicycle exercise, the drug reduced mean systemic arterial pressure and left ventricular filling pressure without change in cardiac and stroke volume indices. There was a smaller increase in left ventricular volume during exercise, and the fall in E.F. was attenuated. These data demonstrated differential actions of glyceryl trinitrate on left ventricular function related to the physiological state in obstructive coronary artery disease. These techniques appear to hold promise in the evaluation of the effects of other therapies on left ventricular volume in coronary artery disease. PMID:3935147

Silke, B; Verma, S P; Frais, M A; Hafizullah, M; Taylor, S H

1985-01-01

342

Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

2012-01-01

343

Elastic outward bending of loaded buccal and lingual premolar walls in relation to cavity size and form.  

PubMed

The aim was to study effects of the size and form of the occlusal part of Class II cavities on elastic outward bending during loading of buccal and lingual walls, separated by the preparation. Twenty newly extracted caries-free premolars were used. A special arrangement for standardized cavity preparation was set up. In order to obtain accurate measurements of the outward bending of loaded cavity walls, an electronic tensile test device was constructed. Methodologic studies showed an insignificant departure from linearity between between outward bending and load. All deformation was elastic. Correction factors were determined for strain of the apparatus as well as for indentation in the tooth substance. Measurement accuracy was calculated to +/- 0.12 N for force and +/- 0.2 micron for movement. In accordance with statistical principles, a few outlying measurements were discarded. The outward bending of buccal and lingual walls of cavities suitable for conservative restoration with dental amalgam was about 0.15 micron per Newton. Outward bending increased dramatically with exaggerated cavity depth and width. In the light of present knowledge of average chewing forces and tooth contacts in the habitual intercuspal position in young dentate adults, there seems to be little risk of leakage between conservative restorations and cavity walls as a result of elastic outward bending, though the risk certainly does increase with the depth and width of the cavity. PMID:2047747

Granath, L; Svensson, A

1991-02-01

344

O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

1997-10-01

345

Traffic of Molecular Motors  

E-print Network

Molecular motors perform active movements along cytoskeletal filaments and drive the traffic of organelles and other cargo particles in cells. In contrast to the macroscopic traffic of cars, however, the traffic of molecular motors is characterized by a finite walking distance (or run length) after which a motor unbinds from the filament along which it moves. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding aqueous solution until they rebind to a filament. We use variants of driven lattice gas models to describe the interplay of their active movements, the unbound diffusion, and the binding/unbinding dynamics. If the motor concentration is large, motor-motor interactions become important and lead to a variety of cooperative traffic phenomena such as traffic jams on the filaments, boundary-induced phase transitions, and spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems with two species of motors. If the filament is surrounded by a large reservoir of motors, the jam length, i.e., the extension of the traffic jams is of the order of the walking distance. Much longer jams can be found in confined geometries such as tube-like compartments.

Stefan Klumpp; Melanie J. I. Müller; Reinhard Lipowsky

2005-12-06

346

Theories of rotary motors.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flagellar motor and the ATP-hydrolysing F1 portion of the F1Fo-ATPase are known to be rotary motors, and it seems highly probable that the H+-translocating Fo portion rotates too. The energy source in the case of Fo and the flagellar motor is the flow of ions, either H+ (protons) or Na+, down an electrochemical gradient across a membrane. The fact that ions flow in a particular direction through a well-defined structure in these motors invites the possibility of a type of mechanism based on geometric constraints between the rotor position and the paths of ions flowing through the motor. The two best-studied examples of such a mechanism are the 'turnstile' model of Khan and Berg and the 'proton turbine' model of Läuger or Berry. Models such as these are typically represented by a small number of kinetic states and certain allowed transitions between them. This allows the calculation of predictions of motor behaviour and establishes a dialogue between models and experimental results. In the near future structural data and observations of single-molecule events should help to determine the nature of the mechanism of rotary motors, while motor models must be developed that can adequately explain the measured relationships between torque and speed in the flagellar motor. PMID:10836503

Berry, R M

2000-01-01

347

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

348

Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

2011-01-01

349

Embodied Memory Judgments: A Case of Motor Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that perceptual and conceptual fluency can influence episodic memory judgments. Here, the authors asked whether fluency arising from the motor system also impacts recognition memory. Past research has shown that the perception of letters automatically activates motor programs of typing actions in skilled typists. In this study,…

Yang, Shu-Ju; Gallo, David A.; Beilock, Sian L.

