Note: This page contains sample records for the topic buccal motor programs from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Motor program switching in Pleurobranchaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The gastropod molluskPleurobranchaea performs at least two distinct cyclic behaviours using its buccal musculature, namely ingestion of food and egestion of unpalatable objects. The movements and motor programs underlying each of these behaviours have been characterized by cinematography and electromyography in intact specimens. A third buccal movement of unknown behavioural significance, is also described.2.Both ingestion and egestion entail cyclic protraction

Roger P. Croll; W. J. Davis

1981-01-01

2

Motor carrier evaluation program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Motor Carrier Evaluation Program is to develop a set of standards or guidelines that can be used to evaluate the ability of motor carriers to safely transport Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive and hazardous materials or wastes owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This program document consists of a narrative report detailing the criteria and methodology used to objectively evaluate potential motor carriers. A sample Motor Carrier Evaluation/Carrier Profile and a Motor Carrier Inspection Data Sheet are included as appendices to this report. Organizations offering hazardous materials, such as radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals or wastes for transportation, have a regulatory and ethical responsibility to select transporters that are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations related to the transportation of these commodities. 8 refs.

Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.

1990-02-01

3

Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

Tansley, A. E.

4

Premotor neurons B51 and B52 in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia californica: synaptic connections, effects on ongoing motor rhythms, and peptide modulation.  

PubMed

1. Two buccal ganglia interneurons, labeled here as B51 and B52, have been identified on the basis of morphological and physiological criteria. 2. These neurons have multipolar cell bodies. B51 extends a major neurite, which arborizes in the neuropil ipsilateral to the soma; extends into the buccal commissure, where it branches profusely; and projects an axon out the radular nerve (n1); other processes emanating from the soma arborize in the adjacent cell body layer. B52 arborizes ipsilateral to its cell body and sends a major process out of the ipsilateral hemiganglion into the sheath that attaches the buccal ganglia to the buccal mass proper. Here the B52 axon projects through a previously undescribed structure, which forms an arch over the buccal commissure that we designate the commissural arch. The extraganglionic B52 axon sends several branches into the connective tissue and then returns to the contralateral hemiganglion, where it again branches. 3. Each neuron exhibits a unique set of physiological properties. B51 frequently produces plateau potentials, which persist and are even enhanced in solutions where Ca2+ is replaced with Co2+. On the other hand, B52 shows a powerful posthyperpolarization rebound that contributes to its burst formation during spontaneous and nerve-elicited cyclic motor output. 4. B51 and B52 display distinctive rhythmic bursting on stimulation of the radular nerve or esophageal nerve. Their burst-firing tended to occur at certain phase relationships with respect to firing in other buccal premotor and motor neurons. 5. When firing frequency is measured as a function of intracellularly injected current, B51 shows a steplike increase in firing with increasing current, whereas B52 firing frequency is continuously graded. 6. B51 and B52 were found to make extensive synaptic connections within the buccal ganglia. B51 exhibited primarily excitatory electrical connections with known premotor and motor neurons, including an electrotonic synapse with its contralateral homologue. 7. In contrast, B52 made bilateral inhibitory synapses with nearly all of the premotor and motor neurons of the ventral motor cluster. Most of these connections appeared to be monosynaptic, producing synaptic potentials with short and fixed latencies that persisted when the ganglia were bathed in solutions containing elevated concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. 8. Other synaptic potentials produced by B52 were more variable in size and latency; these included slow inhibition of the B4 and B5 neurons and excitation of an identifiable neuron that projected out the radular nerve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2329360

Plummer, M R; Kirk, M D

1990-03-01

5

Testosterone Buccal  

MedlinePLUS

... apply a system to the same side 2 doses in a row.Testosterone buccal systems only work when applied to the upper gum. Although the systems look like tablets, you should not chew or swallow them.Testosterone buccal systems will soften and mold to the shape of your gum and will ...

6

77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...1904-AC05 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...notice of proposed rulemaking to amend the test procedures for electric motors and...

2012-05-04

7

76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small...incorporate by reference and update alternative test methods for polyphase and...

2011-01-05

8

Two-Phase Fluid Cooled Induction Motor Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating electric motors at higher power densities than attainable in motors of conventional design. An investigative phase of this program covered a variety of electromagnetic/mechanical d...

B. W. Merchant J. C. Corman M. H. McLaughlin R. E. Tompkins R. F. Edgar

1971-01-01

9

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)? 350...Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL MOTOR...

2012-10-01

10

49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)? 350...Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL MOTOR...

2011-10-01

11

Computer aided design program for brush-less DC motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the synthesis design program for brush-less DC motor with the aim to replace the traditional manual design. Some useful features and techniques in the program are presented. Finally, the comparison between the program design and the prototyped motor is performed, and the results of the comparison validate the reasonability of the program

Qiang Gao; Hongmin Jing; Zhigan Wu; Jianping Ying

2004-01-01

12

Buccal smear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A buccal smear is a test where cells are taken from the tongue. Cells are collected by scraping the tongue with ... in a normal female sex chromosome). The buccal smear test can confirm whether the patient is a ...

13

Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

14

Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

2011-01-01

15

Optimizing generalized motor program and parameter learning.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined generalized motor program (GMP) and parameter learning. Experiment 1 examined the effects of bandwidth knowledge of results (KR) about relative timing in constant and variable practice. The purpose was to determine if movement stability created by the bandwidth manipulation is associated with increased GMP learning and if bandwidth KR interacts with constant and variable practice. Participants were asked to depress four keys sequentially, using the same relative timing structure. Constant practice had one absolute timing requirement, whereas variable practice had three different absolute timing requirements. The results indicated that GMP learning was enhanced by constant practice (independent of the bandwidth KR condition) and by bandwidth KR, when variable practice was used. The findings suggest practice conditions (bandwidth KR, constant practice) that increase movement stability during practice enhance GMP learning. Parameter learning (during transfer), however, was enhanced by variable practice. Experiment 2 attempted to determine how constant and variable practice conditions could be combined to enhance both GMP and parameter learning. The results indicated that developing a stable GMP early in practice--by providing learners with constant practice early in practice--and refining parameter learning later in practice--by providing them with variable practice late in practice--were effective for both GMP and parameter learning. This suggests a hierarchy in the development of programmed actions with a stable GMP being a requisite for developing an effective and stable parameter rule. PMID:10763517

Lai, Q; Shea, C H; Wulf, G; Wright, D L

2000-03-01

16

Buccal micronucleus cytome assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay is a minimally invasive method for studying DNA damage, chromosomal instability, cell death and the regenerative potential of human buccal mucosal tissue. This method is increasingly used in molecular epidemiological studies for investigating the impact of nutrition, lifestyle factors, genotoxin exposure and genotype on DNA damage, chromosome malsegregation and cell death. The biomarkers measured

Nina Holland; Claudia Bolognesi; Micheline Kirsch-Volders; Stefano Bonassi; Errol Zeiger; Siegfried Knasmueller; Philip Thomas; Michael Fenech

2009-01-01

17

A Perceptual Motor Program Model for Learning Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The model established guidelines for a perceptual motor program for learning disabled children in the areas of student evaluation, choice of activities, goal setting, practice sessions, and reinforcement. (GW)

Eason, Robert L.; Smith, Theresa L.

1976-01-01

18

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has...provide an additional source of motor vehicle support to all...

2011-07-01

19

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

20

Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time.

Latash, Mark L.

2009-01-01

21

Motor programs for abdominal positioning in crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using chronically implanted suction electrodes (Fig. 2), records were obtained from the tonic abdominal flexor motor neurons of crayfish while they were undergoing various self-generated movements (Fig. 3). The main behavior examined in this study was one of abdominal extension (Fig. 1), a response which could be evoked repeatedly. Other stereotyped movements were also observed. Each class of behavior we

James L. Larimer; Alan C. Eggleston

1971-01-01

22

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

23

Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs  

SciTech Connect

This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

NONE

1995-07-01

24

Optimization Of Pplyphase Induction Motor Design: A Nonlinear Programming Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimization of induction motor design is tackled as a nonlinear programming problem. The objective function or the cost function is formed taking only the material cost into account. The specifications like pull out torque, starting torque etc. are put as constraint functions. These functions are expressed in terms of important dimensions of the machine which are assumed

R. Ramarathnam; B. G. Desai

1971-01-01

25

78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors; Proposed...1904-AC89 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY...testing set-up procedures necessary to test, and extending DOE's existing test...

2013-06-26

26

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

Finger, J.T.

1983-11-01

27

Buccal DNA collection: comparison of buccal swabs with FTA cards.  

PubMed

Collection and analysis of DNA, most commonly from blood or buccal cells, is becoming more common in epidemiologic studies. Buccal samples, which are painless to take and relatively easily collected, are often the preferred source. There are several buccal cell collection methods: swabs, brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards, such as FTA or IsoCode cards. Few studies have systematically compared methods of buccal cell collection with respect to DNA yield and amplification success under similar conditions. We compared buccal DNA collection and amplification using buccal swabs and FTA cards in 122 control subjects from our Australian case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Buccal DNA was quantified using a real-time PCR for beta-actin and genotyped at the loci of three polymorphisms (MTHFR 677C>T, ACE I/D, and XPD 1012G>A). PCR was successful with DNA from buccal swabs for 62% to 89% of subjects and from FTA cards for 83% to 100% of subjects, depending on the locus. The matched pair odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing success of FTA cards with buccal swabs are as follows: MTHFR 677C>T using PCR-RFLP, 12.5 (11.6-13.5) and using real-time PCR, 130.0 (113.1-152.8); ACE I/D using PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism, 3.36 (3.2-3.5); XPD 1012G>A using real-time PCR, 150.0 (132.7-172.3). FTA cards are a robust DNA collection method and generally produce DNA suitable for PCR more reliably than buccal swabs. There are, however, technical challenges in handling discs punched from FTA cards that intending users should be aware of. PMID:16614129

Milne, Elizabeth; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Robertson, Laila; Brisbane, Joanna M; Ashton, Lesley J; Scott, Rodney J; Armstrong, Bruce K

2006-04-01

28

Two Alternating Motor Programs Drive Navigation in Drosophila Larva  

PubMed Central

When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.

2011-01-01

29

A PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE ITIL-BASED CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM AT GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology has become a critical component of nearly every business and organization, often driving competitive advantage and the achievement of business objectives. Many organizations have begun to implement structured operational processes and governance models to help manage their IT environments. The IT organization at General Motors (GM) developed an enterprise-wide Change Management (ChM) Program, deployed in early 2006. The

James W. Flosdorf

30

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

2013-07-01

31

Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes  

PubMed Central

Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio?=?0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes.

Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

2009-01-01

32

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2013-07-01

33

Retrofitting utility power plant motors for adjustable speed: Field test program  

SciTech Connect

EPRI recognized there was a need for converting large power plant induction motors to adjustable speed for fuel conservation. When this project started, only the synchronous motor ASD was available which required a new synchronous motor to replace the existing squirrel cage motor. The retrofitting of large power plant induction motors offered an opportunity to develop and refine a technology for large induction motor ASDs. Prior to 1984 no high horsepower induction motor ASDs were installed on utility or industrial fans or pumps, but there were 57 LCI synchronous motor systems. By mid-1986 the market evolved such that more induction motor ASDs were being installed in the US than synchronous motor ASDs. The major US induction motor ASD suppliers now offer water cooling which greatly simplifies the cooling of large thyristors in power plant environments. Included in the report is a copy of a sample ASD specification developed during the field test program. The other major output of this study, ASCON II, and IBM PC compatible computer program for technical and economic applications of ASDs to power plants, has been improved as a result of these field tests and will be made available from the Electric Power Software Center.

Oliver, J.A.; Eslami, A.A. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-12-01

34

Fentanyl buccal tablet.  

PubMed

Studies of populations with chronic cancer pain have shown a high prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP), defined as transitory, severe flares of pain that occur on a background of otherwise controlled, persistent pain. High BTP prevalence rates have also been reported in patients with chronic noncancer pain, although data in these patient populations are more limited. The incidence of BTP appears to be associated with progression of chronic disease, with more than 80% of patients reporting BTP with far-advanced, end-stage cancer and noncancer terminal conditions (1). The most widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of BTP involves use of short-acting opioids taken as needed in addition to the around-the-clock opioid regimen being used for the continuous component of the persistent pain syndrome. For some patients, an optimal treatment outcome for BTP may be unattainable because of a mismatch between the time course of the BTP episode and the onset of analgesia of short-acting opioids. Breakthrough pain typically reaches peak intensity within a few minutes, whereas the onset of analgesia with traditional, orally administered short-acting opioids is between 30 and 60 minutes (2-7). Consequently, treatment outcomes for BTP are likely to be improved with agents that have a more rapid onset of analgesia. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a new formulation of fentanyl indicated for the management of BTP in patients with cancer who are already receiving, and who are tolerant to, opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. The FBT formulation uses OraVescent (Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) drug delivery technology to provide rapid absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. In pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers, FBT demonstrated high, early systemic absorption. In addition, FBT delivered a larger proportion of the fentanyl dose transmucosally and produced a greater early systemic exposure than oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), which is also indicated for the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant cancer patients. A number of short-term studies have evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of FBT in the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain. All these studies included an open-label dose-titration phase prior to randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment. Pain Intensity of a BTP episode was measured using an 11-point scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain), and the primary outcome measure was the Summed Pain Intensity Difference (SPID) at a specified time point. Secondary efficacy measures included Pain Relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of BTP episodes demonstrating >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity scores at each time point postdose, and the proportion of BTP episodes requiring supplemental medication. In a pivotal study of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related chronic pain and BTP, the primary outcome measure, SPID at 30 minutes (SPID(30)), significantly favored FBT compared with placebo (mean +/- SE: 3.0 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.18, p<0.0001). Better efficacy was also observed with FBT compared with placebo for pain relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of episodes showing >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity Scores. Treatment with FBT was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and typical of those associated with opioid use (e.g., nausea, dizziness) (8). Similar results have been observed in studies of opioid-tolerant patients with BTP in association with noncancer-related chronic pain. In a study of patients with chronic low back pain, the primary outcome measure, SPID(60), significantly favored FBT over placebo (mean +/- SE: 8.3 +/- 0.66 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.57, p <0.0001). All secondary efficacy measures were similarly improved, with Pain Intensity Differences and Pain Relief scores showing significant differences versus placebo as early as 10 and 15 minutes, respectively. As in the study of cancer patient

Messina, John; Darwish, Mona; Fine, Perry G

2008-01-01

35

CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) modeling of brushless DC motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in rare earth magnets have made it possible to construct strong, lightweight, high horsepower DC motors. This has occasioned a reassessment of electromechanical actuators as alternatives to comparable pneumatic and hydraulic systems for use in flight control actuators for tactical missiles. This thesis develops a low-order mathematical model for the simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor performance.

S. M. Thomas

1984-01-01

36

Distributed Representation of Limb Motor Programs in Arrays of Adjustable Pattern Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current state of our exploration of how motor program concepts may be related to neural mechanisms. We have proposed a model of sensorimotor networks with architectures inspired by the anatomy and physiology of the cerebellum and its interconnections with the red nucleus and the motor cortex. We proposed the concept of rubrocerebellar and corticocerebellar information processing

N. E. Berthier; S. P. Singh; A. G. Barto; J. C. Houk

1993-01-01

37

Interactive Design and Analysis Program for Switched Reluctance Motor using an Analytical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an interactive design and analysis tool for switched reluctance motors consisting of a module to estimate basic averaged performance parameters and a CAD program. The methodologies used follow conventional approaches. The CAD module calculates flux linkages, inductances and torque numerically as a function of rotor position and stator voltage. Dynamic performance of the motor can be performed

Pan Seok Shin; Pedro J. Otaduy; John McKeever; Don Adams

38

Optimal Control and Simulation of Brushed Direct-Current Motor Stability Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a principal model of a brushed direct-current (DC) motor that has become a benchmark is described. Then it stability program was designed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory and the controllability and observability were studied. Choosing brushed DC motor output angle ? as control variables. Simulation on this control system in Matlab\\/Simulink software environment was described

Chibing Hu; Yazhou Wang

2010-01-01

39

Optimizing a mine haul truck wheel motors’ condition monitoring program Use of proportional hazards modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses work completed at Cardinal River Coals in Canada to improve the existing oil analysis condition monitoring program being undertaken for wheel motors. Oil analysis results from a fleet of 55 haul truck wheel motors were analyzed along with their respective failures and repairs over a nine-year period. Detailed data cleaning procedures were applied to prepare data for modeling. In

A. K. S. Jardine; D. Banjevic; M. Wiseman; S. Buck; T. Joseph

2001-01-01

40

Modular program for grain design and performance analysis of solid rocket motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular software program is described for conducting parametric analyses of solid-rocket-motor (SRM) grain designs to obtain preliminary propulsion data. The analysis package is described with particular attention given to the modular nature of the interactive subroutines, since the method is intended to give flexibility for inputs including port geometries, propellant characteristics, and motor variables. The software is applied to

K. V. Shantharam; V. Santha

1992-01-01

41

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a compendium of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program conducted in cooperation with twelve states. These states are: California, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, ...

L. E. Eder N. Bleich M. Damiata

1978-01-01

42

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? 1051.605 Section...vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? (a) General provisions...the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR...

2009-07-01

43

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? 1051.605 Section...vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? (a) General provisions...the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR...

2010-07-01

44

Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons.  

PubMed

Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia, respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs, the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 versus C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axodendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely located neurons. PMID:22031890

Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

2011-10-26

45

[Buccal epithelium reactivity in children].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088

Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh

2011-01-01

46

Volumetric analysis of the buccal fat pad  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still insufficient knowledge about the anatomical features of the buccal fat pad as well as its behavior in various\\u000a clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to elucidate some of the anatomical features of the buccal fat pad using volumetric\\u000a analysis. The volumes of the buccal fat pads were measured bilaterally in 106 individuals based on their

H. Xiao; M. Bayramiçli; I. T. Jackson

1999-01-01

47

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

48

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

49

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which...

2013-07-01

50

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish.

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

2013-01-01

51

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W

2013-04-17

52

Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a ...

G. Story T. Zoladz J. Arves D. Kearney T. Abel O. Park

2003-01-01

53

Motor strategies and motor programs during an arm tapping task in adults with Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Slow movements and atypical patterns of muscle activation are well-known features of Down Syndrome (DS). Some studies attribute these features to a deficit in voluntary motor commands and preprogramming of actions, that lead subjects with DS to be more reliant on feedback control. In the present study, we evaluated the movement strategies of 13 adult subjects with DS and of 22 age-matched controls (N) during an arm tapping task. By means of quantitative motion analysis, our aim was to describe movement differences in DS respect to typical population and provide a means of interpreting such differences in terms of the underlying different control processes. The results highlighted distinct motor strategies for the tapping task in the two groups, with DS relying more on the trunk motion and N relying on the elbow motion to accomplish the task. Furthermore, DS corrected their wrist trajectory more than N subjects, giving shape to multi-peaked velocity profiles. Longer duration of the trials and a higher index of curvature were found in DS. The results suggest that subjects with DS rely more on feedback control, whereas they have problems with movement planning and feed-forward control. The different strategy operated by subjects with DS leads to a different task performance. PMID:23274643

Vimercati, Sara Laura; Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Ancillao, Andrea; Albertini, Giorgio

2012-12-29

54

Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6years?  

PubMed

The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83years to 6.17years (M=5.42years, SD=3.58months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6months later following the intervention, and then again at 18months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

2012-11-24

55

FTC Advertising Substantiation Program. Automobiles Documentation of Cadillac Motor Car Division, General Motors Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Documentation is submitted in support of various claims concerning the superior fuel economy of Cadillac Eldorado when compared with comparable makes and models of cars in competition with Cadillac; that fuel consumption cited in EPA Testing Program was s...

