These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Egestive feeding responses in Aplysia persist after sectioning of the cerebral–buccal connectives: evidence for multiple sites of control of motor programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestive and egestive behaviors in Aplysia are generated by motor neurons and interneurons chiefly located in the buccal ganglion, but cerebral ganglion neurons appear to contribute to both ingestive and egestive motor programs. We investigated if the cerebral ganglion input to the buccal ganglion is necessary for the generation of buccal ingestive and egestive behaviors in free-moving animals. We confirmed

Charles C. Horn; Irving Kupfermann

2002-01-01

2

NEURAL MECHANISMS OF MOTOR PROGRAM SWITCHING IN THE MOLLUSC PLEUROBRANCHAEA II. Role of the Ventral White Cell, Anterior Ventral, and B3 Buccal Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identified buccal neurons in the mollusc Pleurobranchaea were stimulated and recorded intracellularly while recording the resultant identified motor program from buccal muscles (reduced preparation) or nerves (isolated central nervous system). Neurons studied included the ventral white cell (VWC), members of the anterior ventral (AV) population, and interneuron B3. Each of these neurons elicited the egestion motor program or its characteristic

ROGER P. CROLL; MARK P. KOVAC; W. JACKSON DAVIS

3

Different roles of neurons B63 and B34 that are active during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs in Aplysia californica.  

PubMed

The buccal ganglion of Aplysia contains a central pattern generator (CPG) that organizes sequences of radula protraction and retraction during food ingestion and egestion. Neurons B63 and B34 have access to, or are elements of, the CPG. Both neurons are depolarized along with B31/B32 during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs. Both cells excite the contralateral B31/B32 neurons and inhibit B64 and other neurons active during the retraction phase. B63 and B34 also both have an axon exiting the buccal ganglia via the contralateral cerebrobuccal connective. Despite their similarities, B63 and B34 differ in a number of properties, which reflects their different functions. B63 fires during both ingestion and egestion-like buccal motor programs, whereas B34 fires only during egestion-like programs. The bilateral B63 neurons, along with the bilateral B31 and B32 neurons, act as a single functional unit. Sufficient depolarization of any of these neurons activates them all and initiates a buccal motor program. B63 is electrically coupled to both the ipsilateral and the contralateral B31/B32 neurons but monosynaptically excites the contralateral neurons with a mixed electrical and chemical excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Positive feedback caused by electrical and chemical EPSPs between B63 and B31/B32 contributes to the sustained depolarization in B31/B32 and the firing of B63 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B34 is excited during the protraction phase of all buccal motor programs, but, unlike B63, it does not always reach firing threshold. The neuron fires in response to current injection only after it is depolarized for 1-2 s or after preceding buccal motor programs in which it is depolarized. Firing of B34 produces facilitating EPSPs in the contralateral B31/B32 and B63 neurons and can initiate a buccal motor program. Firing in B34 is strongly correlated with firing in the B61/B62 motor neurons, which innervate the muscle (I2) responsible for much of protraction. B34 monosynaptically excites these motor neurons. B34 firing is also correlated with firing in motor neuron B8 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B8 innervates the I4 radula closer muscle, which in egestion movements is active during protraction and in ingestion movements is active during retraction. B34 has a mixed, but predominantly excitatory, effect on B8 via a slow conductance-decrease EPSP. Thus firing in B34 leads to amplification of radula protraction that is coupled with radula closing, a pattern characteristic of egestion. PMID:9310422

Hurwitz, I; Kupfermann, I; Susswein, A J

1997-09-01

4

Motor program switching in Pleurobranchaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Three distinct motor programs, namely ingestion, egestion and a third slower rhythm, have been identified in the buccal musculature of intact specimens of the gastropod molluscPleurobranchaea (Croll and Davis 1981). In the present study we have elicited each of these motor programs and characterized them in greater detail utilizing the technically more amenable reduced preparation, consisting of mouth, buccal mass,

Roger P. Croll; W. J. Davis

1982-01-01

5

Characterization of buccal motor programs elicited by a cholinergic agonist applied to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia californica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the non-hydrolyzable cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia elicits sustained, regular bursts of activity in the buccal ganglia resembling those seen during biting. The threshold for bursting is ~ 102-4M. Bursting begins after a 2 to 5 min delay. The burst frequency increases over the first 5 bursts, reaching a plateau value of ~ 3

A. J. Susswein; S. C. Rosen; S. Gapon; I. Kupfermann

1996-01-01

6

Cerebral and buccal neurons involved in buccal motor pattern generation in Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

In the African giant snail, Achatina fulica, two pairs of cerebral neurons, v-CDNs and Cls, and ten pairs of buccal neurons, Bls-B10s, were identified. B1-B6 and B10 were the excitatory motoneurons of buccal muscles. B7 and B8 innervated salivary ducts and B9 extended its axons to the cerebral ganglia although their functions were not clear yet. Serotonergic v-CDN exerted excitatory effects on various neurons in the buccal ganglia and had modulatory effects on buccal muscles. When v-CDN, Cl or B1 was continuously fired, each one could initiate and maintain the rhythmic motor activity (RMA) in the buccal ganglia of reduced preparation. Taste stimulation of the lip often elicited RMA. Nevertheless, v-CDN and B1 were not always excited by taste stimuli, and they appeared not to be critical elements in the generation of feeding rhythm. In contrast, Cl responded to taste stimuli with burst of spikes. Thus, C1 may play a role in taste-induced rhythm generation in intact animal. PMID:1299123

Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, M

1992-01-01

7

Modulation of heart activity in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus by the feeding motor program, small cardioactive peptides and stimulation of buccal neuron B1.  

PubMed

Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by abdominal ganglion nerves N9 and N11. Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the heart causes dose-dependent increases in the force of ventricular contractions. In addition, the SCPs induce rhythmic contractions in quiescent heart preparations. The effects of the SCPs appear to be specific in that the neuropeptide FMRFamide has an inhibitory effect on ventricular activity. SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material is found in the heart, kidney and pericardium and in the nerves that innervate these organs. Unilateral intracellular stimulation of buccal neuron B1, which contains SCP-like and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive material, mimics the FMP- and SCP-induced increases in ventricular activity. The effect of B1 on ventricular activity is frequency dependent and requires innervation of the heart by N11. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the SCPs are involved in feeding-related alterations in heart activity in Limax and that the control of this effect involves neuron B1. PMID:2016573

Welsford, I G; Prior, D J

1991-01-01

8

Motor program switching in Pleurobranchaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The gastropod molluskPleurobranchaea performs at least two distinct cyclic behaviours using its buccal musculature, namely ingestion of food and egestion of unpalatable objects. The movements and motor programs underlying each of these behaviours have been characterized by cinematography and electromyography in intact specimens. A third buccal movement of unknown behavioural significance, is also described.2.Both ingestion and egestion entail cyclic protraction

Roger P. Croll; W. J. Davis

1981-01-01

9

MODULATION OF HEART ACTIVITY IN THE TERRESTRIAL SLUG LIMAX MAXIMUS BY THE FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM, SMALL CARDIOACTIVE PEPTIDES AND STIMULATION OF BUCCAL NEURON Bl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart\\/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by ahdominal ganglion nerves N9 and Nil . Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the

IAN G. WELSFORD; DAVID J. PRIOR

10

DOPAMINE ELICITS FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM IN LIlMAx MAXIMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in uiuo and in uitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells and in the

STEVEN J. WIELAND; ALAN GELPERIN

11

Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus.  

PubMed

A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in vivo and in vitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells in and the neuropil of the cerebral ganglia at a concentration of 62 pmol/ganglion; a large proportion of such dopamine-containing cells projected to the lips. The buccal ganglia contained several small dopaminergic cells and large amounts of dopamine in the neuropil; the measured concentration was 10 pmol/ganglion. Exogenous dopamine applied to the cerebral and buccal ganglia in vitro between 10(-7) M and 3 X 10(-6) M excited an autoactive salivary duct motor neuron (FB) and inhibited an autoactive secretomotor neuron (BSN). Concentrations of dopamine between 3 X 10(-6) M and 3 X 10(-5) M triggered FMP output, with an increased probability of triggering at higher concentrations of dopamine. ADTN and SK&F38393 were potent agonists in this system, whereas ergonovine was the only potent antagonist found; none of the neuroleptics tested was effective. Thus, the Limax system shows agonist responses similar to the vertebrate D1 receptors, but its antagonist-binding properties appear to have requirements quite different from vertebrate receptors. The effects of exogenous serotonin differed from dopamine's effects; serotonin excited BSN and several buccal motor neurons, could not elicit synchronized motor program cycling, and was not efficiently blocked by ergonovine. These data suggest that dopamine is a good candidate as an endogenous triggering and sustaining transmitter for the Limax feeding motor program. PMID:6886743

Wieland, S J; Gelperin, A

1983-09-01

12

NEURAL MECHANISMS OF MOTOR PROGRAM SWITCHING IN THE MOLLUSC PLEUROBRANCHAEA I. Central Motor Programs Underlying Ingestion, Egestion, and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buccal musculature of the carnivorous gastropod Pleurobranchaea is used in three cyclic patterns of coordination underlying, respectively, ingestion, egestion, and a third, unknown behavior(s) (Croll, R. P., and W. J. Davis (1981) J. Comp. Physiol. 145: 277-287; Croll, R. P., and W. J. Davis (1982) J. Comp. Physiol. 147: 143-154). The corresponding three motor programs can be identified and

ROGER P. CROLL; W. JACKSON DAVIS; MARK P. KOVAC

13

Feeding motor program in Limax. I. Neuromuscular correlates and control by chemosensory input.  

PubMed

The feeding motor program(FMP) of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus was examined in vivo and in vitro. The feeding pattern of intact animals shows an initial increase in bite frequency followed by a plateau phase. Recordings obtained from semi-intact preparations of the lips, brain, and buccal mass established the correlation of activity in buccal ganglion nerve roots with the protraction-retraction bite cycle. A preparation of the lips, cerebral ganglia, and buccal ganglia was developed, such that, repetitive chemostimulation of the lips yields reproducible bouts of FMP. Sources of proprioceptive feedback from buccal muscles were demonstrated. The feasibility of computer scoring of the FMP is documented. The results demonstrate that aspects of in vivo feeding behavior are retained and identifiable in highly dissected, in vivo preparations. PMID:681926

Gelperin, A; Chang, J J; Reingold, S C

1978-07-01

14

Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

Tansley, A. E.

15

The molluscan neuropeptide, SCPB, increases the responsiveness of the feeding motor program of Limax maximus.  

PubMed

Small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) has an excitatory effect on both buccal neurons and musculature in numerous molluscan species. The present study reports the effects of SCPB on the activity of specified buccal neurons and the expression of the feeding motor program of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus. Superfusion of an isolated CNS preparation with 10(-6)M SCPB results in a 3-4-fold increase in the burst frequency of the fast salivary burster neuron (FSB), while having no effect on the activity of another endogenous burster, the bilateral salivary neuron (BSN). The response of the FSB to SCPB is dose dependent, with a threshold concentration of 2 X 10(-8)M. The response of the FSB to SCPB showed no indication of desensitization, even after long-term exposure (20 min). The feeding motor program (FMP) in Limax is a discrete pattern of cyclical motor activity that can be initiated by lip nerve stimulation. In the presence of SCPB a previously subthreshold stimulus can initiate the full FMP. The pattern of the FMP, once initiated, appears unaffected by SCPB. Thus it is the responsiveness of the initiation process that is enhanced by SCPB. Histochemical studies revealed a number of buccal neuron somata and fibers that stain for SCPB-like immunoreactive material (SLIM). PMID:3346657

Prior, D J; Watson, W H

1988-01-01

16

Activity of multiple identified motor neurons recorded intracellularly during evoked feedinglike motor programs in Aplysia.  

PubMed

1. The firing patterns of 22 motor neurons were determined by simultaneously recording intracellularly from up to 7 neurons during evoked feedinglike buccal motor programs (BMPs). Intracellular stimulation of cerebral-buccal interneuron 2 (CBI-2) or tactile stimulation of the odontophore were used to elicit BMPs in a reduced preparation. 2. Evoked BMPs were identified as either ingestive-like (iBMP) or egestive-like (eBMP) on the basis of their similarity to those previously recorded in select neurons in freely behaving animals. Neurons were divided into the p-group, r-group, or c-group, on the basis of the phase relationships of rhythmic membrane depolarizations and hyperpolarizations during evoked BMPs. Depolarization of the p-, r-, and c-group neurons was associated with radular protraction, retraction, and closure, respectively. With one exception, the motor neurons segregated into the same groups during iBMPs and eBMPs. The exception, B7, was categorized as a c-group neuron during iBMPs, but as an r-group neuron during eBMPs. 3. Every motor neuron exhibited cyclic membrane depolarizations and hyperpolarizations, and over one-half of the neurons fired bursts of action potentials, during both iBMPs and eBMPs. The neurons fired in patterns that would be likely to release both their conventional and peptide transmitters. 4. A marked hyperpolarizing step in the p-group neurons coincident with a depolarization in the r-group neurons was observed during both iBMPs and eBMPs, suggesting a degree of shared premotor circuitry for the two BMPs. 5. A shift in the timing of activity in c-group neurons relative to that in p- and r-group neurons during iBMPs and eBMPs was observed and correlates well with the shift in phase of radular closure relative to protraction and retraction, which is useful in distinguishing ingestion from egestion in the behaving animal. 6. The firing patterns recorded in neurons that innervate overlapping populations of muscle fibers suggested that there would be complex interactions of multiple transmitters. This is particularly intriguing in the case of I3a muscle fibers, which are innervated by two excitatory and one inhibitory neuron. The firing patterns recorded in these neurons suggest that the inhibitory motor neuron may serve to not only block inappropriate contractions, but also to specifically shape evoked contractions during feeding. PMID:7823102

Church, P J; Lloyd, P E

1994-10-01

17

NEURAL MECHANISMS OF MOTOR PROGRAM SWITCHING IN THE MOLLUSC PLEUROBRANCHAEA III. Role of the Paracerebral Neurons and Other Identified Brain Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identified neurons in the cerebropleural ganglion (brain) of the mollusc Pleurobranchuea were stimulated and recorded from intracellularly while recording the identified motor program from buccal muscles (reduced preparation) or nerves (isolated central nervous system). Neurons studied included the metacerebral giant neurons (MCGs), phasic paracerebral neurons (PC,'s), polysynaptic excitors of the PC,'s (PSEs), type II electrotonic neurons (ETII's), type I electrotonic

ROGER P. CROLL; MARK P. KOVAC; W. JACKSON DAVIS; EUGENE M. MATERA

18

Neural mechanisms of motor program switching in Aplysia.  

PubMed

The Aplysia multifunctional feeding central pattern generator (CPG) produces at least two types of motor programs, ingestion and egestion, that involve two sets of radula movements, protraction-retraction and opening-closing movements. In ingestion, the radula closes during retraction to pull food in, whereas in egestion, the radula closes during protraction to push inedible objects out. Thus, radula closure shifts the phase in which it occurs with respect to protraction-retraction in the two programs. To identify the central switching mechanisms, we compared activity of CPG neurons during the two types of motor programs elicited by a higher-order interneuron, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2). Although CPG elements (B63, B34, and B64) that mediate the protraction-retraction sequence are active in both programs, two other CPG elements, B20 and B4/5, are preferentially active in egestive programs and play a major role in mediating CBI-2-elicited egestive programs. Both B20 and B4/5 control the phasing of radula closure motoneurons (B8 and B16) to ensure that, in egestive programs, these motoneurons fire and produce radula-closing movements only during protraction. Elsewhere, another higher-order interneuron, CBI-3, was shown to convert CBI-2-elicited egestion to ingestion. We show that CBI-3 switches the programs by suppressing the activity of B20 and B4/5. CBI-3, active only during protraction, accomplishes this through fast inhibition of B20 during protraction and slow inhibition of B4/5 during retraction. The slow inhibition is mimicked and occluded by APGWamide, a neuropeptide contained in CBI-3. Thus, fast conventional and slow peptidergic transmissions originating from the same interneuron act in concert to meet specific temporal requirements in pattern switching. PMID:11549745

Jing, J; Weiss, K R

2001-09-15

19

FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

Bollenbacher, G.

1976-01-01

20

Concerted GABAergic Actions of Aplysia Feeding Interneurons in Motor Program Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

GABAergic inhibitory interneurons regulate the activity of diverse types of neural networks, but the specific roles of these interneurons in motor control are poorly understood. In the Aplysia feeding motor network, three interneurons, cerebral- buccal interneuron-3 (CBI-3) and buccal interneurons B40 and B34, are GABA-immunoreactive and evoke fast IPSPs in their postsynaptic followers. Using a combination of pharmacological experiments with

Jian Jing; Ferdinand S. Vilim; Jin-Sheng Wu; Ji-Ho Park; Klaudiusz R. Weiss

2003-01-01

21

Acetylcholine activates cerebral interneurons and feeding motor program in Limax maximus.  

PubMed

The cellular and network effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on the control system for feeding in Limax maximus were measured by intracellular recordings from feeding command-like interneurons and whole nerve recordings from buccal ganglion motor nerve roots that normally innervate the ingestive feeding muscles. The buccal ganglion motor nerve root discharge pattern that causes rhythmic feeding movements, termed the feeding motor program (FMP), was elicited either by attractive taste solutions applied to the lip chemoreceptors or by ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia. The ability of exogenous ACh applied to the cerebral ganglia to trigger FMP was blocked by the cholinergic antagonists curare and atropine. If the strength of the lip-applied taste stimulus was in the range of 1-2 times threshold, cerebral application of the cholinergic antagonists blocked or greatly decreased the ability of lip-applied taste solutions to trigger FMP (5 of 8 trials). The cerebral feeding interneurons, some of which activate FMP when stimulated intracellularly, are excited by small pulses of ACh applied directly to the cell body from an ACh-filled micropipette. A pulse of ACh that activates several of the feeding interneurons simultaneously triggers FMP. The data suggest that under certain stimulus conditions an obligatory set of cholinergic synapses onto the feedininterneurons must be activated for taste inputs to trigger ingestion. The determination of ACh's action within the feeding control system is necessary for understanding how enhanced cholinergic transmission leads to prolonged associative memory retention (Sahley, et al., 1986). PMID:3694192

King, M S; Delaney, K; Gelperin, A

1987-11-01

22

Variable Neuronal Participation in Stereotypic Motor Programs  

PubMed Central

To what extent are motor networks underlying rhythmic behaviors rigidly hard-wired versus fluid and dynamic entities? Do the members of motor networks change from moment-to-moment or from motor program episode-to-episode? These are questions that can only be addressed in systems where it is possible to monitor the spiking activity of networks of neurons during the production of motor programs. We used large-scale voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging followed by Independent Component Analysis spike-sorting to examine the extent to which the neuronal network underlying the escape swim behavior of Tritonia diomedea is hard-wired versus fluid from a moment-to-moment perspective. We found that while most neurons were dedicated to the swim network, a small but significant proportion of neurons participated in a surprisingly variable manner. These neurons joined the swim motor program late, left early, burst only on some cycles or skipped cycles of the motor program. We confirmed that this variable neuronal participation was not due to effects of the VSD by finding such neurons with intracellular recording in dye-free saline. Further, these neurons markedly varied their level of participation in the network from swim episode-to-episode. The generality of such unreliably bursting neurons was confirmed by their presence in the rhythmic escape networks of two other molluscan species, Tritonia festiva and Aplysia californica. Our observations support a view that neuronal networks, even those underlying rhythmic and stereotyped motor programs, may be more variable in structure than widely appreciated. PMID:22815768

Hill, Evan S.; Vasireddi, Sunil K.; Bruno, Angela M.; Wang, Jean; Frost, William N.

2012-01-01

23

Young Athletes program: impact on motor development.  

PubMed

This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7-9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3-5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed. PMID:23860506

Favazza, Paddy C; Siperstein, Gary N; Zeisel, Susan A; Odom, Samuel L; Sideris, John H; Moskowitz, Andrew L

2013-07-01

24

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R.; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Baliga, M. S.; Gaikwad, Rahul N.

2012-01-01

25

Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Baliga, M S; Gaikwad, Rahul N

2012-04-01

26

KinderSkills. An Intergenerational Motor Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The KinderSkills program, in which parents serve as motor development teachers of their children, has operated for five years. A recent innovation was to add grandparents to the program to see if the motor skill levels of the grandparents also would improve. This program is described and evaluated. (MT)

Carson, Linda M.; Ostrow, Andrew C.

1986-01-01

27

Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

2011-01-01

28

A Perceptual Motor Program Model for Learning Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The model established guidelines for a perceptual motor program for learning disabled children in the areas of student evaluation, choice of activities, goal setting, practice sessions, and reinforcement. (GW)

Eason, Robert L.; Smith, Theresa L.

1976-01-01

29

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2010-07-01

30

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2011-07-01

31

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

33

Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time. PMID:19823595

Latash, Mark L.

2009-01-01

34

The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China  

SciTech Connect

Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

2001-05-31

35

The Motor Facilitation Program of School District 21, Wheeling, Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When selected as a model program the main objective of the kindergarten Motor Facilitation Program (MFP) was to prepare a child in readiness skills which would make possible easier achievement in reading at the first grade level. The purpose of the additional-help phase of the MFP was to help children in grades one through six who continue to…

Obrecht, Donna

36

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

37

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

2012-10-01

38

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

2013-10-01

39

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

2010-10-01

40

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

2011-10-01

41

Best antibiotics for buccal delivery  

E-print Network

The purpose of the research was to identify the clinical and commercial benefits of switching from intravenous (IV) to buccal delivery of antibiotics. then, the research continued to select 3-5 antibiotics that best met ...

Goldberg, Manijeh Nazari

2011-01-01

42

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26...Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has...program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support to all...

2014-07-01

43

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

44

Neural Mechanisms of Motor Program Switching in Aplysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aplysia multifunctional feeding central pattern generator (CPG) produces at least two types of motor programs, inges- tion and egestion, that involve two sets of radula movements, protraction-retraction and opening-closing movements. In in- gestion, the radula closes during retraction to pull food in, whereas in egestion, the radula closes during protraction to push inedible objects out. Thus, radula closure shifts

Jian Jing; Klaudiusz R. Weiss

2001-01-01

45

Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors  

E-print Network

not specifically target industrial customers; instead, industrial customers are combined with commercial and, in two programs surveyed, agricultural customers. 60% of the programs provide incentives for both motors and motor controllers, usually referred... Barriers Many barriers inhibit the implementation f efficient motor systems within industry. Some ~f the more common barriers on the customer's ~ide include I ? higher initial cost: Efficient motor technologies tend to cost more than stand~rd motors...

Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

46

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

Finger, J.T.

1983-11-01

47

Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and\\/or

Carlos Antonio Negrato; Olinda Tarzia

2010-01-01

48

Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong.  

PubMed

Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of "how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions...remains unanswered" and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233-267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity. PMID:11943843

Suthers, Roderick A; Goller, Franz; Wild, J Martin

2002-04-16

49

Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

2003-01-01

50

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2010-07-01

51

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2012-07-01

52

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

53

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2011-07-01

54

76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...general purpose alternating current single-speed induction motor, built in...Frequency,'' alternating-current motors must operate...Assignments for Alternating Current Integral Horsepower Induction Motors,'' are...

2011-01-05

55

Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

1989-01-01

56

The Effects of a Home-Based, Parent Intervention Motor Development Program on Developmentally Delayed Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study focused on developmentally delayed children who participated in a home-based, parent intervention motor development program. The major question considered was: Is there any difference in gross and fine motor mean scores obtained on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (field test edition), received by children who participated in the…

Paciorek, Michael J.