2009-01-01

350

Software Project Development for Industrial Motor Systems Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the development of a software to be used in industrial motor simulation, making possible to the electrical energy efficiency be analysed in the four most important industrial systems. Through this program the user will be able to simulate the behavior of centrifugal pump, compressor, belt conveyor and industrial fan. The user can visualize the real industrial motors

Helen S. Paiva; Neliton S. Maciel; Rogerio D. S. Silva; Maria Emilia L. Tostes

2006-01-01

351

Magnetic bearing and motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

Studer, P. A. (inventor)

1983-01-01

352

Heritability of motor control and motor learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty?four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

2013-01-01

353

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

354

Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study  

E-print Network

Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

Dautovich, D. R.

1980-01-01

355

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02

356

Stripped-down Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

357

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

358

Novel disc type motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high energy permanent magnets can lead to significantly improved efficiency and performance, especially for subfractional horsepower motors. Obviously motors with air gap windings equipped with Nd-Fe-B magnets benefit from the high remanence of this new material. Integrated designs using Nd-Fe-B magnets are cost effective. The trend towards high flux density drives will continue.

Hanitsch, R.; Park, C.-S.; Hameyer, K.

1989-08-01

359

Trisha Brown's Water Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trisha Brown's signature solo Water Motor (1978) was the first of her choreographies to make the physical intelligence and virtuosity of Brown's unique dancing body the basis for movement and choreography. Preserved in Babette Mangolte's 1978 film, Water Motor returned to the stage in 2011 in its first performance by a dancer other than Brown—an occasion for reexamining the dance's

Susan Rosenberg

2012-01-01

360

Motor Brush Testing for Mars and Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in the Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in low-pressure CO2. All motors performed acceptably, with accumulated motor revolutions between 98 and 144 million revolutions, depending on load. A proprietary silver-graphite material from Superior Carbon (SG54-27) appears to be the best choice for long life, but even the stock copper-graphite brushes performed reliably with acceptable wear. The motors from the CO2 test were then cleaned and run in vacuum for 2 weeks. The difference in results was dramatic, with 5 motors failing catastrophically and wear rates increasing by orders of magnitude for the SG54-27 material. Three brush materials survived the test with no failures: SG54-27 with a proprietary Ball Aerospace impregnation, a silver-graphite-molybdenum disulfide material from Superior Carbon (SG59), and a copper sulfide-graphite material also from Superior Carbon (BG91).

Noon, Don E.

1999-01-01

361

Novel buccal adhesive tablets using Aloe vera L and Sinapis alba--a promising option for improved bioavailability of diltiazem hydrochloride.  

PubMed

In the current investigation, white mustard mucilage from whole seeds of Sinapis alba was evaluated for its physical properties and compared with the other mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxy propyl methylcellulose 5Cps and Carbopol 934P. Further, methanol precipitable solids from whole leaves of Aloe Vera L were used as permeation enhancer. To achieve improved bioavailability of diltiazem, novel buccal adhesive tablets (NBATs) in cup and core fashion designed to achieve unidirectional release towards mucosa were prepared in a three-stage process using specially fabricated punches. The adhesive cups were studied for its shear, tensile, and peel strengths by specially designed apparatus using excised ruminant and porcine buccal mucosa as model substrates. Ex vivo permeation studies in a Franz diffusion cell were conducted through porcine buccal mucosa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies and differential scanning calorimetry thermographs showed no remarkable interactions. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable damage of buccal mucosa by the NBATs. In vivo studies were conducted on anaesthetized male New Zealand albino rabbits, estimated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the pharmacokinetics were compared with the oral and intravenous bolus injection. NBATs exhibited a Cmax 74.6 ng/mL, Tmax 3.5 h, t(1/2) 4.36 h. The NBATs prevented salivary scavenging effect and exhibited 82.1% bioavailability. PMID:18540536

Sudhakar, Yajaman; Bandyopadhyay, A K

2008-01-01

362

Improved perceptual-motor performance measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery of tests determines the primary dimensions of perceptual-motor performance. Eighteen basic measures range from simple tests to sophisticated electronic devices. Improved system has one unit for the subject containing test display and response elements, and one for the experimenter where test setups, programming, and scoring are accomplished.

Parker, J. F., Jr.; Reilly, R. E.

1969-01-01

363

Induction motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

364

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

365

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

366

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

Hughes, Phil D.

1990-01-01

367

40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

2013-07-01

368

40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

2010-07-01

369

40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

2014-07-01

370

40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

2011-07-01

371

40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle antitampering. The State of Texas submitted revisions to the State Implementation Plan for 30 TAC Chapter 114,...