1974-01-01

56

Intelligent controller design for PM DC motor position control using evolutionary programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the optimum proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design for a PM dc motor position control. Since the evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm has been considered as a useful technique for finding global optimization solutions for certain complicated functions in recent years. In this paper, we attempt to combine the EP algorithm with the PID control design to solve

Guang-hui Chang; Yan-fei Li; Quan Gang

2011-01-01

57

Generalized motor programs for rapid bimanual tasks: a two-level multiplicative-rate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed for the timing of rapid bimanual movements. It combines (a) the notion of a generalized motor program (GMP) with invariant relative timing, (b) the two-level concept of timing control with a central level of control and a peripheral level where the observations are made, and (c) the hypothesis that a single GMP simultaneously controls both limbs.

Herbert Heuer; Richard A. Schmidt; Dina Ghodsian

1995-01-01

58

Effects of a Motor Development Training Program on Child Care Providers with Children in Integrated Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of movement are enhanced when children with disabilities move with their nondisabled peers. This study sought to determine the effects of a motor development training program on child care providers in order to promote movement-based activities and perceived competence in this area. Twenty child care providers were assigned to either…

Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.; Gillam, Ronald B.

59

Improving Developmentally Appropriate Practices in the Kindergarten Program by Introducing Therapeutic Sensory Motor and Play Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum was designed to increase teacher knowledge base in developmentally appropriate practices and increase understanding of the need for play and sensory motor activities in the kindergarten program. The primary goal was that the kindergarten teachers would use more developmentally appropriate practices in achieving curriculum…

Blakes-Greenway, Doris

60

The observation and hearing of eating actions activates motor programs related to eating in macaque monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of actions can lead, in some cases, to the repetition of those same actions. In other words, motor programs similar to those observed can be recruited. Since this phenomenon is expressed when in the presence of another individual, it has been named social facilitation. In the present study we investigated whether the observation and\\/or hearing of eating actions

P. F. Ferrari; C. Maiolini; E. Addessi; L. Fogassi; E. Visalberghi

2005-01-01

61

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

1995-01-01

62

Effectiveness of health promotion programs to increase motor vehicle occupant restraint use among young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the effectiveness of nonlegislative community and clinical programs to increase the rate of child motor vehicle occupant restraint use among children under the age of 5 years.Method: This was a systematic review of the world’s published literature. The Cochrane Collaboration protocol was used to conduct the literature search. The following databases were searched for literature on this

David C. Grossman; Cezanne C. Garcia

1999-01-01

63

Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

NONE

1996-09-01

64

Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance Program for Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analysis of costs and benefits associated with Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs that could be implemented in Tennessee. Study efforts were limited to geographic areas with populations over 200,000 where National Ambient Air Qu...

J. Gunderson E. J. Vodnick G. Pan D. D. Clark J. Gatacre

1979-01-01

65

Modular program for grain design and performance analysis of solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular software program is described for conducting parametric analyses of solid-rocket-motor (SRM) grain designs to obtain preliminary propulsion data. The analysis package is described with particular attention given to the modular nature of the interactive subroutines, since the method is intended to give flexibility for inputs including port geometries, propellant characteristics, and motor variables. The software is applied to configurations typical of SRMs for launch vehicles, and sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impacts of different parameters on SRM performance. The software permits the evaluation of the effects of grain deformation on internal ballistics, and partial inhibition effects in some propellant grains can be assessed.

Shantharam, K. V.; Santha, V.

1992-05-01

66

Distal movement of buccal segments with the “en masse” removable appliance: Its value in treating patients with mild Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Part II: The model measuring system and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The models of 25 children with mild Class II, Division 1 malocclusions who had their upper buccal segments moved distally with an en masse appliance were measured at the beginning of treatment and at the completion of buccal segment retraction. A reflex microscope, interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted for this purpose. A custom-made jig and linear stepping motor

H. S. Orton; J. M. Battagel; R. Ferguson; A. M. Ferman

1996-01-01

67

Fentanyl Buccal Tablets (marketed as Fentora) Information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Fentora (fentanyl buccal tablets) is a an opioid pain medication used for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients receiving opioid ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

68

Buccal Fat Pad in Intraoral Defect Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently\\u000a used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. Buccal fat pad was used to reconstruct 3 medium sized defects\\u000a due to tumoral resection and oro-antral communication. It was used as an unlined pedicled graft. Three cases are discussed

Saurab Bither; Rajshekhar Halli; Yogesh Kini

69

Solid Propulsion Integrity Program development of solid rocket motor nozzle design and analysis capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) work efforts currently underway to develop improved design and analysis capabilities for carbon-phenolic (C-P) solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzles is presented. The goals of SPIP are to (1) develop and conduct high temperature C-P material properties tests to enhance the existing material properties database, (2) use the enhanced database to develop accurate, physics-based models

C. M. Heyborne

1993-01-01

70

Handedness of a motor program in C. elegans is independent of left-right body asymmetry.  

PubMed

Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or "motor handedness," often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ~1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans. PMID:23300601

Downes, Joanna C; Birsoy, Bilge; Chipman, Kyle C; Rothman, Joel H

2012-12-27

71

Microbial contamination of orthodontic buccal tubes from manufacturers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization. PMID:20957099

Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Pinto, John; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2010-09-16

72

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2013-07-01

73

Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity.  

PubMed

Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors to generate desirable cell types. Three transcription factors, Ngn2, Isl1 and Lhx3, were sufficient to program rapidly and efficiently spinal motor neuron identity when expressed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Replacement of Lhx3 by Phox2a led to specification of cranial, rather than spinal, motor neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis of Isl1, Lhx3 and Phox2a binding sites revealed that the two cell fates were programmed by the recruitment of Isl1-Lhx3 and Isl1-Phox2a complexes to distinct genomic locations characterized by a unique grammar of homeodomain binding motifs. Our findings suggest that synergistic interactions among transcription factors determine the specificity of their recruitment to cell type-specific binding sites and illustrate how a single transcription factor can be repurposed to program different cell types. PMID:23872598

Mazzoni, Esteban O; Mahony, Shaun; Closser, Michael; Morrison, Carolyn A; Nedelec, Stephane; Williams, Damian J; An, Disi; Gifford, David K; Wichterle, Hynek

2013-07-21

74

Sex determination from buccal mucosa scrapes.  

PubMed

Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. At times, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of the individual to establish identity, and saliva stains found at the scene of crime are of major help in such cases. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. Buccal smears prepared from 100 men and 100 women were stained by the Papanicolaou staining method. Cells were observed for Barr bodies under oil immersion with a compound microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. It was observed that 1.14% of buccal mucosal cells in men (range = 0-4%) and 39.29% of buccal mucosal cells in women (range = 20-78%) showed Barr bodies. Inferences from the study show that the presence of Barr body in buccal mucosal cells can be demonstrated with a fair degree of accuracy using Papanicolaou staining. The sex of the individual can be determined accurately, as two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells has been obtained for men and women. This method not only proves to be accurate but is also simple and economic. PMID:18813940

Mittal, Tushar; Saralaya, K Muralidhar; Kuruvilla, Ajee; Achary, Chandrayya

2008-09-24

75

[Growing complexity of cardiologic intensive rehabilitation: motor rehabilitation resources and programs of physical training].  

PubMed

In the last few years the population referred to cardiac rehabilitation centers has changed profoundly: the number of survivors of acute cardiac events has increased and heart surgery is being proposed to ever greater numbers of elderly patients with frequent and greater comorbidities, which make the management of physical training programs more complex. Consequently, just as rehabilitation cardiologists have had to expand their field of analyses and professional skills and nurses have had to integrate their care protocols, physiotherapists too have had to adapt the management of motor rehabilitation programs to the various needs and problems of each patient in the different phases of recovery. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the procedures followed in our center concerning both the mode and contents of a standard course of motor rehabilitation for patients without complications and those for patients with complications. The paper analyzes the various assessments, the training program, the instruments of control and verification of the results, and discusses the instruments of intervention in patients affected by complications such as respiratory disturbances, musculoskeletal impairment, complications arising from injury, neurological deficit and severe deconditioning. Finally, the role of the physiotherapist in the active, propositive management of a recovery program is discussed. PMID:12418435

Michelis, E; Capurro, E; Remaggi, C; Belloni, L; Griffo, R

2002-09-01

76

Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers. PMID:21120267

Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

2010-09-01

77

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

1983-08-01

78

Safety alert for fentanyl buccal tablets.  

PubMed

On September 13, 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration posted a safety alert for fentanyl buccal tablets (Fentora). The announcement and hyperlinks to the Dear Doctor and Dear Healthcare Professional Letters that were distributed by the sponsor are presented. PMID:19062355

2008-01-01

79

Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new cases of traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad are presented. The herniated fat pad was repositioned in case 1 and was excised in case 2. There was no recurrence after surgery in each case. Reviewing the literature, the lesion usually occurred in infants or young children under the age of 4 years as a result of traumatic

Norio Horie

2001-01-01

80

Buccal drug delivery of pravastatin sodium.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic(R) F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter, weight, pH, and drug content. A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. levels of carrageenan gum, Pluronic F 127 and PVP K30, which significantly influenced characteristics like in vitro mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, swelling index, and in vitro residence time. The tablet was coated with an impermeable backing layer of ethyl cellulose to ensure unidirectional drug release. Different penetration enhancers were tried to improve the permeation of pravastatin sodium through buccal mucosa. Formulation containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate showed good permeation of pravastatin sodium through mucosa. Histopathological studies revealed no buccal mucosal damage. It can be concluded that buccal route can be one of the alternatives available for the administration of pravastatin sodium. PMID:20300898

Shidhaye, Supriya S; Thakkar, Pritesh V; Dand, Neha M; Kadam, Vilasrao J

2010-03-19

81

Systematic Instruction for Retarded Children: The Illinois Program - Experimental Edition. Part IV: Motor Performance and Recreation Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists…

Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.

82

Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

2009-01-01

83

Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

84

The observation and hearing of eating actions activates motor programs related to eating in macaque monkeys.  

PubMed

The observation of actions can lead, in some cases, to the repetition of those same actions. In other words, motor programs similar to those observed can be recruited. Since this phenomenon is expressed when in the presence of another individual, it has been named social facilitation. In the present study we investigated whether the observation and/or hearing of eating actions facilitate eating behaviors in observing/listening pig-tailed macaques. In experiment 1, the observation of an eating room mate significantly enhanced eating behavior in the observer. Similar results were obtained (experiment 2) in response to the sound of eating actions but not to control sounds (experiment 3). We propose that eating facilitation triggered by observation or listening of eating actions can rely on the mirror neuron system of ventral premotor cortex that provides a matching between the observed/listened action and the executed action. This matching system can subsequently trigger the motor programs necessary for repeating the observed/heard actions. PMID:15904715

Ferrari, P F; Maiolini, C; Addessi, E; Fogassi, L; Visalberghi, E

2005-02-17

85

The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills.

Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

2013-01-01

86

Startle reveals an absence of advance motor programming in a Go/No-go task.  

PubMed

Presenting a startling stimulus in a simple reaction time (RT) task, can involuntarily trigger the pre-programmed response. However, this effect is not seen when the response is programmed following the imperative stimulus (IS) providing evidence that a startle can only trigger pre-programmed responses. In a "Go/No-go" (GNG) RT task the response may be programmed in advance of the IS because there exists only a single predetermined response. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine if startle could elicit a response in a GNG task. Participants completed a wrist extension task in response to a visual stimulus. A startling acoustic stimulus (124dB) was presented in both Go and No-go trials with Go probability manipulated between groups. The inclusion of a startle did not significantly speed RT and led to more response errors. This result is similar to that observed in a startled choice RT task, indicating that in a GNG task participants waited until the IS complete motor programming. PMID:18262355

Carlsen, Anthony N; Chua, Romeo; Dakin, Chris J; Sanderson, David J; Inglis, J Timothy; Franks, Ian M

2008-01-17

87

Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films  

PubMed Central

A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4), which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h) and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied.

Nappinnai, M.; Chandanbala, R.; Balaijirajan, R.

2008-01-01

88

Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin\\u000a sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone\\u000a (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose\\u000a were used to aid

Supriya S. Shidhaye; Pritesh V. Thakkar; Neha M. Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

2010-01-01

89

Effect of permeation enhancers on buccal absorption.  

PubMed

This paper reports an investigation on matrices based on the mucoadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate, intended for sublingual administration of 1 mg lorazepam (LZ, 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, CAS 846-49-1). The effect of different amounts of three permeation enhancers, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), polyethoxylated castor oil (PCO) and polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (PGDE) on LZ permeation from the matrices was investigated using three models: (a) cultured monolayer of human buccal epithelial cells; (b) hamster cheek pouch mucosa in vitro, and (c) buccal administration to rabbits in vivo. In the first two models the presence of promoters, except when present at the higher concentrations, increased the drug permeation rate. The permeation-reducing effect was rationalized on the basis of micellar complexation of the drug. In the living rabbit (c) model, only CPC at the highest tested concentration was moderately active, while in the cultured cell model activity differences among the enhancers were less evident. Different effects of the promoters in the ex vivo and in vivo models were tentatively explained on the basis of the structural characteristics of the absorbing membranes. The present study, while confirming the efficacy of CPC as promoter in models involving biological membranes, does not provide conclusive data on the validity of the cultured cells model for assessment of buccal drug absorption. PMID:16927540

Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Dini, Laura; Najarro, Marcela; Monti, Daniela; Morelli, Paolo; Saettone, M Fabrizio

2006-01-01

90

Solid Propulsion Integrity Program development of solid rocket motor nozzle design and analysis capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) work efforts currently underway to develop improved design and analysis capabilities for carbon-phenolic (C-P) solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzles is presented. The goals of SPIP are to (1) develop and conduct high temperature C-P material properties tests to enhance the existing material properties database, (2) use the enhanced database to develop accurate, physics-based models of C-P response in SRM nozzle operational environments, and (3) implement the new models in analytical computer codes and validate the codes' predictive capabilities. Significant progress has been made in each of the three areas. The improved understanding of C-P response in SRM nozzles, and the new data, models, and codes, are providing the necessary capabilities and tools to enhance confidence in analysis-based SRM nozzle designs and predicted margins of safety.

Heyborne, C. M.

1993-06-01

91

Interneuronal Basis of the Generation of Related but Distinct Motor Programs in Aplysia: Implications for Current Neuronal Models of Vertebrate Intralimb Coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordination of two sets of movements, protraction-retraction versus opening-closing, of the feeding apparatus (the radula) in ingestive and egestive motor programs of Aplysia resembles vertebrate intralimb coordination in that the relative timing of the two sets of movements differs in the two motor programs. In both ingestion and egestion, radula protraction and retrac- tion alternate, whereas radula closure shifts its

Jian Jing; Klaudiusz R. Weiss

2002-01-01

92

NASA Glenn Research Center Program in High Power Density Motors for Aeropropulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electric drive of transport-sized aircraft propulsors, with electric power generated by fuel cells or turbo-generators, will require electric motors with much higher power density than conventional room-temperature machines. Cryogenic cooling of the motor...

G. V. Brown A. F. Kascak B. Ebihara D. Johnson B. Choi M. Siebert C. Buccieri

2005-01-01

93

Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program, Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents findings on the reliability of Solid Propellant Rocket Motors after long term storage. From the data analyzed, aging is indicated for these motors. The aging mechanisms and trends are given together with a reliability prediction mode...

D. F. Malik

1976-01-01

94

A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

2000-01-01

95

Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

2008-01-01

96

Correlation of Buccal Mucosal Transudate Collected with a Buccal Swab and Urine Levels of Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this preliminary study, the level of Benzoyl Ecgonine (BE), a metabolite of cocaine, was copared in urine and buccal mucosal transudate collected by a salt impregnated swab in volunteers admitted for cocaine use. The presence of BE (specificity) was verified by the SYVA EMIT method and the urine and transudate levels meausured using the Sigma ELISA method. Results were

James Leonard; Martin Doot; Camilo Martin; William Airth-Kindree

1994-01-01

97

A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions.

Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

2013-01-01

98

Functional interactions of HIV-infection and methamphetamine dependence during motor programming  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection and both have been linked to alterations of brain structure and function. In a previous study, we showed that the brain volume loss characteristic of HIV infection contrasts with METH-related volume increases in striatum and parietal cortex, suggesting distinct neurobiological responses to HIV and METH (Jernigan et al., 2005). fMRI has the potential to reveal functional interactions between the effects of HIV and METH. In the present study, 50 participants were studied in four groups: an HIV+ group, a recently METH dependent group, a dually affected group, and a group of unaffected community comparison subjects. An fMRI paradigm consisting of motor sequencing tasks of varying levels of complexity was administered to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes. Within all groups, activity increased significantly with increasing task complexity in large clusters within sensorimotor and parietal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cingulate. The task complexity effect was regressed on HIV status, METH status, and the HIVxMETH interaction term in a simultaneous multiple regression. HIV was associated with less complexity-related activation in striatum, whereas METH was associated with less complexity-related activation in parietal regions. Significant interaction effects were observed in both cortical and subcortical regions; and, contrary to expectations, the complexity-related activation was less aberrant in dually-affected than in single-risk participants, in spite of comparable levels of neurocognitive impairment among the clinical groups. Thus, HIV and METH dependence, perhaps through their effects on dopaminergic systems, may have opposing functional effects on neural circuits involved in motor programming.

Archibald, Sarah L.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ogasawara, Miki; Woods, Steven P.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Jernigan, Terry L.

2012-01-01

99

A Pair of Reciprocally Inhibitory Histaminergic Sensory Neurons Are Activated within the Same Phase of Ingestive Motor Programs in Aplysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that each buccal ganglion in Aplysia contains two B52 neurons, one in each hemiganglion. We now show that there are two B52 neurons in a single buccal hemiganglion and four cells in an animal. We also show that the B52 neurons are histamine-immunoreactive and use reverse phase HPLC to show that the histamine-immunoreactive sub- stance is

Colin G. Evans; Vera Alexeeva; Jurgen Rybak; Tuula Karhunen; Klaudiusz R. Weiss; Elizabeth C. Cropper

1999-01-01

100

Formulation and in vivo evaluation of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets, we studied the release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by buccal adhesive tablets composed of sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), magnesium oxide and croscarmellose sodium. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets. The analysis of the release mechanism showed that croscarmellose sodium changed the release profile of omeprazole from first-

Han-Gon Choi; Jac-Hee Jung; Chul Soon Yong; Chong-Dal Rhee; Mi-Kyung Lee; Jeong-Hee Han; Kyung-Mi Park; Chong-Kook Kim

2000-01-01

101

Buccal midazolam for treatment of prolonged seizures in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midazolam is a relatively new anticonvulsive agent in the benzodiazepine group. It has a short onset of duration and is practical for use, providing several alternatives such as intravenous, intramuscular, and intranasal routes. The buccal route could be an alternative choice for seizure control in an emergency setting. However, no sufficient reports are available on buccal midazolam administration. The present

Nurettin Onur Kutlu; Mehmet Dogrul; Cengiz Yakinci; Hanifi Soylu

2003-01-01

102

Fentanyl buccal tablet: rapid relief from breakthrough pain.  

PubMed

Breakthrough pain--a transient increase in pain occurring over a baseline of controlled persistent pain--represents an important clinical challenge in the management of cancer and other chronic pain conditions. The fentanyl buccal tablet is a new sugar-free, easily-administered formulation that uses an effervescent drug delivery system to enhance the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption across the buccal mucosa. Clinical trials indicate that the rapid systemic exposure provided by fentanyl buccal tablets translates into clinically significant improvements in pain intensity. Pain relief is observed within 10-15 min of administration. Fentanyl buccal tablets are generally well tolerated, with the most commonly observed adverse events being typical opioid side effects. Fentanyl buccal tablets represent a convenient and effective treatment for the control of breakthrough pain. PMID:18001263

Taylor, Donald R

2007-12-01

103

Analysis of Diadochokinesis in Ataxic Dysarthria Using the Motor Speech Profile Program(TM)  

PubMed Central

Aims The Diadochokinetic Rate Analysis (DRA) in the KayPENTAX Motor Speech Profile is a computer program for the analysis of diadochokinesis (DDK). The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability, reliability, and concurrent validity of the results from the DRA protocol and hand measurement for individuals with ataxic dysarthria, which is characteristically associated with dysdiadochokinesis. Methods Twenty-one participants with ataxic dysarthria were recorded as they repeated various syllables as quickly and steadily as possible. The DDK samples were executed by the DRA protocol at different thresholds and were also hand-measured. Analyses were based on the percentage of nonexecutable DDK samples, defined as samples in which the lowest peak intensity during CV syllables is lower than the highest peak intensity during intersyllable pauses, and the comparisons of the results between repeated analyses at different thresholds and between automatic and manual measuring methods. Results (1) More than one third of the DDK samples were nonexecutable; (2) the reliability at different thresholds and concurrent validity between different measuring methods were both satisfactory, and (3) temporal variation parameters were more inconsistent between different measuring methods than intensity variation parameters. Conclusion DRA has notable limitations in its clinical application but there is a considerable potential for improving its performance.

Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

2009-01-01

104

Design of the automatic motor Ke measurement system using the system on programming chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induced electromotive force of traditional motor measurement usually uses another motor to connect the tested motor with the drive shaft to measure its speed and obtain Ke value of induced electromotive force of the tested motor. If the tested motor is not suitable for connection to the connect coupling because of the shape or volume of the rotor, it is difficult to measure the Ke values of the tested motor. So some scholars have proposed two-phase motor which drives the three-phase motor, and gain the measurement method of Ke from the third phase in a few years ago. The mainly way is using the digital logic circuits to redefine the truth table by entering the signals to the motor driver chip from the three Hall sensors. So it can still maintain a positive torque above 0 even if used the two-phase driver and the motor can be rotated by the two-phase driver. But the drawback is that it can only be measured the fixed Ke value at the same phase. And it has to redefine the truth table to measure the values of the other two phase. This paper provides a new measurement method that made the motor speed accelerate to the measured speed at the beginning and measuring the value of third phases while the rotation is maintained by the other two-phase. The advantage is that it can change the phase of measurement, so it can easily measure the Ke value. And the most of digital components which including processor, keyboard decoder and frequency counter etc can be achieved in FPGA by using SOPC method. It can significantly reduce the complexity of circuit and increase system reliability degree.

Yen, Sheng-Chan; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Liu, Yen-Chih; An, Nia-Chun; Tsai, Hsiu-An

2013-01-01

105

Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

1992-11-01

106

Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.  

PubMed

Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying. PMID:23501243

Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

2013-03-15

107

Delayed buccal fat pad herniation: An unusual complication of buccal flap in cleft surgery  

PubMed Central

Buccal musculomucosal flap is commonly used in cleft palate surgery for providing additional lining when nasal mucosa is inadequate. We report an unusual complication of progressively increasing fat herniation from the sutured donor site which started appearing on the third postoperative day. This necessitated excision of the protruding fat pad on the seventh postoperative day. The possible mechanism and precautions for prevention of this complication are discussed.

Tuli, Puneet; Parashar, Atul; Nanda, Vipul; Sharma, Ramesh K.

2009-01-01

108

Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahăo

2012-02-01

109

A Disguised Tuberculosis in Oral Buccal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

2011-01-01

110

Applicability of buccal fat pad grafting for oral reconstruction.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the applicability of pedicled buccal fat pad grafting for the reconstruction of defects surgically created during oral surgery. A buccal fat pad graft was applied in 23 patients (5 males, 18 females; mean age 68.3 years) between 2003 and 2011. The graft was used to cover surgical defects of the palate, maxilla, upper gingiva, buccal mucosa, lower gingiva, oral floor, and temporomandibular joint region. Size of the surgical defects ranged from 15mm×12mm to 30mm×40mm; size of the buccal fat pad ranged from 15mm×12mm to 43mm×38mm. A pedicled buccal fat pad was prepared by incising the maxillary vestibule following primary surgery, and the surrounding connective tissue was preserved to supply nutrition to the pedicle during surgery. The buccal fat pad was placed on the raw surface of soft tissue or bone surface and sutured to the surrounding tissue of the defect. Complete epithelialization was observed within 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no complications or functional disorders during follow-up. Buccal fat pad grafting appears to be feasible for the reconstruction of surgically induced defects, and can be extended to the palate, mandible, mouth angle, and temporomandibular joint region. PMID:22902877

Toshihiro, Y; Nariai, Y; Takamura, Y; Yoshimura, H; Tobita, T; Yoshino, A; Tatsumi, H; Tsunematsu, K; Ohba, S; Kondo, S; Yanai, C; Ishibashi, H; Sekine, J

2012-08-16

111

Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.  

PubMed

The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

2013-06-01

112

Preparation and evaluation of a novel buccal adhesive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a novel buccal adhesive system (NBAS) containing propranolol hydrochloride\\u000a (PH). A special punch was fabricated and used while preparing an NBAS. Solubility of PH in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.6),\\u000a partition coefficient between phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 1-octanol, and permeability coefficient through the porcine buccal\\u000a mucosa were performed

Kashappa Gould H. Desai; T. M. Pramod Kumar

2004-01-01

113

Preparation and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Films Containing Clotrimazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages\\u000a over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole\\u000a for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration\\u000a for a prolonged

S. Singh; S. Jain; M. S. Muthu; S. Tiwari; R. Tilak

2008-01-01

114

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of the study were to determine the absolute bioavailability of fentanyl from fentanyl buccal soluble film, estimate the percentage of a fentanyl dose absorbed through the buccal mucosa, and compare the bioavailability of equivalent doses administered either as single or multiple dose units. Design Open-label, randomized, four-period, Latin-square crossover pharmacokinetic study. Setting Inpatient phase 1 unit. Patients Twelve healthy volunteers. Interventions Injectable fentanyl citrate (200 µg) administered by intravenous infusion, injectable fentanyl citrate (800 µg/16 mL) administered orally, and fentanyl buccal soluble film (800 µg) administered as a single film and as four separate 200 µg films simultaneously. Outcome Measures Plasma concentrations after fentanyl dosing; pharmacokinetic parameters. Results The two buccal film treatments were bioequivalent and both had an absolute bioavailability of 71%. The percentage of an administered dose absorbed through the buccal mucosa was calculated to be 51%. Conclusions Fentanyl buccal soluble film effectively delivers a high percentage of the administered fentanyl dose and nearly identical plasma profiles are obtained when equivalent doses are delivered by single or multiple dosage units.

Vasisht, Niraj; Gever, Larry N; Tagarro, Ignacio; Finn, Andrew L

2010-01-01

115

Multiple Neural Oscillators and Muscle Feedback Are Required for the Intestinal Fed State Motor Program  

PubMed Central

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40–60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40–200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle.

Chambers, Jordan D.; Bornstein, Joel C.; Thomas, Evan A.

2011-01-01

116

C. elegans dopaminergic D2-like receptors delimit recurrent cholinergic-mediated motor programs during a goal-oriented behavior.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?(o/i) proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L René

2012-11-15

117

C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context.

Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

2012-01-01

118

A randomized trial investigating an exercise program to prevent reduction of bone mineral density and impairment of motor performance during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD), altered body composition, impaired motor performance and passive ankle dorsiflexion are side effects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. We performed a randomized study investigating whether an exercise program could prevent these side effects. PROCEDURE: At diagnosis we randomized 51 ALL patients (median age: 5.4 years) into a group receiving a 2-year exercise program

A. Hartman; M. L. te Winkel; R. D. van Beek; S. M. P. F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama; H. C. G. Kemper; W. C. J. Hop; M. M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink; R. Pieters

2009-01-01

119

Pre-Student Teaching Laboratory Experiences for Students Majoring in Physical Education and in Elementary Education. The Children's Motor Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report of the 1972 Distinguished Achievement Award Entry from the University of Wisconsin describes the Children's Motor Development Program which is designed to give student teachers experience in elementary physical education methods through volunteer laboratory training. After a review of the development of the program, the following…

Wisconsin Univ., Stevens Point. Dept. of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

120

Effects of visual interference on initial motor program errors and execution times in the choice step reaction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual interference has any effect on error in the initial direction of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) prior to a step (indicating a motor program error) and response time during the choice step execution. Twenty healthy young participants were instructed to execute forward stepping as quickly and accurately as possible on the side indicated by a central arrow (?, left vs. ?, right) of a visual cue in the neutral condition. In the flanker condition, they were additionally required to ignore the 2 flanking arrows on each side (?????, congruent or ?????, incongruent). Errors in the direction of the initial weight transfer (APA errors) and the step execution times were measured from the vertical force data. In the incongruent condition, the percentage of APA errors and the step execution times were significantly greater than those in the neutral and congruent conditions. A linear mixed model revealed that the step execution time in trials with APA errors was longer than those in trials without APA errors. The visual interference effect of a flanker task may load selective attention and judgment processing during movement initiation, leading to increased initial motor program errors and prolonged step execution times even in healthy young adults. PMID:23195857

Uemura, Kazuki; Oya, Toshihisa; Uchiyama, Yasushi

2012-11-26

121

Monoaminergic Orchestration of Motor Programs in a Complex C. elegans Behavior  

PubMed Central

Monoamines provide chemical codes of behavioral states. However, the neural mechanisms of monoaminergic orchestration of behavior are poorly understood. Touch elicits an escape response in Caenorhabditis elegans where the animal moves backward and turns to change its direction of locomotion. We show that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a G?o pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor neurons that synapse onto ventral body wall muscles. Extrasynaptic activation of SER-2 facilitates ventral body wall muscle contraction, contributing to the tight ventral turn that allows the animal to navigate away from a threatening stimulus. Tyramine temporally coordinates the different phases of the escape response through the synaptic activation of the fast-acting ionotropic receptor, LGC-55, and extrasynaptic activation of the slow-acting metabotropic receptor, SER-2. Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence.

Leifer, Andrew M.; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Haburcak, Marian; Francis, Michael M.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Alkema, Mark J.

2013-01-01

122

Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry\\/government\\/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them;

Barry L. Butler

1993-01-01

123

Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

Butler, Barry L.

1993-02-01

124

History and Description of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) fuel economy program from the early 1970's up to and including the 1984 model year. (Beginning with the 1985 model year program significant changes were made to the program t...

C. D. Tyree

1982-01-01

125

Buccal fat pad reconstruction for oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by gradually increasing fibrosis of the oral cavity and pharynx, mainly the buccal mucosa, resulting in trismus. Prepotency of the disease is seen in the Indian subcontinent, with its highest incidence in South India due to various deleterious habits. In spite of the numerous medical modalities employed in the management of oral submucous fibrosis, occasionally surgical intervention becomes inevitable. Various flaps have been used to reconstruct the surgical defects following excision of fibrous bands. Undoubtedly; the buccal fat pad remains the most versatile because of its excellent blood supply and minimal donor site morbidity. Here we present a case of severe oral submucous fibrosis surgically treated and reconstructed using buccal fat pad.

Surej, Kumar L. K.; Kurien, Nikhil M.; Sakkir, Nasil

2010-01-01

126

Buccal administration of dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of buccal dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic in children,\\u000a to compare it with diazepam, and to investigate the optimal dosage for buccal dexmedetomidine administration by measuring\\u000a its serum concentration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a prospective study with 40 children who were assigned to two groups. The patients underwent an operation for

Yoshio Sakurai; Toru Obata; Akio Odaka; Katsuo Terui; Masanori Tamura; Hideki Miyao

2010-01-01

127

Buccaling under the pressure: influence of secondary care establishments on the prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets in primary care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine which characteristics were the best predictors of high rates of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. DESIGN: Practice and patient characteristics from 197 practices were examined, and a multiple regression analysis was performed to examine which variables were important in predicting this prescribing. SETTING: Former family health services authority (197 practices). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Volume of prescribing of glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets. RESULTS: Four variables contributed significantly to a multiple regression model: the catchment area of the secondary care establishment; the number of partners in a practice; the level of practice deprivation; and whether the practice served an urban or a rural area. The model suggests that the most important variable was the catchment area of the secondary care establishment in which the practice was located. CONCLUSION: Although only the prescribing of short acting glyceryl trinitrate buccal tablets was studied, an impact of this size on primary care prescribing may have extensive implications for all drug expenditure in primary care.

Pryce, A. J.; Heatlie, H. F.; Chapman, S. R.

1996-01-01

128

Monoaminergic orchestration of motor programs in a complex C. elegans behavior.  

PubMed

Monoamines provide chemical codes of behavioral states. However, the neural mechanisms of monoaminergic orchestration of behavior are poorly understood. Touch elicits an escape response in Caenorhabditis elegans where the animal moves backward and turns to change its direction of locomotion. We show that the tyramine receptor SER-2 acts through a G?o pathway to inhibit neurotransmitter release from GABAergic motor neurons that synapse onto ventral body wall muscles. Extrasynaptic activation of SER-2 facilitates ventral body wall muscle contraction, contributing to the tight ventral turn that allows the animal to navigate away from a threatening stimulus. Tyramine temporally coordinates the different phases of the escape response through the synaptic activation of the fast-acting ionotropic receptor, LGC-55, and extrasynaptic activation of the slow-acting metabotropic receptor, SER-2. Our studies show, at the level of single cells, how a sensory input recruits the action of a monoamine to change neural circuit properties and orchestrate a compound motor sequence. PMID:23565061

Donnelly, Jamie L; Clark, Christopher M; Leifer, Andrew M; Pirri, Jennifer K; Haburcak, Marian; Francis, Michael M; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Alkema, Mark J

2013-04-02

129

Keeping baby safe: A randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; Geigerwolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

2013-07-30

130

Buccal absorption of ergotamine tartrate using the bioadhesive tablet system in guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buccal administration of ergotamine tartrate (ET) combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel brought about higher plasma concentration of ET compared with that of oral administration of capsules in guinea-pigs. Tm^^ of ET in plasma of buccal administration was significantly smaller than that of oral administration. For the buccal dosage form of ET, the bioadhesive tablet system (BTS) was newly

Keiko TSutsumi; Yasuko Obata; Tsuneji Nagai; Thorsteinn LOftsson; KOZO Takayama

2002-01-01

131

Histologic examination of pedicled buccal fat pad graft in oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This report evaluates the wound healing process of buccal fat pad (BFP) grafted on a defect of the buccal mucosa for oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Patients and Methods: Sixteen patients with limitation of mouth opening under the diagnosis of OSF were surgically treated by cutting the fibrotic bands on the buccal mucosa (10 bilateral and 6 unilateral). The defects

Chiao-Kang Chao; Long-Chang Chang; Shyun-Yen Liu; Jaang-Jiun Wang

2002-01-01

132

Application of the buccal fat pad to the surgical treatment of oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pedicled buccal fat pad has been widely used for the repair of oral defects. A new application of this flap in the treatment of patients suffering from trismus caused by oral submucous fibrosis is reported. The patients underwent incision of the fibrotic bands and coverage of the buccal defect with a pedicled buccal fat pad flap. The surgical technique

Chin-Jyh Yeh

1996-01-01

133

In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

2011-01-01

134

Streptococci Dominate the Diverse Flora within Buccal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that intracellular Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythensis were present within buccal epithelial cells from human subjects, as lesser components of a polymicrobial flora. In this study, we further characterized that intracellular flora by using the same double-labeling techniques to identify Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, oral Campylobacter species, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Gemella haemolysans, Granulicatella adiacens,

J. D. Rudney; R. Chen; G. Zhang

2005-01-01

135

Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for Breakthrough Cancer Pain: Why Titrate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breakthrough cancer pain is a significant problem for many patients with cancer because of the fast onset and often unpredictable nature of the pain episodes. The rapid onset opioids therefore have a central role to play in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The rapid onset opioid fentanyl buccal tablet provides a fast analgesic effect and is easy to administer.

Ulrich R. Kleeberg; Mariléne Filbet; Giovambattista Zeppetella

2011-01-01

136

The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists…

Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

2010-01-01

137

The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

2010-01-01

138

The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and occupational therapists to have handwriting difficulties. They were matched according to their age and then randomly

K. W. Poon; C. W. P. Li-Tsang; T. P. L. Weiss; S. Rosenblum

2010-01-01

139

Promoting Engagement, Requests and Choice by a Man with Post-Coma Pervasive Motor Impairment and Minimally Conscious State through a Technology-Based Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a program to promote constructive engagement, requests, and choice by a man with post-coma pervasive motor impairment\\u000a and minimally conscious state. The program was based on learning principles and use of assistive technology (e.g., sensors\\u000a to monitor the man’s responses and trigger environmental stimulation). The initial objective was the man’s acquisition of a thumb response to activate visual

Giulio E. Lancioni; Marta Olivetti Belardinelli; Fabrizio Stasolla; Nirbhay N. Singh; Mark F. O’Reilly; Jeff Sigafoos; Maria Teresa Angelillo

2008-01-01

140

Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns: A Program for Establishing Neurological Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents a brief description of human neurological development and outlines a program for children designed to establish neurological organization through movement. The patterns of movement are divided into six areas: (1) General Movement Patterns (such as head rolls, crawling, cross-pattern creeping and walking, running, skipping,…

Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

141

Practice and the Dynamics of Handwriting Performance: Evidence for a Shift of Motor Programming Load.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen adult subjects served in an experiment in which the writing of six unfamiliar graphemes was practiced. The experiment was devised to test hypotheses concerning changes in the extent and locus of programming of graphemes as a result of practice. To...

S. J. Portier G. P. Van Galen R. G. J. Meulenbroek

1989-01-01

142

Tactile stimulation of the swimmeret alters motor programs for abdominal posture in the lobster Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The influence of mechanosensory stimulation of a second segment swimmeret upon the abdominal postural program was examined in an isolated abdominal nerve cord-swimmeret preparation. The swimmeret was stimulated in several different ways to assess the extent of influence exerted on abdominal positioning.2.Localized tactile stimulation of the swimmeret surface with a mechanical probe usually generated flexion inhibition where the flexor

Vibhakar C. Kotak; Charles H. Page

1986-01-01

143

Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

1992-04-01

144

Nasal and buccal drug delivery: management forum conference.  

PubMed

The scope of the conference (Nasal and Buccal Drug Delivery Conference, Management Forum; Chairs Franz Merkus and Julie Suman) was to consider innovations in drug delivery via the nose and oral cavity, notably for the delivery of vaccines, antimalarials and rapidly acting sedatives. Presentations from experts from academia, government agencies and commercial organisations were made over the 2 days. The advantages of both routes were ease of application, patient acceptability and no requirement to produce sterile products. These routes worked best for drugs that are water soluble--but with some lipophilicity--only require low doses, are acceptable to the patient and have low irritancy (particulary for the nasal route). Challenges relate to the effectiveness of deposition from the delivery systems and the efficient clearance mechanisms. It was concluded that for many drugs, buccal and nasal delivery could become the route of choice for their application; vaccines, in particular, appear to show promise for nasal delivery. PMID:22900464

Smart, John D

2012-07-01

145

[Use of micronuclear test to the human buccal mucosal epithelium].  

PubMed

The paper presents microphotos of anomalies of the human buccal mucosal epitheliocytic nucleus and gives criteria for their identification. Two procedures for making a scrape from the buccal mucosa were compared. The smears prepared from the samples taken with a urogenital brush showed the lower frequency of cells with micronuclei, protrusions of the "broken egg" and "tongue" types, vacuolated cells, as well as cells with nuclear pyknosis and lysis than those prepared with a rough scrape spatula. The nuclear frequency of cells with condensed chromatin in such smears was higher than that in the rough scrape. In addition, the authors show a relationship of the frequency of cells with the binuclei, perinuclear vacuole, nuclear pyknosis, and condensed chromatin in the nucleus, and absorbed apoptotic (residual) bodies to the examinee's age. PMID:19198258

Iurchenko, V V; Krivtsov, E K; Podol'naia, M A; Revazova, Iu A; Zykova, I E

146

Bilateral buccal bifurcation cyst: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) is a rare inflammatory odontogenic cyst that typically occurs at the buccal region of the first or second mandibular molars of children. In the current case, a 9-year-old boy complained of an extraoral soft tissue painful swelling. Intraoral examination revealed a partial eruption of the right permanent mandibular first molar with drainage of purulent material and clinical absence of the left mandibular first molar. Panoramic radiographic and computed tomography showed two well-defined areas surrounding the mandibular first molars consistent with cystic lesions. Surgical enucleations were performed and histopathologic analysis revealed inflammatory cysts. Based on the clinical, microscopic, radiographic, and CT images, the diagnosis of bilateral BBC was established. Patient has been under follow-up for about 1 year showing normal bone repair and eruption of the involved teeth. Although BBC is uncommon, it is important to recognize this entity. PMID:22392410

Ramos, Lara Maria Alencar; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Coletta, Ricardo D; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

2012-03-06

147

Formulation and Evaluation of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Atenolol  

PubMed Central

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion, and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 24 h and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined.