57

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

2014-07-01

58

New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre- and post-metamorphic tadpoles (Pelophylax ridibundus)  

E-print Network

Central CO2chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of itsrole in ventilatory rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded infacial nerve of premetamorphic and postmetamorphic tadpole isolated brainstems, under normo- andhypercapnia, are investigated using Continuous Wavelet Transform spectral analysis for buccal activityand computation of number and amplitude of spikes during buccal and lung activities. Buccal burstsexhibit fast oscillations (20-30 Hz) that are prominent in premetamorphic tadpoles: they result from thepresence in periodic time windows of high amplitude spikes. Hypercapnia systematically decreases thefrequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles, by a lengthening of the interburstduration. In postmetamorphic tadpoles, hypercapnia reduces buccal burst amplitude and unmasks smallfast oscillations. Our results suggest a common effect of the hypercapnia on the buccal part of the CentralPattern G...

Quenet, Brigitte; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette

2014-01-01

59

Interneuronal basis of the generation of related but distinct motor programs in Aplysia: implications for current neuronal models of vertebrate intralimb coordination.  

PubMed

Coordination of two sets of movements, protraction-retraction versus opening-closing, of the feeding apparatus (the radula) in ingestive and egestive motor programs of Aplysia resembles vertebrate intralimb coordination in that the relative timing of the two sets of movements differs in the two motor programs. In both ingestion and egestion, radula protraction and retraction alternate, whereas radula closure shifts its phase relative to protraction-retraction. In egestion, the radula closes in protraction; in ingestion, the radula closes in retraction. In both ingestive and egestive motor programs elicited by the command-like neuron, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2), the protraction and retraction movements are mediated by the same sets of controller interneurons. In contrast, radula closure is mediated by two controller interneurons, B20 and B40, that are preferentially active in egestion and ingestion, respectively. In egestion, B20, active in protraction, drives closure motorneuron B8 in protraction, whereas in ingestion, B40, also active in protraction, uses a functionally novel mechanism, fast inhibition and slow excitation, to drive B8 in retraction. Our findings are summarized in a neural model that permits a conceptual comparison of our model with two previous hypothetical models of intralimb coordination in spinal circuits that were proposed by Grillner (1981, 1985) and Berkowitz and Stein (1994). Although our model supports the existence of separate controllers for different movements as in the Grillner (1981, 1985) model; in terms of basic mechanisms, our model is similar to the Berkowitz and Stein (1994) model because the closure movement is mediated by separate controllers in different programs, and thus both models can be classified as recruitment models. PMID:12122081

Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

2002-07-15

60

A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. PMID:25139955

Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

2014-01-01

61

Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons.  

PubMed

Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia, respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs, the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 versus C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axodendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely located neurons. PMID:22031890

Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

2011-10-26

62

40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

...What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.914 Section 89.914 Protection...What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40...

2014-07-01

63

40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913 Section 89.913 Protection...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of...

2014-07-01

64

Coordinated excitatory effect of GABAergic interneurons on three feeding motor programs in the mollusk Clione limacina.  

PubMed

Coordination between different motor centers is essential for the orderly production of all complex behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms of such coordination during feeding behavior in the carnivorous mollusk Clione limacina is the main goal of the current study. A bilaterally symmetrical interneuron identified in the cerebral ganglia and designated Cr-BM neuron produced coordinated activation of neural networks controlling three main feeding structures: prey capture appendages called buccal cones, chitinous hooks used for prey extraction from the shell, and the toothed radula. The Cr-BM neuron produced strong excitatory inputs to motoneurons controlling buccal cone protraction. It also induced a prominent activation of the neural networks controlling radula and hook rhythmic movements. In addition to the overall activation, Cr-BM neuron synaptic inputs to individual motoneurons coordinated their activity in a phase-dependent manner. The Cr-BM neuron produced depolarizing inputs to the radula protractor and hook retractor motoneurons, which are active in one phase, and hyperpolarizing inputs to the radula retractor and hook protractor motoneurons, which are active in the opposite phase. The Cr-BM neuron used GABA as its neurotransmitter. It was found to be GABA-immunoreactive in the double-labeling experiments. Exogenous GABA mimicked the effects produced by Cr-BM neuron on the postsynaptic neurons. The GABA antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin blocked Cr-BM neuron-induced PSPs. The prominent coordinating effect produced by the Cr-BM neuron on the neural networks controlling three major elements of the feeding behavior in Clione suggests that this interneuron is an important part of the higher-order system for the feeding behavior. PMID:15331621

Norekian, Tigran P; Malyshev, Aleksey Y

2005-01-01

65

New prospective in treatment of Parkinson's disease: studies on permeation of ropinirole through buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The aptitude of ropinirole to permeate the buccal tissue was tested using porcine mucosa mounted on Franz-type diffusion cells as ex vivo model. Drug permeation was also evaluated in presence of various penetration enhancers and in iontophoretic conditions. Ropinirole, widely used in treatment of motor fluctuations of Parkinson's disease, passes the buccal mucosa. Flux and permeability coefficient values suggested that the membrane does not appear a limiting step to the drug absorption. Nevertheless, an initial lag time is observed but the input rate can be modulated by permeation enhancement using limonene or by application of electric fields. Absorption improvement was accompanied by the important reduction of the lag time; at once the time required to reach the steady state plasma concentration was drastically decreased. On the basis of these results we could assume that clinical application of ropinirole by buccal delivery is feasible. PMID:22465630

De Caro, V; Giandalia, G; Siragusa, M G; Sutera, F M; Giannola, L I

2012-06-15

66

Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

1995-01-01

67

Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program  

E-print Network

of tools, protocols and databases are being developed. These tools will aid industry in the design, implementation, procurement, and validation of the benefits of energy efficient motor-driven systems. DOE's goal is to provide value-added products...

Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

68

Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain  

PubMed Central

Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

Schoofs, Andreas; Huckesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spiess, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J.

2014-01-01

69

Buccal Fat Pad in Intraoral Defect Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently\\u000a used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. Buccal fat pad was used to reconstruct 3 medium sized defects\\u000a due to tumoral resection and oro-antral communication. It was used as an unlined pedicled graft. Three cases are discussed

Saurab Bither; Rajshekhar Halli; Yogesh Kini

70

Distributed Representation of Limb Motor Programs in Arrays of Adjustable Pattern Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current state of our exploration of how motor program concepts may be related to neural mechanisms. We have proposed a model of sensorimotor networks with architectures inspired by the anatomy and physiology of the cerebellum and its interconnections with the red nucleus and the motor cortex. We proposed the concept of rubrocerebellar and corticocerebellar information processing

N. E. Berthier; S. P. Singh; A. G. Barto; J. C. Houk

1993-01-01

71

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2010-07-01

72

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2011-07-01

73

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2012-07-01

74

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2013-07-01

75

How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys??  

PubMed Central

The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia.

Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

2013-01-01

76

Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central

Roderick A. Suthers; Franz Goller; J. Martin Wild

2002-01-01

77

ASRM plume deflector analysis program. [advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents analytical conclusions resulting from subscale solid rocket motor tests and flowfield modeling for a plume deflector. Loads, flow characteristics, and corresponding material behavior were predicted or observed and will be used in final design of the deflector. The efforts resulted in quantifiable size reductions and lower cost material selections, which will significantly reduce the deflector cost while meeting performance requirements.

Dawson, Michael C.; Douglas, Freddie, III; Orlin, Peter A.

1992-01-01

78

Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control  

PubMed Central

Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections.

Sherwood, David E.

2014-01-01

79

Effect of perioperative buccal fracture of the proximal segment on postoperative stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Buccal fracture of the mandibular proximal bone segment during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) reduces the postoperative stability. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this type of fracture on bone healing and postoperative stability after mandibular setback surgery. Materials and Methods Ten patients who experienced buccal fracture during SSRO for mandibular setback movement were evaluated. We measured the amount of bone generation on a computed tomography scan, using an image analysis program, and compared the buccal fracture side to the opposite side in each patient. To investigate the effect on postoperative stability, we measured the postoperative relapse in lateral cephalograms, immediately following and six months after the surgery. The control group consisted of ten randomly-selected patients having a similar amount of set-back without buccal fracture. Results Less bone generation was observed on the buccal fracture side compared with the opposite side (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior postoperative relapse between the group with buccal fracture and the control group. The increased mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height after the surgery in the group with buccal fracture manifested as a postoperative clockwise rotation of the mandible. Conclusion Bone generation was delayed compared to the opposite side. However, postoperative stability in the anterior-posterior direction could be maintained with rigid fixation. PMID:24471048

Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Han, Jeong-Joon

2013-01-01

80

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

81

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

2013-01-01

82

Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program  

PubMed Central

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a “phantom” of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

83

Modelling of direct motor program learning in fast human arm motions.  

PubMed

We propose and simulate a new paradigm for organization of motor control in fast and accurate human arm motions. We call the paradigm "direct motor program learning" since the control programs are learned directly without knowing or learning the dynamics of a controlled system. The idea is to approximate the dependence of the motor control programs on the vector of the task parameters rather than to use a model of the system dynamics. We apply iterative learning control and scattered data multivariate approximation techniques to achieve the goal. The advantage of the paradigm is that the control complexity depends neither on the order nor on the nonlinearity of the system dynamics. We simulate the direct motor program learning paradigm in the task of point-to-point control of fast planar human arm motions. Simulation takes into account nonlinear arm dynamics, muscle force dynamics, delay in low-level reflex feedback, time dependence of the feedback gains and coactivation of antagonist muscles. Despite highly nonlinear time-variant dynamics of the controlled system, reasonably good motion precision is obtained over a wide range of the task parameters (initial and final positions of the arm). The simulation results demonstrate that the paradigm is indeed viable and could be considered as a possible explanation for the organization of motor control of fast motions. PMID:8373893

Gorinevsky, D M

1993-01-01

84

Model of interactions between cortical areas for sensory-motor programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain represents perceptual and motor information in several reference frames (for example body-centered, object-centered, or retinal-centered reference frames). In a simple sensory-motor program such as looking at and taking an object, at least three fundamental processes must be carried out by the cerebral cortex; (1) in order to recognize the target object, the cortex has to transform the pattern of excitation on the retina from a retinotopic coordinate system to a coordinate system centered on the object itself; (2) in order to bring a hand to the desired position in space, the cortex must transform the visual information related to the target location (relative to the hand) into an appropriate motor command of the reaching hand; (3) in order to guide coherent behavioral actions, more complex sensory-motor programs (for example, conditional reaching of a target) are constructed from time-dependent relations between these basic transformations. The cortex correlates sensory and motor events and learns to prepare responses to forthcoming events. Neurophysiological data on the motor area of the monkey allowed us to model the coordinate transformations from body-centered to arm-centered reference frames involved in the command of arm reaching movements in 3-D space. Anatomical and neuropsychological data suggest similar coordinate transformations along the visual pathway to relate retinal-centered to object-centered reference frames and we have thus extended the model to this coordinate transformation. Time integration seems to proceed differently since internal representations of programs are dynamically constructed. Available physiological and anatomical data on frontal areas (and particularly prefrontal cortex) help to predict specific learning mechanisms for time processing and then construct a model for learning sensory-motor sequences.

Burnod, Yves; Guigon, Emmanuel; Otto, Isabelle; Grandguillaume, Philippe; Boutkhil, Latifa; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Marchal, Patrick

1992-04-01

85

Speech Motor Programming in Hypokinetic and Ataxic Dysarthria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the cerebellar and basal ganglia control circuits contribute to the programming of movement. Converging evidence from neuroimaging, limb control, and neuropsychological studies suggests that (1) people with cerebellar disease have reduced ability to program movement sequences in advance of movement onset and (2) people…

Spencer, K.A.; Rogers, M.A.

2005-01-01

86

Developing Learning Readiness; A Visual-Motor-Tactile Skills Program. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A flexible program for preschool, primary grades, or remedial classes provides opportunities for the child to achieve readiness for learning through the development of visual, motor, and tactile skills. A cardboard doll is discussed which may be utilized by the teacher and children in a variety of gymnasium routines to increase knowledge of body…

Getman, G.N.; And Others

87

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

1995-01-01

88

A Licensing Program for Operators of Two-Wheeled Motor Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a licensing program for operators of two-wheeled motor vehicles. Materials specifically developed for the study were: (1) a driver's handbook, (2) two forms of a written test, (3) an off-street driving test, and (4) a driving range. Once developed, these materials were the basis of the separate…

Locke, Lewis Alvin

89

Critical buccal bone dimensions along implants.  

PubMed

The buccal bone plate is a component of the alveolar process tightly related to the tooth it supports. A plethora of physiological and pathological events can induce its remodeling. Understanding this remodeling process and its extent is of major importance for the practitioner as it can affect the functional and esthetic outcome of implant surgery at the involved sites. Bone remodeling and resorption of the buccal bone plate are inevitable after tooth loss or extraction. To limit resorption, several ridge-preservation techniques of varying efficacy have been described. Bone resorption is equally found to occur upon implant placement and is thought to be a result of the surgical trauma inflicted as well as an adaptation process of the tissues to the new foreign body. Because of the implications of bone resorption on the soft-tissue levels and the general esthetic outcome, it is of primary importance for the practitioner to be able to evaluate the hard tissues and the inherent resorption risks in an effort to optimize the treatment strategies. Based on limited short-term data, the present general opinion advises the need for a 2-mm-thick buccal bone plate in order to avoid vertical bone resorption. PMID:25123763

Merheb, Joe; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim

2014-10-01

90

A tyramine-gated chloride channel coordinates distinct motor programs of a Caenorhabditis elegans escape response  

PubMed Central

Summary A key feature of escape responses is the fast translation of sensory information into a coordinated motor output. In C. elegans anterior touch initiates a backward escape response in which lateral head movements are suppressed. Here we show that tyramine inhibits head movements and forward locomotion through the activation of a tyramine-gated chloride channel, LGC-55. lgc-55 mutant animals have defects in reversal behavior and fail to suppress head oscillations in response to anterior touch. lgc-55 is expressed in neurons and muscle cells that receive direct synaptic inputs from tyraminergic motor neurons. Therefore, tyramine can act as a classical inhibitory neurotransmitter. Activation of LGC-55 by tyramine coordinates the output of two distinct motor programs, locomotion and head movements that are critical for a C. elegans escape response. PMID:19477154

Pirri, Jennifer K.; McPherson, Adam D.; Donnelly, Jamie L.; Francis, Michael M.; Alkema, Mark J.

2009-01-01

91

Overview of CFD Analyses Supporting the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Program at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year, various computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program. The successful completion of these analyses involved application of the CFD codes FDNS and CELMINT. The topics addressed by the analyses were: (1) the design and prediction of slag pool accumulation within the five inch test motor, (2) prediction of slag pool behavior and its response to lateral accelerations, (3) the clogging of potential insulation debonds within the nozzle by slag accumulation, (4) the behavior of jets within small voids inside nozzle joint gaps, (5) The effect of increased inhibitor stiffness on motor acoustics, and (6) the effect of a nozzle defect on particle impingement enhanced erosion. The emphasis of this presentation will be to further discuss the work in topics 3, 4, and 5.

Stewart, Eric; McConnaughey, P.; Lin, J.; Reske, E.; Doran, D.; Whitesides, R. H.; Chen, Y.-S.

1996-01-01

92

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

93

Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

Vibbart, Charles M.

1988-01-01

94

A single pair of interneurons commands the Drosophila feeding motor program  

PubMed Central

Summary Many feeding behaviors represent stereotyped, organized sequences of motor patterns that have been the subject of neuroethological studies1,2 such as electrophysiological characterization of neurons governing prey capture in toads1,3. Technical limitations, however, have prevented detailed study of the functional role of these neurons as in other studies on vertebrate organisms. Complexities involved in studies of whole animal behavior can be resolved in Drosophila, where remote activation of brain cells by genetic means4 allows one to interrogate the nervous system in freely moving animals to identify neurons that govern a specific behavior, and then to repeatedly target and manipulate these neurons to characterize their function. Here we show finding of neurons that generate the feeding motor program in Drosophila. We performed an unbiased screen using remote neuronal activation and identified a critical pair of brain cells that induces the entire feeding sequence when activated. These Fdg (feeding)-neurons are also essential for normal feeding as their suppression or ablation eliminates the sugar-induced feeding behavior. Activation of a single Fdg-neuron induced asymmetric feeding behavior and ablation of a single Fdg-neuron distorted the sugar-induced feeding behavior to be asymmetric, indicating the direct role of these neurons in shaping motor program execution. Simultaneously recording neuronal activity with calcium imaging during feeding behavior5 further revealed that the Fdg-neurons respond to food presentation, but only in starved flies. Our results demonstrate that Fdg-neurons operate firmly within the sensori-motor watershed, downstream of sensory and metabolic cues and at the top of the feeding motor hierarchy to execute the decision to feed. PMID:23748445

Flood, Thomas; Iguchi, Shinya; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

2013-01-01

95

Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

2008-01-01

96

Tissue-Engineered Buccal Mucosa Urethroplasty—Clinical Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWhilst buccal mucosa is the most versatile tissue for urethral replacement, the quest continues for an ideal tissue replacement for the urethra when substantial tissue transfer is needed. Previously we described the development of autologous tissue-engineered buccal mucosa (TEBM). Here we report clinical outcomes of the first human series of its use in substitution urethroplasty.

Saurabh Bhargava; Jacob M. Patterson; Richard D. Inman; Sheila MacNeil; Christopher R. Chapple

2008-01-01

97

Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity  

PubMed Central

Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors to generate desirable cell types. Three transcription factors, Ngn2, Isl1 and Lhx3, were sufficient to program rapidly and efficiently spinal motor neuron identity when expressed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Replacement of Lhx3 by Phox2a led to specification of cranial, rather than spinal, motor neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation–sequencing analysis of Isl1, Lhx3 and Phox2a binding sites revealed that the two cell fates were programmed by the recruitment of Isl1-Lhx3 and Isl1-Phox2a complexes to distinct genomic locations characterized by a unique grammar of homeodomain binding motifs. Our findings suggest that synergistic interactions among transcription factors determine the specificity of their recruitment to cell type–specific binding sites and illustrate how a single transcription factor can be repurposed to program different cell types. PMID:23872598

Mazzoni, Esteban O; Mahony, Shaun; Closser, Michael; Morrison, Carolyn A; Nedelec, Stephane; Williams, Damian J; An, Disi; Gifford, David K; Wichterle, Hynek

2013-01-01

98

Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

2012-01-01

99

78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...squirrel-cage, polyphase alternating-current, induction motors, with some narrowly defined...Design A and Design C Motors NEMA MG1-2009 defines...three types of polyphase, alternating current, induction motors: NEMA Designs A,...

2013-06-26

100

75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of...energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on March...energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error,...

2010-04-05

101

78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...special purpose electric motor that has...through the use of materials, processes...special purpose electric motor that has...an insulating material that protects...Each of these materials has a different impact on an electric motor's...

2013-12-13

102

Systematic Instruction for Retarded Children: The Illinois Program - Experimental Edition. Part IV: Motor Performance and Recreation Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists…

Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.

103

Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

2009-01-01

104

The Effect of a Perceptual-Motor Training Program Upon the Readiness and Perceptual Development of Culturally Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of a Title III project, a program was initiated to provide disadvantaged kindergarten children with planned perceptual-motor training exercises. This study investigates the effects of that program on the perceptual development and academic readiness of a group of 76 such children. The exercises, derived from the Kephart developmental…

Turner, Robert V.; Fisher, Maurice D.

105

Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

106

The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

2013-01-01

107

Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

2014-06-01

108

75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public meeting materials, and related...small_electric_motors...Energy Use Characterization 1. Applications...Energy Use Characterization The energy use characterization estimates...of small electric motors...conveyors and material...

2010-03-09

109

Comparative permeability of human vaginal and buccal mucosa to water.  

PubMed

There is currently a resurgence of interest in the oral mucosa as a route for drug delivery. The relative scarcity of human oral mucosa for in vitro permeability studies, and the fact that vaginal mucosa is histologically similar and more abundant than the former, caused us to compare these 2 tissues with respect to their barrier properties to water. Specimens of fresh, clinically-healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa from non-smokers were taken from excised tissue obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and various oral surgical procedures. Biopsies from each specimen were mounted in flow-through diffusion cells and their permeability to tritiated water determined using a continuous flow-through perfusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after permeability experiments and similarities between vaginal and buccal tissues verified. No statistically significant differences between mean steady state flux values (10-16 h) for vaginal and buccal mucosa, respectively, were found. Human vaginal mucosa is therefore as permeable as buccal mucosa to water, and these results warrant further investigation with other compounds to establish whether vaginal mucosa may be a useful model for buccal mucosa for drug permeability studies. PMID:9469607

van der Bijl, P; Thompson, I O; Squier, C A

1997-12-01

110

Keratocyst of the buccal mucosa: is it odontogenic?  

PubMed

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of the buccal mucosa, the diagnosis of which is based on subjective histologic evaluation, is a controversial entity of questionable existence. This report describes 2 rare cases of parakeratinized cyst arising from the buccal mucosa. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with a 3-cm cyst and case 2 was a 16-year-old boy with a microcyst incidentally discovered on histology. Both lesions were essentially identical in histologic appearance and immunophenotype to intraosseous and gingival OKC, but they were clearly different from orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts and buccal mucosal epidermoid cysts. Step sections failed to reveal any kind of odontogenic tissue or skin adnexa in the cyst wall. These microscopic characteristics reflexively lead to the diagnosis of OKC, if the extragingival occurrence in the buccal mucosa cannot be considered. An alternative nonodontogenic origin includes a keratocyst of the skin, ie, an unusual mucosal presentation of cutaneous keratocyst. Because its true nature, either odontogenic or epidermal, cannot be conclusively proven at this time, we propose a more descriptive and noncommittal term, "mucosal keratocyst," for a particular cyst in a buccal location that is morphologically indistinguishable from OKC. PMID:20955942

Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

2010-11-01

111

Interneuronal Basis of the Generation of Related but Distinct Motor Programs in Aplysia: Implications for Current Neuronal Models of Vertebrate Intralimb Coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordination of two sets of movements, protraction-retraction versus opening-closing, of the feeding apparatus (the radula) in ingestive and egestive motor programs of Aplysia resembles vertebrate intralimb coordination in that the relative timing of the two sets of movements differs in the two motor programs. In both ingestion and egestion, radula protraction and retrac- tion alternate, whereas radula closure shifts its

Jian Jing; Klaudiusz R. Weiss

2002-01-01

112

Optimization of Polyphase Segmented-Rotor Reluctance Motor Design: A Nonlinear Programming Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantage of the reluctance motor over that of the excited synchronous motor ia that the former does not require a separate d.c. supply for excitation of field winding. Reluctance machines are cheap, robust, and reliable. Using static frequency converters, these motors can be used in control systems and allied fields, for positioning or speed control or a combination of

M. RAMAHIOORTY; P. J. Rao

1979-01-01

113

Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

Beers, Carol; And Others

114

Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

Mcdonald, Gary H.

1990-01-01

115

Buccal plate augmentation: a new alternative to socket preservation.  