2012-07-01

372

Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

2013-01-01

373

Predictive diagnostic system for DC motor drives: Forest Products Project fact sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a fact sheet on new sensor and control technology written for the NICE3 Program. ENVATEC has addressed a major problem for paper producers with its ENVAIR 4000, a sensor and control technology that optimizes DC motor drive operations by simultaneously monitoring and analyzing eight inputs on DC motors. Attributes, such as motor air temperature, speed, vibration, relative

2000-01-01

374

78 FR 52233 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) and Medical Review Board (MRB): Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrator for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs...operators of commercial motor vehicles is adequate to...W12- 140, Washington, DC 20590. Hand...

2013-08-22

375

Fast Forward: An Upskilling Programme for Ford Motor Company Foundry Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of an upgrading program for British Ford Motor Company employees was getting trainees back into learning environments and improving communication, listening, calculation, reading, and cooperation. (SK)

Cousin, Glynis; Pound, Gill

1991-01-01

376

ISRO's solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

1989-08-01

377

Use of the buccal fat pad as free graft for closure of oronasal fistula in a cleft palate patient.  

PubMed

Oronasal fistulas are frequent complications after cleft lip and palate surgery, with difficult treatment because of the presence of fibrotic and scarred tissue as well as the absence of local virgin tissue, representing a challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The size of the fistula, its location, and the cause of the defect are important factors to determine the type of treatment and surgical technique. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) for the repair of cleft palate has shown promising results, becoming a safe and effective method. On the other hand, the use of BFP as a free graft for oral defects has been rarely described in the literature. The current study is the first case report that shows the use of free graft of BFP in oronasal fistula after cleft lip and palate surgery and aimed to discuss the promising results of this surgical technique, suggesting it as a treatment option for anterior maxillary defects, when properly indicated. PMID:25565230

de Castro, Carlos Henrique Bettoni Cruz; Souza, Leandro Napier de; Fernandes Santos Melo, Marcelo

2015-01-01

378

Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: A novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease  

PubMed Central

To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:25685305

Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

2015-01-01

379

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-01-01

380

Evaluation of genetic damage in open-cast coal mine workers using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

PubMed

Coal is the largest fossil fuel source used for the generation of energy. However, coal extraction and its use constitute important pollution factors; thus, risk characterization and estimation are extremely important for the safety of coal workers and the environment. Candiota is located to the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and has the largest coal reserves in Brazil, and the largest thermal power complex in the state. In the open-cast mines, the coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust. The human buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay has been used widely to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death, and basal cell frequency in buccal cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged exposure to coal dust could lead to an increase in genomic instability, cell death, and frequency of basal cells using the BMCyt assay. In the analysis of epithelial cells, the exposed group (n = 41) presented with a significantly higher frequency of basal cells, micronuclei in basal and differentiated cells, and binucleated cells compared to the non-exposed group (n = 29). The exposed group showed a significantly lower frequency of condensed chromatin cells than the non-exposed group. However, we found no correlation between DNA damage and metal concentration in the blood of mine workers. DNA damage observed in the mine workers may be a consequence of oxidative damage resulting from exposure to coal residue mixtures. In addition, our findings confirm that the BMCyt assay can be used to identify occupational risk. PMID:23055270

Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda R; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dos Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Kvitko, Kátia

2013-01-01

381

DNA Damage in Buccal Mucosa Cells of Pre-School Children Exposed to High Levels of Urban Air Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1–3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age±SD: 4.3±0.9 years) were investigated. The mean±SD MN frequency was 0.29±0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution. PMID:24789200

Ceretti, Elisabetta; Feretti, Donatella; Viola, Gaia C V.; Zerbini, Ilaria; Limina, Rosa M.; Zani, Claudia; Capelli, Michela; Lamera, Rossella; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

2014-01-01

382

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2013-10-01

383

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2012-10-01

384

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2011-10-01

385

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2014-10-01

386

Motor priming in neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article, we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence, including (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming.Video Abstract available. (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A86) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25415551

Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

2015-01-01

387

Update of the Status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Projects  

E-print Network

This paper presents an update on the status of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Showcase Demonstration Projects. These projects are part of the DOE Motor Challenge Program, and are aimed at demonstrating increased electric motor system...

Szady, A. J.; Jallouk, P. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

388

10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431, Subpt....

2013-01-01

389

System and method for motor parameter estimation  

DOEpatents

A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

2014-03-18

390

Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market  

E-print Network

, or are not readily available. Besides confirming that many motors that meet the CEE Premium-Efficiency criteria are available, recent research using MotorMaster software reveals a startling new reality in the motor market. Some motors that have the low lifetime...

Wroblewksi, R. G.