Adhikari, Surya N. Ratha; Nayak, Bhabani S.; Nayak, Amit K.

2010-01-01

148

Formulation and evaluation of buccal patches for delivery of atenolol.  

PubMed

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion, and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 24 h and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined. PMID:20533098

Adhikari, Surya N Ratha; Nayak, Bhabani S; Nayak, Amit K; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

2010-06-09

149

[Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].  

PubMed

Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention. PMID:21667566

Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

2011-01-01

150

Nevus of Ota with Buccal Mucosal Pigmentation: A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

2011-01-01

151

Leimyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an uncommon malignant spindle cell tumor of the head and neck region. The occurrence is particularly rare in the buccal mucosa of the oral cavity. It is a rapidly growing tumor with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Method: This article presents a rare case of primary leimyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 35 year old female and retrospective analysis of primary oral LMS published in the English literature since past 20 years is done. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry profile showing positivity for vimentin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), high proliferative index displayed by Ki-67, focal positivity for pan-CK and negativity for S-100. Conclusion: Based on the presence of malignant spindle cells showing positivity for vimentin and SMA, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made.

Nagpal, Deepak Kumar J; Prabhu, Prashant R; Shah, Amisha; Palaskar, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

152

Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the base matrix. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent casting technique using different grades of HPMC with different ratios. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index (SI), folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation studies. Results: The film thickness and weight were in the range of 0.213–0.4892mm and 22.25–39.83 mg, respectively. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC, HPMCK100, and HPMC3000 films exhibited satisfactory swelling. Surface pH of buccal films was found to be 6.4–6.8. SI observed to be highest for GF12 (275.3 ± 12.17) and lowest for GF1 (173.5 ± 5.65). The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time, and promising drug release. The Higuchi plots were found to be linear with correlation coefficient values of 0.8933, 0.9138, and 0.9947 for GF4, GF8, and GF9, respectively. Conclusions: Among all the formulations, GF9 shows good controlled release results correlated with ex vivo permeation studies.

Muzib, Y Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

2011-01-01

153

Formulation and Evaluation of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium\\u000a carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent\\u000a casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content,\\u000a moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force

Surya N. Ratha Adhikari; Bhabani S. Nayak; Amit K. Nayak; Biswaranjan Mohanty

2010-01-01

154

Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

2009-03-01

155

Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users  

PubMed Central

Background: Gutkha is a cheap and convenient betel quid substitute, which is popular among all age groups. Various studies reveal its carcinogenic nature that leads to oral submucosus fibrosis and increases the chances of oral cancer. The micronucleus (MN) assay in exfoliated mucosal cells is a useful method for observing genetic damage in humans. Aim: To observe the genotoxic effect of gutkha on human buccal epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The MN assay was performed to assess the frequency of MN in human buccal epithelial cells. The study comprises 60 individuals of which 30 individuals were gutkha chewers and another 30 were nonusers (control). The MN frequency was scored to estimate the genotoxic damage. Results: In gutkha users, the frequency of MN was highly significant (17.4 ± 0.944) as compared with nonusers (control) groups (4.53 ± 0.331) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The MN assay in human buccal epithelial cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. Asignificantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells are found among gutkha users.

Jyoti, Smita; Khan, Saif; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

2012-01-01

156

Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablets containing clotrimazole.  

PubMed

Buccal bioadhesive tablets of clotrimazole (CTZ) and clotrimazole: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CTZ-HPbetaCD) complex were prepared by using polymer xanthan gum in combination with carbopol 974P. The prepared buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics (weight, hardness, friability, diameter, and drug content), swelling index, microenvironment pH, in-vitro drug release, bioadhesion strength, residence time and duration of antifungal activity (in-vitro). The dissolution of CTZ from the prepared tablets into phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was controlled up to 8 h. All the prepared tablets gave reasonable in-vitro residence time (7.13 - 9.34 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the CTZ-HPbetaCD complex, made by kneading and freeze-dried method, showed no CTZ crystal signals, demonstrating the inclusion of CTZ in the hydrophobic cavity of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and formation of amorphous inclusion complex. Duration of the antifungal activity was measured by the inhibition zone of Candida albicans by agar diffusion assay. It is evident from the results obtained, the prepared buccal bioadhesive tablets of CTZ would markedly prolong the duration of the antifungal activity and may prove to be a viable alternative to the conventional local oral medication. PMID:18393816

Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tilak, R

2008-04-01

157

Fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough cancer pain: why titrate?  

PubMed

Breakthrough cancer pain is a significant problem for many patients with cancer because of the fast onset and often unpredictable nature of the pain episodes. The rapid onset opioids therefore have a central role to play in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The rapid onset opioid fentanyl buccal tablet provides a fast analgesic effect and is easy to administer. However, titration of the medication is essential in order to optimize the management of pain. This is because individual patient characteristics, comorbidities, and other treatments may influence the absorption, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of drugs. It is therefore important to individualize treatment by determining the effective dose for each patient, which is the dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes undesirable adverse effects. Data from clinical studies of fentanyl buccal tablet show that patients' effective doses ranged from 100 to 800 µg per episode, highlighting the need for the titration process. Following successful dose titration, treatment with fentanyl buccal tablet can achieve significant pain relief as early as 10 minutes after administration, resulting in a high level of patient satisfaction. PMID:20807349

Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Filbet, Marilčne; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

2010-08-27

158

Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

Robinson, Leah E.

2011-01-01

159

Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

Robinson, Leah E.

2011-01-01

160

A population of pedal-buccal projection neurons associated with appetitive components of Aplysia feeding behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backfills of the cerebral-buccal connective (CBC) of Aplysia californica revealed a cluster of five to seven pedal-buccal projection neurons in the anterolateral quadrant of the ventral surface of each pedal ganglion. Intra- and extracellular recordings showed that the pedal-buccal projection neurons shared common electrophysiological properties and synaptic inputs. However, they exhibited considerable heterogeneity with respect to their projection patterns. All

Alice Robie; Manuel Díaz-Ríos; Mark W. Miller

2003-01-01

161

General Motors Goes Metric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

Webb, Ted

1976-01-01

162

Advanced Motors  

SciTech Connect

Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14

163

Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet: a pooled analysis and review.  

PubMed

Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is indicated for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy for underlying, persistent cancer pain. FBT is designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FBT was shown to be dose proportional from 100 to 1,300 ?g. This analysis provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of FBT based on pooled data from nine pharmacokinetic studies. In all, 365 healthy non-opioid-tolerant adults receiving naltrexone were included in the analysis. Single-dose (100 to 1,300 ?g) pharmacokinetic parameters were dose normalized to 100 ?g. Pharmacokinetic measures included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-?)), time to reach C(max) (T(max)), apparent plasma terminal elimination rate constant, and elimination half-life. After FBT administration, fentanyl was rapidly absorbed, with T(max) ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours postdose. Mean AUC(0-?) was 1.49 ng•hour/mL, and mean C(max) was 0.237 ng/mL. However, plasma fentanyl concentration reached 80% of C(max) within 25 minutes and was maintained through 2 hours after administration. Based on the individual studies, bioequivalence was shown for sublingual and buccal tablet placement, and no significant effect of dwell time (duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity) was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile of FBT was characterized by rapid absorption, which is consistent with the rapid-onset efficacy profile of FBT observed in clinical studies. PMID:21831253

Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang

2011-08-10

164

Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration.

Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

2009-01-01

165

Cortical bone thickness in the buccal posterior region for orthodontic mini-implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate cortical bone thickness in the buccal posterior region mesial and distal to the first molar, where mini-implants are often placed, and determine any differences according to location, age and sex. The subjects were 43 patients who had mini-implants placed in the posterior buccal alveolar bone as anchors for orthodontic treatment. Computed tomography

A. Ono; M. Motoyoshi; N. Shimizu

2008-01-01

166

Preparation and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Films Containing Clotrimazole  

PubMed Central

Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

Jain, S.; Muthu, M. S.; Tiwari, S.; Tilak, R.

2008-01-01

167

Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers  

PubMed Central

The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

2010-01-01

168

Comparison studies of different flaps for reconstruction of buccal defects.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of radial forearm free (RFF) flap, platysma myocutaneous (PM) flap, and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in buccal reconstruction. This study consisted of 56 patients who were categorized into 3 groups. The Student t test was used to analyze the variables. Patients in group platysma flap were significantly older, the dissection of platysma flap was easier, and the defect was significantly smaller than those in group radial forearm flap and group ALT flap. The reduction in the widths of mouth opening between group PM, group RFF, and group ALT were compared. However, the reduction of mouth-opening widths in group RFF and group ALT was significantly less than that in group PM. Platysma myocutaneous flap may be more suitable in patients with small to middle-size defect and poor status, although the flap cannot achieve a reliable result; anterolateral thigh flap and radial forearm flap can preserve the interincisal distance well even for large buccal defect, but it takes more time and skills in the operation. PMID:24036811

Fang, Qi-Gen; Safdar, Jawad; Shi, Shuang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Zhen-Ning; Liu, Fa-Yu; Sun, Chang-Fu

2013-09-01

169

Motor Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

2013-06-13

170

The effect of storage conditions on the permeability of porcine buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The impact of storage conditions on the permeability of porcine buccal mucosa to [3H]water and [14C]mannitol was assessed. The fresh porcine buccal tissue (fresh tissue) was obtained by utilizing pig heads within 24 hours of slaughter. The stored and frozen porcine buccal tissues (stored tissue and frozen tissue) were obtained after the storage of the tissue intact in the pig heads at 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C, respectively, for 24 h. The results demonstrated that the barrier properties of the porcine buccal mucosa were maintained with regard to [3H]water permeability when stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. However, freezing the tissue resulted in tissue damage illustrated by a significant increase in [3H]water permeability. [14C]Mannitol does not appear to be a suitable model solute to assess the ex vivo permeability of porcine buccal mucosa due to its extremely low permeability. PMID:12214870

Lee, Jaehwi; Lee, Sang Kil; Choi, Young Wook; Lww, Sang Kil

2002-08-01

171

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinomas are deceptive malignancies that show slow growth and local invasion with recurrences seen many years after diagnosis. Upto 50% of these tumors occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. Buccal mucosal tumors are relatively rare. We determined the incidence of buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinoma by reviewing the number of reported cases in the literature. This is the first article to analyze the occurrence of adenoid cystic carcinomas in the buccal mucosa through a review of 41 articles. Our review revealed 178 buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinomas among a total of 2,280 reported cases. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma occurring in the left buccal mucosa of a 45-year-old female.

Ajila, Vidya; Hegde, Shruthi; Nair, Gopakumar R; Babu, Subhas G

2012-01-01

172

Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent® drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP.

Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

2010-01-01

173

Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of breakthrough pain: pharmacokinetics of buccal mucosa delivery and clinical efficacy.  

PubMed

The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA((R)), Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent((R)) drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. PMID:20634985

Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

2010-06-04

174

Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive–motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive–motor performance in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force tracking was significantly better with Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation. In addition to better overall cognitive–motor performance associated with Model parameters, the amount of power consumed was on average less than half that used with the Clinical settings. These results indicate that the cognitive and cognitive–motor declines associated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation may be reversed, without compromising motor benefits, by using model-based stimulation parameters that minimize current spread into nonmotor regions of the subthalamic nucleus.

Frankemolle, Anneke M. M.; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

2010-01-01

175

Buccal fat pad pedicle flap for midface augmentation.  

PubMed

Midface aging is characterized by soft-tissue ptosis with loss of cheek projection. Subperiosteal midface lifts may reposition the soft-tissue mounds and improve the tear trough, but may not fill the lateral cheeks in patients with significant jowls or poor bony support. Correction with alloplastic implants is helpful, but may not be accepted by many patients. During subperiosteal midface lifts, the author often excises Bichat's fat pad to decrease the jowl and to diminish face fullness. He has modified this approach and used a vascularized Bichat's fat flap to aid lateral cheek projection while still improving lower face fullness and the jowl. For the last 4 years, close to 150 patients undergoing subperiosteal midface lifts have had vascularized Bichat's fat pad flaps. The jowls were marked preoperatively. All patients had complete cheek undermining either through a buccal sulcus incision or through a crow's-foot incision, or through a muscle-sparing limited lower blepharoplasty incision. Bichat's fat pad is identified in its pocket medial to the masseter tendon. Mobilization of Bichat's fat pad is done by blunt dissection, preserving its thin fascial envelope. The "hernial saclike" pocket, excluding Stensen's duct and the buccal branches of the facial nerve, is identified and protected. Suspension is accomplished by fixation with 3-0 polydioxanone sutures either to the temporalis fascia (via the temporal incisions), to the arcus marginalis, or to the suborbicularis oculi fat pad. Fixation technique is dependent on where the fat pad is needed and the surgeon's preference. Fat pad repositioning is accomplished with a minor learning curve. The most common problems are tearing of the fat pad during fixation and temporary numbness of the long buccal nerve. Attention to leaving the capsule intact and gentle handling is essential to fixation. Nevertheless, in some patients with poor-quality fat pads, fixation is extremely difficult. Four-year results have been excellent. Further studies with magnetic resonance imaging of postoperative patients are necessary to assess longevity. Bichat's fat pad provides autologous vascularized tissue for midface fill. Placement may be lateral for cheek augmentation or medial for deep nasolabial folds. Jowl improvement also occurs with the removal of Bichat's fat pad from its pocket. PMID:10454314

Ramirez, O M

1999-08-01

176

Apparatus, method and computer program product to facilitate ordinary visual perception via an early perceptual-motor extraction of relational information from a light stimuli array to trigger an overall visual-sensory motor integration in a subject  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus, method and computer program product is presented to address early visual-sensory motor perception of a subject, where the method comprising the steps of: (1) controlling photic energetic parameters and/or photic perceptual attributes to trigger pre-attentive cuing or increase reactivity in magnocellular activity towards transient visual stimuli of the subject; and (2) generating a optical field comprising optical events based on said photic energetic parameters and said photic perceptual attributes, wherein said optical field transforms into a simple optical flow in the perceptual visual field of said subject. The photic energetic parameters may comprise light array energetic features, including one or more of wavelength, amplitude, intensity, phase, polarization, coherence, hue, brightness, and saturation.

2007-12-18

177

A subscale solid propellant rocket motor experimental program to validate the performance and gasdynamic analysis of the Titan IV SRMU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to support Hercules Aerospace investigations into the failure of the Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) during its first ground test firing and to demonstrate the effectiveness of a remedial grain configuration. Motor internal flow processes for several propellant comfigurations were examined using a 7 percent scale reusable solid propellant combustor in short duration tests. Propellant surface pressure distributions in the combustor were determined by rapid response piezoelectric pressure tranducers. Results of the PQM-1 and PQM-1 one second propellant grain configurations indicated that a high pressure gradient across the joint of the aft and central motor segments led to deformation of the aft grain segment which caused a partial blockage of flow in the central bore of the motor, overpressurization of the forward case and subsequent failure. Tests with the June 5th Baseline redesigned grain configuration showed that chamfering the sharp edges of the forward face of the aft segment leads to a significant reduction in loads across the center-to-aft interface. Test results are discussed and provide a basis to proceed with the remedial design and second ground firing test of the Titan IV SRMU.

Albrechcinski, T.; Drzewiecki, R.; Pierowicz, J.; Wehe, S.; Wurster, W.; Lundgreen, R.; Daines, W.

1992-07-01

178

Risk evaluation for motor operated valves in an Inservice Testing Program at a PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety related valves such as Motor Operated Valves (MOV), Air Operated Valves (AOV) or Check Valves (CV) play an important role in nuclear power plant. Functioning of these valves mainly aim at emergency reactivity control, post-accident residue heat removal, post-accident radioactivity removal and containment isolation when a design basis accident occurred. In order to maintain these valves under operable conditions,

Y. C. Li; K. T. Chen; Y. L. Su; K. Ting; F. T. Chien; G. D. Li; S. H. Huang

179

Effect of a 3-week body mass reduction program on body composition, muscle function and motor performance in pubertal obese boys and girls.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary body mass reduction (BMR) program on body composition, muscle function and motor performance in 50 obese [mean body mass index (BMI): 35.9+/-5.8 kg/m2] boys and girls aged 12-17 yr (Tanner stage III, IV and V). The hospital-based BMR program combined an energy-restricted diet (1400-1600 kcal), nutritional education, psychological counselling and moderate physical activity (45-60 min/ session; 5 sessions/week; 60-80% of the maximal heart rate) during a 3-week period. Fat mass, fat-free mass, maximal power during jumping and stair climbing as well as maximal strength of the upper and lower limb muscles were quantified before and after the treatment. Body mass and fat mass significantly decreased following the BMR program, respectively -5.1 and -7.8% (p<0.001), while percent fat-free mass increased 2.3% (p<0.001). The treatment significantly increased both stair climbing and jumping power, respectively 8.2 and 8.9% (p<0.05), and the same was true for maximal strength of the upper and lower limb muscles (p<0.001). For the first time, it was demonstrated that a BMR program entailing diet and physical exercise significantly improved body composition, muscle function and motor performance in obese boys and girls aged 12-17 yr, while gender and pubertal stages had no influence on BMR program-induced changes. PMID:15648544

Maffiuletti, N A; De Col, A; Agosti, F; Ottolini, S; Moro, D; Genchi, M; Massarini, M; Lafortuna, C L; Sartorio, A

2004-10-01

180

Fentanyl buccal tablet: faster rescue analgesia for breakthrough pain?  

PubMed

Breakthrough pain (BTP) is an unmet clinical need that is still poorly diagnosed, evaluated and inadequately treated. The prevalence of BTP has been estimated to affect at least 64% of cancer patients. Two pain-relief strategies were proposed: preventive and active ('rescue'). Oral short-acting opioid seems to be the most popular approach for BTP treatment, however, it is likely to be inadequate for a substantial proportion of patients as a result of the slow-onset of most available opioid preparations. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a novel delivery system for fentanyl citrate. FBT utilizes OraVescent technology to improve bioavailability and speed of drug delivery. Recent studies have demonstrated superior pharmacokinetic profiles when compared with other available transmucosal opioids (OTFC), however, pharmacodynamic data are still somewhat limited. PMID:17661711

Lecybyl, Remigiusz; Hanna, Magdi

2007-08-01

181

Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa: a rare case report.  

PubMed

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

Mahesh, Kumar T S; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

2013-05-16

182

Use of buccal mucosal grafts in hypospadia-crippled adult patients.  

PubMed

The buccal mucosa has begun to be used as a free graft in complex hypospadias repair gradually and successfully in recent years. However, there are limited experiences regarding use of the buccal mucosa in adult patients. In this study, the authors describe their experience using buccal mucosal grafts in hypospadias-crippled adult patients. Between March 1996 and February 2001, the buccal mucosa was used in 26 cases of complex hypospadias in which local penile skin was not present or it was insufficient for urethral repair. All patients were adults (age range, 17-24 y; average, 21 y). In these patients in whom penile skin was insufficient, urethral repair by buccal mucosa was planned, with the stipulation that at least 6 months had passed from the previous operation. The buccal mucosa has been applied to 23 patients alone and in combination with penile skin in three patients. After surgery, the patients were followed-up for 3 to 18 months (average, 12 mo). During the follow-up, fistula in the line of the proximal anastomosis, meatal stenosis, and the fistula together with meatal stenosis developed in nine (35%), four (15%), and two patients (7%), respectively. It is concluded that buccal mucosa is the free graft material that should be the first choice in complex hypospadias cases that are circumcised or undergo operation more than once and when the penile skin is not available. PMID:12671380

Sahin, Coskun; Seyhan, Tamer

2003-04-01

183

Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration. PMID:17192502

Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

2007-01-01

184

A sustained release dosage form of acyclovir for buccal application: an experimental study in dogs.  