PubMed

Alveolar ridge resorption occurs after tooth extraction and has the potential to either complicate implant placement or impair the final esthetic result. Techniques to preserve natural bone and soft tissue contours are of great interest to clinicians and patients because even subtle postextraction buccal plate resorption may have significant clinical effects, particularly in the esthetic zone. Buccal plate augmentation (BPA) is a novel approach for ridge preservation aiming to avoid recession of the facial wall of the socket without interfering with the natural healing mechanism of the extraction socket. It consists of placement of bone graft material over an intact buccal plate, underneath the soft tissues in a surgically created pouch with an aim to maintain or augment the soft tissue esthetics of the region. PMID:20863942

Caiazzo, Alfonso; Brugnami, Federico; Mehra, Pushkar

2010-10-01

116

The timing of activity in motor neurons that produce radula movements distinguishes ingestion from rejection in Aplysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have studied the neural circuitry mediating ingestion and rejection in Aplysia using a reduced preparation that produces ingestion-like and rejection-like motor patterns in response to physiological stimuli.2.We have characterized 3 buccal ganglion motor neurons that produce specific movements of the radula and buccal mass. B8a and B8b act to close the radula. B10 acts to close the jaws and

D. W. Morton; H. J. Chiel

1993-01-01

117

A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

2013-01-01

118

Diffusion Rates and Transport Pathways of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-Labeled Model Compounds Through Buccal Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize transport of FITC-labeled dextrans of different molecular weights as model compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration of these dextrans through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the

A. Janet Hoogstraate; Christopher Cullander; J. Fred Nagelkerke; Sevda Senel; J. Coos Verhoef; Hans E. Junginger; Harry E. Boddé

1994-01-01

119

MORPHOLOGY OF IDENTIFIED NEURONES IN THE BUCCAL GANGLIA OF LYMNAEA STAGNALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The morphology of seven types of identified neurones in buccal ganglia of Lymnaea was investigated by intracellular injection of Procion Yellow and retrograde injection of cobaJtous chloride into the nerve roots of the buccal ganglia. The results provided anatomical support for the electrophysiological findings that some cells are motoneurones for muscles of the buccal mass (type 4-group cells, types

P. R. BENJAMIN; R. M. ROSE; CAROLE T. SLADE

1979-01-01

120

Human dirofilariasis of the buccal mucosa: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human dirofilariasis is a helminthic zoonosis that is common in some parts of the world. A sporadic case of dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa has been reported in a non-endemic area of southern China. Clinical findings, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management are discussed. This is the fourth case of human dirofilariasis involving the oral mucosa reported in world literature.

E. W. H To; W. M Tsang; K. F Chan

2003-01-01

121

Design of the automatic motor Ke measurement system using the system on programming chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induced electromotive force of traditional motor measurement usually uses another motor to connect the tested motor with the drive shaft to measure its speed and obtain Ke value of induced electromotive force of the tested motor. If the tested motor is not suitable for connection to the connect coupling because of the shape or volume of the rotor, it is difficult to measure the Ke values of the tested motor. So some scholars have proposed two-phase motor which drives the three-phase motor, and gain the measurement method of Ke from the third phase in a few years ago. The mainly way is using the digital logic circuits to redefine the truth table by entering the signals to the motor driver chip from the three Hall sensors. So it can still maintain a positive torque above 0 even if used the two-phase driver and the motor can be rotated by the two-phase driver. But the drawback is that it can only be measured the fixed Ke value at the same phase. And it has to redefine the truth table to measure the values of the other two phase. This paper provides a new measurement method that made the motor speed accelerate to the measured speed at the beginning and measuring the value of third phases while the rotation is maintained by the other two-phase. The advantage is that it can change the phase of measurement, so it can easily measure the Ke value. And the most of digital components which including processor, keyboard decoder and frequency counter etc can be achieved in FPGA by using SOPC method. It can significantly reduce the complexity of circuit and increase system reliability degree.

Yen, Sheng-Chan; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Liu, Yen-Chih; An, Nia-Chun; Tsai, Hsiu-An

2013-01-01

122

NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

2000-01-01

123

Motor drive technologies for the Power-By-Wire (PBW) program: options, trends and tradeoffs. II. Power electronic converters and devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of two papers on the motor drive technology options for the Power-By-Wire (PBW). The organization of this paper is based on the four components of the electrical actuator (EA) system and the options available to suit the PBW program as given in the PBW studies. The first paper [l] discussed the options available for the motor

Malik E. Elbuluk; M. David Kankam

1995-01-01

124

[Role of chemical signalling in release of motor programs during embryogenesis of freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Helisoma trivolvis].  

PubMed

We have earlier found that freshwater pond snails Helisoma trivolvis and Lymnaea stagnalis, when reared under conditions of starvation, release chemical signals that reversibly suppress larval development of conspecific embryos. Here, we report that (i) these signals are not strictly conspecific and affect also embryos of a closely related species, which occupies a similar environmental niche; (ii) besides the development of embryos, the signals also affect the release of main motor programs, such as locomotion, feeding, and cardiac activity; (iii) action of the signals is bidirectional: they retard the development and release of motor programs at the early larval stages (trochophore to veliger) and accelerate them at later stages (late veliger to hatching). A possible adaptive significance of the described phenomena is discussed. PMID:17479532

Voronezhskaia, E E; Khabarova, M Iu; Chaban, A K; Nezlin, L P

2007-01-01

125

Peptidergic modulation of patterned motor activity in identified neurons of Helisoma  

PubMed Central

The neuroactive peptides SCPB (small cardioactive peptide B) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2), both originally isolated from molluscs, have potent modulatory effects upon the production of patterned motor activity in identified neurons (e.g., B5 and B19) in the buccal ganglia of the snail Helisoma. Such patterned motor activity has previously been shown to underlie feeding behavior. Micromolar concentrations of SCPB initiate patterned motor activity in quiescent ganglia and increase the rate of activity in ganglia that are spontaneously active. Micromolar concentrations of FMRFamide inhibit patterned motor activity in Helisoma buccal ganglia, and 10 ?M FMRFamide completely suppresses such activity. In addition, there are both anti-SCPB-and anti-FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Helisoma buccal ganglia. Our results suggest that peptides may play a prominent role in the regulation of feeding behavior in Helisoma. Images PMID:16593621

Murphy, A. D.; Lukowiak, Ken; Stell, W. K.

1985-01-01

126

Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

1988-01-01

127

76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information for electric motors covered under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as...10 CFR Part 431 to be consistent with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) energy conservation standards....

2011-09-23

128

Formulation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Glipizide  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5 mg glipizide in 4.9% w/v hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 1.5% w/v sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time and promising drug release. The formulation was found to be suitable candidate for the development of buccal films for therapeutic use. PMID:20390079

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, A.; Kumar, G.

2008-01-01

129

Formulation and Evaluation of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium\\u000a carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent\\u000a casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content,\\u000a moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force

Surya N. Ratha Adhikari; Bhabani S. Nayak; Amit K. Nayak; Biswaranjan Mohanty

2010-01-01

130

Urethral fistula following circumcision: salvaged by buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fistula following circumcision and at times accompanied by disfigurement of the glans penis is a common problem in our country,\\u000a where a large number of circumcision is performed by untrained professionals. These complications may have profound negative\\u000a psychological impact on the growing child. Herein, we report the successful closure of such fistula using buccal mucosa, which\\u000a occurred following circumcision (for

Rahul Janak Sinha; Divakar Dalela; S. N. Sankhwar; Vishwajeet Singh

2009-01-01

131

Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the base matrix. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent casting technique using different grades of HPMC with different ratios. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index (SI), folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation studies. Results: The film thickness and weight were in the range of 0.213–0.4892mm and 22.25–39.83 mg, respectively. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC, HPMCK100, and HPMC3000 films exhibited satisfactory swelling. Surface pH of buccal films was found to be 6.4–6.8. SI observed to be highest for GF12 (275.3 ± 12.17) and lowest for GF1 (173.5 ± 5.65). The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time, and promising drug release. The Higuchi plots were found to be linear with correlation coefficient values of 0.8933, 0.9138, and 0.9947 for GF4, GF8, and GF9, respectively. Conclusions: Among all the formulations, GF9 shows good controlled release results correlated with ex vivo permeation studies. PMID:23071919

Muzib, Y Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

2011-01-01

132

Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users  

PubMed Central

Background: Gutkha is a cheap and convenient betel quid substitute, which is popular among all age groups. Various studies reveal its carcinogenic nature that leads to oral submucosus fibrosis and increases the chances of oral cancer. The micronucleus (MN) assay in exfoliated mucosal cells is a useful method for observing genetic damage in humans. Aim: To observe the genotoxic effect of gutkha on human buccal epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The MN assay was performed to assess the frequency of MN in human buccal epithelial cells. The study comprises 60 individuals of which 30 individuals were gutkha chewers and another 30 were nonusers (control). The MN frequency was scored to estimate the genotoxic damage. Results: In gutkha users, the frequency of MN was highly significant (17.4 ± 0.944) as compared with nonusers (control) groups (4.53 ± 0.331) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The MN assay in human buccal epithelial cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. Asignificantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells are found among gutkha users. PMID:23326766

Jyoti, Smita; Khan, Saif; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

2012-01-01

133

Multiple Neural Oscillators and Muscle Feedback Are Required for the Intestinal Fed State Motor Program  

PubMed Central

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40–60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40–200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle. PMID:21573176

Chambers, Jordan D.; Bornstein, Joel C.; Thomas, Evan A.

2011-01-01

134

Multiple neural oscillators and muscle feedback are required for the intestinal fed state motor program.  

PubMed

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40-60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40-200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle. PMID:21573176

Chambers, Jordan D; Bornstein, Joel C; Thomas, Evan A

2011-01-01

135

Buccaling under the pressure: influence of secondary care establishments on the prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets in primary care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine which characteristics were the best predictors of high rates of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. DESIGN: Practice and patient characteristics from 197 practices were examined, and a multiple regression analysis was performed to examine which variables were important in predicting this prescribing. SETTING: Former family health services authority (197 practices). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Volume of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. RESULTS: Four variables contributed significantly to a multiple regression model: the catchment area of the secondary care establishment; the number of partners in a practice; the level of practice deprivation; and whether the practice served an urban or a rural area. The model suggests that the most important variable was the catchment area of the secondary care establishment in which the practice was located. CONCLUSION: Although only the prescribing of short acting glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets was studied, an impact of this size on primary care prescribing may have extensive implications for all drug expenditure in primary care. PMID:8991012

Pryce, A. J.; Heatlie, H. F.; Chapman, S. R.

1996-01-01

136

Homopolar motor technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homopolar motors are compact and, therefore, are attractive for use in a direct electric drive for a ship. The critical components for the motor are the brushes, the superconducting coils, and the power conversion system to produce the high current, low voltage DC required for the motor. A program is underway at General Atomics for the Office of Naval Research

R. J. Thome; W. Creedon; M. Reed; E. Bowles; K. Schaubel

2002-01-01

137

Microswitch- and VOCA-assisted programs for two post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities.  

PubMed

Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music intervals, and (b) a voice output communication aid (VOCA) with two channels, activated via different hand-closure movements, which allowed the man to call his mother and a research assistant who provided stimulation events. Study II assessed a program that included (a) a pressure microswitch, activated via head movements, which allowed a man direct access to video-clips and music, and (b) a VOCA device, activated via prolonged eyelid closure, which allowed the man to call the caregiver (i.e., a research assistant) who provided attention and sung to him. Each of the two participants had significant increases in both microswitch- and VOCA-related responses during the intervention phases of the studies. Moreover, purposeful choice seemed to occur between the two VOCA responses in Study I. Implications of the findings for improving the situation of post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities are discussed. PMID:19660902

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

138

Design and evaluation of sustained-release and buccal adhesive propranolol hydrochloride tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of propranolol hydrochloride incorporated into sustained-release and buccal adhesive tablets was studied in vitro. The formulation containing 20% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) yielded good sustained-release matrix tablets. Buccal adhesive controlled-release tablets were prepared by compression of HPMC with polycarbophil (PAA), which served as the bioactive adhesive compound. The release behaviour of buccal adhesive tablets was found to be non-Fickian.

Buket Taylan; Yilmaz Capan; Olgun Güven; Sirri Kes; A. Atilla Hincal

1996-01-01

139

Motor schema based navigation for a mobile robot: An approach to programming by behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas are proposed as a basic unit of behavior specification for the navigation of a mobile robot. These are multiple concurrent processes which operate in conjunction with associated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation behind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuroscientific, psychological and robotic sources.

Ronald C. Arkin

1987-01-01

140

Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity  

E-print Network

Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors ...

Mazzoni, Esteban O

141

Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration. PMID:20144297

Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

2009-01-01

142

Parotid duct relocation in buccal mucosa cancer resection.  

PubMed

Buccal mucosal cancer is commonly seen in India with patients presenting in advanced stages of the disease. Its excision commonly mandates division of parotid duct as a part of disease or its margin. We have adopted a simple method to salvage the parotid gland by cannulating the duct and rerouting the saliva into the oral cavity at a different site. This has now become a protocol at our center. A total of 562 patients from 2002 to 2012 have undergone this procedure. This has markedly reduced the incidence of sialocele and parotitis in early postoperative period, which may delay wound healing and subsequent radiotherapy. PMID:25162543

Mehta, Sandeep; Agrawal, Juhi; Dewan, Ajay K; Pradhan, Tapaswini

2014-09-01

143

Motor-operated valve reliability programs: Lessons learned to meet new NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, reliability problems have surfaced with power plant motor-operated valves (MOVs) that (a) fail to perform as designed, and\\/or (b) require excessive maintenance to perform their intended function. As a result, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) mandated certain testing and reporting requirements in inspection and enforcement bulletin 85-03 (85-03). The NRC's generic letter 89-10 (89-10) significantly expands

M. W. Anderson; D. P. Fadel; P. J. Fraser

1990-01-01

144

Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry\\/government\\/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them;

Barry L. Butler

1993-01-01

145

A simple and cost-effective protocol for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal cells provide a convenient source of DNA for epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to develop a convenient method to obtain buccal cells from mouthwash samples to be used as a source of DNA, and to evaluate the stability of the DNA in mouthwash solution over time. The procedures used in the method described in this paper

Marisi Aidar; Sergio Roberto Peres Line

2007-01-01

146

Substitution Urethroplasty for Anterior Urethral Strictures: Buccal versus Lingual Mucosal Graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli’s technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty

Abhay Kumar; Suren K. Das; Sameer Trivedi; Udai S. Dwivedi; Pratap B. Singh

2010-01-01

147

Inverted periosteal flap: an alternative to the buccal advancement flap for tension-free, watertight closure.  

PubMed

The buccal advancement flap has been universally used in oral and maxillofacial surgery for closure of alveolar ridge incisions. It involves scoring of the buccal periosteum to enhance flap mobility and then stretching the buccal tissues medially (palatally or lingually) to obtain tension-free, watertight closure of a wound. Its applications have included, but have not been limited to, alveolar ridge augmentation procedures and closure of oral-antral communications. However, the buccal advancement flap technique has several major disadvantages. First, because the buccal flap is advanced crestally and medially, this technique invariably results in a significant reduction in vestibular depth. This can cause patients discomfort, such that they have described a sensation that their buccal mucosa has been sutured to their alveolar mucosa. In addition to being uncomfortable, this vestibular shortening can adversely affect patients' options for future prosthetic rehabilitation. Second, because the buccal flap is advanced medially, the mucogingival junction will be obliged to follow; therefore, the width of the keratinized tissue on the buccal aspect of the alveolus will be diminished. Third, if the buccal flap has been advanced a large distance, even with aggressive periosteal scoring and release, true tension-free closure can be very difficult to achieve, increasing the risk of wound dehiscence. The inverted periosteal flap is a new technique for flap design and closure that has several advantages over the buccal advancement flap. In my experience, the inverted periosteal flap will preserve the vestibular depth, maintain the keratinized gingival dimensions, and provide true tension-free closure. Thus, this flap could be ideal for any oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure in which tension-free, watertight closure is desired. PMID:24768423

Rosenfeld, Elisheva A

2014-07-01

148

Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

2013-11-01

149

Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

Sforzini, R. H.

1973-01-01

150

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...amendments to its low emission vehicle (LEV) program to address both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to...

2012-08-31

151

Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

Sforzini, R. H.

1972-01-01

152

Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months. PMID:24963257

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

2014-04-01

153

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

2014-01-01

154

Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

2014-01-01

155

Exploiting the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the delivery of donepezil hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of donepezil (DPZ) hydrochloride, and the impact of various skin penetration enhancers on DPZ buccal permeability, was assessed using an in vitro model. DPZ was applied to porcine buccal mucosa in modified Ussing chambers either alone (20 ?g/mL) or with different treatment protocols of various enhancers including Azone® (AZ), deoxycholic acid (DA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, and oleic acid (OA)-PEG 400. DPZ permeated the buccal mucosa very rapidly with a permeability coefficient of 35.6 ± 4.9 × 10(-6) cm/s, which was not significantly affected by AZ pretreatment. Coapplication of DA 0.6% (w/w), but not DA 0.01% (w/w), reduced the buccal permeation of DPZ (3.5-fold), and PEG 400 reduced the absorption of DPZ in a dose-dependent manner (1.6- and 18.0-fold reduction at 5% and 50%, w/w, PEG 400, respectively). Coapplication of a combination of OA 1% (v/w) and PEG 400 5% (w/w) further reduced DPZ permeability (5.5-fold), which was demonstrated to result from excipient-induced DPZ precipitation as assessed by light microscopy analysis. These results confirm the feasibility of a novel buccal delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, and suggest various approaches that may be exploited for controlled buccal delivery of DPZ. PMID:24687969

Caon, Thiago; Pan, Yijun; Simões, Cláudia M O; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

2014-06-01

156

Desenvolvimento motor na infância: influência dos fatores de risco e programas de intervenção Motor development in childhood: influence of the risk factors and intervention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivos. Fornecer informações quanto ao desenvolvimento motor infantil, especificar os fatores de risco ambientais e bio - lógicos que podem influenciar a seqüência típica do desenvolvi - mento, além de investigar os efeitos de programas de interven- ção motora. Método. Foi realizada a captação de publicações através de bancos de dados científicos eletrônicos (Medline, Pubmed e SciELO), além de

Aline Willrich; Camila Cavalcanti; Fatturi de Azevedo; Juliana Oppitz

157

Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

1992-01-01

158

Effect of mandibular molar anatomy on the buccal Class I cavity preparation.  

PubMed

In mandibular molars, enamel dramatically increases in thickness at the buccal pit area and progresses occlusally due to an extensive concavity in the buccal dentinal core. In order to comply with the principles of operative dentistry, this anatomic variance dictates that, if the ultimate restoration is to be placed in dentin, the axial wall of a Class I buccal pit preparation should incline medially rather than follow the external contour of the tooth. The occlusal cavosurface angle of the preparation should be obtuse to coincide with enamel rod direction. Retention, when needed, should be placed at the mesio-axial and disto-axial line angles to avoid undermining occlusal intercuspal enamel, especially as the preparation approaches 2 mm occlusal to the buccal pit. PMID:6348113

Re, G J; Pruitt, D; Childers, J M; Norling, B K

1983-09-01

159

Pharmacokinetic Characteristics, Efficacy, and Safety of Buccal Testosterone in Hypogonadal Males: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transbuccal administration of drugs provides an easy route of administration. To test the safety and efficacy of a novel testosterone (T) product, we performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-con- trolled study in a parallel design. Men with serum T levels below 250 ng\\/dL were administered either an active buccal tablet containing 10 mg T( n5 7) or a buccal placebo

ADRIAN S. DOBS; DONALD R. HOOVER; MIN-CHI CHEN; RICHARD ALLEN

160

Aphtose buccale r?cidivante, et si c'?tait une maladie coeliaque  

PubMed Central

L'aphtose buccale récidivante est une maladie le plus souvent bénigne mais parfois invalidante qui évolue de façon chronique et récidivante. Elle peut être isolée ou associé à d'autre pathologie, d'où l'intérêt de la recherche d'une maladie sous jacente. Nous rapportons le cas d'une aphtose buccale récidivante révélant une maladie coeliaque chez une patiente âgée de 45 ans. PMID:23077709

Zinelabidine, Kaoutar; Rhizlane, Idrissi; Meziane, Meriame; Zahra Mernissi, Fatima

2012-01-01

161

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

2014-01-01

162

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: a case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

2014-03-01

163

Use of Buccal Swabs for Sampling DNA from Nestling and Adult Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells from small (2- to 13-g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4- to 8-day-old) black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from 6 4-day-old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica).

COLLEEN M. HANDEL; LISA M. PAJOT; SANDRA L. TALBOT; GEORGE K. SAGE

2006-01-01

164

Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia  

PubMed Central

The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419

Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

2014-01-01

165

Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule  

PubMed Central

Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

166

Outcomes of Dorsal and Ventral Buccal Graft Urethroplasty at a Tertiary Hospital in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Although the use of buccal mucosa in substitution urethroplasty has been practiced for some years, it has not been free of controversy over which surgical technique is the most appropriate to use. There is paucity of data in Sub-Saharan Africa about its success; this study presents the outcomes of dorsal and ventral buccal graft urethroplasty at a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital. Methods. This is a prospective study in which buccal mucosa was used for ventral and dorsal grafts; followup was up to two years. All patients provided informed written consent for the procedures. Results. Seventy-two patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent buccal graft one-stage urethroplasty. Mean age was 55 years; etiology of the strictures was postinflammatory due to urethritis from sexually transmitted infections 97% (70/72) and trauma 3% (2/72). Buccal mucosa grafts were harvested from the cheek using a two-team approach. Grafts were placed on the ventral and dorsal urethral surfaces in 32 and 40 cases, respectively; the success rate was 84 and 80%, respectively. Repeated urethroplasty was successfully done among 10% (7/72) and patients reported resolution of symptoms in the follow-up period. Conclusion. There was no difference between dorsal and ventral onlay buccal graft outcomes for bulbar urethral strictures. The success rate was 80 to 84%. PMID:24944835

Kaggwa, S.; Galukande, M.; Dabanja, H.; Luweesi, H.

2014-01-01

167

In vitro peptide release from liquid crystalline buccal delivery systems.  

PubMed

Swelling and [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) release from the lamellar and cubic liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) were studied using two in vitro methods, a total immersion method and a Franz cell method. The swelling of the lamellar phase and glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w water content) and DADLE release from the liquid crystalline phases were temperature dependent. The swelling ratio was greater at 20 degrees C than 37 degrees C while DADLE release increased at 37 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C for both the lamellar and cubic phases. The water uptake increased dramatically with decreasing initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases. However, DADLE release increased with increasing initial water content, which corresponded to increased viscosity. The swelling and DADLE release profiles obtained using a Franz cell method with a moist nylon membrane to mimic buccal drug release conditions were slower than the total immersion method. These results show that the swelling and DADLE release strongly depended on temperature, the initial water content of the liquid crystalline matrix and the methodology employed for determining the swelling and DADLE release. PMID:10675679

Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

2000-02-15

168

Peptide washout and permeability from glyceryl monooleate buccal delivery systems.  

PubMed

Simultaneous evaluation of the permeation and washout of a peptide from the mucoadhesive liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been investigated using a donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell. [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) was incorporated into the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and applied to excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in the donor compartment flow-through cell. Phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS) was pumped across the upper surface of the liquid crystalline phases to mimic salivary flow. The steady-state fluxes of DADLE and GMO from the cubic phase were significantly greater than that from the lamellar phase (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the amounts of DADLE and GMO washed out from the lamellar and cubic phases (P > 0.05). The donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell was found to be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of salivary washout on mucoadhesive oral mucosal delivery systems. PMID:12455474

Lee, Jaehwi; Kellaway, Ian W

2002-10-01

169

Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.  

PubMed

We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem. PMID:17316239

Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

2007-03-01

170

Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient. PMID:24015022

Kurup, Seema; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Jose, Renju; Puthalath, Ushass

2013-01-01

171

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2011-07-01

172

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2013-07-01

174

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2014-07-01

175

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle...authority of section 348 of the National Highway Systems Designation Act of...