391

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

392

Electric 'LEGO' Motor II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

Pino, Jose

2008-11-17

393

Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect

In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-02-11

394

Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

2011-01-01

395

Booster separation motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

1981-01-01

396

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

397

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

398

Motor Vehicle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

399

High Power Density Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it generates. By increasing the heat transfer out of the wire, the wires can carry a larger current and therefore produce more force. This was done by increasing the surface area of the wire to allow more coolant to flow over it. Litz wire was used because it can carry high frequency current. It also can be deformed into configurations that would increase the surface area. The best configuration was determined by heat transfer and force plots that were generated using Maxwell 2D. Future work will be done by testing and measuring the thrust force produced by the wires in a magnetic field.

Kascak, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

400

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

Secunde, R. R.

1981-01-01

401

Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

2010-01-01

402

Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Induction Motor Field Efficiency Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining induction motor field efficiency is imperative in industries for energy conservation and cost savings. The induction motor efficiency is generally tested in a laboratories by certain methods defined in IEEE Standard - 112. But these methods cannot be used for motor efficiency evaluations in the field because it disrupts the production process of the industry. This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for efficiency evaluation of in-service induction motor based on a modified induction motor equivalent circuit model. In this model, stray load losses are considered. The proposed efficiency evaluation method combines the PSO and the equivalent circuit method. First, the equivalent circuit parameters are estimated by minimizing the difference between measured and calculated values of stator current and input power of the motor using the PSO algorithm. Based on these parameters, the efficiency of the motor at various load points are evaluated by using the equivalent circuit method. To exemplify the performance of the PSO based efficiency estimation method, a 5 HP motor has been tested, compared with genetic algorithm (GA), torque gauge method, equivalent circuit method, slip method, current method and segregated loss method and found to be superior. Accordingly, the method will be useful for engineers who implement the energy efficiency programs to the electric motor systems in industries.

Sakthivel, V. P.; Subramanian, S.

403

Sensing with the Motor Cortex  

PubMed Central

The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development. PMID:22078507

Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

2011-01-01

404

Motor-park people shift gear.  

PubMed

White, U.S. homosexual males were primarily affected in the early stages of the AIDS pandemic. Some Western researchers argued, however, that the syndrome originated in Africa. Strong political and social response to this notion resulted in only an anemic response to the growing AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the Stop AIDS Organization finally launched the Motor Park AIDS Education Program (MPAEP) in 1988, for health and education outreach to populations at risk of STDs and HIV infection. Specifically targeted are long-distance truck drivers, their young male assistants known as motor boys, and the barmaids, prostitutes, and homeless juveniles who frequent motor parks where these drivers rest while on the road. Many of these long-haul drivers have unprotected casual and commercial sex, both homosexual and heterosexual, take drugs, and suffer high rates of STDs. Marginalized, 75% illiterate, and speaking a variety of languages, these populations tend to be largely ignorant of the incurable nature of AIDS. Over 45% of motor park populations are estimated to be infected with an STD, or to have a future re-infection. These drivers are optimal vectors for the spread of HIV both internationally and within Nigeria. MPAEP workers work 6 days/week in the larger interstate motor parks to reach out to their predominantly male customers. They meet a host of primary health needs, and refer STD clients for testing and treatment. Drug use and homosexuality are 2 topics of discussion especially taboo in African society which have nonetheless been vigorously researched by MPAEP. Many drivers are unacknowledged bisexuals who have sex with their motor boys. Workers therefore explain the need to use condoms in same-sex activity without specifically mentioning homosexuality. Many Nigerians deny the existence of HIV and AIDS, are reluctant to speak about sex, and consider MPAEP workers to be intruders. Despite opposition in Muslim- dominated Northern Nigeria, however, program efforts continue. PMID:12284775

Nnoli, C

1992-01-01

405

Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

Cook, M.

1990-01-01

406

Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch is responsible for the direction and management of several programs. These include the Biospecimen Research Network, the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, the Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) and the Biospecimen Pre-Analytical Variables Program. Each program has specific goals and targeted outcomes which lend themselves to supporting the mission and vision of the Branch as well as the other NCI and NIH initiatives. More information about each program can be found on their respective pages.

407

A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

2011-01-01

408

Magnetostrictive direct drive motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1991-01-01

409

Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure. PMID:25469475

Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

2014-12-01

410

The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

2014-01-01

411

41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to...