PubMed

Acyclovir is an antiviral agent and it has been particularly used for the treatment of herpes simplex infections. The treatment of infection in the oral cavity is often difficult, because of insufficient drug concentration in saliva when acyclovir is administered via the oral route in conventional tablet form for systemic uptake. Therefore, it was aimed to prepare a tablet for buccal administration and to investigate its effectiveness by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments.The solubility (1.559-4.584) and octanol/water partition coefficients ( - 2.176 to - 1.625) of the acyclovir were investigated at different pH conditions. A series of tablet formulations were prepared for buccal application and their dissolution properties were determined in artificial saliva medium. The effect of tablet ingredients on the release rate and mucoadhesion force was investigated. The dissolution properties of commercially available acyclovir tablets were also determined in the artificial gastric juice. Franz type diffusion cells were used to determine acyclovir penetration through buccal mucosa from prepared buccal tablets. Selected buccal tablets, commercial tablets and intravenous acyclovir solutions were administered to mongrel dogs and drug levels in the blood determined by HPLC.A pharmacokinetic model for buccal application was also developed and blood concentrations were calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Prepared buccal tablets were found to be effective for the treatment of viral infections locally within the oral cavity and also for systemic treatment. PMID:16603450

De?im, Tuncer; E?len, Bilgen; Ocak, Omer

2006-01-01

185

Perceptual Motor Activities in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for parents, the guide offers instructions for home activities to supplement the school program for children with perceptual motor disturbances. An individual program sheet is provided; behavioral characteristics and the child's need for structure are explained. Activities detailed include motor planning, body image, fine motor

Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

186

Motor performance testing to assure quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technically meaningful demonstration of motor adequacy requires a comprehensive test program controlled by procedures under a quality assurance program, and a definition of critical characteristics as it relates to functional performance. This paper discusses how to determine motor critical characteristics, evaluates industry guidance and standards for motor testing, and defines the types of tests which are appropriate for demonstration

Salvatore P. Savino; L. P. Gradin

1994-01-01

187

The use of buccal fat pad flap in the treatment of osteoradionecrosis.  

PubMed

The use of buccal fat pad in the management of osteoradionecrosis has not been described previously. A series of 10 consecutive cases of osteoradionecrosis treated with a combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad is presented. The data were obtained by reviewing operative and medical records. The combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad flap was successful in 86% of cases of stage II osteoradionecrosis and in 0% of cases of stage III. The overall success rate was 60%. Based on the result of this series, this treatment regime appeared to be beneficial in stage II osteoradionecrosis. PMID:22560870

Nabil, S; Ramli, R

2012-05-05

188

Motor imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe general concepts about motor imagery and differences to motor execution. The problem of controlling what the subject actually does during imagery is emphasized. A major part of the chapter is dealing with mental training by imagery and the usage of motor imagination in athletes, musicians and during rehabilitation. Data of altered representations of the body after loss of

Martin Lotze; Ulrike Halsband

2006-01-01

189

Molecular motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life implies movement. Most forms of movement in the living world are powered by tiny protein machines known as molecular motors. Among the best known are motors that use sophisticated intramolecular amplification mechanisms to take nanometre steps along protein tracks in the cytoplasm. These motors transport a wide variety of cargo, power cell locomotion, drive cell division and, when combined in large ensembles, allow organisms to move. Motor defects can lead to severe diseases or may even be lethal. Basic principles of motor design and mechanism have now been derived, and an understanding of their complex cellular roles is emerging.

Schliwa, Manfred; Woehlke, Günther

2003-04-01

190

Motor imagery.  

PubMed

We describe general concepts about motor imagery and differences to motor execution. The problem of controlling what the subject actually does during imagery is emphasized. A major part of the chapter is dealing with mental training by imagery and the usage of motor imagination in athletes, musicians and during rehabilitation. Data of altered representations of the body after loss of afferent information and motor representation due to limb amputation or complete spinal cord injury are demonstrated and discussed. Finally we provide an outlook on additional work about motor imagery important for further understanding of the topic. PMID:16716573

Lotze, Martin; Halsband, Ulrike

2006-05-22

191

Evaluating Solid Boost Demonstrator Motor Specific Impulse Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Phase I solid Boost Demonstrator (Boost Demo) motor was fabricated as the Phase I demonstration of technologies from the IHPRPT program. This motor incorporates new technologies in an attempt to increase delivered performance compared with the IHPRPT Baseline motor. The IHPRPT Baseline motor and Boost Demo nozzle motor aft and nozzle contours are compared.

Ahmad, Rashid A.; Laubacher, Brian

2001-02-01

192

Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA1 expression in normal human buccal cells.  

PubMed

While tumor suppressor properties of BRCA1 are well documented, less is understood concerning the normal function of this protein in healthy adult tissues. We demonstrate here that BRCA1 protein is expressed in human buccal cells. Expression of BRCA1 mRNA transcripts in buccal cells was confirmed by PCR of reverse transcribed RNA. Three BRCA1 antibodies, D20, MS110 and MS13, reacted positively with cytospin deposited buccal cells, demonstrating apparent cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution of BRCA1 protein. Double antibody immunofluorescent, binding of D20 and MS110 was differentially distributed. We conclude that buccal cells provide a cell source for exploration of BRCA1 protein function in normal human adults. PMID:9683810

Reece, M T; Lane, M A; Byrne, T J; Adams, L A; Podgaysky, A P; Cohn, G M

193

Human population studies with the exfoliated buccal micronucleus assay: Statistical and epidemiological issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMicronucleus (MN) assay in buccal exfoliated cells is a minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in human populations. Statistical and epidemiological issues related to the design and analysis of studies based on this biomarker are addressed.

Marcello Ceppi; Barbara Biasotti; Michael Fenech; Stefano Bonassi

2010-01-01

194

Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms\\u000a of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934\\u000a (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal\\u000a devices were evaluated by different parameters such

Vishnu M. Patel; Bhupendra G. Prajapati; Madhabhai M. Patel

2007-01-01

195

Aphtose buccale r?cidivante, et si c'?tait une maladie coeliaque  

PubMed Central

L'aphtose buccale récidivante est une maladie le plus souvent bénigne mais parfois invalidante qui évolue de façon chronique et récidivante. Elle peut ętre isolée ou associé ŕ d'autre pathologie, d'oů l'intéręt de la recherche d'une maladie sous jacente. Nous rapportons le cas d'une aphtose buccale récidivante révélant une maladie coeliaque chez une patiente âgée de 45 ans.

Zinelabidine, Kaoutar; Rhizlane, Idrissi; Meziane, Meriame; Zahra Mernissi, Fatima

2012-01-01

196

Gene-Environment Interaction Signatures by Quantitative mRNA Profiling in Exfoliated Buccal Mucosal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exfoliated cytologic specimens from mouth (buccal) epithelium may contain viable cells, permitting assay of gene expression for direct and noninvasive measurement of gene-environment interactions, such as for inhalation (e.g., tobacco smoke) exposures. We determined specific mRNA levels in exfoliated buccal cells collected by cytologic brush, using a recently developed RNA-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcrip- tion-PCR strategy. In a pilot study,

Simon D. Spivack; Gregory J. Hurteau; Ritu Jain; Shalini V. Kumar; Kenneth M. Aldous; John F. Gierthy; Laurence S. Kaminsky

2004-01-01

197

Buccal swabs and treated cards: methodological considerations for molecular epidemiologic studies examining pediatric populations.  

PubMed

Self-collection of buccal cells provides a noninvasive method for obtaining biologic samples for genetic analyses in pediatric studies. Nevertheless, low yields, microbial contamination, and degradation of buccal samples present challenges for epidemiologic studies incorporating genetic investigations. The aims of this study were to compare the quality and yield of DNA extracted from buccal specimens with BuccalAmp swabs (Epicenter BioTechnologies, Madison, Wisconsin) or FTA cards (Whatman, Inc., Clifton, New Jersey) and to investigate the use of whole-genome amplification (WGA) for increasing DNA yields for single nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Buccal specimens were collected from 55 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 control children without acute lymphoblastic leukemia in New South Wales, Australia, in 2003-2004. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate polymorphisms in the genes encoding the cytochrome p450 enzyme CYP3A4 (CYP3A4 A392G, also known as CYP3A4*1B) and the steroid xenobiotic receptor (SXR C25385T). Results showed that DNA could be isolated from buccal specimens collected by use of both methods and that yields could be substantially improved with WGA without introducing genotyping error. However, DNA quality was poorer in samples collected by BuccalAmp swabs, and the presence of polymerase chain reaction inhibitors in these samples reduced the sensitivity of quantitative real-time PCR analysis. These findings show that different methods for collecting buccal samples impact on the downstream success of genetic investigations and influence DNA quality after WGA. PMID:18326872

Beckett, Sara M; Laughton, Stephen J; Pozza, Luciano Dalla; McCowage, Geoffrey B; Marshall, Glenn; Cohn, Richard J; Milne, Elizabeth; Ashton, Lesley J

2008-03-07

198

In vitro effects of ethanol and mouthrinse on permeability in an oral buccal mucosal tissue construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the influence of ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinses on model chemical permeability in an in vitro oral buccal mucosal construct (EpiOral, ORL-200, MatTek). Innate ethanol transport and metabolism in the tissue construct was also studied. Caffeine flux in buccal tissue was measured after pre-treatment with 26.9% ethanol or Listerine® products under conditions modeling a typical mouthwash rinsing.

Francis Koschier; Vsevolod Kostrubsky; Colleen Toole; Michael A. Gallo

2011-01-01

199

Pharmacokinetic Characteristics, Efficacy, and Safety of Buccal Testosterone in Hypogonadal Males: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transbuccal administration of drugs provides an easy route of administration. To test the safety and efficacy of a novel testosterone (T) product, we performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-con- trolled study in a parallel design. Men with serum T levels below 250 ng\\/dL were administered either an active buccal tablet containing 10 mg T( n5 7) or a buccal placebo

ADRIAN S. DOBS; DONALD R. HOOVER; MIN-CHI CHEN; RICHARD ALLEN

200

Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

1980-07-01

201

[Health community agent: subject of the buccal health practice in Alagoinhas, Bahia state].  

PubMed

This study about the work of micro politics was carried out by the Buccal Health Team (ESB) in the Family Health Program (PSF) of Alagoinhas, Bahia State, and has as central theoretical purpose the specific and singular forms in the practice of daily work, using the technologies (hard, light-hard and light). The methodological trajectory is based on the historical-social current in view of a dialectic approach of qualitative nature. The techniques of data collection used were: semi structured interview, observation of the work process and documental analysis. The analysis of the data was oriented by the hermeneutics-dialectics, allowing to compare the different levels of analysis, articulating the theoretical with the empirical evidence. The results reveal that the Family Health Teams are multidisciplinary, but have still not developed an interdisciplinary work, hence occurring juxtaposition of skills. Each unit plans their work process according to the singularities of the social subjects, implementing different characteristics in how to welcome, inform, attend and refer. An effort in changing the work process can be perceived in the perspective of amplified clinic with the health community agent standing out as a social/collective subject. PMID:20464204

Rodrigues, Ana Aurea Alécio de Oliveira; Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo

2010-05-01

202

Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.  

PubMed

We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem. PMID:17316239

Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

2007-03-01

203

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 202 (Head Restraint). General Motors Corporation. 1970 Chevrolet Impala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

K. B. Cruise

1970-01-01

204

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105 (Brakes). General Motors Corporation 1970 Chevrolet Impala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

205

Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats.  

PubMed

The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%). The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively). A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. PMID:23184169

Azambuja, Carolina Barrera de; Cavagni, Juliano; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Gaio, Eduardo José; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

206

Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking.…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2012-01-01

207

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

208

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

SciTech Connect

The goal of DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is to promote and accelerate the development and public use of vehicles that use electricity as the principal source of propulsion energy. Successful achievement of this goal will ultimately result in significant petroleum savings to the nation. However, the design, performance, and cost of propulsion components must be improved before commercially attractive electric vehicles can be built. Improved and advanced components being developed under the NASA-managed propulsion portion of the DOE program include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush-commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers.

Secunde, R.R.

1981-01-01

209

Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies.  

PubMed

Thiocolchicoside, a muscle-relaxant agent, is administered by the oral, intra-muscular and topical route. After oral administration the extent of bioavailability compared with intra-muscular administration is low, due to a first pass effect. In this paper, the delivery of thiocolchicoside through oral mucosa is studied to improve the bioavailability. Thiocolchicoside in vitro permeation through porcine oral mucosa and in vivo buccal transport in humans were investigated. Two dosage forms, a bioadhesive disc and a fast dissolving disc for buccal and sublingual administration of thiocolchicoside, respectively, were designed. The in vitro permeation of thiocolchicoside through porcine buccal mucosa from these dosage forms was evaluated and compared with in vivo absorption. Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that thiocolchicoside is quite permeable across porcine buccal mucosa and that permeation enhancers, such as sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, were not able to increase its flux. The in vivo thiocolchicoside absorption experiments, in which the drug loss from oral cavity was measured, indicated that both formulations could be useful for therapeutic application. The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time. PMID:12480286

Artusi, M; Santi, P; Colombo, P; Junginger, H E

2003-01-01

210

Whole genome amplification of buccal cell DNA: genotyping concordance before and after multiple displacement amplification.  

PubMed

While buccal cells provide an easily accessible source of genomic DNA, the amount extracted may be insufficient for many studies. Whole genome amplification (WGA) using multiple displacement amplification (MDA) may optimize buccal cell genomic DNA yield. We compared the usefulness, in epidemiological surveys, of DNA derived from buccal cells collected by alcohol mouthwash and amplified by WGA protocol and standard protocols. Buccal cell collection kits were mailed to 300 randomly selected members of a large cohort study, and 189 subjects returned buccal cell samples. We determined: (i) which QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit extraction protocol (tissue or blood) produced more DNA; and (ii) whether it is feasible to use MDA to prepare DNA for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of markers such as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes. The two DNA extraction protocols were tested on 20 different patient samples each. The tissue protocol yielded more DNA than the blood protocol (15.4+/-8.6 vs. 7.6+/-7.1 microg, p<0.0001). The 20 DNA samples extracted using the tissue protocol were then subjected to pre- and post-MDA genotyping using amplicons for the MTHFR SNP at C677T and the intron 8 VDR SNP. No genotyping discrepancies were detected in pair-wise comparisons of pre- and post-MDA. Genotyping DNA from MDA-based WGA is indistinguishable from routine polymerase chain reaction and offers a stable DNA source for genomic research and clinical diagnosis. PMID:15843209

Thompson, Miles D; Bowen, Raffick A R; Wong, Betty Y L; Antal, Joan; Liu, Zhanqin; Yu, Helen; Siminovitch, Katherine; Kreiger, Nancy; Rohan, Tom E; Cole, David E C

2005-01-01

211

North Carolina Used-Motor-Oil Re-Refining Program: Economics and Logistics; and Operating Results. Topical Report 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the third in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a State-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was ...

J. R. Canada

1983-01-01

212

Fentanyl buccal tablet: in breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer.  

PubMed

The fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a new formulation of fentanyl that uses an effervescent drug delivery system to enhance penetration across the buccal mucosa for the treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Fentanyl is rapidly absorbed from FBT across the buccal mucosa and into the bloodstream. Fentanyl is more rapidly absorbed and bioavailability is higher from FBT than from the oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In a well designed phase III trial in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer, a single dose of FBT 100-800 microg provided clinically significant improvements in pain intensity from 15 to 60 minutes after the dose. Single FBT doses of 100-800 microg were generally well tolerated; the majority of adverse events were mild to moderate in nature and typical of those associated with opioids. PMID:17181383

Blick, Stephanie K A; Wagstaff, Antona J

2006-01-01

213

Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. METHODS: Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 microg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (t(max)), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC(0-last)) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of C(max), AUC(0-infinity), and AUC(0-last) vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received >/=1 FBT. RESULTS: Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for C(max), 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC(0-infinity), and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC(0-last)). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median t(max) of 90 minutes (range 30-180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 microg to 800 microg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate. PMID:19915713

Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

2008-09-01

214

Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. Methods Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–?), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–last) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of Cmax, AUC0–?, and AUC0–last vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received ?1 FBT. Results Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for Cmax, 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC0–?, and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC0–last). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median tmax of 90 minutes (range 30–180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 µg to 800 µg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate.

Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

2008-01-01

215

A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. Results The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. Conclusion RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

Schaefer, Jeffrey S.; English, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam

2013-01-01

216

Ultrasonic Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic motors, which have superior characteristics like high torque at low speed, absence of magnetic interference, and compactness in size, are good candidates for medical applications, automation, robotics, aerospace engineering and various other fi...

S. Cagatay K. Uchino B. Koc

2003-01-01

217

Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes.

Charles Harris; K. Clark; K. Lazarski; C. Wilkerson; Lorraine Meisner

1994-01-01

218

Teeth erupted from the buccal mucosa: simple odontogenic choristoma or accessory teeth?  

PubMed

The eruption of developed teeth from the buccal mucosa is a rare phenomenon in the head and neck region. Such phenomena are possibly choristomas, tumorlike masses of histologically normal tissue occurring in an abnormal position. However, the accurate classification of this abnormality remains debatable. This report describes a case of a congenital, maldevelopmental, and noncystic lesion in a 4-year-old girl without other anomalies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of multiple supernumerary teeth forming in the buccal and zygomatic regions. PMID:23992778

Liu, Yanbin; Huang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

2013-08-29

219

Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases.  

PubMed

The micronuclei assay (MA) in exfoliated buccal cells is an innovative genotoxicity technique, which holds promise for the study of epithelial carcinogens. Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. This article reviews the MN assay with respect to oral buccal mucosa, which has been used since the 1980s to demonstrate cytogenetic effects of environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle factors, dietary deficiencies, and different diseases along with the characteristics of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. PMID:22842359

Kashyap, Bina; Reddy, Padala Sridhar

220

Advanced motor and motor control development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

1988-08-01

221

Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs  

PubMed Central

Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds.

Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

2011-01-01

222

Motor-Cognitive Stimulation of the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article shows the cognitive and motor-perceptive effects of the application of a cognitive stimulating program through motor function on 234 elderly people. The assessment was carried out prior to and after the program. Significant improvements in the experimental group were observed (p [less than or equal to] 0.05) in six of the eight…

Cao, Ana Rey; Lacruz, Inmaculada Canales; Pais, Maria Ines Taboas

2011-01-01

223

Motor-Cognitive Stimulation of the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shows the cognitive and motor-perceptive effects of the application of a cognitive stimulating program through motor function on 234 elderly people. The assessment was carried out prior to and after the program. Significant improvements in the experimental group were observed (p [less than or equal to] 0.05) in six of the eight…

Cao, Ana Rey; Lacruz, Inmaculada Canales; Pais, Maria Ines Taboas

2011-01-01

224

Smoking and smokeless tobacco-associated human buccal cell mutations and their association with oral cancer--a review.  