2010-07-01

176

Motor Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

2013-06-13

177

A Musical Approach to Motor-Sensory Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A motor-sensory training program was established to meet developmental motor needs of behaviorally disordered children (6 to 8 years old). Most of the children had motor deficiencies, as well as diagnosed learning disabilities, and some children were entered in the program not because of motor deficiencies but because of their extreme motor

deVincentis, Sarah; Johnson, Linda

178

Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy  

PubMed Central

Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r?=?0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P?=?.001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

2014-01-01

179

Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3914-3923, 2014. PMID:25336429

Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

2014-12-01

180

Permeation of 17beta-estradiol through human vaginal and buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Because of the relative scarcity of fresh human oral mucosa specimens for permeability studies, we investigated the use of human vaginal mucosa as a model of the former. In a previous study we demonstrated the comparable diffusion rate of water across human vaginal and buccal mucosa and proposed the use of the former as a suitable model of the latter for in vitro drug permeability studies. To further evaluate the human vaginal/buccal mucosa model, we decided to compare these two tissues with respect to their permeability to 17beta-estradiol. Clinically healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa specimens were obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and different oral surgical procedures. The permeability of each tissue specimen to 17beta-estradiol was determined through the use of a continuous flow-through diffusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after experiments. Mean flux values for 17beta-estradiol across human buccal mucosa tended to be slightly higher than those observed for vaginal tissue, but no statistically significant differences could be demonstrated. The results from this study further support our hypothesis that human vaginal mucosa may be a suitable model of human buccal mucosa for in vitro drug permeability studies. PMID:9574947

van der Bijl, P; van Eyk, A D; Thompson, I O

1998-04-01

181

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. PRESENTATION OF CASE 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. DISCUSSION Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. CONCLUSION The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. PMID:24727208

Dereci, Omur; Cimen, Emre

2014-01-01

182

The course of the buccal nerve: relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe the course of the buccal nerve and its relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period. Serial sections of 90 human fetal specimens ranging from 9 to 17 wk development were studied by light microscopy. Each fetal specimen was studied on both right and left sides, making a total of 180 cases for study. A 3-D reconstruction of the region analysed in one of the specimens was made. In 89 cases the buccal nerve was located medial to the temporalis muscle; in 73 cases it penetrated the muscle; in 15 cases it lay in a canal formed by the muscle fibres and was covered by fascia, and finally, in 3 cases it was a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The study has revealed that in a large number of cases the buccal nerve maintains an intimate association with the temporalis muscle. PMID:11327204

MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. R.; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, J. F.; CUADRA, C.; MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. A.; JIMÉNEZ-COLLADO, J.

2001-01-01

183

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the right buccal region: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare malignant cartilaginous tumor arising from the soft tissues. The most common areas of extraskeletal origin are the lower extremities, the orbits and the central nervous system, among others. In this study, the case of primary EMCS arising from the right buccal region in a 26-year old female is presented. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EMCS. Subseqently, the patient was treated with radical surgery, but declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which was recommended. One year after surgery, no recurrence had been identified in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of primary EMCS of the buccal region has been reported previously. In the current study, a case of primary EMCS of the buccal region is presented. PMID:25364427

YU, LIJIANG; LI, MINGLIANG; LIN, RUNTAI; MU, YUE; ZHAO, JIZHI

2014-01-01

184

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum-based bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches of zolmitriptan.  

PubMed

A novel bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patch of zolmitriptan was prepared using xanthan gum (XG) as mucoadhesive polymer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E-15 was used as film-former and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was incorporated, to increase the tensile strength of the patches. To study the effect of independent variables viz. concentrations of XG and PVA, on various dependent variables like in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and swelling index, 3(2) factorial design was employed. In vitro drug release studies of optimized formulation showed initially, rapid drug release; 43.15% within 15 min, followed by sustained release profile over 5h. Incorporation of 4% dimethyl sulfoxide enhanced drug permeability by 3.29 folds, transported 29.10% of drug after 5h and showed no buccal mucosal damage after histopathological studies. In conclusion, XG can be used as a potential drug release modifier and mucoadhesive polymer for successful formulation of zolmitriptan buccal patches. PMID:24299896

Shiledar, Rewathi R; Tagalpallewar, Amol A; Kokare, Chandrakant R

2014-01-30

185

Evaluation of methyl methacrylate monomer cytotoxicity in dental lab technicians using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

PubMed

Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, a primary component of dental resins, is known to induce cytotoxicity, dermatitis, and neuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of dental technicians exposed to MMA using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay. The Risk Group (RG=13) consisted of all the technicians working in the prosthetic production laboratory of KKU-College of Dentistry. The Control Group (CG=14) consisted of healthy students and doctors matching the age of RG subjects. Buccal mucosa scrapes obtained from all the 27 RG and CG subjects were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (100×) for the presence of MN. There were no significant differences in the incidence of MN between RG and CG (p>0.05). PMID:23719017

Azhar, Dawasaz Ali; Syed, Sadatullah; Luqman, Master; Ali, Assiry A

2013-01-01

186

Altered cytological parameters in buccal cells from individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be reflective of the early stages of more pronounced neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a need for a minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic to identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of MCI and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary preventative measures. The hypothesis was that a minimally invasive approach using cytological markers in isolated buccal mucosa cells can be used to identify individuals of both MCI and AD. An automated buccal cell assay was developed using laser scanning cytometry (LSC) to measure buccal cell type ratios, nuclear DNA content and shape, and neutral lipid content of buccal cells from clinically diagnosed AD (n?=?13) and MCI (n?=?13) patients prior to treatment compared to age- and gender-matched controls (n?=?26). DNA content was significantly higher in all cell types in both MCI (P?2N nuclei. Abnormal nuclear shape (circularity) was significantly increased in transitional cells in MCI (P?buccal cells was significantly lower in the MCI group (P?buccal basal cells for both MCI and AD was significantly higher compared to the control group, with ratios for MCI being approximately 2.8-fold greater (P?buccal cell DNA content and ORO content in the AD group (r(2) ?=?0.75, P?buccal cell cytome observed in this study could prove useful as potential biomarkers in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:24616437

François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Hecker, Jane; Faunt, Jeffrey; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

2014-08-01

187

The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.  

PubMed

The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

2012-05-01

188

New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre-and postmetamorphic tadpoles  

E-print Network

of the breathing control in amphibians, characterized by a developmental transition from water breathing to air1 New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO2 sensitivity in pre of the motoneuron recruitment in postmetamorphic tadpoles. KEYWORDS Amphibian buccal ventilation, central CO2

189

Perceptual Motor Activities in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for parents, the guide offers instructions for home activities to supplement the school program for children with perceptual motor disturbances. An individual program sheet is provided; behavioral characteristics and the child's need for structure are explained. Activities detailed include motor planning, body image, fine motor

Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

190

75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...Transportation to establish a Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2010-05-25

191

75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...State safety agencies, motor carriers, motor carrier associations, owner-operators...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2010-01-19

192

Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs  

PubMed Central

Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds. PMID:21753876

Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

2011-01-01

193

MotorMaster+: an energy-efficient motor selection and energy management tool for the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

MotorMaster and MotorMaster+ software programs are distributed by the US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program with development and support furnished by the Washington State University Cooperative Extension Energy Program in conjunction with the Bonneville Power Administration. Following a brief description of the Motor Challenge Program, this paper discusses MotorMaster (DOS format), which is used by many within pulp and

G. A. McCoy; J. A. Rooks; V. C. Tutterow

1997-01-01

194

Impact of New Federal Efficiency Performance Standards on the Industrial Motor Marketplace  

E-print Network

the motor marketplace. In part, this confusion lead to the development of NEMA’s Premium® label, which has since helped guide motor purchasers to buy efficient motors. As a companion activity, the awareness program Motor Decisions Matter was established...

Elliott, R. N.

195

The buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of risperidone.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of the buccal mucosa for the systemic delivery of risperidone (RISP), and to determine the impact of Azone® (AZ) on the transport of RISP via this route. The permeability of RISP through porcine buccal mucosa was assessed in modified Ussing chambers at various concentrations to determine the mechanisms involved in transport across the tissue. The effect of AZ was assessed by administering AZ 5% (w/w) to the tissue as a pretreatment or together with RISP in solution or in a mucoadhesive gel formulation. RISP permeated the buccal mucosa via a passive diffusion mechanism and pretreatment or coadministration of AZ 5% did not significantly modify the permeation of RISP. Application of a RISP mucoadhesive gel resulted in a steady state flux of 64.65 ± 8.0?µg/cm(2)/h, which when extrapolated to the in vivo setting, is predicted to result in RISP plasma concentrations of 11.2-56.1?µg/L for mucosal application areas between 2 and 10 cm(2). Given that these predicted concentrations are within the therapeutic range of RISP required in humans, delivery of RISP via the buccal mucosa has the potential to result in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20845457

Heemstra, Lars B; Finnin, Barrie C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

2010-11-01

196

Comparisons of norcantharidin cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells and normal buccal keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norcantharidin (NCTD) is the demethylated analogue of cantharidin. In this study, multi-parameter assessments of morphological alterations, clonogenic efficiency, cell growth curves, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand break were employed to determine and compare the cytotoxic effects of NCTD on oral cancer KB cell line and normal buccal keratinocytes. The results showed NCTD induced significant cytotoxicity in KB cells after 24

S. H Kok; C. Y Hong; M. Y. P Kuo; C. H. K Lee; J. J Lee; I. U Lou; M. S Lee; M Hsiao; S. K Lin

2003-01-01

197

Genotyping of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Following Whole Genome Preamplification of DNA Collected from Buccal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of genomic DNA from buccal cells is a simple and convenient procedure for genotyping individuals. One disadvantage is that the amount of genomic DNA may be inadequate for genotyping projects that require a large number of determinations per sample. Primer Extension Preamplification (PEP) methods that can amplify the entire genome 100-fold or more offer a potential solution to this

Brett C. Haberstick; Andrew Smolen

2004-01-01

198

Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs  

PubMed Central

This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200?g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2014-01-01

199

Human vaginal mucosa as a model of buccal mucosa for in vitro permeability studies: an overview.  

PubMed

The buccal cavity is attractive for noninvasive, controlled transmucosal delivery of both local and systemic therapeutically active compounds. Administering drugs via this route is advantageous due to the rich vasculature of the oral mucosa, and the absence of gastrointestinal and "first-pass" hepatic degradation. Moreover, the barrier properties of the oral mucosa against noxious substances and its role in disease require further investigation. However, the scarcity of sizeable specimens of human oral mucosa for in vitro experimental studies has hampered research on this tissue. For this reason we developed a model in which human vaginal mucosa is used as a substitute for buccal mucosa. In this article the quality and predictive value of the human vaginal/buccal in vitro model with respect to a number of drugs and other chemical compounds differing widely in molecular size and lipophilicity, including water, arecoline, arecaidine, benzo[a]pyrene, 17beta-estradiol, sumatriptan, vasopressin and dextrans, are reviewed. In addition some applications of the model for investigating the effect of areca nut extract on epithelial barrier properties, temperature effects on water and 17beta-estradiol flux rates, and cyclosporin diffusion through mucosal membranes are described. The permeability characteristics of vaginal mucosa, as a model of buccal mucosa, are compared with those of other human tissue, including mucosae from the small intestine and colon. PMID:16305378

van der Bijl, Pieter; van Eyk, Armorel D

2004-04-01

200

Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk. PMID:24959316

Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

2014-01-01

201

Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in Spain. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal). Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. Results Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of €5.4 million. Conclusion The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by €29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet. PMID:24368889

Darba, Josep; Kaskens, Lisette; Sanchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

2014-01-01

202

Motor Starters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

1986-01-01

203

Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane) was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score?=?10.82(SD2.96)). Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8) and a significant correlation (r?=?0.67; p?Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level) have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component ‘client-centred’ and ‘exercise progression’ may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research. PMID:22747894

2012-01-01

204

Fetal developmental change in topographical relationship between the human lateral pterygoid muscle and buccal nerve.  

PubMed

In adults, the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) is usually divided into the upper and lower heads, between which the buccal nerve passes. Using sagittal or horizontal sections of 14 fetuses and seven embryos (five specimens at approximately 20-25 weeks; five at 14-16 weeks; four at 8 weeks; seven at 6-7 weeks), we examined the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve. In large fetuses later than 15 weeks, the upper head of the LPM was clearly discriminated from the lower head. However, the upper head was much smaller than the lower head in the smaller fetuses. Thus, in the latter, the upper head was better described as an 'anterior slip' extending from the lower head or the major muscle mass to the anterior side of the buccal nerve. The postero-anterior nerve course seemed to be determined by a branch to the temporalis muscle (i.e. the anterior deep temporal nerve). At 8 weeks, the buccal nerve passed through the roof of the small, fan-like LPM. At 6-7 weeks, the LPM anlage was embedded between the temporobuccal nerve trunk and the inferior alveolar nerve. Therefore, parts of the LPM were likely to 'leak' out of slits between the origins of the mandibular nerve branches at 7-8 weeks, and seemed to grow in size during weeks 14-20 and extend anterosuperiorly along the infratemporal surface of the prominently developing greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Consequently, the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve appeared to 'change' during fetal development due to delayed development of the upper head. PMID:22352373

Katori, Y; Yamamoto, M; Asakawa, S; Maki, H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G; Abe, S

2012-04-01

205

Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%). To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA). The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient's facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

PITHON, Matheus Melo; da MATA, Kayure Rocha; ROCHA, Karina Silva; COSTA, Brenda do Nascimento; NEVES, Fernando; BARBOSA, George Caique Gouveia; COQUEIRO, Raildo da Silva

2014-01-01

206

Anesthetic Efficacy Of Buccal And Lingual Infiltrations Of Lidocaine Following An Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block In Mandibular Posterior Teeth  

PubMed Central

The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 sets of injections: an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus a mock buccal and a mock lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar, an IANB plus a buccal infiltration and a mock lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar, and an IANB plus a mock buccal infiltration and a lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used to test for anesthesia of the premolars and molars in 3-minute cycles for 60 minutes. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes following completion of the injection sets, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 53 to 74% from the second molar to second premolar. For the IANB plus buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 57 to 69% from the second molar to second premolar. For the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 54 to 76% from the second molar to second premolar. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in anesthetic success between the IANB plus buccal or lingual infiltrations and the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration. We conclude that adding a buccal or lingual infiltration of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine to an IANB did not significantly increase anesthetic success in mandibular posterior teeth. PMID:18085837

Foster, William; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

2007-01-01

207

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

208

Motor Bird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a bird that flies in place with help from a motor, wire, and some straws. This engineering activity introduces learners to circuits and motors, automata, and rotational motion. Note: a drill and drill bit are required for this project, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

209

AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, AC Motors, is the thirteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Synchronous Motors, Tesla polyphase induction motors; Wound rotor induction motors; and Selsyn (synchro) motors. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-04

210

Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

Pyfer, Jean L.

211

Stepper motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

Dekramer, Cornelis

1994-01-01

212

Motor Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

1988-01-01

213

A comparative light-microscopic, electron-microscopic and chemical study of human vaginal and buccal epithelium.  

PubMed

The scarcity of sizeable specimens of normal oral mucosa for experimental purposes has hampered research on oral epithelium. Because large specimens of viable human vaginal mucosa are readily available and because vaginal and buccal epithelia are microscopically similar, vaginal mucosa has been used successfully to establish a human cyst model in experimental animals. The ultrastructure and distribution of keratin filaments in these epithelia are also similar, as is their permeability to water and a number of chemical substances. Therefore, if vaginal mucosa could be substituted for buccal mucosa it would expedite research on the epithelium of buccal mucosa. To strengthen further the concept that vaginal epithelium could replace buccal epithelium in certain experimental studies, the thickness of these epithelia, their patterns of surface keratinization, the presence or absence of intercellular lipid lamellae and their lipid contents were now compared. Thirty-three specimens of vaginal mucosa from postmenopausal women and 36 of buccal mucosa were investigated. To compare the thickness of the epithelial layers the number of cell layers in sections of 20 vaginal and 20 buccal mucosal specimens were counted in the three thickest and three thinnest regions of each specimen. Surface keratinization was evaluated on sections stained with the Picro-Mallory method. To demonstrate lipid lamellae two vaginal and two buccal mucosa specimens were examined electron microscopically after normal fixation and postfixation in ruthenium tetroxide. Following solvent extraction of 11 vaginal and 14 buccal epithelia, quantitative lipid analyses were performed using thin-layer chromatography. No statistically significant differences were found between the maximum and minimum number of epithelial cell layers. The patterns of surface keratinization and the distribution and appearance of the lipid lamellae in the intercellular spaces were similar. The lipid composition of the two epithelia corresponded, except for the cholesterol esters and glycosylceramides, which were higher in buccal epithelium. Ceramides for vaginal epithelium and triglycerides for buccal epithelium were not determined. Based on structural similarities, a similar lipid composition and earlier findings, it is concluded that vaginal epithelium can be used as a substitute for buccal epithelium in certain in vitro, and possibly for in vivo, studies. PMID:11684027

Thompson, I O; van der Bijl, P; van Wyk, C W; van Eyk, A D

2001-12-01

214

Preparation of High Yields of Algal Protoplasts Using Buccal Juice of Sea Hare and Commercial Cellulase.  

PubMed

; Buccal juice of the sea hare Aplysia juliana was found to degrade algal polysaccharides. The optimal enzyme composition for protoplast preparation from Undaria pinnatifida was protein at 48 µg/ml buccal juice from sea hare, 10 mg/ml cellulase Onozuka-RS, 0.4 M NaCl, 0.8 M sorbitol, 2 mg/ml dextran sulfate sodium salt, and 1 µl/ml 2-mercaptoethanol in 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0). Protoplasts of Eisenia bicyclis, Endarachne binghamiae (Phaeophyta), and Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) could also be prepared in a similar manner. Yields of these protoplasts were about 10(7) cells per gram of fresh weight alga. PMID:10489421

Wakabayashi; Kuboi; Tuboi; Kaji; Hara

1999-07-01

215

Buccal microRNA dysregulation in lung field carcinogenesis: Gender-specific implications  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be reliable early biomarkers in a variety of cancers including that of lung. We ascertained whether the biomarker potential of miRNAs could be validated in microscopically normal and easily accessible buccal epithelial brushings from cigarette smokers as a consequence of lung cancer linked ‘field carcinogenesis’. We found that compared to neoplasia-free subjects, a panel of 68 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 downregulated in the normal appearing buccal mucosal cells collected from patients harboring lung cancer (n=76). The performance characteristics of selected miRNAs (with ?1-fold change) were excellent with an average under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of >0.80. Several miRNAs also displayed gender specificity between the groups. These results provide the first proof-of-concept scenario in which minimally intrusive cheek brushings could provide an initial screening tool in a large at-risk population. PMID:24919547

WALI, RAMESH K.; HENSING, THOMAS A.; RAY, DANIEL W.; DELA CRUZ, MART; TIWARI, ASHISH K.; RADOSEVICH, ANDREW; JEPEAL, LISA; FERNANDO, HIRAN C.; LITLE, VIRGINIA R.; CHARLOT, MARJORY; MOMI, NAVNEET; BACKMAN, VADIM; ROY, HEMANT K.

2014-01-01

216

Adult human buccal epithelial stem cells: identification, ex-vivo expansion, and transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo identify adult human buccal epithelial stem cells (SCs) on the basis of two parameters (high p63 expression and greater nucleus\\/cytoplasmic (N\\/C) ratio) and to evaluate clinical efficacy of ex-vivoexpanded autologous epithelium in bilateral limbal SC-deficient (LSCD) patients.MethodsThe epithelial cells were isolated from buccal biopsy and cultured on human amnion in culture inserts with 3T3 feeder layer. The SCs were

C G Priya; P Arpitha; S Vaishali; N V Prajna; K Usha; K Sheetal; V Muthukkaruppan

2011-01-01

217

Development and in vitro evaluation of a buccal drug delivery system based on preactivated thiolated pectin.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of preactivated thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) for buccal drug delivery. Therefore, a gel formulation containing this novel polymer and the model drug lidocaine was prepared and investigated in vitro in terms of rheology, mucoadhesion, swelling behavior and drug release in comparison to formulations based on pectin (Pec) and thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys). Both pectin derivatives showed gel formation without addition of any other excipient due to self-crosslinking thiol groups. Under same conditions, pectin did not show gel formation. Viscosity of Pec-Cys-based formulation increased 92-fold and viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulations by 4958-fold compared to pectin-based formulation. Gels did not dissolve in aqueous environment during several hours and were able to take up water. Mucoadhesion of pectin on buccal tissue could be improved significantly, value of total work of adhesion increased in the following rank order: Pec-Cys-MNA?>?Pec-Cys?>?Pec. The retention time of a model drug incorporated in gel formulations on buccal mucosa under continuous rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline was prolonged, after 1.5?h 3-fold higher amount of a model drug was to be found on tissue after application of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulation compared to pectin-based and 2-fold compared to Pec-Cys-based formulation. The Pec-Cys-MNA-based gel showed a more sustained release of lidocaine than Pec-Cys-based gel, whereas pectin solution revealed an immediate release. According to these results, the self-crosslinking pectin-derivative is a promising tool for buccal application. PMID:24025071

Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Müller, Christiane; Ohm, Moritz; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2014-11-01

218

Formulation and Evaluation of Bioadhesive Buccal Drug Delivery of Tizanidine Hydrochloride Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aim was concerned with formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride\\u000a tablets, which is extensively metabolized by liver. The tablets were prepared by direct compression using bioadhesive polymers\\u000a such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose alone, and a combination of these two polymers.\\u000a In order to improve the permeation of drug, different permeation

Gazzi Shanker; Chegonda K. Kumar; Chandra Sekhara Rao Gonugunta; B. Vijaya Kumar; Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy

2009-01-01

219

Pharmacokinetics of albuterol and butorphanol administered intravenously and via a buccal patch  

E-print Network

mechanisms could minimize these problems. The pharmaceutical industry has recognized the need for, and has developed many new, novel drug delivery systems. Drugs that previously had decreased effective concentrations can be given by novel routes, reducing... collected and analyzed by ELISA. Values for pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental modeling. iv For albuterol, extrapolated Cmax and Co after buccal and IV administration were 10.28 ± 2.77 and 57.74 ± 9.04 ng/ml, respectively...

Vaughan, Deirdre Faye

2004-09-30

220

Polymeric Films as Vehicle for Buccal Delivery: Swelling, Mechanical, and Bioadhesive Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the suitability of an SCMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose\\/polyethylene glycol 400\\/carbopol 934P) and an HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose\\/polyethylene glycol 400\\/carbopol 934P) films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery. Methods. The mechanical and in vitro bioadhesive strength properties of the films were investigated using texture analyzer equipment, while swelling behavior was studied in different media, namely, distilled water and simulated

Choy Fun Wong

1999-01-01

221

The use of bipaddled submental flap for reconstructing composite buccal defect.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of full-thickness buccal defect is challenging as two linings need to be addressed. Either two different flaps or double-paddle for one free flaps are necessary for this defect. The prolonged operation might not be tolerated by patients because of advanced age or medical comorbidity. A 77-year-old gentleman, with significant medical comorbidity, presented with a 4.0 × 4.5 cm ulcerative mass due to squamous cell carcinoma arising from the left buccal mucosa. The tumor extended to the left cheek skin. There was no palpable neck node. CT scan did not show any bony erosion or suspicious neck node. Full-thickness resection of the tumour was undertaken. For the full-thickness buccal defect, a bi-paddled pedicled submental flap after de-epithelialization of the flap skin was used for both the cutaneous and mucosal resurfacing. The flap survived completely and patient recovered smoothly. The surgery is simple and operation time is much shorter than free flap reconstruction. This modified utilization of submental flap simplifies the closure of complicated oro-facial wound. PMID:24644402

Chow, Tam-Lin; Choi, Chi-Yee; Ho, Lai-In; Fung, Siu-Chung

2014-03-01

222

Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.  