2010-07-01

412

The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

2011-03-01

413

Comparison of Oral and Buccal Midazolam for Pediatric Dental Sedation: A Randomized, Cross-Over, Clinical Trial for Efficacy, Acceptance and Safety  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Providing a safe and efficient dental treatment for a young patient is a challenge for the dentist and the child. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of buccal midazolam in dental pediatric patients and to compare it with oral Midazolam. Methods Eighteen uncooperative healthy children aged 2.5-6 years were randomized to each of buccal midazolam (0.3mg/kg) or oral midazolam (0.5mg/kg) at the first visit, the alternative has been used at the second visit in a cross-over manner. The study took place at pediatric dentistry clinic of Shahed University, Tehran, from November 2011 to June 2012. The patients‘ vital signs and behavioral scores were recorded. The patient, the operator and the observer were blinded to the applied medication. Post operatively, patients‘ and parents‘ satisfaction were assessed by Visual Analogue Score and a questionnaire respectively. The P-value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Findings There were no significant differences in physiologic factors in the medication groups at time 0, 10, 20, 30 minutes and discharge. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in behavioral parameters. The majority of parents rated both sedative agents as “effective” or “very effective” and their children mostly were without anxiety or with minor anxiety. Conclusion Buccal midazolam may be safely and efficiently used in sedation of pediatric dental patients.

Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Mehran, Majid; Haghgoo, Roza; Tohid-Rahbari, Monireh; Ahmadi, Rahil

2014-01-01

414

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

415

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

416

Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices  

DOEpatents

A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

417

Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control  

E-print Network

In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

2010-01-01

418

System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

Peter Campbell

2008-08-01

419

Enhanced Large Solid Rocket Motor Understanding Through Performance Margin Testing: RSRM Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) is an extended length reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) intended to increase motor performance and internal environments above the current four-segment RSRM flight motor. The principal purpose of ETM-3 is to provide a test article for RSRM component margin testing. As the RSRM and Space Shuttle in general continue to age, replacing obsolete materials becomes an ever-increasing issue. Having a five-segment motor that provides environments in excess of normal opera- tion allows a mechanism to subject replacement materials to a more severe environment than experienced in flight. Additionally, ETM-3 offers a second design data point from which to develop and/or validate analytical models that currently have some level of empiricism associated with them. These enhanced models have the potential to further the understanding of RSRM motor performance and solid rocket motor (SRM) propulsion in general. Furthermore, these data could be leveraged to support a five-segment booster (FSB) development program should the Space Shuttle program choose to pursue this option for abort mode enhancements during the ascent phase. A tertiary goal of ETM-3 is to challenge both the ATK Thiokol Propulsion and NASA MSFC technical personnel through the design and analysis of a large solid rocket motor without the benefit of a well-established performance database such as the RSRM. The end result of this undertaking will be a more competent and experienced workforce for both organizations. Of particular interest are the motor design characteristics and the systems engineering approach used to conduct a complex yet successful large motor static test. These aspects of ETM-3 and more will be summarized.

Huppi, Hal; Tobias, Mark; Seiler, James

2003-01-01

420

Results of a 24-inch Hybrid Motor Performance Uncertainty Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subscale (11 and 24-inch) hybrid motors at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been used as versatile and cost effective testbeds for developing new technology. Comparisons between motor configuration, ignition systems, feed systems, fuel formulations, and nozzle materials have been carried out without detailed consideration as to haw "good" the motor performance data were. For the 250,000 lb/thrust motor developed by the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program consortium, this shortcoming is particularly risky because motor performance will likely be used as put of a set of downselect criteria to choose between competing ignition and feed systems under development. This analysis directly addresses that shortcoming by applying uncertainty analysis techniques to the experimental determination of the characteristic velocity, theoretical characteristic velocity, and characteristic velocity efficiency for a 24-inch motor firing. With the adoption of fuel-lined headends, flow restriction, and aft mixing chambers, state of the an 24-inch hybrid motors have become very efficient However, impossibly high combustion efficiencies (some computed as high as 108%) have been measured in some tests with 11-inch motors. This analysis has given new insight into explaining how these efficiencies were measured to be so high, and into which experimental measurements contribute the most to the overall uncertainty.

Sims, Joseph D.; Coleman, Hugh W.

1998-01-01

421

Miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet in high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT)-induced mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a major cause of morbidity in high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT), where microbial colonization has an important pathological implication. In this study, we evaluated the impact of miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT) on mucositis-related complications. During two consecutive 34-month periods, patients treated with HDT/ASCT in our hematology department received either miconazole MBT (60 patients) or conventional oral amphotericin B suspensions three times a day (44 patients) in order to prevent or decrease chemotherapy-induced mucositis. The use of miconazole MBT is associated with less infectious complications as indicated by shorter antibiotic use (7.8 vs. 12.3 days; p?

Orvain, C; Moles-Moreau, M P; François, S; Mercier, M; Moal, F; Hamel, J F; Parot-Schinkel, E; Ifrah, N; Hunault-Berger, M; Tanguy-Schmidt, A

2014-08-01

422

Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

2011-08-01

423

Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

2010-12-01

424

DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT. PMID:25279149

Li, Ya-Ting; Xie, Ming-Kun; Wu, Jin

2014-11-01

425

Effects of oropharyngeal/buccal insulin on glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits: clinical implications.  