PubMed

Reported herein are the results of a structured literature review that was undertaken to (a) determine if human buccal (mouth) cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless ("chewing") tobacco, (b) tabulate different buccal cell alterations that have been reported, (c) delineate buccal cell assays that have been used successfully, (d) determine whether buccal cell changes correlate with oral cancer as defined in clinicopathologic investigations, and (e) assess the feasibility of developing a high-throughput buccal cell assay for screening smokers for the early detection of oral cancer. The results of the studies reported herein have established that diverse buccal cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco. This review documents also that buccal cells have been collected in a noninvasive manner, and repetitively for serial studies, from different sites of the mouth (e.g., cheek, gum, and tongue) and from normal tissue, preneoplastic lesions (leukoplakia), and malignant tumors. Tobacco-associated genetic mutations and nongenetic changes have been reported; a partial listing includes (a) micronuclei, (b) bacterial adherence, (c) genetic mutations, (d) DNA polymorphisms, (d) carcinogen-DNA adducts, and (e) chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical studies have correlated buccal cell changes with malignant tumors, and some oral oncologists have reported that the buccal cell changes are practical biomarkers. Summarily, the literature has established that buccal cells are useful not only for characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco-associated oral cancers but also as exfoliative cells that express diverse changes that offer promise as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. PMID:16775162

Proia, Nicole K; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Nasca, Maureen A Sullivan; Franke, Gail E; Pauly, John L

2006-06-01

225

Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

2000-05-01

226

Saving energy with efficient motors and systems  

SciTech Connect

In industrial and commercial facilities, motor-driven systems are responsible for as much as 70 percent of a building`s electric consumption. For some industries--such as pulp and paper or textiles--motor system electricity consumption can approach 90 percent of the industry`s total. But with energy-efficient motors and motor systems one could cut down on energy costs while improving the efficiency of systems and reducing equipment maintenance. In Wisconsin, the Responsible Power Management Program is demonstrating the benefits of using energy-efficient motors and creating efficient motor systems. By working with Wisconsin`s companies, RPM is helping industries improve their production while saving energy--and money. Sharing what the authors have learned and taught about efficient motors and motor systems could help one make good energy efficiency choices for one`s company.

Prestil, A.L.; Wroblewski, R.G. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

227

A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children. Methods This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases) or intravenous diazepam (60 cases) at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one. Findings In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8%) patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes. Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70%) patients within 10 minutes. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P=0.9). The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09). No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam. Conclusion Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures.

Tonekaboni, Seyed-Hassan; Shamsabadi, Farhad Mahvelati; Anvari, Seyed-Saeed; Mazrooei, Ali; Ghofrani, Mohammad

2012-01-01

228

In-vitro permeability of neutral polystyrene particles via buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Drugs can be absorbed well in the oral cavity, which eliminates problems related to intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Although it is well-established that nanoparticles are small enough to penetrate/permeate epithelial barriers, there is no clear understanding of how they interact with the buccal mucosa. This work provides useful information regarding particle properties with regard to mucosal uptake and can be used for the rational design of nanocarriers. In the buccal mucosa, the uptake of neutral polystyrene nanoparticles (PP) is size-dependent. Compared to 25 and 50 nm particles, 200 nm PP particles penetrate into deeper regions of the mucosa. This is attributed to the structure of the buccal mucosa, i.e., mucus layer and microplicae. The particles permeate the mucus layer and deposit in ridge-like folds of superficial buccal cells. Thus, the effects of thermodynamic driving forces and/or interparticle electrostatic repulsion are enhanced and cellular uptake might be reduced for smaller particle sizes. PMID:23112142

Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Meindl, Claudia; Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Zimmer, Andreas; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Roblegg, Eva

2012-10-30

229

Temperature rise and shear bond strength of bondable buccal tubes bonded by various light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objective of the present investigation was to determine the intrapulpal temperature changes and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of bondable buccal tubes bonded by high-intensity light sources. Ninety caries-free human fi rst molar teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. For the temperature measurement test, 30 teeth were randomly divided into three groups ( n =

Özgür Irmak; Hakan Ba; Özgür ? lke; Atasoy Ulusoy

230

Telomere length in blood, buccal cells, and fibroblasts from patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Telomeres, the nucleotide repeats and protein complex at chromosome ends, are required for chromosomal stability and are important markers of aging. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita (DC), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS), have mutations in telomere biology genes, and very short telomeres. There are limited data on intra-individual telomere length (TL) variability in DC and related disorders. We measured relative TL by quantitative-PCR in blood, buccal cells, and fibroblasts from 21 patients with an IBMFS (5 Diamond-Blackfan anemia, 6 DC, 6 Fanconi anemia, and 4 Shwachman-Diamond syndrome). As expected, TL in patients with DC was significantly (p<0.01) shorter in all tissues compared with other IBMFS. In all disorders combined, the median Q-PCR TL was longer in fibroblast and buccal cells than in blood (overall T/S ratio=1.42 and 1.16 vs. 1.05, p=0.001, 0.006, respectively). Although the absolute values varied, statistically significant intra-individual correlations in TL were present in IBMFS patients: blood and fibroblast (r=0.66, p=0.002), blood and buccal cells (r=0.74, p<0.0001), and fibroblast and buccal cells (r=0.65, p=0.004). These data suggest that relative TL is tissue-independent in DC and possibly in the other IBMFS.

Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Cawthon, Richard; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P.; Savage, Sharon A.

2010-01-01

231

Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002) 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus

MJ Gharavi; S Hekmat; A Ebrahimi

232

Buccal absorption of ergotamine tartrate using the bioadhesive tablet system in guinea-pigs.  

PubMed

The buccal administration of ergotamine tartrate (ET) combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel brought about higher plasma concentration of ET compared with that of oral administration of capsules in guinea-pigs. T(max) of ET in plasma of buccal administration was significantly smaller than that of oral administration. For the buccal dosage form of ET, the bioadhesive tablet system (BTS) was newly developed. It consisted of a reservoir of drug and an adhesive region. BTS showed better absorption of ET compared with PVA gel in guinea pigs. Among several pharmaceutical bases in the reservoir of BTS, Witepsol W-35 was most effective. It is likely that the high lipophilic property of Witepsol W-35 in which ET was dissolved facilitated the drug release by its relatively low melting point (around 35 degrees C), consequently a rapid absorption. In addition, the enhancing activity of the cod-liver oil extract (CLOE) in hydrophilic ointment on the in vivo buccal ET absorption was clarified to be comparable to that in the in vitro study utilizing the keratinized epithelial-free membrane (KEF-membrane) of the hamster cheek pouch. PMID:11996820

Tsutsumi, Keiko; Obata, Yasuko; Nagai, Tsuneji; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Takayama, Kozo

2002-05-15

233

[Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].  

PubMed

A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusa?kin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

234

Development of three layered buccal compact containing metoprolol tartrate by statistical optimization technique.  

PubMed

The objective of this work to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on release properties and bioadhesive strength in development of three layered buccal compact containing highly water-soluble drug metoprolol tartrate (MT) by statistical optimization technique. Formulations were prepared based on rotatable central composite design with peripheral polymer ratio (carbopol 934P: HPMC 4KM) and core polymer ratio (HPMC 4KM: sodium alginate) as two independent formulation variables. The three layered buccal compact comprises a peripheral layer, core layer and backing layer. Four dependent (response) variables were considered: bioadhesion force, percentage MT release at 8 h, T50% (time taken to release 50% of drug) and release exponent (n). The release profile data was subjected to curve fitting analysis for describing the release mechanism of MT from three layered buccal compact. The main effects and interaction terms was quantitatively evaluated by quadratic model. The decrease in MT release was observed with an increase in both the formulation variables and as the carbopol: HPMC ratio increases the bioadhesive strength also increases. The desirability function was used to optimize the response variables, each having a different target and the observed responses were highly agreed with experimental values. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of three layered buccal compact containing highly water-soluble drug MT. PMID:16150561

Narendra, C; Srinath, M S; Prakash Rao, B

2005-09-16

235

[Two-stage urethral reconstruction with buccal mucosa for hypospadias cripples : Long-term results].  

PubMed

So-called hypospadias cripples are a challenging group of patients who present with multiple previous repair operations with unsatisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Attempts at renewed correction can be carried out with various techniques and different materials and staged repair with buccal mucosa according to Bracka has shown good results. PMID:23982464

Riechardt, S; Isbarn, H; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

2013-10-01

236

Experimental development of herpes simplex virus infection in hamster buccal pouch.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have developed an intraoral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model in the hamster buccal pouch. This animal model could be used for further oral cancer research related to herpes simplex virus infection. PMID:3856800

Park, N H; Herbosa, E G; Shklar, G

1985-02-01

237

DNA damage in exfoliated buccal cells of smokers assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand breaks and detection of alkali labile sites at the single cell level, it further provides information on the presence of damage among individual cells. In this paper we explore the use of this technique utilizing exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from non-smokers (9

E. Rojas; M. Valverde; M. Sordo; P. Ostrosky-Wegman

1996-01-01

238

Automation of the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay Using Laser Scanning Cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) can be used to quantify the fluorescence intensity or laser light loss (absorbance) of localized molecular targets within nuclear and cytoplasmic structures of cells while maintaining the morphological features of the examined tissue. It was aimed to develop an automated LSC protocol to study cellular and nuclear anomalies and DNA damage events in human buccal mucosal

Wayne R. Leifert; Maxime François; Philip Thomas; Ed Luther; Elena Holden; Michael Fenech

2011-01-01

239

A Program of Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training to Determine Its Effects upon Primary Level Children with Reading and Learning Deficiencies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the project was to determine to what extent visual, motor, and perceptual training would improve the reading and general achievement of children with visual, motor, and perceptual deficiencies. Eighty first, second, and third graders, identified as having such handicaps by gross and fine screening instruments, were randomly divided…

Litchfield, Ticknor B.

240

Biopolymeric mucoadhesive bilayer patch of pravastatin sodium for buccal delivery and treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive bilayer buccal patch has been developed to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy along with providing sustained release of pravastatin sodium. Buccal patches comprising of varying composition of Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M were designed and characterized for surface pH, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics performance. All formulations exhibited satisfactory technological parameters and followed non-fickian drug release mechanism. Bilayer buccal patch containing Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M in 4:6 ratio (PBP5) was considered optimum in terms of swelling, mucoadhesion, mechanical properties and in vitro release profile. Pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) Cmax (75.63 ± 6.98 ng/mL), AUC(0-8) (311.10 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) and AUC(0-?) (909.42 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h) than pravastatin oral tablet (Cmax - 67.40 ± 9.23 ng/mL, AUC(0-8)-130.33 ± 10.25 ng/mL/h and AUC(0-?)-417.17 ± 5.89 ng/mL/h)). While, increased tmax of buccal patch indicated its sustained release property in comparison to oral tablet. Pharmacodynamic studies in rabbits showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) in the reduction of TG (131.10 ± 10.23 mg/dL), VLDL (26.00 ± 2.56 mg/dL) and LDL level (8.99 ± 3.01 mg/dL) as compared to oral conventional tablet. In conclusion, bioavailability from the developed buccal patch of pravastatin was 2.38 times higher than the oral dosage form, indicating its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22630116

Yedurkar, Pramod; Dhiman, Munish Kumar; Petkar, Kailash; Sawant, Krutika

2012-05-26

241

An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×107/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

ZHAO, XIN; PANG, LIANG; QIAN, YU; WANG, QIANG; LI, YONG; WU, MINGYI; OUYANG, ZILAN; GAO, ZHI; QIU, LIHUA

2013-01-01

242

Anesthetic Efficacy Of Buccal And Lingual Infiltrations Of Lidocaine Following An Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block In Mandibular Posterior Teeth  

PubMed Central

The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 sets of injections: an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus a mock buccal and a mock lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar, an IANB plus a buccal infiltration and a mock lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar, and an IANB plus a mock buccal infiltration and a lingual infiltration of the mandibular first molar in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used to test for anesthesia of the premolars and molars in 3-minute cycles for 60 minutes. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes following completion of the injection sets, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 53 to 74% from the second molar to second premolar. For the IANB plus buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 57 to 69% from the second molar to second premolar. For the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and lingual infiltration, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 54 to 76% from the second molar to second premolar. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in anesthetic success between the IANB plus buccal or lingual infiltrations and the IANB plus mock buccal infiltration and mock lingual infiltration. We conclude that adding a buccal or lingual infiltration of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine to an IANB did not significantly increase anesthetic success in mandibular posterior teeth.

Foster, William; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

2007-01-01

243

Non-invasive evaluation of buccal respiratory chain enzyme dysfunction in mitochondrial disease: comparison with studies in muscle biopsy.  

PubMed

Making a diagnosis of mitochondrial disease (MD) is extremely challenging and often employs the analysis of respiratory complex (RC) activities in biopsied skeletal muscle. Given both the invasive nature and expense of biopsied-muscle based testing for mitochondrial defects, buccal swab enzyme analysis has been explored as an alternative approach to the more invasive muscle biopsy. Case studies have recently suggested that buccal swabs from patients can be used to accurately assess mitochondrial enzyme activities including RC I and RC IV using a dipstick methodology combined with spectrophotometric analysis. In this study, forty patients with suspected MD who have previously been found to have significant defects in either RC I or RC IV in skeletal muscle were assessed by buccal swab analysis and compared to enzyme values obtained with unaffected controls (n=106) in the same age range. Buccal citrate synthase was used as an indicator of overall mitochondrial content, correlating well with overall buccal mitochondrial frataxin levels and was found to be elevated above control levels in 28% of the patients in this cohort. Of 26 cases with significant muscle RC I deficiency, 20 displayed significantly reduced levels of buccal RC I activity. All 7 of the patients with muscle RC IV deficiency showed significant buccal RC IV defect and 6 of the 7 patients with combined defects in muscle RC I and IV activity levels also exhibited analogous deficiencies in both buccal RC I and RC IV activities. In conclusion, the relatively high correlation (over 82%) of buccal and muscle RC deficiencies further supports the validity of this non-invasive approach as a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of MD. PMID:22189081

Goldenthal, Michael J; Kuruvilla, Teddy; Damle, Shirish; Salganicoff, Leon; Sheth, Sudip; Shah, Nidhi; Marks, Harold; Khurana, Divya; Valencia, Ignacio; Legido, Agustin

2011-11-30

244

Ultrasonic Motor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As electronics represented by computers make progress, comparable actuators of small size and high-speed response are in strong demand. This ultrasonic motor is based on an utterly new principle where the rotating force is obtained by an ultrasonic vibrat...

A. Tokushima N. Harao K. Takahashi N. Sugano R. Inaba

1987-01-01

245

Ultrasonic motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic motor is proposed which uses two piezoelectric elements in the stator. One element is used to generate a vibration polarized with respect to the direction of motion of the rotor or the slider. The other one generates a vibration perpendicular to the motion of the rotor. By imaging the ratio of the vibration amplitudes and the phase, the

S. Ueha; M. Kurosawa

1988-01-01

246

Cytomorphological changes in buccal mucosa of patients treated with low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the cytomorphological changes occurring in the buccal mucosa in patients treated with\\u000a low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation. Seventeen individuals (12 males, five females) 18–24 years of age were included in the\\u000a study. Low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation was applied to the right buccal mucosa near the premolar region; this therapy was\\u000a repeated for 10 days. Buccal

Ufuk Sezer; Mutan Hamdi Aras; Ali Murat Aktan; Beyhan Cengiz; Nadide Özkul; Sinan Ay

247

Synchronous Motor Railcar Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of ac motor drives for rail transit car has centered on the induction motor with pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter control. Interest in the induction motor as a replace for the series dc traction motor stems from the simplicity of the squirrel cage rotor of the induction motor. In this article, the short-comings of PWM inverter-induction motor transit car drive

Frank J. Bourbeau

1977-01-01

248

Three-phase induction motor design software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a program for optimized design or re-design of three-phase induction motors conceived in VISUAL BASIC language. The program structure is modular and can thus be adjusted to the most varied requirements of induction motor design. For its users, the program offers several facilities, i.e. a friendly interface, different ways of formulating the optimum problem, an updatable database

Gheorghe Scutaru; Andrei Negoita; Razvan Mihai Ionescu

2010-01-01

249

Chemopreventive potential of neem ( Azadirachta indica) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All hamsters painted on their buccal pouch with DMBA for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of neem leaf extract effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence

S Balasenthil; S Arivazhagan; C. R Ramachandran; V Ramachandran; S Nagini

1999-01-01

250

Comparison of effects of nifedipine, propantheline bromide, and the combination on esophageal motor function in normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both intracellular calcium ions and neural input are important in esophageal smooth muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of well-tolerated doses of the calcium-channel blocker, nifedipine (20 mg sublingually\\/buccally) with the anticholinergic, propantheline bromide (15 mg orally) and the combination of these two agents on esophageal motor function. Seven healthy volunteers underwent manometric evaluation

Michio Hongo; Morris Traube; Richard W. McCallum

1984-01-01

251

Coronoidectomy, masticatory myotomy and buccal fat pad graft in management of advanced oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate coronoidectomy, masticatory myotomy and buccal fat pad graft in advanced (Stage III-IV) oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF). 10 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed advanced OSF underwent surgery entailing bilateral coronoidectomy, masticatory muscle myotomy and closure with a pedicled buccal fat pad graft followed by vigorous mouth opening exercises. The result was evaluated using the interincisal distance at maximum mouth opening as the objective outcome measure over a follow up period of 12 months. Results showed a mean interincisal opening of 14.7 mm preoperatively and 32.5 mm at 12 months postoperatively. Relapse was encountered in one patient who did not cooperate with the postoperative exercise regime. Results suggest this regime is effective. PMID:22551649

Kothari, M C; Hallur, N; Sikkerimath, B; Gudi, S; Kothari, C R

2012-04-30

252

Bioluminescence assay of enzymes obtained from buccal epithelium by superficial scraping.  

PubMed

A method is presented for the simultaneous assay of buccal enzymes by measuring reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and adenosine triphosphate with the aid of the bioluminescence of luciferase extracts. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was shown earlier to be increased in homogeneous leukoplakias of the oral mucosa. Since smoking has been implicated as an etiologic factor of leukoplakia, G6PDH was measured in the normal buccal epithelium of cigarette smokers. No difference was found in the activity of G6PDH between smokers and nonsmokers when related to the activity of pyruvate kinase, which is known to be invariable in healthy and leukoplakic oral mucosa. A new compact kinetic luminescence analyzer is briefly described. PMID:786

Hammar, H; Wettermark, G; Wladimiroff, W

1975-11-01

253

Reconstruction of traumatically avulsed parotid duct using buccal mucosa flap: report of a new technique.  

PubMed

Injury to parotid duct is frequently overlooked especially in multiple injuries settings. Consequently they are rarely reported in the literature. Treatment of these injuries is highly controversial. Short series and anecdotal case studies claim success with various approaches such as nonsurgical management, simple ligation of the proximal duct with or without antisialagogues, microsurgical primary repair, creation of sialodocho-oral fistula, and vein-graft replacement. A novel technique of sialodochoplasty using buccal-mucosa pedicle flap is described in this report. Short-term result of this method in a 4-year-old boy with traumatic loss of right parotid duct was encouraging. Hypothetical advantages of this new operation are reviewed in the background of alternative procedures. It is concluded that buccal-mucosa flap technique appears to be a promising alternative in the management of parotid duct injuries. PMID:18784591

Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

2008-09-01

254

The Pallister-Killian syndrome is reliably diagnosed by FISH on buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare disorder, which is clinically diagnosed and usually confirmed by the detection of mosaicism for an isochromosome 12p in fibroblast cultures. To date FISH on buccal mucosa has been used in only three cases and this detected high levels of mosaicism for the isochromosome. We review one previously reported case [Woodman et al. (1995) Genet Couns 6:33-36] and report a further seven clinically suspected cases in which the diagnoses were confirmed by FISH on buccal mucosa, and recommend that this tissue be used routinely for laboratory confirmation. The presence of the isochromosome 12p at levels as low as 1% is acceptable. PMID:10955474

Manasse, B F; Lekgate, N; Pfaffenzeller, W M; de Ravel, T J

2000-07-01

255

[Status of the buccal mucosa in subjects occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxyherbicides].  