PubMed

The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

2014-10-01

223

Preparation and evaluation of ritodrine buccal tablets for rational therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Ritodrine hydrochloride (RD-HCl) tablets containing alginate (AL) and lactose (LC) with or without microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients were produced as a buccal dosage form. The RD-HCl (2 mg) tablets with AL/LC but no MC swelled and dissolved gradually in the in vitro dissolution test. The tablet showing the fastest dissolution and highest drug release rate, called Tablet A1, was selected as a tablet to show rapid and prolonged absorption. However, in the in vivo buccal absorption test using rats, it could not give a plasma concentration over the human minimal effective level (15 ng/mL). The modified tablet containing AL, LC, MC and RD-HCl (4 mg), named Tablet B/MC, showed better hardness and faster drug release. Tablet B/MC gave a plasma concentration over the human effective level within 15 min, and the plasma concentration was maintained at >15 ng/mL over 4 h. Moreover, the deconvolution analyses demonstrated that a prolonged high absorption rate could be achieved in vivo best with Tablet B/MC. Tablet B/MC improved the pharmacokinetic profile in comparison with Tablet A1 and the solution dosage form. The RD-HCl buccal tablets with AL, LC and MC as excipients are suggested to be possibly useful for the treatment of premature labor. PMID:24709218

Onishi, Hiraku; Yumoto, Kei; Sakata, Osamu

2014-07-01

224

Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer  

PubMed Central

A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice. PMID:24137377

QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

225

Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital. PMID:23641166

Ulgey, Ayse; Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

2012-01-01

226

Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

2012-01-01

227

Angiokeratoma circumscriptum of the buccal mucosa: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Angiokeratoma is a benign cutaneous lesion of the capillaries, presenting as dilated vessels in the upper part of the dermis. Although this disorder is classified into various types and has been occasionally reported in the skin of the scrotum or extremities, the involvement of the oral cavity mucosa has been rarely reported. The present study reports a case of angiokeratoma circumscriptum in the buccal mucosa. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and both of its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the endothelial cells lining the dilated vessels. The expression of VEGFR-2 was higher than that of VEGFR-1 in the endothelial cells in the lesion, indicating an increased rate of endothelial cell proliferation within the lesion. Interestingly, some of the endothelial cells co-expressed VEGF and its two receptors. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the pathologically dilated vessels possess VEGF autocrine growth activity involved in vasculogenesis and maintenance in angiokeratoma lesions. To our knowledge, this is the second report published on isolated oral angiokeratoma confined to the buccal mucosa and the first case report on angiokeratoma circumscriptum involving the buccal mucosa. PMID:25368837

Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho

2014-01-01

228

Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five “large” motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four “small” premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns transmitted to the myocardium. PMID:21775716

Garcia-Crescioni, Keyla

2011-01-01

229

Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the  

E-print Network

Conversion of Working Memory to Motor Sequence in the Monkey Premotor Cortex Machiko Ohbayashi or movement sequences, appear to mediate the generation of a motor program from the maintained information stimuli (1, 2). Motor planning is carried out in motor-related areas that include the dorsal premotor

Miyashita, Yasushi

230

Meaningfulness of mean group results for determining the optimal motor rehabilitation program for an individual child with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

As research on the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions to improve motor functioning in cerebral palsy (CP) has accumulated and been incorporated into systematic reviews, the foundation for evidence-based practice in CP is growing. To determine whether an intervention is effective, clinical trials report mean group differences. However, even if a statistically significant mean group effect is found, this does not imply that this intervention was effective for each study participant or ensure positive outcomes for all with CP. A personalized approach to medical care is currently being advocated based primarily on increasingly recognized genetic variations in individual responses to medications and other therapies. A similar approach is also warranted, and perhaps more justifiable, in CP which includes a heterogeneous group of disorders. Even interventions deemed highly effective in CP demonstrate a range of individual responses along a continuum from a negative or negligible response to a strong positive effect, the bases for which remain incompletely understood. This narrative review recommends that the next critical step in advancing evidence-based practice is to implement research strategies to identify patient factors that predict treatment responses so we can not only answer the question 'what works', but also 'what works best, for whom'. PMID:24919877

Damiano, Diane L

2014-12-01

231

Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

A study was done to examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions. One hundred and twenty cases presenting with convulsions to emergency were treated randomly with either buccal midazolam (in a dose of 0.2mg/kg) or intravenous diazepam (in a dose of 0.3mg/kg). Partial seizures, generalized tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic convulsions were included irrespective of duration or cause. One episode per child only was included. The frequency of overall control of convulsive episodes within 5 min were 85% and 93.3% in buccal midazolam and intravenous diazepam groups, respectively; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (p=0.142). The mean time needed for controlling the convulsive episodes after administration of the drugs was significantly less with intravenous diazepam (p=<0.001). The mean time for initiation of treatment was significantly less with buccal midazolam (p=<0.001). The mean time for controlling the convulsive episodes after noticing these first were significantly less with buccal midazolam than with intravenous diazepam (p=0.004) that is likely to be due to longer time needed for initiating treatment with intravenous diazepam in preparing the injection and establishing an IV line. There was no significant side effect in both the groups. The findings suggest that buccal midazolam can be used as an alternative to intravenous diazepam especially when getting an IV line becomes difficult. In situations where establishing an IV line is a problem, buccal midazolam may be the first choice. PMID:19114297

Talukdar, Bibek; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

2009-11-01

232

Saving energy with efficient motors and systems  

SciTech Connect

In industrial and commercial facilities, motor-driven systems are responsible for as much as 70 percent of a building`s electric consumption. For some industries--such as pulp and paper or textiles--motor system electricity consumption can approach 90 percent of the industry`s total. But with energy-efficient motors and motor systems one could cut down on energy costs while improving the efficiency of systems and reducing equipment maintenance. In Wisconsin, the Responsible Power Management Program is demonstrating the benefits of using energy-efficient motors and creating efficient motor systems. By working with Wisconsin`s companies, RPM is helping industries improve their production while saving energy--and money. Sharing what the authors have learned and taught about efficient motors and motor systems could help one make good energy efficiency choices for one`s company.

Prestil, A.L.; Wroblewski, R.G. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

233

Motor Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

1984-01-01

234

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

235

Premium Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

Moser, P. R.

1984-01-01

236

Determination of dependencies among in vitro and in vivo properties of prepared mucoadhesive buccal films using multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive films represent the most developed medical form of buccal application. Despite the intense focus on buccal film-based systems, there are no standardized methods for their evaluation, which limits the possibility of comparison of obtained data and evaluation of the significance of influence of formulation and process variables on properties of resulting films. The used principal component analysis, together with a partial least squares regression provided a unique insight into the effects of in vitro parameters of mucoadhesive buccal films on their in vivo properties and into interdependencies among the studied variables. In the present study eight various mucoadhesive buccal films based on mucoadhesive polymers (carmellose, polyethylene oxide) were prepared using a solvent casting method or a method of impregnation, respectively. An ethylcellulose or hydrophobic blend of white beeswax and white petrolatum were used as a backing layer. The addition of polyethylene oxide prolonged the in vivo film residence time (from 53.24±5.38-74.18±5.13 min to 71.05±3.15-98.12±1.75 min), and even more when combined with an ethylcellulose backing layer (98.12±1.75 min) and also improved the film's appearance. Tested non-woven textile shortened the in vivo film residence time (from 74.18±5.13-98.12±1.75 min to 53.24±5.38-81.00±8.47 min) and generally worsened the film's appearance. Mucoadhesive buccal films with a hydrophobic backing layer were associated with increased frequency of adverse effects. PMID:24333664

Vetchý, David; Landová, Hana; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr; Dan?k, Zden?k; Štembírek, Jan

2014-04-01

237

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive buccal oxytocin tablet prepared with Dillenia indica fruit mucilage.  

PubMed

Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBT) of oxytocin were prepared as core in cup fashion to release the drug unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa. Adhesive cups were prepared with a mucilage isolated from edible Dillenia indica fruits (DIM). Shear, tensile and peel strengths of prepared adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using permeation enhancers viz. sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBT were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 mL of phosphate buffer pH 6.6 at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa. In vivo studies on anaesthetized New Zealand albino male rabbits were conducted and drug levels in plasma were estimated at 220 nm by reverse phase HPLC using BDS Hypersil C8 column using acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 6.6 (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/ min. Optimized formulation showed C(max), T(max), t1/2 and AUC(total), 688 pg/mL, 2 h, 0.079 h, and 1999.72 h x pg/mL respectively. The NMBT containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 27% bioavailability without damaging the buccal mucosasuggesting its suitability as an alternative to noninvasive administration of oxytocin. PMID:18468385

Metia, P K; Bandyopadhyay, A K

2008-04-01

238

Clinical utility of chromosomal microarray analysis of DNA from buccal cells: detection of mosaicism in three patients.  

PubMed

Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities are relatively common. However, mosaicism may be missed due to multiple factors including failure to recognize clinical indications and order appropriate testing, technical limitations of diagnostic assays, or sampling tissue (s) in which mosaicism is either not present, or present at very low levels. Blood leukocytes have long been the "gold standard" sample for cytogenetic analysis; however, the culturing process for routine chromosome analysis can complicate detection of mosaicism since the normal cell line may have a growth advantage in culture, or may not be present in the cells that produce metaphases (the lymphocytes). Buccal cells are becoming increasingly utilized for clinical analyses and are proving to have many advantages. Buccal swabs allow for simple and noninvasive DNA collection. When coupled with a chromosomal microarray that contains single nucleotide polymorphic probes, analysis of buccal cells can maximize a clinician's opportunity to detect cytogenetic mosaicism. We present three cases of improved diagnosis of mosaic aberrations using buccal specimens for chromosomal microarray analysis. In each case, the aberration was either undetectable in blood or present at such a low level it likely could have gone undetected. These cases highlight the limitations of certain laboratory methodologies for identifying mosaicism. We also present practice implications for genetic counselors, including clinic workflow changes and counseling approaches based on increasing use of buccal samples. PMID:25120037

Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Baldwin, Erin E; South, Sarah T; Rope, Alan F; Allen, William P; Kearney, Hutton

2014-12-01

239

Minor salivary gland mucinous adenocarcinoma of buccal mucosa - case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract but head and neck localisations are very rare. This article presents the case of a 67-year-old patient suffering from a minor salivary gland MAC of the left buccal mucosa, who was treated in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in Krakow due to multiple recurrences of the tumour. The results of immunohistochemical staining, the course of surgical treatment and follow-up, as well as a review of literature are also discussed. PMID:24375048

Wyszy?ska-Pawelec, G; Koryczan, P; Zapa?a, J; Gontarz, M; Opach, M; Ku?nierz, P; Kosowski, B; Adamek, D

2013-12-01

240

Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.  

PubMed

Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

2014-08-18

241

Carcinoma buccal mucosa underlying a giant cutaneous horn: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology. PMID:25133002

Kumar, Sunil; Bijalwan, Priyank; Saini, Sunil K

2014-01-01

242

Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology. PMID:25133002

Bijalwan, Priyank; Saini, Sunil K.

2014-01-01

243

Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

2000-05-01

244

Achieving A Long Term Business Impact by Improving the Energy Effectiveness and Reliability of Electric Motors  

E-print Network

capability. The Corporate Motor Technology Team (CMTT) conceived and led a program to optimize the cost effectiveness and reliability of new motors and developed criteria to determine whether to repair or replace motors that fail. The higher energy efficiency...

Whelan, C. D.

245

78 FR 32295 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC); Public Meetings of the CSA and Motorcoach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2013-05-29

246

77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2012-10-03

247

77 FR 69918 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2012-11-21

248

78 FR 17751 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA exemptions allowing motor carriers to use windshield-mounted...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2013-03-22

249

78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA announces that the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee's...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2013-01-24

250

A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet.  

PubMed

Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH "pumping" mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

Freye, Enno

2008-01-01

251

Buccal smear  

MedlinePLUS

... analysis, most often for genetic testing. The International Olympic Committee adopted the test many years ago to help detect male imposters among female athletes. When the test is used in this way, ...

252

Development of a buccal mucoadhesive film for fast dissolution: mathematical rationale, production and physicochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Abstract The validity of a mathematical rationale for preparation of a fast-dissolving buccal mucoadhesive was tested. A buccal mucoadhesive biopolymeric formulation has been developed having pullulan as the main component. The formulation was duly evaluated physicochemically, via assays for intrinsic viscosity (resulting in 71.61?cm(3)?g(-1)), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (resulting in a Tg?=?63?°C), thermogravimetric analysis (244-341?°C), moisture content determinations (14%, w/w), dissolution timeframe (41.6?s), mucoadhesion force (40?kg/cm(2)), scanning electron microscopy analyses (critical ray under 1.0??m), mechanic strength (tensile strength?=?58?N/mm(2), deformation?=?4.4%). The mucoadhesive formulation exhibited important characteristics for a drug carrier, that is, a 6?cm(2) area, a fast dissolution timeframe, an adequate mucoadhesivity, resistance to both oxygen and water vapor penetration, increased viscosity in solution (ranging from 33.2?cm(3)/g to 71.61?cm(3)/g), easy molding, suitable water solubility and transparency. PMID:24191772

Vila, Marta M D C; Tardelli, Edgard R; Chaud, Marco V; Tubino, Matthieu; Balcão, Victor M

2014-11-01

253

Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2014-01-01

254

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the upper lip with metachronous myoepithelioma of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Examples of multiple minor salivary gland tumors, synchronous or metachronous, are uncommon. We report a patient who initially presented with polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and subsequently with myoepithelioma. A 91-year-old white woman presented in 2009 with a 1-cm, firm, nontender, well-circumscribed nodule of the left side of the upper lip extending to the anterior buccal mucosa. Excisional biopsy revealed PLGA. While the margins were positive, further treatment was not recommended due to the patient's age. In 2011, the patient returned with a 1.5-cm, asymptomatic mass of the left buccal vestibule. Excision of the lesion revealed a circumscribed proliferation of epithelioid and plasmacytoid cells arranged in spherical or whorl-like islands and immersed in a mucinous stroma, consistent with myoepithelioma. The PLGA recurred 3 years after initial diagnosis. Excision was again associated with positive margins, and again no further treatment was recommended. A few months later, at a scheduled follow-up appointment, she presented with a painless nodule of the left upper lip, consistent with recurrent PLGA. One month later, the patient died of unrelated causes. We also present a literature review of multiple minor salivary gland tumors. PMID:24268388

Argyris, Prokopios P; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2014-06-01

255

Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

2012-01-01

256

Rheological and functional characterization of new antiinflammatory delivery systems designed for buccal administration.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper was to investigate the influence of different formulation parameters on the rheological and functional properties of emulgels (gelified emulsions), intended for the buccal administration of the antiinflammatory drug flurbiprofen. The influence of formulation parameters, such as (a) the amount of gelling polymeric emulsifier (Pemulen 1621 TR-1) used, (b) the oil to water ratio present in the O/W emulgel and finally (c) the pH of the formulation, was studied by a experimental design (DoE) approach. Formulations were analyzed in term of size and morphology of the internal semi-solid oil droplets as well as in term of rheological properties in the presence or in the absence of flurbiprofen by "shear stress vs. shear rate tests" and "frequency sweep tests". Emulgels were also characterized in vitro both by bioadhesion tests and release studies. In particular release studies demonstrated that flurbiprofen is released by the emulgels in a controlled manner, the drug release efficacy within the first 100min was comprised between 50 and 80% of the total amount of the drug. Finally, in vivo tests on healthy volunteers have demonstrated that emulgels were able to remain on buccal mucosa for an average period of 1h, moreover emulgels did not have bad taste and volunteers referred that were agreeable and pleasant. PMID:18258393

Perioli, Luana; Pagano, Cinzia; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Rossi, Carlo; Nastruzzi, Claudio

2008-05-22

257

Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan-pectin for delivery of carvedilol  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route. PMID:23960773

Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

2011-01-01

258

A simple and cost-effective protocol for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Buccal cells provide a convenient source of DNA for epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to develop a convenient method to obtain buccal cells from mouthwash samples to be used as a source of DNA, and to evaluate the stability of the DNA in mouthwash solution over time. The procedures used in the method described in this paper avoid the use of any organic solvents. This is achieved by salting out the cellular proteins by dehydration and precipitation with a saturated ammonium acetate solution. The protocol described here is fast, simple to perform, sensitive, economical and several samples can be processed at the same time. The analyses provide consistent evidence that DNA extracted by this methodology is sufficient for several PCR amplifications. The total DNA yield ranged from 5 to 93 microg (median 15 microg, mean 20.71 microg). DNA can be extracted and PCR amplified after storage of mouthwash solution at room temperature for periods of up to 30 days. PMID:17982556

Aidar, Marisi; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

2007-01-01

259

A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

Marshall, Thomas

2007-01-01

260

Small computer interface to a stepper motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

Berry, Fred A., Jr.

1986-01-01

261

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

262

Filament overwrapped motor case technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

Compton, Joel P.

1993-11-01

263

Implementing Motor Decision Plans  

E-print Network

The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

Elliott, R. N.

264

Differences in molar relationships and occlusal contact areas evaluated from the buccal and lingual aspects using 3-dimensional digital models  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to use a 3-dimensional (3D) system to compare molar relationship assessments performed from the buccal and lingual aspects, and to measure differences in occlusal contact areas between Class II and Class I molar relationships. Methods Study casts (232 pairs from 232 subjects, yielding a total of 380 sides) were evaluated from both the buccal and lingual aspects, so that molar relationships could be classified according to the scheme devised by Liu and Melsen. Occlusal contact areas were quantified using 3D digital models, which were generated through surface scanning of the study casts. Results A cusp-to-central fossa relationship was observed from the lingual aspect in the majority of cases classified from the buccal aspect as Class I (89.6%) or mild Class II (86.7%). However, severe Class II cases had lingual cusp-to-mesial triangular fossa or marginal ridge relationships. Mean occlusal contact areas were similar in the Class I and mild Class II groups, while the severe Class II group had significantly lower values than either of the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Buccal and lingual assessments of molar relationships were not always consistent. Occlusal contact areas were lowest for the Class II-severe group, which seems to have the worst molar relationships - especially as seen from the lingual aspect. PMID:23112949

Jang, Sook-Yoon; Kim, Minji

2012-01-01

265

DNA profiling in blood, buccal swabs and hair follicles of patients after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possibility that buccal swab and hair follicle samples could be used to detect recipients’ personal identification or kinship study in forensic cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT). Seven casework examples of materials collected from individuals after allo-PBSCT and their donors were investigated. Detection of genotypes was preformed by PCR analysis of short

Yi Zhou; Siyue Li; Juan Zhou; Lanlan Wang; Xingbo Song; Xiaojun Lu; Jun Wang; Yuanxin Ye; BinWu Ying; Yongqian Jia

2011-01-01

266

Buccal permeation of [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin from liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.  

PubMed

The ex vivo buccal permeability of a [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was examined from the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and aqueous phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4, PBS) solution across excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in a Franz cell. GMO was released in vitro from the liquid crystalline phases indicating the erosion of the liquid crystal matrices. GMO released from the liquid crystalline matrices permeated the porcine buccal mucosa with fluxes of 0.10+/-0.03 and 0.07+/-0.00%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively. The flux of DADLE (1.21+/-0.32 and 1. 15+/-0.11%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively) from the liquid crystalline phases was significantly enhanced by the GMO compared with PBS solution (0.43+/-0.08%/cm(2) per h) during the initial permeation phase (t<3 h). Our results suggest that the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases can be considered as promising buccal drug carriers for peptide drugs as well as acting as permeation enhancers. PMID:10675680

Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

2000-02-15

267

Surgical management of the buccal bifurcation cyst: bone grafting as a treatment adjunct to enucleation and curettage.  

PubMed

The buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) is a rare inflammatory odontogenic cyst of unknown etiology. It typically develops on the buccal aspect of the permanent mandibular first molar and occasionally on the permanent mandibular second molar in children 4 to 14 years old. Distinct clinical findings of the BBC include involvement of a vital partially or fully erupted mandibular first or second molar, swelling in the affected mandibular molar region, delayed or altered eruption pattern of the involved tooth, and an increase in periodontal pocket depth when the affected tooth is partially erupted. Specific radiographic features include a radiolucent lesion on the buccal aspect of the tooth involving the roots to a variable extent, tilting of the involved molar so that the root apices are toward the lingual cortical plate, an intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura, a periosteal reaction on the buccal surface, and an intact inferior border of the mandible. The histopathology of the lesion has been described as similar to a radicular or inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Most of the current literature supports simple enucleation and curettage of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth as the treatment of choice. This report presents 3 cases of BBCs that were treated with enucleation and curettage without extraction of the involved tooth, in addition to a bone graft placed primarily or secondarily as an adjunctive treatment approach to the current therapies. PMID:25234530

Levarek, Rachel E; Wiltz, Mauricio J; Kelsch, Robert D; Kraut, Richard A

2014-10-01

268

Quantitaton of rate of gastrointestinal and buccal absorption of acidic and basic drugs based on extraction theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations have been derived which quantitatively describe the rate of gastrointestinal and buccal absorption of acidic and basic drugs as a function of pH of aqueous lumenal contents and time. The equations have been used to fit observed data in the literature, and the estimated parameters are reported. An equation which describes the renal clearance of an acidic or basic

John G. Wagner; Allen J. Sedman

1973-01-01

269

INTERNEURONAL CONTROL OF FEEDING IN THE POND SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS I. INITIATION OF FEEDING CYCLES BY A SINGLE BUCCAL INTERNEURONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Lymnaea buccal ganglion is organized such that the basic feeding rhythm is generated by an interneuronal network which imposes its activity on a set of follower cells. In this paper we extend our earlier observations (Benjamin & Rose, 1979) on the follower cells to show that they receive four consecutive synaptic inputs. The main objective of the paper

R. M. ROSE; P. R. BENJAMIN

270

Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

2012-01-01

271

Evaluation of a novel, natural oligosaccharide gum as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component of calcitonin buccal tablets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the gum from Hakea gibbosa (hakea) as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets for a model peptide, namely, salmon calcitonin. Flat-faced core tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg (200 IU) of salmon calcitonin (sCT) per tablet were formulated using a direct compression technique and were coated with Cutina on all but one face. The in vitro release profiles were sigmoidal in nature and according to a mathematical model indicated super Case II transport as the primary mechanism of release. The resulting plasma sCT and calcium concentrations were determined following both intravenous administration and buccal application of mucoadhesive tablets in rabbits. Following intravenous administration, the mean values determined for t(1/2) (alpha), t(1/2) (beta), V(d), and CL for sCT were 0.76 +/- 0.06 min, 67 +/- 18 min, 1484 +/- 454 mL/kg, and 19 +/- 2 mL/min.kg, respectively. Following the application of the mucoadhesive buccal tablets which contained 40 microg of sCT and either 12 or 32 mg of hakea, the calculated apparent bioavailability (F) and clearance (CL) were 37 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 3.3 mL/min.kg and 16 +/- 8% and 18 +/- 0.4 mL/min. kg, respectively. Serum calcium concentrations indicated that biologically active sCT was delivered across the rabbit buccal mucosa. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was also quantitated in terms of the force of detachment as a function of time. The force of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg of sCT increased from 4.47 +/- 0.68 to 8.41 +/- 1.0 N and 8.23 +/- 1.62 to 14.98 +/- 1.63 N, respectively, from 5 to 90 min following application to excised rabbit intestinal mucosa. These results demonstrate that the novel, natural gum from Hakea gibbosa may be used to sustain the release of sCT from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet. The mechanism of in vitro release is likely to involve peptide diffusion/polymer dissolution. The mucoadhesive strength, as measured by the force of detachment, can be modulated by altering the amount of hakea in the tablet. The mucoadhesive buccal tablets described in this paper represent an improved transbuccal delivery system for therapeutic polypeptides. PMID:10585228

Alur, H H; Beal, J D; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

1999-12-01

272

Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to non-existent. Hemangiomas of the oral cavity are not common pathological entities, but the head and neck are common sites. Furthermore some time histologically lymphatic channels may be evident in hemangiomas, and then it will be categorized according predominant component, e.g.; hemangiolymphangiomas or lymphangiohemangiomas, vice versa is true for lymphangiomas. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but 10-20% of true hemnagioma in completely involute and required post- adolescent ablative treatment. In the present article we are reporting a case of hemangiolypmangiomas of left buccal mucosa in an 18-year-old male patient. We have also reviewed various treatment modalities and their clinical implication. PMID:23833496

Sobhana, C. R.; Beena, V. T.; Soni, Ashish; Choudhary, Kanaram; Sapru, Deepthy

2012-01-01

273

Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

2010-01-01

274

Gross motor control  

MedlinePLUS

Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

275

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle ...