PubMed

The effect of oropharyngeal administration of insulin lente (BP, USP) on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. In mild cases of hyperglycaemia (below 500 mg/dl), a buccal dose of 100 IU was able to produce significant reduction in blood glucose levels over seven hours, as compared with diabetic animals during the same period. As much as 60% reduction in glucose level from the starting level could be achieved. However, at very high levels of hyperglycaemia (above 500 mg/dl), this regimen failed to produce normoglycaemia although it rendered the animal tolerant to high levels of glucose. This mode of administration of insulin did not produce hypoglycaemia in any of the animals: the blood levels in the mildly diabetic animals were reduced to normoglycaemia without progressing into the hypoglycaemic state. The administration of insulin to normoglycaemic rabbits by this route did not produce any reduction in glucose levels. This preliminary report suggests that a noninvasive oropharyngeal route may be an alternative for the clinical management of insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in man. PMID:12153361

Koech, Davy K.; Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli W.

1994-05-01

426

Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups  

PubMed Central

Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n=50) and recurrence testing (n=60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C>G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies. PMID:24292195

Maitra, Arindam; Biswas, Nidhan K.; Amin, Kishore; Kowtal, Pradnya; Kumar, Shantanu; Das, Subrata; Sarin, Rajiv; Majumder, Partha P.; Bagchi, I; Bairagya, B. B.; Basu, A.; Bhan, M. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Das, D.; D'Cruz, A.; Dhar, R.; Dutta, D.; Ganguli, D.; Gera, P.; Gupta, T.; Mahapatra, S.; Mujawar, M. H. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Nair, S.; Nikam, S.; Nobre, M.; Patil, A.; Patra, S.; Rama-Gowtham, M.; Rao, T. S.; Roy, B.; Roychowdhury, B.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar-Roy, N.; Sutradhar, D.

2013-01-01

427

Proteomics of Buccal Cavity Mucus in Female Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis spp.): A Comparison between Parental and Non-Parental Fish  

PubMed Central

Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.) display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase. PMID:21533134

Iq, Koe Chun; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

2011-01-01

428

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOEpatents

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

1997-03-18

429

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOEpatents

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

430

Feeding motor programme in Limax. II. Modulation by sensory inputs in intact animals and isolated central nervous systems.  

PubMed

The sources of variability in feeding motor programme (FMP) of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus, were examined in relation to: (1) changes in load on the feeding apparatus; (2) changes in concentration of attractive food stimuli; and (3) changes in satiety signalled by feedback from the gut. These sources of variability, which affect both timing of the central pattern generator for feeding and probability of occurrence of FMP, were compared in intact animals and in isolated brain preparations. The load on feeding apparatus of intact animals is altered by varying the hardness of their food. An animal will show a higher 'bite cycle' frequency on soft food as compared with hard food. In physiological preparations, weights attached to buccal muscles similarly increase load. Cycle frequency of FMP triggered by food extracts is increased when buccal muscles are unloaded compared with FMP when muscles are loaded. Increasing the chemostimulant concentration of food results in greater numbers of intact animals feeding for longer periods. Increasing the food extract concentration used to trigger FMP in physiological preparations causes similar increases in feeding duration. Intact animals use cues from gut distention to indicate satiation and terminate feeding. Inflation of the crop in physiological preparations causes an early termination of feeding activity, along with decreased FMP cycle frequency. PMID:7373207

Reingold, S C; Gelperin, A

1980-04-01

431

Research and development of energy-efficient appliance motor-compressors. Final report. Volume 1: executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The accomplishments of the refrigerator/freezer motor-compressor development program are highlighted. The experimental program involved making numerous incremental changes to an existing compresssor design. The refrigerator/freezer motor compressor experimental development, room air conditioner experimental development, market study, and phase II field demonstration program are summarized. (MHR)

Nelson, R.T.; MacCarthy, P.W.

1980-09-01

432

Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and post accident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety, as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. 2 refs., 3 figs.

R; Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

1987-06-01

433

Cheek swabs, SNP chips, and CNVs: Assessing the quality of copy number variant calls generated with subject-collected mail-in buccal brush DNA samples on a high-density genotyping microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple investigators have established the feasibility of using buccal brush samples to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high-density genome-wide microarrays, but there is currently no consensus on the accuracy of copy number variants (CNVs) inferred from these data. Regardless of the source of DNA, it is more difficult to detect CNVs than to genotype SNPs using these microarrays, and it therefore remains an open question whether buccal brush samples provide enough high-quality DNA for this purpose. Methods To demonstrate the quality of CNV calls generated from DNA extracted from buccal samples, compared to calls generated from blood samples, we evaluated the concordance of calls from individuals who provided both sample types. The Illumina Human660W-Quad BeadChip was used to determine SNPs and CNVs of 39 Arkansas participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), including 16 mother-infant dyads, who provided both whole blood and buccal brush DNA samples. Results We observed a 99.9% concordance rate of SNP calls in the 39 blood–buccal pairs. From the same dataset, we performed a similar analysis of CNVs. Each of the 78 samples was independently segmented into regions of like copy number using the Optimal Segmentation algorithm of Golden Helix SNP & Variation Suite 7. Across 640,663 loci on 22 autosomal chromosomes, segment-mean log R ratios had an average correlation of 0.899 between blood-buccal pairs of samples from the same individual, while the average correlation between all possible blood-buccal pairs of samples from unrelated individuals was 0.318. An independent analysis using the QuantiSNP algorithm produced average correlations of 0.943 between blood-buccal pairs from the same individual versus 0.332 between samples from unrelated individuals. Segment-mean log R ratios had an average correlation of 0.539 between mother-offspring dyads of buccal samples, which was not statistically significantly different than the average correlation of 0.526 between mother-offspring dyads of blood samples (p=0.302). Conclusions We observed performance from the subject-collected mail-in buccal brush samples comparable to that of blood. These results show that such DNA samples can be used for genome-wide scans of both SNPs and CNVs, and that high rates of CNV concordance were achieved whether using a change-point-based algorithm or one based on a hidden Markov model (HMM). PMID:22734463

2012-01-01

434

Modified motor designs save energy  

SciTech Connect

The capital cost of a motor is low compared with the cost of the electricity used to run it. A $2,000 motor, for example, might consume $50,000 worth of electricity over its lifetime. Because electricity is such a significant expense, energy-efficient motors make the most economic sense, even though such premium motors also cost more. However, a variety factors, such as the user`s tendency to specify a higher-horsepower motor than needed to avoid the possibility of burnout, mitigate some of the economic advantages of an energy-saving design. Also, even relatively inefficient motors are good enough for most applications. As a result, most motors purchased are of standard efficiency. Reconfigured components such as rotors and fan blades plus a new generation of superconducting materials are resulting in more-energy-efficient motors.

Paula, G.

1997-01-01

435

Gravity actuated thermal motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a gravity actuated thermal motor which includes a rotor preferably in the form of a ring-shaped annulus which is filled with water. A plurality of collapsible bellows are connected to and extend inwardly from the outer peripheral wall of the annulus into the water-filled chamber. In communication with each of the bellows and extending outwardly from the

Schur

1978-01-01

436

Hydraulic downhole drilling motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the first major engineering reference in English on the design and application of downhole drilling motors, turbodrills, and helidrills. While this equipment has often been used to drill in hard formations or deviated holes, the technology is being used more in ''conventional'' drilling operations because its overall efficiency and reduced drill bit consumption offer major savings in

Tiraspoiski

1985-01-01

437

Plasma motor generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of

Gerald E. Hite

1987-01-01

438

The St. Louis Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2011-01-01

439

Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

Graves, S. R.

2000-01-01

440

Motor planning in primates.  

PubMed

Vaesen asks whether goal maintenance and planning ahead are critical for innovative tool use. We suggest that these aptitudes may have an evolutionary foundation in motor planning abilities that span all primate species. Anticipatory effects evidenced in the reaching behaviors of lemurs, tamarins, and rhesus monkeys similarly bear on the evolutionary origins of foresight as it pertains to tool use. PMID:22698082

Weiss, Daniel J; Chapman, Kate M; Wark, Jason D; Rosenbaum, David A

2012-08-01

441

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems  

E-print Network

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems NREL Energy Forum November 2009 www.novatorque.com Emily Liggett, CEO eliggett@novatorque.com November 3, 2009 #12;Proprietary Electric Motor System 2 Much higher over wider operating range with same size motor Uses up to 40% less electricity NREL Energy Forum

442

Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

Harlow, Caroline Wolf

443

Multiple stage miniature stepping motor  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

Niven, William A. (Livermore, CA); Shikany, S. David (Danville, CA); Shira, Michael L. (Fremont, CA)

1981-01-01

444

Spotting drives for large motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power line-fed, constant speed motors sometimes must be operated at very low speed for controlled positioning of the attached load equipment. This process is referred to as 'spotting' or 'inching'. Examples include cement grinding mills (both raw and finish) and metal processing rolls. These motors are usually medium voltage (>2300 V). Two methods of spotting motors have been used

B. Dick

2002-01-01

445

Magazine R729 Motor prediction  

E-print Network

Magazine R729 Primer Motor prediction Daniel M. Wolpert* and J. Randall Flanagan The concept of motor prediction was first considered by Helmholtz when trying to understand how we localise visual position of the eye, predicted the gaze position based on a copy of the motor command acting on the eye

Flanagan, Randy

446

Experiments with a DC Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2010-01-01

447

Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors: Evidence for Direct Motor-Motor Coupling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors’ response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

2013-04-01

448

Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?  