PubMed

Examinations of workers engaged in the production of chlorophenoxyherbicides showed high prevalence of diseases of the buccal and labial mucosa with a trend to development of hyperkeratosis (exfoliative cheilitis, hyperkeratosis of the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa (BM), flat form of the BM and red lip leukoplakia). Cytogenetic effects of toxins on BM result in an increase of keratinization level, higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities, and appearance of the micronuclei in BM epithelium. A direct relationship between the severity of these symptoms, duration of exposure, and intensity of workers' contact with chlorophenoxyherbicides was revealed. The complex of noninvasive and atraumatic methods used in our study helped evaluate the BM status and can be used not only for visual examination, but also for the diagnosis of transformation of the defense reaction of the epithelium into pathological process and for preclinical detection of precancer changes in BM. PMID:15021869

Chemikosova, T S; Kamalova, O A; Ibragimova, Z N

2004-01-01

256

Salivary Flow Induction by Buccal Permucosal Pilocarpine in Anesthetized Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether permucosal delivery of pilocarpine nitrate could be used to elicit significant salivary secretion. Pilocarpine (pKa 6.6 at 37°C) was applied as solutions (pHs 5.6, 6.6, 7.6; 15 mg\\/mL) to the buccal mucosa (2.8 cm2) of 6 anesthetized dogs. Saliva was collected continuously from cannulated submandibular and parotid ducts and blood sampled during and after drug administration. Plasma

M. L. Weaver; J. M. Tanzer; P. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

257

A review of the gross anatomy, functions, pathology, and clinical uses of the buccal fat pad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buccal fat pad is a trigone-shaped adipose tissue located in the cheek that assumes numerous functional and aesthetic\\u000a clinical uses. It has been studied extensively within the past four decades, and its use in repairing common and debilitating\\u000a oral defects is the motive for continued research on this topic. It is vital to understand the etiology of any oral

Saad Yousuf; R. Shane Tubbs; Christopher T. Wartmann; Theodoros Kapos; Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol; Marios Loukas

2010-01-01

258

Preparation of buccal patch composed of carbopol, poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymeric film composed of Carbopol, Poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was prepared to develop a buccal patch\\u000a and the effects of composition of the film on adhesion time, swelling ratio, and dissolution of the film were studied. The\\u000a effects of plasticizers or penetration enhancers on the release of triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were also studied. The hydrogen\\u000a bonding between Carbopol and

Myung-Kwan Chun; Byoung-Tae Kwak; Hoo-Kyun Choi

2003-01-01

259

Effect of folic Acid supplementation on the folate status of buccal mucosa and lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Folate deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of cancer at certain sites. There is a need to measure folate status and putative biomarkers of cancer risk in the same target tissue, or in surrogate tissues. A study was carried out to develop a method for the rapid measurement of folate in human buccal mucosa and lymphocytes and to evaluate the responsiveness of this measurement in both tissues to folic acid supplementation in healthy subjects, relative to conventional markers of folate status. Three hundred and twenty-three adults, ages between 20 and 60 years, were screened for RBC folate concentrations. Sixty-five subjects with red cell folate between 200 and 650 nmol/L participated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, folic acid (1.2 mg) intervention trial, lasting 12 weeks. As anticipated, a significant baseline correlation (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between red cell folate and plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). Lymphocyte total folate was significantly associated with plasma 5-MeTHF (r = 0.28, P < 0.05) and plasma total homocysteine concentration (r = -0.34, P < 0.05). Buccal mucosa total folate showed no correlation with either red cell folate or 5-MeTHF, but was significantly associated with lymphocyte total folate (r = 0.35, P < 0.01). Supplementation elicited a significant increase in lymphocyte total folate (P < 0.01), and this was strongly associated with the increase in RBC total folate (P < 0.01) and plasma 5-MeTHF (P < 0.01). Buccal mucosa total folate was not influenced by folate supplementation. Methods have been developed for the rapid measurement of lymphocyte and buccal mucosal total folate. Lymphocyte folate is sensitive to folate intake and is reflected by plasma 5-MeTHF. PMID:15247137

Basten, Graham P; Hill, Marilyn H; Duthie, Susan J; Powers, Hilary J

2004-07-01

260

Design and evaluation of chitosan\\/ethylcellulose mucoadhesive bilayered devices for buccal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of new buccal bilayered devices comprising a drug-containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug-free backing layer, by two different methods. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting\\/solvent evaporation technique and bilayered tablets were obtained by direct compression. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of a mixture of drug and chitosan, with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer

Carmen Remuńán-López; Ana Portero; José Luis Vila-Jato; Mar??a José Alonso

1998-01-01

261

Radicular Cyst with Severe Destruction of the Buccal Cortical Plate Secondary to Endodontic Failure  

PubMed Central

This case report highlights a massive radicular cyst with respect to the lower left premolars, that developed secondary to endodontic failure and resulted in buccal cortical bone destruction. It also discusses the investigation and the surgical approach which were carried out with regard to the cyst. Following surgical closure, the teeth were endodontically retreated. It also highlights the fact that mandibular true occlusal radiographs could be misleading with regard to the extent of bone destruction, which can otherwise be confirmed on CT scans.

Pavaskar, Rajdeep; Gera, Tarun; Boyapati, Chandra Mohan; Chalakkal, Paul; Bommannavar, Sushma

2013-01-01

262

Improving ac motor efficiency with fuzzy logic energy optimizer  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). The technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially when operating at off-rated torque/speed conditions), develop a generic controller for energy optimization that can be applied to a wide range of motors and ASDs regardless of size and application, and develop a controller for energy optimization that can eliminate the requirement for tachometer or encoder feedback, and still maintain the stability and response of closed-loop control. Electric motors use over 60% of the electrical power generated in the U.S. The U.S. population of approximately 1 billion motors use over 1700 billion kWh per year. Over 140 million new motors are sold each year. A review of the U.S. motor population reveals that 90% of the motors are less than 1 hp (fractional motors) in size, but use less than 10% of the electricity consumed by motors. More that 80% of the electricity used by motors is consumed by less than 1% of the motor population (motors greater than 20 hp). Thus, it is clear that large energy savings from improvement in motor efficiency could be achieved from a relatively small motor population.

Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Cleland, J.G.

1994-08-01

263

Visibility of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations using different radiographic techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess intraoral images and two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. Class V cavities were made for composite (30 teeth) and amalgam (30 teeth). Full restorations with thermoplastic polymer (30 teeth) and nickel-chromium metal crown (30 teeth) were constructed. In 60 teeth, artificial buccal recurrent caries were simulated; 60 other teeth served as controls. Intraoral film, intraoral digital, Veraviewepocs 3D, and Kodak 9000 images were scored twice. ? Coefficients were calculated and Az values were compared using Z-tests, with a significance level of ?=0.05. Higher interobserver agreement was obtained from the CBCT images compared with the intraoral images. The Az values of both readings of all three observers were highest for the Veraviewepocs 3D followed by Kodak 9000 except for the second reading of the third observer. CBCT outperformed intraoral radiography in detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. PMID:22917443

Murat, S; Kamburo?lu, K; Isayev, A; Kur?un, S; Yüksel, S

2012-08-23

264

Saffron Reduction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of saffron in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Assessment was by monitoring the percentage of tumor bearing hamsters, tumor size as well as the status of detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Oral squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting them with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% oral tumor formation with severe histopathological abnormalities in all the hamsters treated with DMBA alone, activities of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants being significantly altered. Though oral administration of saffron completely prevented the formation of tumors, we noticed severe hyperplasia and dysplasia in hamsters treated with DMBA, suggesting that tumors might eventually develop. Oral administration of saffron return detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants to normal ranges. The chemopreventive potential of saffron thus is likely due to antioxidant properties and modulating effects on detoxification in favour of the excretion of carcinogenic metabolites during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23621267

Manoharan, Shanmugam; Wani, Shamsul Afaq; Vasudevan, Krishnamoorthy; Manimaran, Asokan; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy

2013-01-01

265

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

266

Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, L.-Y. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fan, K.-H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] (and others)

2008-04-01

267

Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients. PMID:21748974

Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

2011-04-01

268

Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer  

PubMed Central

A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice.

QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

269

Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression.

Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

2012-01-01

270

Micronucleus formation kinetics in buccal mucosa cells of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In head and neck cancer, radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities besides surgery and chemotherapy either in a primary or an adjuvant setting. Radiation kills tumor cells by damaging the DNA within these cells. One of the methods to assess the degree of genomic damage is the micronucleus (MN) test. The effect of radiation therapy on the MN frequency in buccal mucosa cells has only been investigated in small studies looking at single time points or including a limited number of patients. In the present study, normal tissue buccal mucosa cells from 17 patients were analyzed for genomic damage at four different time points during radiation therapy. A clear increase was observed for every time point. Additionally, buccal mucosa cells of a cohort of 16 patients were analyzed after the end of the therapy and compared to samples from 25 patients sampled before the therapy. 10 healthy controls were included, of which 5 were sampled once, and 5 were sampled four times similar to the patients. Also, the influence of additional chemotherapy was investigated. No difference was observed between radiation-only patients and patients receiving additional chemotherapy. Age, gender, and tumor stage did not have an influence on the MN formation kinetics. PMID:22564757

Hintzsche, H; Polat, B; Schewe, V; Djuzenova, C S; Pfreundner, L; Flentje, M; Stopper, H

2012-05-04

271

Cress seed mucilage based buccal mucoadhesive gel of venlafaxine: in vivo, in vitro evaluation.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine is a newer antipsychotic drug which shows first pass effect. Cress seed is also called as garden cress or green salad. This study examined the mechanical (gel strength, adhesiveness) and rheological properties of cress seed mucilage based gels that contain different ratios of carbopol 934 P (0.5-1.5%). In addition, diffusion of venlafaxine from gel formulations was evaluated. The selected formulation was further analyzed for pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits. All formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy. Formulation F5 showed the C(max) of 24.19 ± 0.72 ng/ml by buccal route of administration and 17.98 ± 1.15 ng/ml by oral route of administration. The bioavailability of F5 by buccal route was 54.44% and that of by oral route was 39.60%. A combination of the cress seed mucilage and carbopol 934 P resulted in a prolonged and higher venlafaxine delivery by buccal route of administration. PMID:22203515

Nerkar, Pankaj Padmakar; Gattani, Surendra Ganeshlal

2011-12-28

272

MOTOR BRUSH TESTING FOR MARS AND VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in

Don E. Noon

273

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

274

Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors: overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.

Kenji Uchino

1998-01-01

275

Improving dynamic aggregation of induction motor models  

SciTech Connect

The paper focuses on the problem of aggregating induction motor models into a single unit model aiming to become computationally feasible to describe the dynamic behavior of large electrical systems. A new aggregation method is developed based on usual modeling of induction motors allowing the present simulation computer programs to be kept in operation. The absence of drastic simplifications, the proper handling of motor mechanical load, and an adequate treatment of equivalent inertia constant allow the aggregate model to show very good accuracy. A small example is presented to illustrate the application of the method. Validation test results are also presented including motors at different buses in a real-life industrial system.

Franklin, D.C.; Morelato, A. (Univ. of Campinas (Brazil))

1994-11-01

276

A miniature solid propellant rocket motor  

SciTech Connect

A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

1997-08-01

277

Split-Phase Motor - Rewinding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program shows how to test a split-phase motor for electrical and mechanical faults, dismantle and strip the stator, rewind the stator, form and install skein windings, and insulate. It explains how to lace, dip, and bake the stator, and how to assemb...

1994-01-01

278

Curriculum for Electric Motor Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf document from The British Columbia Industry Training Authority describes what is involved in the electric motor system technician (winder electrician) program. The profile includes curriculum description, required hours and assessment methods.

2010-05-13

279

Comparison of Linear Synchronous and Induction Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Propulsion Trade Study was conducted as part of the Colorado Maglev Project of FTA's Urban Maglev Technology Development Program to identify and evaluate prospective linear motor designs that could potentially meet the system performance requirements of...

E. Masada R. J. Kaye

2004-01-01

280

Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

1983-01-01

281

Adaptive motor control in crayfish.  

PubMed

This article reviews the principles that rule the organization of motor commands that have been described over the past five decades in crayfish. The adaptation of motor behaviors requires the integration of sensory cues into the motor command. The respective roles of central neural networks and sensory feedback are presented in the order of increasing complexity. The simplest circuits described are those involved in the control of a single joint during posture (negative feedback-resistance reflex) and movement (modulation of sensory feedback and reversal of the reflex into an assistance reflex). More complex integration is required to solve problems of coordination of joint movements in a pluri-segmental appendage, and coordination of different limbs and different motor systems. In addition, beyond the question of mechanical fitting, the motor command must be appropriate to the behavioral context. Therefore, sensory information is used also to select adequate motor programs. A last aspect of adaptability concerns the possibility of neural networks to change their properties either temporarily (such on-line modulation exerted, for example, by presynaptic mechanisms) or more permanently (such as plastic changes that modify the synaptic efficacy). Finally, the question of how "automatic" local component networks are controlled by descending pathways, in order to achieve behaviors, is discussed. PMID:11124446

Cattaert, D; Le Ray, D

2001-02-01

282

Effect of temperature rise on the performance of induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and discusses the theoretical and experimental results of the associated effects of temperature rise on the performance of the induction motor. These effects are theoretically studied, in which a model for the induction motor is developed by using MATLAB program. The model adopted is involving the electrical, mechanical, and thermal effects of the induction motor. Simulation results

F. A. Khalifa; S. Serry; M. M. Ismail; B. Elhady

2009-01-01

283

Reluctance and doubly-excited reluctance motors  

SciTech Connect

Since the energy crisis in 1974, there has been increasing awareness of conserving energy. Industrial ac motors from 1 to 125 hp are estimated to consume 60% of the total electricity produced in the United States. Significant energy conservation could be achieved if the efficiency of these motors is improved. The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA). This work deals with the design, analysis, and test of two types of motors designed to have a high efficiency and power factor. The first type, reluctance motors (RMs), are similar to synchronous motors but without dc excitation. A novel 3-phase RM has been designed and tested, and it was found to have superior efficiency when compared with a similar induction motor.

Heyne, C.J.; El-Antably, A.M.

1984-11-01

284

Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model solves the coupled differential equations for an electric motor driven by a dynamo (generator). The model can be used as to illustrate elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses about nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. The main window displays the dynamo angular velocity ?1, motor angular velocity ?2 and current I time series and a second window displays the phase space. The stator current Is (A), torque T (Nâ˘m), and resistance R (ohm) are adjustable. The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_chaos_FixedTorqueDynamoAndMotor.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-23

285

Buccal delivery of methimazole as an alternative means for improvement of drug bioavailability: permeation studies and matrix system design.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for systemic administration of Methimazole (MMI) through the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for drug delivery. Considering that the most important restriction in buccal drug delivery could be the low permeability of the mucosa, the ability of MMI to cross the mucosal barrier was assessed. Permeation of MMI through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated ex vivo using Franz type diffusion cells, buffer solution simulating saliva or natural human saliva as donor phase. The collected data suggested that buccal mucosa does not hinder MMI diffusion and the drug crosses the membrane (J(s) = 0.068 mg cm(-2) h(-1) and K(p) = 0.065 cm h(-1)). Matrix tablets, suitable for administration on buccal mucosa, were then designed and prepared by direct compression of MMI loaded matrices (70% w/w) using Eudragit(®) RS 100 as a matrixing, low permeable, pH-independent, mucoadhesive and insoluble agent. The matrix tablets were evaluated in vitro for dissolution; however, the drug was discharged too rapidly from tablets. To obtain drug release rate suitable to maintain constant drug levels in the central compartment the tablets were coated with lipophilic material (glycerol tristearate). In ex vivo permeation experiments, therapeutically MMI plasma levels were obtained when matrix tablets were coated with 0.10 mm thick lipophilic coating film. Coated tablets placed on buccal porcine mucosa provide optimal drug release rate. Coated buccal matrix tablets may represent a potential alternative dosage form for systemic delivery of MMI in hyperthyroidism management. PMID:22632389

De Caro, Viviana; Giandalia, Giulia; Siragusa, Maria Gabriella; Giannola, Libero Italo

2012-01-01

286

Screen and analysis of key disease genes for precancerous lesions of oral buccal mucosa induced by DMBA in golden hamsters  

PubMed Central

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters was used to establish precancerous lesions. Agilent rat whole-genome microarray and biological information analysis were used to screen for genes related to key diseases during the transformation of normal buccal mucosa to precancerous lesions in golden hamsters. DMBA acetone solution (0.5%) was used to establish a model of precancerous lesions in oral buccal mucosa in golden hamsters. The results showed that a total of 1331 genes were differentially expressed, including 1278 known, 53 unknown, 747 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes. Analysis revealed a total of 14 gene interaction pathways that significantly associated with the 1278 known differentially expressed genes (P<0.05). In conclusion, the occurrence of precancerous lesions in the oral buccal mucosa of golden hamsters was caused by a number of genetic changes that resulted in changes to their respective pathways. Key candidate genes for the formation of precancerous lesions in oral buccal mucosa included Cyp2b13, Orc1L, casp8, CCL5, CXCL12, CCL20, Serping1, P518/Qrfp, F5, TFPI, Vcam1, Fn1, Angpt2, Lcp2, Cxadr, Lyn, Hck, Btk, RGD1564385/fes, Vav1 and IL5ra.

CHEN, DAN; YANG, KAI; ZHANG, GUODONG; MEI, JIE; XIANG, LI

2011-01-01

287

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive buccal oxytocin tablet prepared with Dillenia indica fruit mucilage.  

PubMed

Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBT) of oxytocin were prepared as core in cup fashion to release the drug unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa. Adhesive cups were prepared with a mucilage isolated from edible Dillenia indica fruits (DIM). Shear, tensile and peel strengths of prepared adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using permeation enhancers viz. sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBT were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 mL of phosphate buffer pH 6.6 at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa. In vivo studies on anaesthetized New Zealand albino male rabbits were conducted and drug levels in plasma were estimated at 220 nm by reverse phase HPLC using BDS Hypersil C8 column using acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 6.6 (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/ min. Optimized formulation showed C(max), T(max), t1/2 and AUC(total), 688 pg/mL, 2 h, 0.079 h, and 1999.72 h x pg/mL respectively. The NMBT containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 27% bioavailability without damaging the buccal mucosasuggesting its suitability as an alternative to noninvasive administration of oxytocin. PMID:18468385

Metia, P K; Bandyopadhyay, A K

2008-04-01

288

Modulation of buccal pressure during prey capture in Hexagrammos decagrammus (Teleostei: Hexagrammidae)  

PubMed

Changes in intraoral pressure during prey capture were recorded for a trophic generalist, Hexagrammos decagrammus, feeding on different prey species. Prey were grouped into elusive (shrimps), grasping (isopods and crabs) and non-elusive (pieces of shrimp) categories. Elusive and grasping prey elicited strikes with a larger and faster reduction in buccal pressure than did non-elusive prey. The suction force generated by the predator differed for strikes among the shrimp genera in the elusive prey category. The most sedentary shrimps (Crangon alaskensis and C. nigricauda) elicited the fastest and greatest reduction in pressure relative to the most evasive shrimps (Pandalus danae and Heptacarpus stylus). A preparatory phase, during which the buccal cavity is compressed prior to the strike, occurred significantly more frequently in strikes at grasping prey than in strikes at elusive and non-elusive prey, and more frequently for elusive than for non-elusive prey. Prey size did not influence the suction force generated by the predator. No differences in buccal pressure patterns were detected between strikes that resulted in a capture or a miss, suggesting that misses were due to the escape behavior of the prey and were not the result of an inappropriate suction force. These data support the current view that fish can modify their feeding mode in response to prey behavior, and they emphasize that the behavioral responses of the individual prey must be considered when defining the appropriate strategy for prey capture. The use of a flexible, modifiable feeding behavior is associated with a broad diet in H. decagrammus and may increase capture success on diverse prey relative to that of other species showing stereotypical feeding responses. PMID:9320058

Nemeth

1997-01-01

289

Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity and buccal cell telomere length in kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. Methods The study sample comprised 78 five- and six-year-old children from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biological responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by realtime PCR, as the telomere-to-single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Parents provided demographic information; parents and teachers reported children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Components of children’s autonomic (heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), pre-ejection period (PEP)) and adrenocortical (salivary cortisol) responses were monitored during standardized laboratory challenges. We examined relations between reactivity, internalizing and externalizing behavior, and BTL, adjusted for age, race, and gender. Results Heart rate and cortisol reactivity were inversely related to BTL, PEP was positively related to BTL, and RSA was unrelated. Internalizing behaviors were also inversely related to BTL (standardized ?=?0.33, p=0.004). Split at the median of reactivity parameters, children with high sympathetic activation (decreasing PEP) and high parasympathetic withdrawal (decreasing RSA) did not differ with regard to BTL. However, children with both this profile and high cortisol reactivity (N=12) had significantly shorter BTL (0.80 vs. 1.00, ?2=7.6, p=0.006), compared with other children. Conclusions Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity in combination were associated with shorter buccal cell telomere length in children. These data suggest that psychophysiological processes may influence, and that BTL may be a useful marker of, early biological aging.