276

Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

2014-11-01

277

A miniature solid propellant rocket motor  

SciTech Connect

A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

1997-08-01

278

Motor vehicle pollution control: A global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book is a compilation of papers presented at a meeting on motor vehicle pollution control. Topics covered include the following: worldwide developments in motor vehicle pollution control; the Brazillian control program; motor vehicle pollution control in Canada; pollution by exhaust gases in Kuwait; performance of vehicles with or without catalyst; legislation on automotive emissions; European exhaust emission standards; Pollution control and regulations for motor vehicles in Sweden; Progress towards a European market for exhaust emissions catalysts; and infrared emissions measurements at high altitude.

Not Available

1987-01-01

279

Energy Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

on the selection and use of motors. These publications [1,2J are recommended reading for those interested in under standing motor selection. I will limit my discus sion to induction motors, although much of what I say also pertains to synchronous motors or DC... on the selection and use of motors. These publications [1,2J are recommended reading for those interested in under standing motor selection. I will limit my discus sion to induction motors, although much of what I say also pertains to synchronous motors or DC...

Hoffmeyer, W.

1982-01-01

280

Motor Speech Disorders in Neurodevelopmental  

E-print Network

4/14/13 1 Motor Speech Disorders in Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Shelley Velleman University Cure Autism Now U.S. Department of Education/OSEP the Fulbright Program the children & their parents Disorders §Primary distinction: §Dysarthria §Apraxia §Distinguished by: §Area of (presumed) neurological

Shoubridge, Eric

281

Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model solves the coupled differential equations for an electric motor driven by a dynamo (generator). The model can be used as to illustrate elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses about nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. The main window displays the dynamo angular velocity ?1, motor angular velocity ?2 and current I time series and a second window displays the phase space. The stator current Is (A), torque T (Nâ¢m), and resistance R (ohm) are adjustable. The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_chaos_FixedTorqueDynamoAndMotor.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-23

282

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

283

Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

Friedman, Stewart D.

2001-01-01

284

77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...briefings on the major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently...for Policy, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

2012-08-03

285

Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

1983-01-01

286

The small motor plume/material impingement test program at MSFC utilizing nine different propellant formulations (April and May 1974), section 2. [application to space shuttle surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative effects of several candidate SSRM propellant formulations and their plume impingement effects on HRSI and RCC materials were evaluated. Nine solid propellant formulations were tested. The selected propellant matrix allowed an evaluation of propellants with and without metal additives, with and without burning rate catalyst, and low (approximately 1927 C) and high (approximately 2649 C) combustion temperatures. Motors were fired at a simulated SRB staging altitude of 3.96 km (130,000 ft) (nominal). The altitude pressure was predicted to drop approximately 0.6 km (20,000 ft) during a motor firing. All motors were loaded with 1.8 to 2.3 kg (4 to 5 lb) of propellant and burned for approximately 2 s.

1976-01-01

287

Comparison of buccal and nasal epithelial cells using a new cell development index and quantitative interference microscopy.  

PubMed

Cell area, cell dry mass, and three summary indices for tissue maturation were obtained for human buccal and nasal cells viewed in smears (five donors). The means for cell area and dry mass in the buccal smears were 3816 X 10(-8) cm2 and 2294 pg (1 pg=1 X 10(-12) g), respectively. The correlation coefficient for means of cell area and dry mass was r=0.03. The means for the three maturation indices used to characterize the cells viewed in buccal smears were: Cell Development Index (CDI), 486; Maturation Index (MI) 50.6; and Karyopyknotic Index (KPI), 0.028. The correlation coefficients for means were: CDI vs. MI, r=0.88; CDI vs. KPI, r=0.71; and MI vs. KPI, r=0.73. In the buccal smears, the cell types found most frequently were intermediate with round or oval nuclei, which altogether averaged about 90% of the total smear composition, while superficial cells (pyknotic ghost, and anucleate) comprised less than four per cent. In nasal smears, the means for cell area and dry mass were 867 X 10(-8) cm2 and 623 pg, respectively. The correlation coefficient for means of cell area and dry mass was r=0.74. The means for the maturation indices were: CDI, 816; MI, 91.2; and KPI, 0.79. The correlation coefficients for means were CDI vs. MI, r=0.93; CDI vs. KPI, r=0.97; and MI vs. KPI, r=0.85. In nasal smears, the anucleate cell type was found most frequently (about 75%) while intermediate cells with round or oval nuclei comprised approximately 13% of the total smear composition. When donor means for cell area and dry mass of buccal cells were combined for study, they were highly correlated (r=0.88). Similarly, when the maturation indices for buccal and nasal cells were combined for study, they were highly correlated: CDI vs. MI, r=0.99; CDI vs. KPI, r=0.99; and MI vs. KPI, r=0.99. Of the three indices, we believe that the CDI is the index best suited for use in studies of cell development because it is based on an inferred sequence of cellular and nuclear changes occurring during the maturation of epithelial cells. It provides a more detailed description of the cells observed in the smears. It also correlates highly in KPI and MI used in clinical and research efforts. PMID:785918

Pappelis, C K; Slobin, J; Corvallis, J; Detwiler, H D; Pappelis, A J; Pappelis, G A

1976-01-01

288

Gross Motor Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is designed to help teachers identify and remediate gross motor development deficits in elementary school students. A definition of gross motor development and a checklist of gross motor skills are provided. Sections cover the following topics: successful teaching techniques; activities for perceptual-motor training; activities for…

Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

289

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

290

Motor Development: Theory into Practice. Monograph 3. Motor Skills: Theory into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight papers present information about children's motor development and its application for program design. Jerry R. Thomas, Kathi T. Thomas, and Jere D. Gallagher discuss "Children's Processing of Information in Physical Activity and Sport." In "Toward Inclusion," G. S. Don Morris considers characteristics of children and of motor tasks with…

Morris, Arlene M., Ed.

291

Specific Noninvasive Detection of Leishmania donovani in Desquamated Buccal Cell Swab Samples from Human Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Coinfected Patients  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection is challenging. Specific diagnosis of VL in HIV-coinfected patients was evaluated by molecular methods in desquamated buccal swab samples, demonstrating 86.3% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity in controls. This test holds significant potential for development as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for VL in HIV-coinfected patients. PMID:24478413

Das, Sushmita; Halder, Avishek; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Mandal, Abhishek

2014-01-01

292

Effects of bile salts on transport rates and routes of FITC-labelled compounds across porcine buccal epithelium in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the penetration enhancing effect of bile salts on the transport of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds across porcine buccal mucosa was investigated in-vitro. Coadministration of 100 mM of the trihydroxy bile salts sodium glycocholate (GC) and sodium taurocholate (TC) and the dihydroxy bile salts sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDC) and sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC) increased the in-vitro transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)

A. J. Hoogstraate; S. Senel; C. Cullander; J. Verhoef; H. E. Junginger; H. E Boddé

1996-01-01

293

Type I Allergy to Egg and Milk Proteins: Comparison of Skin Prick Tests with Nasal, Buccal and Gastric Provocation Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provocation tests with egg or milk antigens were performed on symptomatic patients or those who were skin prick test positive to these antigens. Skin test positive patients responded immediately in 12\\/13 to nasal, in 7\\/15 to buccal and in 5\\/15 to gastric provocation tests. An immediate gastric response was within 1 h. The threshold dose for a positive result showed

P. L. Amlot; R. Urbanek; L. J. F. Youlten; M. Kemeny; M. H. Lessof

1985-01-01

294

Effects of onion extract on the development of hamster buccal pouch carcinomas as expressed in Tumor Burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

One?hundred male, young?adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were divided into five equal groups of 20 animals each. Groups 1,2, and 3 were painted three times a week in the left buccal pouches with a 0.5% solution of 7,12?dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil. Group 1 animals also received a 20% onion extract in their drinking water and were also painted in

Khadjik Niukian; Joel Schwartz; Gerald Shklar

1987-01-01

295

Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

2010-02-01

296

The nature of the acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in buccal smooth muscle of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors of Deroceras buccal muscle were examined using specific pharmacological probes and sucrose gap electrophysiological analysis. ACh induced concentration-dependent smooth tonic contractures coupled with considerable depolarisation from the normal resting membrane potential of -30.6 mV. The use of choline ester analogues such as carbachol, propionylcholine and butyrylcholine, specific cholinergic agonists such

T. Wright; H. Huddart

2002-01-01

297

From the mouths of monkeys: detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques.  

PubMed

Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here, we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

Wilbur, Alicia K; Engel, Gregory A; Rompis, Aida; A Putra, I G A; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Aggimarangsee, Nantiya; Chalise, Mukesh; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A; Jones-Engel, Lisa

2012-07-01

298

Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

2014-03-10

299

From the mouths of monkeys: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques  

PubMed Central

Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the PCR amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

Wilbur, AK; Engel, G; Rompis, A; Putra, IGA A; Lee, BP Y-H; Aggimarangsee, N; Chalise, M; Shaw, E; Oh, G; Schillaci, MA; Jones-Engel, L

2012-01-01

300

Buccal delivery of metformin: TR146 cell culture model evaluating the use of bioadhesive chitosan discs for drug permeability enhancement.  

PubMed

The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses. PMID:24148665

Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

2013-12-31

301

Adapting the buccal micronucleus cytome assay for use in wild birds: age and sex affect background frequency in pigeons.  

PubMed

Micronucleus (MN) formation has been used extensively as a biomarker of damage from genotoxic exposures. The Buccal MN Cytome (BMCyt) assay provides a noninvasive means of quantifying MN frequency in humans, but it has not been developed for use in wildlife. We adapted the BMCyt assay for use in wild birds, with a focus on feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential indicator species. Five of six urban bird species sampled using oral cavity swabs produced sufficient buccal cells for the BMCyt assay. The body size of species sampled ranged almost 100-fold (~60 to 5,000 g), but was a not major factor influencing the number of buccal cells collected. Pigeon cells were stained and scored following published BMCyt assay protocols for humans, but with a modified fixation approach using heat and methanol. Pigeons had the same common nuclear abnormalities reported in human studies, and a similar background MN formation frequency of 0.88 MN/1,000 cells. Adult pigeons had on average a threefold higher rate of MN formation than juveniles, and males had a 1.4- to 2.2-fold higher frequency than females. Domestic and feral pigeons did not differ in overall MN frequency. Our results indicate that the BMCyt assay can be used on wild birds, and could provide a means of assessing environmental genotoxicity in pigeons, a useful indicator species. However, bird age and sex are important factors affecting background MN frequency, and thereby the design of environmental studies. PMID:22121057

Shepherd, G L; Somers, C M

2012-03-01

302

Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

2011-03-01

303

Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

2012-03-01

304

The Folded Buccal Musculomucosal Flap for Large Palatal Fistulae in Cleft Palate  

PubMed Central

Background: A palatal fistula is a common complication of cleft palate repair. Although a buccal musculomucosal flap (BMMF) is effective for fistula repair, it does have the following problems: a second operation may be required to release the pedicle on the oral side and unilateral BMMF cannot close mucosal defects of both the nasal and oral sides. A novel fistula closure method using the folded BMMF (f-BMMF) invented by the authors is presented. Case: A 8-year-old-boy with bilateral cleft lip and palate with anencephaly. A fistula in the hard palate occurred after palatoplasty by the Furlow method, and an f-BMMF was planned. The mucosal defects of the nasal and oral sides were covered by 2 separate islands of mucosal epithelium. Finally, no reoperation was needed to remove the pedicle of the f-BMMF. Conclusion: The f-BMMF is able to cover both sides without a raw surface and a mucosal graft even in cases of large fistula closure, although BMMF cannot usually cover both oral and nasal sides of a fistula. The advantages of this procedure are that it does not require second surgery to release the pedicle and that its distal island mucosa can be used to monitor engraftment. This proposed method seems to be an appealing alternative.

Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

2014-01-01

305

Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia  

PubMed Central

Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the iron–sulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L.; Pook, Mark A.; Cortopassi, Gino A.

2014-01-01

306

Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol  

PubMed Central

Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

2014-01-01

307

Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

PubMed

During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage. PMID:24927390

León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

2014-09-01

308

Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales  

PubMed Central

Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

2010-01-01

309

Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

2012-06-01

310

Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery.

Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

2014-01-01

311

Metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma in the upper buccal gingiva misdiagnosed as an epulis.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, "local" relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

2014-01-01

312

Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.  

PubMed

Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

2014-03-15

313

Tumor antigens eliciting autoantibody response in cancer of gingivo-buccal complex.  

PubMed

Cancer of the gingivo-buccal complex (GBC) is a major cancer in Indian men. This study reports the identification of tumor antigens, which elicit an antibody response in cancer of GBC using immunoproteomics. Proteins from KB cells separated by 2-D PAGE, were immunoblotted with IgG from sera of 28 cancer patients, 12 patients with leukoplakia, and 28 healthy individuals. Antigens detected by the IgGs from the patient's sera were different among different individuals with presence of any single antigen ranging from 7 to 79%. Several of these antigens have been identified by MS and confirmed by immunostaining. They are three forms of ?-enolase, peroxiredoxin-VI, annexin-II, HSP70, pyruvate kinase, ?-tubulin, ?-tubulin, ATP-synthase, phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), aldose reductase, triosephosphate isomerase, and cyclophilin-A. Except, HSP70, these antigens are being reported in cancer of GBC for the first time. Pyruvate kinase and aldose reductase have not been reported to elicit autoantibody response in any other cancer earlier. Initial results show that autoantibody response against ?-enolase, HSP70, annexin-II, peroxiredoxin-VI, and aldose reductase are also seen in patients with leukoplakia of GBC, which suggest early occurrence of these autoantibodies during the process of oral carcinogenesis. These antigens can be further validated for their use in cancer management by immune intervention. PMID:21136657

Shukla, Sanjeev; Govekar, Rukmini B; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Sundaram, Curam S; D'Cruz, Anil K; Pathak, K Alok; Kane, Shubhada V; Zingde, Surekha M

2007-12-01

314

A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 × 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

2013-01-01

315

Actinomycotic sinus of the buccal mucosa: a rare complication of cheek dimple creation.  

PubMed

Even though actinomyces are common oral commensals, actinomycosis is an uncommon oral infection. Cheek dimple creation is a common surgical procedure with rare complications. Bacterial infection with abscess formation and foreign body reaction were reported. We report a rare example-and, to our knowledge, the first-of oral actinomycosis after cheek dimple creation. A young woman complained of a chronic tender nodule of the right buccal mucosa with pus discharge after surgery for cheek dimple creation. Histologic examination showed a sinus tract with actinomyces microorganisms. This complication can be mimicked by other oral or dental sinus-forming lesions, can be chronic and insidious, and could therefore clinically be missed or mistreated. This might delay the diagnosis and cause scarring and disfigurement. The treatment of choice is early recognition and complete surgical excision to avoid irreversible complications and prevent recurrence. Awareness of this potential complication by aesthetic surgeons, oral clinicians, and dentists is important. Patients' adherence to preventive measures and plastic surgeons' application of inclusion criteria and contraindications, as well as their choice of best technique per patient, should help minimize such a problem in a simple and safe aesthetic procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: PMID:24973339

AbdullGaffar, Badr; Ghandoor, Khalid; Ahli, Qassim

2014-11-01

316

Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests  

SciTech Connect

Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

1982-09-01

317

Application of high temperature superconductivity to electric motor design  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on progress made in a joint project conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute and Reliance Electric Company to study the possible application of High Temperature Super Conductors (HTSC), materials to electric motors. Specific applications are identified which can be beneficially served by motors constructed with HTSC materials. A summary is presented of the components and design issues related to HTSC motors designed for these applications. During the course of this development program, a three tier HTSC wire performance specification has evolved. The three specifications and the rationale behind these three levels of performance are explained. A description of a test motor that has been constructed to verify the electromagnetic analytical techniques of HTSC motor design is given. Finally, a DC motor with an HTSC field coil is described. Measured data with the motor running is presented showing that the motor is operating with the field winding in the superconducting state.

Edmonds, J.S.; Sharma, D.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Jordan, H.E.; Edick, J.D.; Schiferl, R.F. (Reliance Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (US))

1992-06-01

318

Modelling and analysis of a hysteresis motor used in space application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. We present the computer-aided modelling and analysis of a three-phase hysteresis synchronous motor used in the gyroscope as the gyro-rotor drive motor. A computer program is developed for the performance analysis of the hysteresis motor. The program accounts for all known losses in the hysteresis motor. The simulation program is tuned by incorporating the

K. R. Rajagopal; Christian Coltelli; Vasca Navale

2002-01-01

319

IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

320

Transmucosal sustained-delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate in rabbits using a novel, natural mucoadhesive gum as an excipient in buccal tablets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the gum from Hakea gibbosa (Hakea) as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets following their application to the buccal mucosa of rabbits. Flat-faced core tablets containing either 22 or 32 mg of Hakea and 40 or 25 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) per tablet with either sodium bicarbonate or tartaric acid in a 1:1.5 molar ratio were formulated using a direct compression technique and were coated with Cutina(R) on all but one face. The resulting plasma CPM concentration versus time profiles were determined following buccal application of the tablets in rabbits. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was also quantitated in terms of the force of detachment as a function of time. Following the application of the mucoadhesive buccal tablets, the following values for several pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. The force of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing 22 mg of Hakea and either 25 and 40 mg CPM, and 32 mg Hakea and 40 mg CPM increased from 1.64+/-0.47 to 7.32+/-0.34 N, 1.67+/-0.30 to 7.21+/-0.36 N, and 2.93+/-0.73 to 7.92+/-0.60 N, respectively from 5 to 90 min following application to excised intestinal mucosa. Addition of either sodium bicarbonate or tartaric acid, as well as higher amounts of CPM, did not affect the mucoadhesive bond strength. These results demonstrate that the novel, natural gum, H. gibbosa, may not only be used to sustain the release of CPM from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet, but also demonstrate that the tablets are sufficiently mucoadhesive for clinical application. The mucoadhesive strength as measured by the force of detachment, can be modulated by altering the amount of Hakea in the tablet. The mucoadhesive buccal tablets evaluated represent an improved transbuccal delivery system for conventional drug substances. PMID:10528077

Alur, H H; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

1999-10-15

321

Smart motor technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

1984-01-01

322

Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

Pickering, Gisele; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frederic; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Severine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

2014-01-01

323

Detection and characterization of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen using CT  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the frequency and characteristics of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen (ABF) with CT. Methods A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 504 patients referred to the Erciyes University Medical School (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. Presence, location, diameter, area and number of ABFs and their continuity with mandibular canal and distance to the mental foramen were evaluated using axial, sagittal and three-dimensional CT images. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS® v. 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results 14 ABFs were observed in 10 (2%) of 504 patients. The frequency of ABFs was found to be 2.6% in males and 1% in females. The mean distance between the ABF and the mental foramen was 5.0 mm [standard deviation (SD) ± 2.48]. The mean long axis of the ABFs was 1.4 mm (SD ± 0.4) and the mean area of them was 1.5 mm2 (SD ± 0.8). The mean area of the mental foramen on the side with the ABF was 4.1 mm2 (SD ± 2.71). Conclusions This study presents a relatively lower frequency of ABFs than that in the literature. These foramina could have more complex neurovascular structures than was previously thought. Thus, in special cases where a direct surgical exploration during the planned surgery is not indicated, CT or cone beam CT examination to determine the possible presence of ABFs may be indicated. PMID:22499130

Sisman, Y; Sahman, H; Sekerci, AE; Tokmak, T T; Aksu, Y; Mavili, E

2012-01-01

324

Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-?-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

2014-01-01

325

Understanding motor resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in monkeys, and the finding of motor activity during action observation in humans are generally regarded to support motor theories of action understanding. These theories take motor resonance to be essential in the understanding of observed actions and the inference of action goals. However, the notions of “resonance,” “action understanding,” and “action goal” appear to

Sebo Uithol; Iris van Rooij; Harold Bekkering; Pim Haselager

2011-01-01

326

Skill acquisition Motor learning  

E-print Network

control #12;·6 3 stages of motor learning, continued ­ autonomous stage -- this stage involves motor at this stage · Role of feedback in the autonomous stage of learning ­ feedback necessary during learning·1 Skill acquisition · Motor learning theories ­ closed loop theory ­ schema theory ­ hierarchical

Sergio, Lauren E.

327

Electric motors using superconducting materials applied to power generating station equipment  

SciTech Connect

The application of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) to electric motors is discussed. A synchronous motor with an HTSC field winding is described, and its steady state performance and economic viability is summarized. Large HTSC synchronous motors are predicted to be one-half the size and have one-half the losses of comparably-rated conventional motors. Test rig and prototype motors used for developing design techniques for air core superconducting synchronous motors are described, and test results are discussed. HTSC coil testing techniques and results are discussed. These test results indicate that HTSC wire performance is rapidly improving toward the required performance for large HTSC motors. Finally, a design and analysis study of a 5000-horsepower motor is summarized. overall, this report describes an ongoing comprehensive superconducting motor research program that is using state-of-the-art HTSC coils to build prototype motors and developing designs for future large HTSC motors.

Jordan, H.E.; Edick, J.D.; Schiferl, R.F. (Reliance Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-09-01

328

Motor/generator  

DOEpatents

A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-05-13

329

Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

Horowitz, Jordan M.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2013-07-01

330

Imitating chemical motors with optimal information motors.  

PubMed

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. PMID:23862988

Horowitz, Jordan M; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M R

2013-07-01

331

Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

Burden, J.S.

1999-02-24

332

Rotary DNA motors.  

PubMed Central

Many molecular motors move unidirectionally along a DNA strand powered by nucleotide hydrolysis. These motors are multimeric ATPases with more than one hydrolysis site. We present here a model for how these motors generate the requisite force to process along their DNA track. This novel mechanism for force generation is based on a fluctuating electrostatic field driven by nucleotide hydrolysis. We apply the principle to explain the motion of certain DNA helicases and the portal protein, the motor that bacteriophages use to pump the genome into their capsids. The motor can reverse its direction without reversing the polarity of its electrostatic field, that is, without major structural modifications of the protein. We also show that the motor can be driven by an ion gradient; thus the mechanism may apply as well to the bacterial flagellar motor and to ATP synthase. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8599633

Doering, C; Ermentrout, B; Oster, G

1995-01-01

333

Motorized support jack  

DOEpatents

A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

2001-01-01

334

Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations  

PubMed Central

Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

Romero, Alejandro; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquin; Perez-Perez, Alejandro

2013-01-01

335

Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-01-01

336

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Canals and a Single Buccal Canal: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. This paper presents the endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with two palatal canals in one root (Vertucci type IV) and a single buccal canal. In this paper cone-beam computed tomography was made to asses this morphology. This paper is intended to reinforce clinician's awareness of the rare morphology of root canals. PMID:23304564

Atash biz Yeganeh, Leila; Adel, Mamak; Vahedi, Reza; Tofangchiha, Maryam

2012-01-01

337

Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors  

SciTech Connect

Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

2008-05-01

338

77 FR 18914 - National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical Corrections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS): Technical Corrections AGENCY: Office of Justice...National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Program (NMVTIS) in order to make two technical corrections to the NMVTIS...

2012-03-29

339

77 FR 26815 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...procedures for drivers and carriers, and ensuring that vehicles operated by motor carriers comply with the Federal...Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department...

2012-05-07

340

41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?  

... What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification §...

2014-01-01

341

Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate  

PubMed Central

For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

2011-01-01

342

Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n?=?22) and buccal periodontal defects (n?=?22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax® 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as ??=?0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p?Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

Kamburo?lu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yüksel, S; Paksoy, C S

2013-01-01

343

In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.  