PubMed

The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed. PMID:25167320

Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

2013-04-12

449

Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

1993-01-01

450

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

2014-06-01

451

Motor technology for mining applications advances  

SciTech Connect

AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

Fiscor, S.

2009-08-15

452

Program  

Cancer.gov

Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

453

Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit  

E-print Network

tively Increase motor Insulation lIfe by a factor of four and bear I ng I ubr rcant I rfe by a factor of "hto. The resu' tIs fewer motor burnouts, 1ncreas ed bear I ng I I fe annd longer per lads between sche du Ied ma I ntenance. Longer, troub I e... as possible. If you are fortunate to have original motor application data, the desIgn efficiency may be ava II ab I e. However, you must al so know the re wind history of the motor population. Improper rewinding methods can reduce motor efficIency sub...

Evans, T. A.

1984-01-01

454

Big Savings from Smart Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

1984-01-01

455

The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

2014-01-01

456

J. B. Dingwell Sensory Motor Performance Program,  

E-print Network

stability of gait kinematics was shown to be achieved over multiple consecutive strides. Traditional the variability and/or stability of locomotion. DOI: 10.1115/1.1336798 1 Introduction Human gait is typically in the elderly 9 and with degenerative basal ganglia disorders 10 . However, while variability is often equated

Sternad, Dagmar

457

Prospective errors determine motor learning  

PubMed Central

Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model’s novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

2015-01-01

458

The effect of mandibular buccal tilting on the accuracy of posterior mandibular spiral tomographic images: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background: Accurate measurement of the height and buccolingual thickness of available bone has a significant role in dental implantology. The shadow of ramus on the mandibular second molar region disturbs the sharpness of conventional tomographic images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transferring the shadow of ramus from the center of the focal plane, by changing the position of mandible, on the sharpness of the posterior mandibular region. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used 10 dry human mandibles. Three metal balls were mounted on the midline and mandibular second molar regions bilaterally. Standard panoramic and tomographic images were taken. Then, the mandible was tilted buccaly for 8° – compensating the normal lingual inclination of the mandibular ridge and teeth on this region – and tomographic images were taken again. The height and thickness of bone were measured on the images and then compared with the real amounts measured directly on mandibles. Also, the sharpness of mandibular canals was compared between the two tomographic methods. Findings were analyzed with repeated measured ANOVA test (P<0.05). Results: The height of mandibular bone, on the images of the tilted tomography technique was more accurate compared to standard (P<0.001), but standard tomography had more accuracy in estimating the buccolingual thickness at the half-height point. Regarding the sharpness of mandibular canals, we found no significant differences between two tomographic methods. Conclusion: Buccal tilting is recommended when measuring the bone height is more important, but routine standard tomography is preferred when the thickness is requested. PMID:23372586

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Maleki, Vida

2011-01-01

459

The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users  

PubMed Central

Background: Histopathological diagnosis of lesions arising from the intake of tobacco is based on subjective evaluation of morphological alterations within the lesional tissue. Oral exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Morphometric techniques have been advocated as objective and reproducible methods of detecting changes before they are visible by routine microscopy and can facilitate differentiation of normal and abnormal epithelium. This study was conducted to assess the morphometric parameters (cell diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio [N:C ratio]) in tobacco smokers and chewers and to evaluate the variations, if any. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cytological smears obtained from oral lesions of patients with habit of tobacco smoking (Group B) and tobacco chewing (Group C). Group A comprised of subjects free from oral lesions and not using tobacco in any form. Patients with both the habits were excluded. The smears were stained using Papanicoloaou staining method. For morphometric analysis, Microimage 3.0 image analysis software was employed. The statistical test employed was an analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the cellular diameter was progressively reduced and nuclear diameter progressively increased from Group A to Group B to Group C. The N:C ratio also showed a progressive increase from Group A to Group C. Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

Singh, Megha; Sircar, Keya; Tandon, Ankita; Chowdhry, Aman; Popli, Deepika Bablani

2014-01-01