PubMed

Drug delivery via the buccal route has emerged as a promising alternative to oral drug delivery. Didanosine (DDI) undergoes rapid degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and low oral bioavailability, making DDI a suitable candidate for buccal delivery. Recent developments in buccal drug delivery show an increased interest toward nano-enabled delivery systems. The advantages of buccal drug delivery can be combined with that of nanoparticulate delivery systems to provide a superior delivery system. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the preparation of novel nano-enabled films for buccal delivery of DDI. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared via hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication and were characterized before being incorporated into nano-enabled monolayered multipolymeric films (MMFs). Glyceryl tripalmitate with Poloxamer 188 was identified as most suitable for the preparation of DDI-loaded SLNs. SLNs with desired particle size (PS) (201?nm), polydispersity index (PDI) (0.168) and zeta potential (-18.8?mV) were incorporated into MMFs and characterized. Conventional and nano-enabled MMFs were prepared via solvent casting/evaporation using Eudragit RS100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Drug release from the nano-enabled films was found to be faster (56% versus 20% in first hour). Conventional MMFs exhibited higher mucoadhesion and mechanical strength than nano-enabled MMFs. SLNs did not adversely affect the steady state flux (71.63?±?13.54?µg/cm(2)?h versus 74.39?±?15.95?µg/cm(2)?h) thereby confirming the potential transbuccal delivery of DDI using nano-enabled MMFs. Nano-enabled buccal films for delivery of DDI can be successfully prepared, and these physico-mechanical studies serve as a platform for future formulation optimization work in this emerging field. PMID:24576267

Jones, Elsabé; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

2014-05-01

344

Motor fuel regulation in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulation of motor fuels for environmental purposes will reach new hights with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Thirteen years after the 1977 Clean Air act, large areas of the nation still had not attained the ozone and carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standards established by EPA, and with concerns over air toxics emissions increasing congress radically expanded the regulatory regime for motor fuels. This article summarizes the changes in the following topics: existing programs changed; new programs created; and questions which remain unanswered.

Deal, D.T. [American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

345

Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

Maslowski, E. A.

1981-01-01

346

Modeling of processes in a brushless dc motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state space and node methods are used to develop a mathematical model of a brushless dc motor using an approach whereby the motor is treated as a variable-circuit structure. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed. A flow chart of a program for the analysis of processes in a brushless dc motor based on the node method is presented, as are the results of analysis.

Sobolev, L. B.

1989-06-01

347

A finite element code for electric motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

Campbell, C. Warren

1994-01-01

348

Time-dependent reduction of structural complexity of the buccal epithelial cell nuclei after treatment with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may affect cell DNA structure in in vitro conditions. In this paper, we present the results indicating that AgNPs change nuclear complexity properties in isolated human epithelial buccal cells in a time-dependent manner. Epithelial buccal cells were plated in special tissue culture chamber / slides and were kept at 37°C in an RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine. The cells were treated with colloidal silver nanoparticles suspended in RPMI 1640 medium at the concentration 15 mg L?¹. Digital micrographs of the cell nuclei in a sample of 30 cells were created at five different time steps: before the treatment (controls), immediately after the treatment, as well as 15 , 30 and 60 min after the treatment with AgNPs. For each nuclear structure, values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, circularity, as well as parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture, were determined. The results indicate time-dependent reduction of structural complexity in the cell nuclei after the contact with AgNPs. These findings further suggest that AgNPs, at concentrations present in today's over-the-counter drug products, might have significant effects on the cell genetic material. PMID:24118045

Pantic, I; Paunovic, J; Perovic, M; Cattani, C; Pantic, S; Suzic, S; Nesic, D; Basta-Jovanovic, G

2013-12-01

349

Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

2012-03-01

350

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

351

Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of polysaccharide-containing plants are widely used in therapy for irritated mucus membranes in the pharynx region. In order to prove the existence of mucilaginous effects of polysaccharide hydrocolloids on epithelia an ex vivo system based on porcine buccal membranes was established. The tissue culture was stable and there was no indication of cytolytic processes during the 5 hour incubation period. This was confirmed through histological studies and the respective LDH values as toxicity marker. The test system was shown to discriminate the adhesive effects of different raw polysaccharides, obtained from a variety of medicinal plants. While polysaccharides from Altheae officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Malva moschata, or Tilia cordata showed only moderate bioadhesion to epithelial tissue, strong adhesive processes were observed with polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus and Calendula officinalis. The adhesive effects were concentration-dependent. Histological studies of membranes, incubated with a fluorescence-labelled rhamnogalacturonan, indicated the presence of distinct polysaccharide layers on the apical membrane surface. With these results, adsorption effects of certain polysaccharides on mucus membranes were shown for the first time. Such effects suggest that this may account, at least in part, for the therapeutic effects of mucilage-containing plants in the treatment of irritated buccal membranes. PMID:10705734

Schmidgall, J; Schnetz, E; Hensel, A

2000-02-01

352

Parametric electric motor study  

SciTech Connect

Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

Adams, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stahura, D. [GM-AC Delco Systems, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-04-30

353

Design Optimization and Development of Linear Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of design optimization for minimization of force ripple and maximization of thrust force in a linear brushless permanent magnet motor without finite element analysis is represented. The design optimization method calculated the driving force in the function of electric and geometric parameters of a linear brushless PM motor using the sequential quadratic programming method. Using electric and geometric

Myung-Jin Chung; Dae-Gab Gweon

2003-01-01

354

Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

Kovacs, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

355

Embodied Memory Judgments: A Case of Motor Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that perceptual and conceptual fluency can influence episodic memory judgments. Here, the authors asked whether fluency arising from the motor system also impacts recognition memory. Past research has shown that the perception of letters automatically activates motor programs of typing actions in skilled typists. In this study,…

Yang, Shu-Ju; Gallo, David A.; Beilock, Sian L.

2009-01-01

356

Computational Neural Modeling of Speech Motor Control in Childhood  

E-print Network

of Articulators (DIVA) model. The hypothesis was that the speech production system in CAS suffers from poor feed, speech sound distortion, searching articulation, and increased variability. Conclusions: The findings as a disorder of motor planning and/or motor programming (e.g., Caruso & Strand, 1999; Hayden, 1994; Maassen

Guenther, Frank

357

Development of HTS motor for industrial applications at KERI & DOOSAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is development of HTS motor at DOOSAN heavy industry with Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute in Korea. This project is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments.

Y. K. Kwon; M. H. Sohn; S. K. Baik; E. Y. Lee; J. D. Lee; J. M. Kim; T. S. Moon; H. J. Park; Y. C. Kim; J. P. Hong; Y. S. Jo; K. S. Ryu

2006-01-01

358

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

359

Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study  

E-print Network

Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

Dautovich, D. R.

1980-01-01

360

Redundant Motor Drive System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two separate gear trains, each including a motor adapted to perform a driving function without backdriving the other, are included in a redundant motor drive system. A base supports parallel pillars which in turn supports a shaft having a worm gear affixe...

J. A. Calvert

1978-01-01

361

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

362

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02

363

Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics  

E-print Network

for other control or protection functions. Thus, only intelligence, in the form of a microcomputer, need computer-based electronic motor protection relay platform, such as one shown in Figure 1, for beta-effective, microprocessor-based, protective-relay platforms to monitor motors for a variety of abnormali- ties in addition

Yazici, Birsen

364

Non-pollution motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-pollution motor powered from a source of a low pressure liquified cryogenic is disclosed. A means for converting, upon demand, a quantity of the cryogenic into a high pressure gas is connected between a gas expander and a storage volume tank. The high pressure gas stored in the volume tank is used to power a gas turbine motor. The

T. R. Hencey; W. J. Murphy

1982-01-01

365

HTS ship propulsion motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many modern ships, propulsion systems are so large and heavy that they force the rest of the ship to be constructed around them. Large ship propulsion motors could be made more compact and lighter by application of high temperature superconductor (HTS) technology, thus providing relief from this constraint. HTS ship propulsion motors are more compact, lighter weight, more efficient,

S. S. Kalsi

2004-01-01

366

Large-Scale Hybrid Motor Testing. Chapter 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid rocket motors can be successfully demonstrated at a small scale virtually anywhere. There have been many suitcase sized portable test stands assembled for demonstration of hybrids. They show the safety of hybrid rockets to the audiences. These small show motors and small laboratory scale motors can give comparative burn rate data for development of different fuel/oxidizer combinations, however questions that are always asked when hybrids are mentioned for large scale applications are - how do they scale and has it been shown in a large motor? To answer those questions, large scale motor testing is required to verify the hybrid motor at its true size. The necessity to conduct large-scale hybrid rocket motor tests to validate the burn rate from the small motors to application size has been documented in several place^'^^.^. Comparison of small scale hybrid data to that of larger scale data indicates that the fuel burn rate goes down with increasing port size, even with the same oxidizer flux. This trend holds for conventional hybrid motors with forward oxidizer injection and HTPB based fuels. While the reason this is occurring would make a great paper or study or thesis, it is not thoroughly understood at this time. Potential causes include the fact that since hybrid combustion is boundary layer driven, the larger port sizes reduce the interaction (radiation, mixing and heat transfer) from the core region of the port. This chapter focuses on some of the large, prototype sized testing of hybrid motors. The largest motors tested have been AMROC s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Edwards Air Force Base and the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program s 250K-lbf thrust motor at Stennis Space Center. Numerous smaller tests were performed to support the burn rate, stability and scaling concepts that went into the development of those large motors.

Story, George

2006-01-01

367

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-print Network

by properly sizing of motors. MOTOR EFFICIENCY Motor efficiency is influenced by a number of factors, the salient ones being motor design, motor size, and motor load. Simply stated, motor efficiency is the ratio between the output shaft power generated.... Motor Load A final faclar that influences motor efficiency is the oper-ating load. Molar efficiency decreases markedly when the load falls below some critical level. The critical load varies depend-ing on motor size, the larger the motor the lower...

Brown, M.

368

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

369

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

370

Evaluation of the gum from Hakea gibbosa as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the mucoadhesive and sustained-release properties of the water-soluble gum obtained from Hakea gibbosa (hakea), for the formulation of buccal tablets. Flatfaced tablets containing hakea were formulated using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Two types of tablets were prepared: uncoated tablets (type I) and tablets in which all but one face of the type I tablet was coated with hydrogenated castor oil (Cutina) using a compression coating technique (type II). In an attempt to explain the observed sustained-release effect, the potential for a chemical interaction between hakea and CPM was evaluated by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV spectroscopy, and acid-base titrations. Mathematical modeling of the CPM release data was developed to elucidate the mechanism of drug release. The mucoadhesive strength was evaluated by quantitating the force of detachment. Finally, the rates of water uptake and erosion were determined for the buccal tablets. The time required for 90% of the CPM to be released in vitro (t90%) was used as a basis for comparison. For formulations that did not contain hakea, the t90% was 14 min for both directly compressed and wet granulated tablets, whereas the t90% for wet granulated tablets containing 2 or 32 mg hakea/tablet was 36 and 165 min, respectively. Directly compressed tablets containing 2, 12, 22, and 32 mg hakea/tablet displayed t90% values of 48, 120, 330, and 405 min, respectively. DSC, FTIR, UV spectroscopy and acid-base titration experiments suggested the absence of chemical interactions. The force of detachment for directly compressed and wet granulated tablets increased from 0.70 +/- 0.3 to 4.08 +/- 0.52 N and from 0.65 +/- 0.28 to 3.94 +/- 0.31 N as the amount of hakea per tablet was increased from 0 to 32 mg, respectively, at a 5 N attachment compression force. The novel natural gum, hakea, may not only be utilized to sustain the release of CPM from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet, but it also exhibited excellent mucoadhesive properties. The mechanism by which CPM release was sustained was more likely due to slow relaxation of the hydrated hakea. The mucoadhesive strength can be modulated by altering the amount of hakea in the tablet. PMID:10434280

Alur, H H; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

1999-08-01

371

The long-term efficacy and safety of a testosterone mucoadhesive buccal tablet in testosterone-deficient men.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Striant® SR is the only available buccal delivery system for testosterone replacement therapy. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have shown that Striant SR effectively produces physiological serum testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. Efficacy and safety data from previously unpublished studies over 2 years of continuous use indicate that Striant SR is effective long term in maintaining serum testosterone within a physiological range, is well tolerated and has a high level of patient acceptance. Striant® sustained-release (SR) is a mucoadhesive buccal tablet (30 mg testosterone, The Urology Company) that adheres to the gum surface in the mouth providing controlled- and sustained-release of testosterone over a 12-h dosing period, offering a unique and rational method of testosterone delivery. Striant SR is indicated for testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism when testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by clinical features and biochemical tests. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that testosterone is released from Striant SR in a manner similar to the normal daily rhythm of endogenous testosterone secretion, with serum levels rising rapidly after insertion and peak levels reached by the second 12-hourly dose with no accumulation over time. In clinical trials involving hypogonadal men receiving Striant SR for up to 2 years, mean serum testosterone levels have always remained within the normal range. Striant SR is well tolerated, with gum-related disorders (such as irritation, inflammation and gingivitis) and taste perversion being the most commonly reported adverse events, reported by 5.6-16.3% and 3.0-4.1% of patients, respectively. Once patients have become accustomed to it, Striant SR has a high level of patient acceptance. In a long-term study, 90% of patients rated the twice-daily dosing as acceptable, just under half preferred it to other forms of TRT that they have used and 96% found it to be cosmetically acceptable. There is no clinically significant risk of testosterone transfer from Striant SR, as any testosterone that may be present in the saliva when swallowed is subject to extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. It is pertinent to note that the saliva of eugonadal men contains similar levels of endogenous testosterone. Buccal delivery is particularly suitable where easy and rapid reversal of treatment might be required (such as in late-onset hypogonadism) and where there is a need to avoid the potential for transfer of testosterone to women and young children. PMID:22288877

Dinsmore, Wallace W; Wyllie, Michael G

2012-07-01

372

Motor Brush Testing for Mars and Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in the Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in low-pressure CO2. All motors performed acceptably, with accumulated motor revolutions between 98 and 144 million revolutions, depending on load. A proprietary silver-graphite material from Superior Carbon (SG54-27) appears to be the best choice for long life, but even the stock copper-graphite brushes performed reliably with acceptable wear. The motors from the CO2 test were then cleaned and run in vacuum for 2 weeks. The difference in results was dramatic, with 5 motors failing catastrophically and wear rates increasing by orders of magnitude for the SG54-27 material. Three brush materials survived the test with no failures: SG54-27 with a proprietary Ball Aerospace impregnation, a silver-graphite-molybdenum disulfide material from Superior Carbon (SG59), and a copper sulfide-graphite material also from Superior Carbon (BG91).

Noon, Don E.

1999-01-01

373

Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea. PMID:24144124

El Bakary, Neveen El Said Reda

2014-01-01

374

Comparative study on the 3H-thymidine index of dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa, and seminal vesicles in senile male rats.  

PubMed

To supplement previous investigations on endogenous fluctuations of DNA synthesis in male rat dorsal epidermis, buccal mucosa and seminal vesicle epithelium from birth to sexual maturity, the labelling indices (L.I.) of these tissues in senile male rats from the same breed, studied under analogous experimental conditions, were evaluated as well as compared to the data obtained from rats in puberal and early mature age. In the dorsal epidermis and buccal mucosa of the old animals the medium L.I. were found to be at about the same level as those measured after puberty. In the aged seminal vesicle epithelium the medium L.I. was found to be decreased. The maintenance of epidermal and buccal DNA synthesis in senile rats as well as the results of previous studies with male rats subjected to castration or long-term administration of cyproteron acetate furnish evidence that a deficiency of testosteron does not diminish the rate of DNA synthesis in epidermis and buccal mucosa. However, from the decreased L.I. in seminal vesicle epithelium a reduced blood level or stimulating capacity, respectively, of testosteron in senile rats can be concluded. Furthermore, withdrawal of testosteron by orchidectomy or administration of cyproteron acetate is appropriate to suppress significantly the proliferative activity of seminal vesicles epithelium. PMID:1200711

Hornstein, O P; Schell, H

1975-11-14

375

Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function). PMID:23731889

Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

2013-12-01

376

The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

1993-01-01

377

Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-03-01

378

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

Hughes, Phil D.

1990-01-01

379

Motor Control Systems And Fiber Optic Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolutionary incorporation of fiber optic technology in the remote operation of motor control systems is described in this paper. The program is proposed for naval application. The research and development was sponsored and funded by Ingalls Independent Research and Development (IRAD) funds. Shipboard installation was sponsored by the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) PMS-400C. It represents the first significant effort to employ light in the remote operation of motor control functions found aboard a naval vessel. Although focused on one ship class, the program's achievements apply to most naval and commercial ships as well as many nonseagoing systems. The operational requirements of the local and remote station transceivers employed in motor control systems are presented in this paper. These include the network topology and electro-optic control, switching, and indicator circuits of several fiber optic motor control system design evolutions. The designs were all driven by operational requirements. Engineering options and design conclusions are presented. Resulting conclusions are that the use of fiber optic technology in the remote operation of naval shipboard motor control systems is both feasible and practical. It provides significant weight, EMI, and safety advantages over existing systems yet its installation, operation, and maintenance can be performed by existing personnel with little additional training.

Stewart, R. C.

1989-02-01

380

Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Polystomatidae), a parasite of buccal cavity of Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Testudinata: Emydidae) from Colombia.  

PubMed

Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. is described from the buccal cavity of the Colombian slider Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Gray, 1856) in the middle of Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. The new species is characterized by a combination of traits, i.e., 29-35 genital spines, outer and inner hamuli length (123-150 and 54-63, respectively), testis size (261.4-554.5 x 388.2-768.4), marginal hook lengths (45-51), and pharynx length (150-333), as well as testis length/oral sucker length, testis length/pharynx length, and testis width/pharynx width ratios. This is the first species described from turtles in Colombia and the fifth reported in chelonians from South America. PMID:20049992

Lenis, Carolina; García-Prieto, Luis

2009-08-01

381

76 FR 38268 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...that revised the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to incorporate...compliant devices to their motor carrier clients. The chairman of the...Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery or Courier: West...

2011-06-29

382

76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA Administrator on motor carrier safety programs and regulations...required the use of EOBRs by motor carriers with significant hours-of-service...et al. v. Fed. Motor Carrier Safety Admin., No. 10-2340...Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery or Courier: West...

2011-10-07

383

77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2012-0072] Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard AGENCY...thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year...NHTSA administers a program for reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature...

2012-09-21

384

Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

2013-01-01

385

DNA Damage in Buccal Mucosa Cells of Pre-School Children Exposed to High Levels of Urban Air Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN) frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and NO2 in the 1–3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age±SD: 4.3±0.9 years) were investigated. The mean±SD MN frequency was 0.29±0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution. PMID:24789200

Ceretti, Elisabetta; Feretti, Donatella; Viola, Gaia C V.; Zerbini, Ilaria; Limina, Rosa M.; Zani, Claudia; Capelli, Michela; Lamera, Rossella; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

2014-01-01

386

Evaluation of genetic damage in open-cast coal mine workers using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.  

PubMed

Coal is the largest fossil fuel source used for the generation of energy. However, coal extraction and its use constitute important pollution factors; thus, risk characterization and estimation are extremely important for the safety of coal workers and the environment. Candiota is located to the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and has the largest coal reserves in Brazil, and the largest thermal power complex in the state. In the open-cast mines, the coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust. The human buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay has been used widely to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death, and basal cell frequency in buccal cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged exposure to coal dust could lead to an increase in genomic instability, cell death, and frequency of basal cells using the BMCyt assay. In the analysis of epithelial cells, the exposed group (n = 41) presented with a significantly higher frequency of basal cells, micronuclei in basal and differentiated cells, and binucleated cells compared to the non-exposed group (n = 29). The exposed group showed a significantly lower frequency of condensed chromatin cells than the non-exposed group. However, we found no correlation between DNA damage and metal concentration in the blood of mine workers. DNA damage observed in the mine workers may be a consequence of oxidative damage resulting from exposure to coal residue mixtures. In addition, our findings confirm that the BMCyt assay can be used to identify occupational risk. PMID:23055270

Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda R; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dos Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Kvitko, Kátia

2013-01-01

387

Octopamine is the synaptic transmitter between identified neurons in the buccal feeding network of the pond snail lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

We report the pharmacological properties of synaptic connections from the three octopamine-containing OC interneurons to identified buccal feeding neurons in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Intracellular stimulation of an OC interneuron evokes inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the B3 motoneurons and N2 (d) interneurons, while the synapse between OC and N3 (phasic) interneurons has two components: an initial electrical excitation followed by chemical inhibition. All synaptic responses persist in a saline with elevated calcium and magnesium suggesting that the connections are monosynaptic. Local perfusion of 10(-4) M octopamine produces the same inhibitory membrane responses from these buccal neurons as OC stimulation. These responses also persist in high Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) saline indicating direct membrane effects. The similarities in reversal potentials for the synaptic hyperpolarization evoked on B3 neurons after OC stimulation (-89.0 mV, S.E.M.=14.1, n=10) and the octopamine response of the B3 neurons (-84.7 mV, S.E.M.=6.6, n=6) indicate that increased K(+)-conductance underlies both responses. Bath application of the octopaminergic drugs phentolamine (10(-6) M), epinastine (10(-6) M) or DCDM (10(-4) M) blocks the inhibitory synapse onto B3 or N2 neurons and the chemical component of the N3 response. They also block the octopamine-evoked inhibition of B3, N2 and N3 neurons. NC-7 (2x10(-5) M) has a hyperpolarizing agonist effect (like octopamine) on these neurons and also blocks their chemical synaptic input from the OC interneurons. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the neurotransmitter between the octopamine-immunopositive OC interneurons and its followers is octopamine. This is the first example of identified octopaminergic synaptic connections within the snail CNS. PMID:10837813

Vehovszky, A; Hiripi, L; Elliott, C J

2000-06-01

388

Magnetic bead-based separation of sperm from buccal epithelial cells using a monoclonal antibody against MOSPD3.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA analysis of sexual assault evidence requires unambiguous differentiation of DNA profiles in mixed samples. To investigate the feasibility of magnetic bead-based separation of sperm from cell mixtures using a monoclonal antibody against MOSPD3 (motile sperm domain-containing protein 3), 30 cell samples were prepared by mixing 10(4) female buccal epithelial cells with sperm cells of varying densities (10(3), 10(4), or 10(5) cells/mL). Western blot and immunofluorescence assays showed that MOSPD3 was detectable on the membrane of sperm cells, but not in buccal epithelial cells. After biotinylated MOSPD3 antibody was incubated successively with the prepared cell mixtures and avidin-coated magnetic beads, microscopic observation revealed that each sperm cell was bound by two or more magnetic beads, in the head, neck, mid-piece, or flagellum. A full single-source short tandem repeat profile could be obtained in 80 % of mixed samples containing 10(3) sperm cells/mL and in all samples containing ?10(4) sperm cells/mL. For dried vaginal swab specimens, the rate of successful detection was 100 % in both flocked and cotton swabs preserved for 1 day, 87.5 % in flocked swabs and 40 % in cotton swabs preserved for 3 days, and 40 % in flocked swabs and 16.67 % in cotton swabs preserved for 10 days. Our findings suggest that immunomagnetic bead-based separation is potentially a promising alternative to conventional methods for isolating sperm cells from mixed forensic samples. PMID:24590379

Li, Xue-Bo; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu; Ning, Shu-Hua; Miao, Yuan-Ying; Wang, Ye-Quan; Li, Hong-Wei

2014-11-01

389

Influence of additives on a thermosensitive hydrogel for buccal delivery of salbutamol: relation between micellization, gelation, mechanic and release properties.  

PubMed

Thermosensitive hydrogels developed for buccal delivery of salbutamol were prepared using poloxamer analogs (Kolliphor(®) P407/P188), xanthan gum (Satiaxane(®) UCX930) and NaCl. P188 increased gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) by 2.5-5°C, micellization temperature (<1°C) and gelation time by >3s. To obtain a suitable Tsol-gel at 28-34°C, P407 and P188 concentrations were set to 18-19% and 1%. NaCl reduced Tsol-gel (>2°C) out of the optimal range. Six formulations containing 0.05-0.1% Satiaxane(®) fulfilled the temperature criteria. Concerning the gel strength, 1% P188 had no significant effect, NaCl increased it at 20°C, and Satiaxane(®) enhanced it at 20°C and 37°C. The release study using membrane-less (to mimic oral cavity) and membrane (to mimic buccal mucosa side) methods allowed a complete investigation showing that erosion and diffusion both contributed to the drug release but differed according to the formulation. In the membraneless method, simple P407 formulations had weak ability to retain salbutamol (T80=35 min). P188 accelerated drug release. NaCl accelerated release in the membraneless method by 5-11 min but slightly reduced it in the membrane method. The hydrogels containing Satiaxane(®) exhibited the slowest release. In the membrane method, combination of P407/P188/Satiaxane(®) provided a sustained diffusion with a burst effect (T25=9.6 min, T80=97.8 min), which provides potential clinical interests. PMID:24699353

Zeng, Ni; Dumortier, Gilles; Maury, Marc; Mignet, Nathalie; Boudy, Vincent

2014-06-01

390

Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on age-related physiological changes and tobacco-related pathological changes.  

PubMed

Biophysical techniques play an important role in detecting physiological alterations during pathogenesis. Raman spectroscopy has shown immense potential in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Classification of normal, inflammatory, premalignant and malignant conditions has been demonstrated using ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Feasibility of recording in vivo spectra in clinically implementable time has also been shown. Translation of this technology to clinics requires extensive validation of methodologies, building of robust models and testing the same under stringent conditions as well as on diverse populations. In this context, the ability of Raman spectroscopy in identifying subtle changes in oral mucosa with increasing age, and the influence of these aging related changes on classification with tobacco-related pathological changes was evaluated. A total of 451 spectra from 62 subjects were recorded from buccal mucosa of healthy subjects of 4 different age groups (aged 20-60 years). Also, 478 spectra from 85 subjects belonging to 4 different categories, tobacco exposed mucosa, contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), premalignant patches and tumors on buccal mucosa were recorded using fiber optic probe-coupled commercial Raman spectrometer. Differences in spectra were explored by unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), followed by Leave one out cross validation. Results indicate feasibility of classifying early and late age groups. Also, clear classification is observed between healthy and pathological groups, thus inherent heterogeneity in healthy groups seems to have no bearing on classification of normal with abnormal conditions. Findings of the study indicate high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting subtle mucosal changes, further supporting efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral cancer applications. Prospectively, more vigorous validation studies of Raman methodology would enable routine clinical applications. PMID:23101756

Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Ghanate, A D; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

2012-12-01

391

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

392

Electric 'LEGO' Motor II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

Pino, Jose

2008-11-17

393

RPM of AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the rotations per minute (RPM) of AC motors. Bartelt begins with a discussion of the magnetism that allows most of these motors to function. The author addresses such factors as the frequency of the applied voltage and also the number of stator poles located in the magnetic field. Two and four pole motors are then discussed and compared to each other. Bartelt explains each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. The author concludes the presentation with a brief series of questions.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-14

394

Hydraulic core cutting motor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for drilling core cutting from the sidewall of a drill hole wherein the apparatus comprises an elongated housing with a hydraulic operated back-up shoe mounted within the housing for wedging the housing at a selected location in the drill hole and a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor and hydraulic means mounted within the housing and connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole.

Kilmer, L.G.; Carter, J.W.

1987-11-24

395

Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

2011-01-01

396

Linear Motor Powered Transportation  

E-print Network

This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

Thornton, Richard D.

397

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

398

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

399

Prediction of infant's motor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to predict motor development using indicators from infant's early motor performance. A group of 46 infants were tested with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and were divided in two groups according to the interval time of assessment (2 and 6 months). The results for the first group revealed that supine position could predict infant's motor

Sophia Charitou; Katerina Asonitou; Dimitra Koutsouki

2010-01-01

400

The Motor Learning of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents some highlights of what research tells the practitioner about the motor learning of children. Major emphasis is on motor learning in relation to the physical and motor characteristics of the child's maturation and development. In the first three sections of the study, general ideas concerning motor learning are discussed.…

Christina, Robert W.

401

Justification for Energy Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

This paper presents the results of a study of Energy Efficient (or EE) motors in NEMA frame sizes, (1-200 HP). It examines the economics of using EE motors for new motor requirements, as replacements for motors - instead of rewinding...

Buschart, R. J.

1981-01-01

402

77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards...Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model...motor vehicle pollution control program...consistency of California's HD OBD...of the Clean Air Act, I...

2012-12-10

403

10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning...ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating,...

2013-01-01

404

10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...  

...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning...ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating,...

2014-01-01

405

10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning...ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating,...

2012-01-01

406

10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning...ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating,...

2011-01-01

407

Implementing Motor Management  

E-print Network

manufacturer along, with the DOE's Independent Performance Validation (IPV) team, assembled a partnership team. After further evaluation, it was determined that not only was a more efficient motor needed, but that the use of an adjustable speed drive (ASD... manufacturer along, with the DOE's Independent Performance Validation (IPV) team, assembled a partnership team. After further evaluation, it was determined that not only was a more efficient motor needed, but that the use of an adjustable speed drive (ASD...

Colip, R. L.

408

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

Secunde, R. R.

1981-01-01

409

Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

2010-01-01

410

Pure motor trigeminal neuropathy in a woman with tegmental pontine infarction.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old woman presented with drowsiness, severe dysarthria, left facial palsy, and left hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed cerebral infarction in the left pontine tegmentum and right cerebellum and angiography revealed basilar artery occlusion. Altered consciousness and hemiparesis fully resolved following successful recananlisation of the basilar artery by emergent intra-arterial thrombolysis. However, about 8 months later, obvious wasting of the left temporal and buccal area without sensory signs was detected. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed a chronic denervation process in the left masseter and temporalis muscles. We suggest that a small infarction in the trigeminal nucleus of the pontine tegmentum can cause an isolated trigeminal motor neuropathy with masticatory muscle atrophy. PMID:23835466

Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kang, Ji-Yoon

2013-12-01

411

Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Induction Motor Field Efficiency Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining induction motor field efficiency is imperative in industries for energy conservation and cost savings. The induction motor efficiency is generally tested in a laboratories by certain methods defined in IEEE Standard - 112. But these methods cannot be used for motor efficiency evaluations in the field because it disrupts the production process of the industry. This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for efficiency evaluation of in-service induction motor based on a modified induction motor equivalent circuit model. In this model, stray load losses are considered. The proposed efficiency evaluation method combines the PSO and the equivalent circuit method. First, the equivalent circuit parameters are estimated by minimizing the difference between measured and calculated values of stator current and input power of the motor using the PSO algorithm. Based on these parameters, the efficiency of the motor at various load points are evaluated by using the equivalent circuit method. To exemplify the performance of the PSO based efficiency estimation method, a 5 HP motor has been tested, compared with genetic algorithm (GA), torque gauge method, equivalent circuit method, slip method, current method and segregated loss method and found to be superior. Accordingly, the method will be useful for engineers who implement the energy efficiency programs to the electric motor systems in industries.

Sakthivel, V. P.; Subramanian, S.

412

Motor stereotypy and diversity in songs of mimic thrushes.  

PubMed

The relationship between the motor and acoustic similarity of song was examined in brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and grey catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (family Mimidae), which have very large song repertoires and sometimes mimic other species. Motor similarity was assessed by cross correlation of syringeal airflows and air sac pressures that accompany sound production. Although most syllables were sung only once in the song analyzed, some were repeated, either immediately forming a couplet, or after a period of intervening song, as a distant repetition. Both couplets and distant repetitions are produced by distinctive, stereotyped motor patterns. Their motor similarity does not decrease as the time interval between repetitions increases, suggesting that repeated syllables are stored in memory as fixed motor programs. The acoustic similarity between nonrepeated syllables, as indicated by correlation of their spectrograms, has a significant positive correlation with their motor similarity. This correlation is weak, however, suggesting that there is no simple linear relationship between motor action and acoustic output and that similar sounds may sometimes be produced by different motor mechanisms. When compared without regard to the sequence in which they are sung, syllables paired for maximum spectral similarity form a continuum with repeated syllables in terms of their acoustic and motor similarity. The prominence of couplets in the "syntax" of normal song is enhanced by the dissimilarity of successive nonrepeated syllables that make up the remainder of the song. PMID:8738752

Suthers, R A; Goller, F; Hartley, R S

1996-06-01

413

The EFEE motor vehicle emissions fee model  

SciTech Connect

Despite unparalleled reductions in certification emission levels, on-road motor vehicles continue to be identified as a significant contributor to the inability of US metropolitan areas to achieve compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. In-use deterioration of emissions performance over time and the continued use of older, higher emitting vehicles represent major influences on total motor vehicle emissions, influences which cannot be controlled through the continued tightening of new vehicle emission standards. While motor vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs attempt to control in-use vehicle emissions, the effectiveness of current programs is limited both by design and public acceptance. The stringency of emissions inspection standards commonly varies in accordance with associated certification standards and includes a substantial margin of safety to accommodate relatively unsophisticated test methods. Because of these limitations, typical I/M program designs have little influence on fleet turnover and provide vehicle owners with no incentive to exceed minimum program requirements. A properly designed emissions-based fee program can overcome many of these obstacles and provide air quality planners with a flexible tool to achieve emission reductions commensurate with the needs of their particular area. However, no rigorous or standardized analysis tools have been available to estimate emission fee program benefits to date. The EFEE emissions-based fee model fills this void. In addition to estimating the emission reductions associated with emissions fee-induced vehicle scrappage, vehicle repair, and reduced vehicle miles of travel, the EFEE model estimates the emissions effect of natural fleet turnover and I/M-induced vehicle scrappage, two effects commonly overlooked by current motor vehicle emissions modeling techniques based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s MOBILE5a model.

Meszler, D.J.; Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

414

A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

2007-02-01

415

A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

2011-01-01

416

Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

Cook, M.

1990-01-01

417

A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors  

SciTech Connect

A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

1989-01-01

418

Cerebellar ataxia patients are able to use motor imagery to modulate mu-band power in a pilot study of EEG-based brain-computer interface control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebellar ataxia is a steadily progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with loss of motor control, leaving patients unable to walk, talk, or perform activities of daily living. Direct motor instruction in cerebellar ataxia patients has limited effectiveness, presumably because an inappropriate closed-loop cerebellar response to the inevitable observed error confounds motor learning mechanisms. However, open-loop reinforcement of motor control programs may

Sarah H. Ying; Geoffrey I. Newman; Young-Seok Choi; Hyoung-Nam Kim; Alessandro Presacco; Mayuresh V. Kothare; Nitish V. Thakor

2011-01-01

419

Visual learning by imitation with motor representations.  

PubMed

We propose a general architecture for action (mimicking) and program (gesture) level visual imitation. Action-level imitation involves two modules. The viewpoint Transformation (VPT) performs a "rotation" to align the demonstrator's body to that of the learner. The Visuo-Motor Map (VMM) maps this visual information to motor data. For program-level (gesture) imitation, there is an additional module that allows the system to recognize and generate its own interpretation of observed gestures to produce similar gestures/goals at a later stage. Besides the holistic approach to the problem, our approach differs from traditional work in i) the use of motor information for gesture recognition; ii) usage of context (e.g., object affordances) to focus the attention of the recognition system and reduce ambiguities, and iii) use iconic image representations for the hand, as opposed to fitting kinematic models to the video sequence. This approach is motivated by the finding of visuomotor neurons in the F5 area of the macaque brain that suggest that gesture recognition/imitation is performed in motor terms (mirror) and rely on the use of object affordances (canonical) to handle ambiguous actions. Our results show that this approach can outperform more conventional (e.g., pure visual) methods. PMID:15971913

Lopes, Manuel; Santos-Victor, José

2005-06-01

420

The Bronze Age burials from Cova Dels Blaus (Vall d'Uixó, Castelló, Spain): an approach to palaeodietary reconstruction through dental pathology, occlusal wear and buccal microwear patterns.  

PubMed

This paper reports a palaeodietary investigation of the human remains found in the collective Bronze Age burial cave from Vall d'Uixó (Castelló, Spain). Dental pathology, tooth wear as well as buccal dental microwear were analysed. Percentages of dental pathologies were compared with Chalcolithic and Bronze Age sites from the same territory. Dental caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, periodontal disease and abscess frequencies indicate a diet rich in carbohydrate foods. However, dental calculus percentages and macroscopic wear patterns suggest a diet not exclusively relying on agricultural resources. In addition, buccal dental microwear density and length by orientation recorded on micrographs using a scanning electron microscope showed inter-group differences with regard to carnivorous hunter-gatherers and farming populations related to the amount of abrasives in the diet that could correspond to a different dependence on agricultural resources or food preparation technology. PMID:17675006

Polo-Cerdá, M; Romero, A; Casabó, J; De Juan, J

2007-01-01

421

Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study  

PubMed Central

For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of the failed replacement, at which point the prosthetic treatment was considered complete. In all of the six cases that we were able to follow-up with, the sinus-bone graft was healing favorably. We observed that the sinus bone height decreased gradually with time. Based on these case series, we conclude that our procedure of repairing large sinus-membrane perforations with a pedicled buccal fat pad and a collagen membrane is a reliable technique. PMID:25247149

Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Oh, Ji-Su

2014-01-01

422

The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

2011-03-01

423

The use of the buccal fat pad for reconstruction of oral defects: Review of the literature and report of 15 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Although the buccal fat pad (BFP) was originally used as an alternative method for the closure of small to medium-sized oroantral and oronasal communications, its use has now been extended to use after excision of oral malignancies. This report describes experience with this technique.Patients and Methods: The BFP was used as a pedicled graft to reconstruct medium-sized surgical defects

Alexander D. Rapidis; Constantine A. Alexandridis; Efstathios Eleftheriadis; Angelos P. Angelopoulos

2000-01-01

424

Lip buccal mucosa traumatic overgrowth due to sucking habit -A 10-year follow-up of a non-surgical approach: A combination of behavioural and myofunctional therapy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Traumatic lesion of the lip buccal mucosa may develop due to a repetitive lip sucking habit, secondary to a dental space which opened in the dental in adult patients. The non surgical treatment approach is based on increasing of patient's awareness to the sucking habit along with the creation of a change in the oral and dental surrounding tissues. The following case included a failure to identify a traumatic habit of lower lip sucking, resulting in a buccal mucosa overgrowth. Combined conservative periodontal and orthodontic approach will be presented to address this clinical issue without any need for surgical intervention. Material and methods. 56 year old female patient presented with a complaint of unaesthetic appearance of the intraoral right buccal mucosa of the lower lip at rest position due to an intensive repetitive sucking habit of the right lower lip segment. We initiated a non surgical treatment approach including increasing the patient's awareness to the sucking habit, controlling the periodontal disease and orthodontic treatment to align and level the dental arch and to close the residual space. Result. The soft tissue overgrowth on the lip buccal mucosa almost completely subsided spontaneously as a result of conservative dental and behavioral management without the need for any oral surgery intervention. A 10 years follow-up revealed no repetitive oral mucosa overgrowth, no spaces reopening and no sucking habit redevelopment. Conclusion. Implementation of a morphological correction will assist the patient in breaking the habit and creating an environment that may effectively prevent the reoccurrence of the habit. PMID:24931927

Aizenbud, Dror; Gutmacher, Zvi; Teich, Sorin T; Oved-Peleg, Efrat; Hazan-Molina, Hagai

2014-11-01

425

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

426

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

427

Basics of AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in AC Motors. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course covers: motor basics, NEMA motors, Siemens motorr, final exam, a glossary, plus a 116 page study guide.

2008-11-26

428

Programs  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) works with the Small Business Innovation Research Program to help small business to develop and commercialize novel proteomic technologies and products to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.

429

Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control  

E-print Network

In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

2010-01-01

430

Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices  

DOEpatents

A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

431

A pyrosequencing-based assay for the rapid detection of the 22q11.2 deletion in DNA from buccal and dried blood spot samples.  

PubMed

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common deletion syndromes in newborns. Some affected newborns may be diagnosed shortly after birth because of the presence of heart defects, palatal defects, or severe immune deficiencies. However, diagnosis is often delayed in patients presenting with other associated conditions that would benefit from early recognition and treatment, such as speech delays, learning difficulties, and schizophrenia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold standard for deletion detection, but it is costly and time consuming and requires a whole blood specimen. Our goal was to develop a suitable assay for population-based screening of easily collectible specimens, such as buccal swabs and dried blood spots (DBS). We designed a pyrosequencing assay and validated it using DNA from FISH-confirmed 22q11 deletion syndrome patients and normal controls. We tested DBS from nine patients and paired buccal cell and venous blood specimens from 20 patients. Results were 100% concordant with FISH assay results. DNA samples from normal controls (n = 180 cell lines, n = 15 DBS, and n = 88 buccal specimens) were negative for the deletion. Limiting dilution experiments demonstrated that accurate results could be obtained from as little as 1 ng of DNA. This method represents a reliable and low-cost alternative for detection of the common 22q11.2 microdeletions and can be adapted to high-throughput population screening. PMID:24973633

Koontz, Deborah; Baecher, Kirsten; Kobrynski, Lisa; Nikolova, Stanimila; Gallagher, Margaret

2014-09-01

432

Cognitive motor processes: the role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations.  

PubMed

Motor imagery is viewed as a window to cognitive motor processes and particularly to motor control. Mental simulation theory [Jeannerod, M., 2001. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103-109] stresses that cognitive motor processes such as motor imagery and action observation share the same representations as motor execution. This article presents an overview of motor imagery studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience that support and extend predictions from mental simulation theory. In general, behavioral data as well as fMRI and TMS data demonstrate that motor areas in the brain play an important role in motor imagery. After discussing results on a close overlap between mental and actual performance durations, the review focuses specifically on studies reporting an activation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery. This focus is extended to studies on motor imagery in patients. Motor imagery is also analyzed in more applied fields such as mental training procedures in patients and athletes. These findings support the notion that mental training procedures can be applied as a therapeutic tool in rehabilitation and in applications for power training. PMID:19167426

Munzert, Jörn; Lorey, Britta; Zentgraf, Karen

2009-05-01

433

ac bidirectional motor controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

Schreiner, K.

434

ac bidirectional motor controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

Schreiner, K.

1988-01-01

435

Axonal regeneration and sprouting following injury to the cerebral-buccal connective in the snail Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

Axonal sprouting and regeneration were studied in the land snail Achatina fulica following a unilateral crush to the cerebral-buccal connective. Both normal projection patterns and changes induced by injury were examined with axonal filling techniques. As expected, most staining was lost shortly after the crush when filling across the lesion site. Much of this decrease is attributable to the direct disruption of fiber pathways, but evidence also indicates that a limited amount of retraction of some neurites occurred during the first week. A subsequent, gradual increase in the numbers of stained elements culminated in supernumerary counts of fibers in many pathways and in some novel labeling of cell bodies. Maximum numbers of supernumerary fibers usually occurred 21-28 days after the lesion. Most of these extra neurites and cell bodies subsequently disappeared, and by day 35 the appearance of projections generally returned to within the ranges observed in normal, unlesioned animals. Together the results demonstrate the extent of neuritic regeneration, sprouting, and retraction that occurs in vivo within the gastropod nervous system following injury. The study also indicates the usefulness of such in vivo approaches to understand the long-term processes that contribute to the restoration of morphological and functional integrity. PMID:1701775

Croll, R P; Baker, M W

1990-10-01

436

The Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Autotransporter Adhesin Aae Exhibits Specificity for Buccal Epithelial Cells from Humans and Old World Primates  

PubMed Central

Cells of the gram-negative periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans express a surface-exposed, outer membrane autotransporter protein, designated Aae, which has been implicated in epithelial cell binding. We constructed a mutant strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans that contained a transposon insertion in the Aae structural gene (aae) and tested the mutant to determine its ability to bind to buccal epithelial cells (BECs) isolated from healthy volunteers. Significantly fewer mutant cells than wild-type cells bound to BECs. A broad-host-range plasmid that contained an intact aae gene driven by a heterologous tac promoter restored the ability of the mutant strain to bind to BECs at wild-type levels. This plasmid also conferred upon Escherichia coli the ability to express the Aae protein on its surface and to bind to human BECs. Aae-expressing E. coli also bound to BECs isolated from six Old World primates but not to BECs isolated from four New World primates or nine other nonprimate mammals, as well as to human gingival epithelial cells but not to human pharyngeal, palatal, tongue, bronchial, or cervical epithelial cells. Our findings indicate that Aae mediates binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans to BECs from humans and Old World primates and that this process may contribute to the host range specificity and tissue tropism exhibited by this bacterium. PMID:15784534

Fine, Daniel H.; Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Furgang, David; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

2005-01-01

437

Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.  

PubMed

Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p<0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants for both oral sites evaluated. In the same way, petroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

2009-10-01

438

DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation  

PubMed Central

Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT.

LI, YA-TING; XIE, MING-KUN; WU, JIN

2014-01-01

439

Novel Evolutionary Models and Periodic Charts in p- and q-Individual Chromosomes of Auxiliary Lymph Node and Buccal Cells  

PubMed Central

Signal copy number (SCN) and signal intensity (SI) of subtelomeres (ST) are investigated in auxiliary lymph node (ALN) and buccal (BUC) cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The extracted total cell of 38256 and 2309 was, respectively, analyzed from the benign ALN- and BUC-cells of an affected breast cancer patient. The Periodic model was based on ST behavior including normal-, down-, and upregulated clones with diverse SCN. The arm-p/q ratio based signature, as a subtelomeric array, reflects discordance and concordance of ST-behavior within individual chromosomes as a concept of “Individualization of Cells” rather than “Global Insight of Cells”. The Periodic charts could be considered as a reliable and refreshable platform through which the cellular evolution could be patterned and characterized. Signature of ST-profile in the BUC and ALN cells and the nature of diverse SCN and SI as quantitative and qualitative value led to modeling the real personalized perspective of cellular evolution. Protein expression of Ki67, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E was assayed, as a complementary panel. These targets could be applied as the predictive and preventive markers for an early detection at BUC and ALN levels to plan the required managements in the breast cancer patients. PMID:24371368

Mehdipour, P.; Javan, F.; Atri, M.

2013-01-01

440

The nature of the acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in buccal smooth muscle of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum.  

PubMed

The characteristics of the acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors of Deroceras buccal muscle were examined using specific pharmacological probes and sucrose gap electrophysiological analysis. ACh induced concentration-dependent smooth tonic contractures coupled with considerable depolarisation from the normal resting membrane potential of -30.6 mV. The use of choline ester analogues such as carbachol, propionylcholine and butyrylcholine, specific cholinergic agonists such as nicotine, muscarine, bethanecol and pilocarpine and antagonists such as d-tubocurarine, succinylcholine, hexamethomium, atropine, gallamine, pirenzepine and scopolamine indicated that the ACh receptor showed both nicotinic and muscarinic characteristics; the muscarinic activity resembled that of a mammalian M(2)-like receptor. Alternatively, it can not be ruled out that both mammalian types of receptor may be present in this preparation since both nicotine and muscarine induced noticeable tension. 5-HT application induced characteristic dose-dependent phasic contractions accompanied by small but quite consistent depolarisations. Serotonergic agonist and antagonist experiments using 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl) biguanide, methiothepin, methysergide and metoclopramide strongly suggested that the 5-HT receptor showed closest pharmacological affinity with the 5-HT(1) receptor class of mammals but with some 5-HT(2) activity. In view of the phylogenetic gap between molluscs and mammals it is not surprising that the ACh and 5-HT receptors of Deroceras can not be properly classified by conventional mammalian terminology. PMID:11919705

Wright, T J; Huddart, H

2002-04-01