Kroenke, Candyce H; Epel, Elissa; Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise; Boyce, W. Thomas

2011-01-01

290

Effect of membrane dialysis on characteristics of lyophilised chitosan wafers for potential buccal delivery of proteins.  

PubMed

The effect of membrane dialysis on the characteristics of chitosan based lyophilised wafers was investigated. Gels loaded with BSA, glycerol and d-mannitol were lyophilised with or without membrane dialysis and characterised by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy, hydration capacity, in vitro mucoadhesivity and drug dissolution. The dialysed wafers demonstrated enhanced mucoadhesion and drug release properties while newly formed sodium acetate in the undialysed wafers caused increased crystallinity with poor mucoadhesion and drug release properties. Removal of sodium acetate by membrane dialysis is essential for obtaining optimised wafers for potential application to the buccal mucosa surface. PMID:22373938

Ayensu, Isaac; Mitchell, John C; Boateng, Joshua S

2012-02-21

291

Factitious buccal lesion secondary to bruxism in a child with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Children with cerebral palsy are at greater risk of a whole range of oral conditions than their peers. These include bruxism (tooth grinding), oral skill dysfunction, gross malocclusion due to effects of the abnormal orofacial muscle tone on tooth eruption, drooling of saliva, and poor oral hygiene.1 A challenging case of a painful buccal lesion in a 2 year old girl with cerebral palsy (CP) that did not respond to antifungal, antiviral or antibiotic treatment is presented as a factitious lesion. The recognition and significance of self?injurious behaviour and factitious lesions in children are discussed.

Harris, D

2006-01-01

292

Considerations in the use of cone-beam computed tomography for buccal bone measurements.  

PubMed

Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become a popular modality in research, but it can be misused and misunderstood. Several image quality, bone biology, and statistical factors must be considered before designing CBCT studies or interpreting their results. Studies making small measurements, such as changes in buccal bone thickness, are especially susceptible to these factors. The spatial resolution as determined by a line pair phantom, the CBCT settings used, and a statistical power analysis should be reported in studies that investigate small bony changes. Protocols should therefore be established and followed to minimize the misinterpretation of results and improve the quality of research in this field. PMID:20381753

Molen, Aaron Dean

2010-04-01

293

Thiolated Chitosans: Design and In Vivo Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Buccal Peptide Drug Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  Intravenous application of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been identified as a promising strategy\\u000a for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To generate a more applicable formulation, it was the aim of this study to develop a\\u000a sustained buccal delivery system for this promising therapeutic peptide.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  2-Iminothiolane was covalently bound to chitosan to improve the mucoadhesive and permeation-enhancing properties

Nina Langoth; Hermann Kahlbacher; Gudrun Schöffmann; Ivo Schmerold; Maximilian Schuh; Sonja Franz; Peter Kurka; Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch

2006-01-01

294

Optimization of induction motor efficiency: Volume 2, Single-phase induction motors: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal design of the motor dimensions, the capacitance of the run capacitor, the winding distribution and the choice of the electrical steel are the most important sources for an improvement of the efficiency of modern single-phase induction motors for given performance and material cost constraints. The formulation of the techniques which realize this optimization is based on nonlinear programming

E. F. Fuchs; H. Huang; A. J. Vandenput; J. Holl; J. Appelbaum; Z. Zak; M. S. Erlicki

1987-01-01

295

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

296

AC induction motor efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses those factors which determine the efficiency and rating of polyphase AC induction motors. The loss mechanisms are described and are related to the performance and design characteristics of the motor, such as the operating flux density, the winding turns distribution, the current density in the windings, the motor speed torque characteristic, and the motor efficiency itself. The

S. D. Umans

1989-01-01

297

Compact piezoelectric ultrasonic motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments of compact ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using the standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with the conventional electromagnetic motors.

Kenji Uchino; Burhanettin Koc

1999-01-01

298

Nitrate therapy for left ventricular failure complicating acute myocardial infarction: a haemodynamic comparison of intravenous, buccal, and transdermal delivery systems.  

PubMed

The haemodynamic effects of three different methods of nitrate administration [intravenous (i.v.) isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and buccal and transdermal nitroglycerin (NTG)] were evaluated in 36 patients with acute left ventricular failure due to a recent myocardial infarction. Similar reductions in pulmonary artery occluded pressure (p less than 0.01) followed all three regimens without change in heart rate and cardiac and stroke volume indices. Significant reductions in systemic arterial pressure and vascular resistance followed both ISDN and buccal NTG but not transdermal NTG. A disadvantage of the buccal NTG delivery was an abrupt and, on occasion, inappropriate reduction in blood pressure. The more gradual and controlled reduction of systemic blood pressure with substantial falls in pulmonary artery occluded pressure following ISDN infusion suggest that in the context of myocardial infarction this method of nitrate delivery may have safety advantages; however, when invasive haemodynamic monitoring facilities are not available, transdermal delivery may offer a practical alternative. PMID:2481190

Verma, S P; Silke, B; Reynolds, G W; Richmond, A; Taylor, S H

1989-11-01

299

Chimerism in DNA of buccal swabs from recipients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations: implications for forensic DNA testing.  

PubMed

We attempted to quantitatively determine the chimeric state in a total of 162 buccal swabs from 77 adult recipients aged 19-74 (median 50 years) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by estimating the chimeric recipient/donor DNA ratios through analysis of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat markers. From each individual between one and nine, buccal swabs were taken at known time intervals after transplantation, ranging from 17 to 3,361 days (median 394 days). In buccal cells, the determined recipient/donor DNA ratios turned out to be highly variable between individuals and also within an individual. Relative donor chimerism levels (%Ch) between 0 and 100 % were detected with maximal frequencies between 10 and 30 %. Blood was always found to show the donor's genotype while hair samples in all cases gave the recipient's genotype. We examine chimerism levels with respect to age, gender, and posttransplantation period and discuss the results in the context of forensic identity testing. PMID:22402873

Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Roswitha; Clausen, Johannes; Berger, Cordula; Nachbaur, David; Parson, Walther

2012-03-09

300

Buccal plate preservation with immediate post-extraction implant placement and provisionalization: preliminary results of a new technique.  

PubMed

Bone resorption and remodelling are inevitable sequelae of dental extraction and begin immediately after the extraction procedure. The buccal plate is especially predisposed to these phenomena, and if affected, may result in an increased risk of facial soft-tissue recession and other adverse clinical effects that may decrease the predictability of implant placement or impair the final aesthetic result. Buccal plate preservation is a new technique aimed at maintaining or improving the appearance of the soft and hard tissues after dental extraction procedures. The aim of this case series is to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to maintain or improve soft tissue contours in aesthetic areas when used in conjunction with immediate implant placement. Buccal plate preservation as described may help to maintain or improve the appearance and contours of the ridge after tooth extraction, laying the groundwork for optimal functional and aesthetic replacement of the missing tooth with an implant-supported prosthesis. PMID:23219710

Caiazzo, A; Brugnami, F; Mehra, P

2012-12-07

301

A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet  

PubMed Central

Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH “pumping” mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies.

Freye, Enno

2009-01-01

302

In Vitro Analog of Operant Conditioning in Aplysia. II. Modifications of the Functional Dynamics of an Identified Neuron Contribute to Motor Pattern Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occur- rences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of

Romuald Nargeot; Douglas A. Baxter; John H. Byrne

1999-01-01

303

Compact ultrasonic rotary motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments of compact ultrasonic rotary motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, three ultrasonic motors recently developed are introduced; windmill, PZT tube and metal tube types. Driving principles and motor characteristics are described in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic motors. Motors with 1.5 mm in diameter and 0.1 mNm in torque have been actually

K. Uchino; B. Koc; S. Dong

2001-01-01

304

Thermal evaluation for applying TEFC induction motors on short-time and intermittent duty cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many applications of induction motors to cyclic loading. Most motor manufacturers will perform calculations to obtain motor stator temperature rise for variable-load and cyclic loadings based on data provided. This paper is a report of a testing program on totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors where temperatures for loadings are measured.

M. Anibal Valenzuela; Paulus V. Verbakel; James A. Rooks

2003-01-01

305

A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

Marshall, Thomas

2007-01-01

306

The Department of Motor Vehicles Countermeasure, Performance Report for 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In cooperation with the Los Angeles County Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP), two district field offices of the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) participated in a three year program with the Alcohol Safety Action Project. The program was a...

F. Maltez

1976-01-01

307

[Reconstruction of long recurrent strictures of the anterior urethra with a free transplant of buccal mucosa].  

PubMed

The study included 18 patients with recurrent strictures of the anterior urethra. In 16 patients the recurrence arose after several endoscopic operations for inflammatory urethral strictures, in 2--after plastic repair of the stricture by loganson and plastic treatment of hypospadia. The strictures varied in length from 3 to 16 cm. Ventral flap of buccal mucosa was used for plastic reconstruction in 16 patients, dorsal flap--in 2 patients. Follow-up lasted from 1 to 15 months. All the patients were cured. The intubation drainage was removed 4-7 weeks after the operation. Qmax elevated, on the average, from 4.79 +/- 0.78 to 29.5 +/- 1.94 ml/s. The recurrence developed only in 1 patient 6 months after the plastic repair. The patient was successfully operated (internal optic urethrotomy). Thus, short-term outcomes of urethroplasty with buccal transplant showed this operation to be highly effective in correction of long recurrent strictures of anterior urethra in males. PMID:16550813

Trapeznikova, M F; Bazaev, V V; Luk'ianchikov, A G; Tibilov, A S

308

Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive properties, were investigated. Molecular interactions between the components of the film were also investigated. The results indicated that NCT-loaded CS-MAS films provided a higher NCT content than NCT-loaded films containing only CS. The greater the MAS ratio in the films, the higher the NCT content that was observed because intercalated nanocomposites could be formed by electrostatic interactions of MAS with NCT and CS. These interactions caused an insignificant loss of NCT by evaporation during film drying. The release and permeation of NCT were related to the square root of time, indicating that a diffusion-controlled mechanism via the NCT-MAS complex particles and the film matrix controls NCT release. NCT release and permeation rates decreased with as the MAS ratio of the films was increased. However, the NCT-loaded CS-MAS films may have a potential adhesion to the mucosal membrane. These findings suggest that NCT-loaded CS-MAS films can be used as a buccal NCT delivery system. PMID:23298850

Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas

2013-01-05

309

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds in cultured human buccal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Because betel quid chewing has been linked to the development of oral cancer, pathobiological effects of an aqueous areca nut extract, four areca nut alkaloids (arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine), and four nitrosated derivatives [N-nitrosoguvacoline, N-nitrosoguvacine, 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile] have been investigated using cultured human buccal epithelial cells. Areca nut extract in a dose-dependent manner decreases cell survival, vital dye accumulation, and membrane integrity, and it causes formation of both DNA single strand breaks and DNA protein cross-links. Depletion of cellular free low-molecular-weight thiols also occurs, albeit at quite toxic concentrations. Comparisons of the areca nut-related N-nitroso compounds and their precursor alkaloids, at concentrations up to 5 mM, indicate that 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde is the most potent on a molar basis to decrease both survival and thiol content and to cause significant formation of DNA single strand breaks. Arecoline, guvacoline, or N-nitrosoguvacoline decreases survival and cellular thiols, whereas arecaidine, guvacine, N-nitrosoguvacine, and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile have only minor effects on these variables. Taken together, the present studies indicate that aqueous extract and, in particular, one N-nitroso compound related to areca nut, i.e., 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde, are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic to cultured human buccal epithelial cells, of potential importance in the induction of tumors in betel quid chewers. PMID:2766297

Sundqvist, K; Liu, Y; Nair, J; Bartsch, H; Arvidson, K; Grafström, R C

1989-10-01

310

Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.  

PubMed

This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion. PMID:19883251

Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

2009-01-01

311

Carvedilol-loaded mucoadhesive buccal tablets: influence of various mucoadhesive polymers on drug release behavior.  

PubMed

The major objectives of the current study were (i) to prepare carvedilol-loaded buccal tablets by direct compression technique, and (ii) to study the influence of low and high proportions of sodium carboxy methylcellulose (SCMC) in conjunction with the corresponding high and low proportions of sodium alginate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-K-30), carbopol 974P, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the basic properties (hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness uniformity, drug content, mucoadhesive strength, surface pH, swelling property, and drug release behavior) of the tablets. Altering the polymer combinations did not affect the physical properties of the buccal tablets. However, the presence of SCMC and sodium alginate at 1:2 ratio in the tablet showed a sustained drug release. In addition, this polymer combination at 2:1 ratio did release the drug completely during the stipulated dissolution time. Swelling study indicated the tablet structure collapse over time at 2:1 polymer ratio, thus exposing the drug molecules directly to the dissolution medium to attain the complete drug release from the SCMC and sodium alginate-based tablets. On the other hand, whatever the polymer ratios, the SCMC and carbopol 974P combination always retarded the drug release in an almost similar manner. Though the SCMC- and carbopol 974P-based tablets did display an impressive mucoadhesion property, the surface pH value determined for this polymer combination was found to decrease considerably due to the liberation of the free carboxylic acid over the time period. PMID:20069792

Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal; Bangale, Ganesh Shesrao; Ananthi, Jesudoss Jeya; Sivakumar, Vellaichamy; Vinothapooshan, Ganesan; Palanivelu, Madasamy; Viswanathan, Mabepalli Byrappagowbu

312

Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan-pectin for delivery of carvedilol  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route.

Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

2011-01-01

313

Preparation of buccal patch composed of carbopol, poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.  

PubMed

A polymeric film composed of Carbopol, Poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was prepared to develop a buccal patch and the effects of composition of the film on adhesion time, swelling ratio, and dissolution of the film were studied. The effects of plasticizers or penetration enhancers on the release of triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were also studied. The hydrogen bonding between Carbopol and Poloxamer played important role in reducing swelling ratio and dissolution rate of polymer film and increasing adhesion time. The swelling ratio of the composite film was significantly reduced and the adhesion time was increased when compared with Carbopol film. As the ratio of Poloxamer to hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increased from 0/66 to 33/33, the release rate of TAA decreased. However, no further significant decrease of release rate was observed beyond the ratio of 33/33. The release rate of TAA in the polymeric film containing polyethylene glycol 400, a plasticizer, showed the highest release rate followed by triethyl citrate, and castor oil. The release rate of TAA from the polymeric film containing permeation enhancers was slower than that from the control without enhancers. Therefore, these observations indicated that a preparation of a buccal patch is feasible with the polymeric film composed of Cabopol, Poloxamer and hydropropyl methylcellulose. PMID:14661865

Chun, Myung-Kwan; Kwak, Byoung-Tae; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

2003-11-01

314

A study on cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliative buccal cells in iron deficiency anemic patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear diameter (ND), cytoplasmic diameter (CD) and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) in cytological buccal smears of iron deficiency anemic patients by comparing with normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 40 healthy individuals and 40 iron deficiency anemic patients who were selected on clinical history, hematological investigations, and confirmed by serum ferritin levels. Exfoliative buccal smears stained with PAP stain were evaluated for cytoplasimic, nuclear diameters, and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C) using Image Proexpress Version 6.0 image analysis system. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: A significant increase is seen in the average nuclear diameter (ND) and N/C ratio of the anemic group when compared to the control group. The average cytoplasmic diameter (CD) did not show any statistical difference among the two groups. Conclusion: Oral exfoliative cytological techniques could possibly be a noninvasive alternative diagnostic tool for iron deficiency anemia.

Sumanthi, J.; Reddy, G. Sridhar; Anuradha, C. H.; Sekhar, P. Chandhra; Prasad, L. Krishna; Reddy, B. V. Ramana

2012-01-01

315

Optimized pH method for DNA elution from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards.  

PubMed

DNA is the most accessible biologic material for obtaining information from the human genome because of its molecular stability and its presence in every nucleated cell. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and DNA methylation are the main DNA-based approaches to deriving genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers. Upon the discontinuation of the Schleicher & Schuell IsoCode product (Dassel, Germany), which was a treated paper system to elute DNA from several biologic sources for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, a high-yielding DNA elution method was imperative. We describe here an improved procedure of the not fully validated Whatman pH-based elution protocol. Our DNA elution procedure from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards (Whatman Inc., Florham Park, NJ) yielded approximately 4 microg of DNA from a 6-mm FTA card punch and was successfully applied for HLA-DQB1 genotyping. The genotypes showed complete concordance with data obtained from blood of the same subjects. The achieved high DNA yield from buccal cells suggests a potential cost-effective tool for genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers development. PMID:16792516

Lema, Carolina; Kohl-White, Kendra; Lewis, Laurie R; Dao, Dat D

2006-01-01

316

Buccal metastasis in a case of carcinoma breast: A rare case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Metastatic lesions to oral cavity from distant tumours account for 1% of all oral cavity malignancies. Oral cavity is a rare site of metastasis from the breast. We describe case report of breast cancer patient with metastasis to buccal mucosa. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of pre-menopausal woman with left side infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast – T4aN1M0. She received three cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and loco-regional EBRT. She presented with a lump in region of MRM scar and a painful swelling in the right cheek, one year afterwards. Core needle biopsy from scar site revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. CECT revealed a heterogeneous lesion (1.1 cm × 1.7 cm) in right masticator space, which on biopsy revealed metastatic deposit consistent with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. DISCUSSION Metastatic lesions to oral cavity from distant tumours are uncommon. They mainly involve bony structures. Primary metastases to soft tissues are rare and accounts for 0.1% of oral malignancies. In our case, patient presented with scar recurrence and distant metastasis at an unusual site. Had it not been for scar recurrence, patient might not have presented to the OPD with oral swelling. A high degree of clinical suspicion and previous history of breast cancer led to detection of metastatic deposit. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of a metastatic lesion in buccal mucosa is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

Jain, Sunny; Kadian, Mohit; Khandelwal, Rohan; Agarwal, Usha; Bhowmik, K.T.

2013-01-01

317

Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions.

Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

2012-01-01

318

Utilizing Oral-Motor Feedback in Auditory Conceptualization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program, an oral-motor approach to beginning reading instruction, trains first grade children in auditory skills by a process in which language and oral-motor feedback are used to integrate auditory properties with visual properties. This emphasis of the ADD program makes the child's perceptual…

Howard, Marilyn

319

IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

320

Ford Motor Company. Sae-Tsiarl-67TK Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

321

Ford Motor Company. Dietz 275 Dual Face Turn Signal and Tail Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

322

General Motors Corporation. Guide It Sae Stiap Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

323

Ford Motor Company. Fomoco Sae a 68 Btk Front Reflex Reflector. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

324

In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs.  

PubMed

This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber. A higher apparent permeability was observed at higher pH values, i.e. the more compound that was unionised the higher the permeability. In vivo studies were conducted in anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs. A clear influence of pH on the absorption was seen and a significant higher absolute bioavailability was obtained after buccal dosing (58-107%) compared to oral (3%) administration, ranging 58-107% and 3%, respectively. Macroscopically, no local toxic effects were observed by visual inspection of mini-pig cheeks. A very clear level C in vitro in vivo correlation (r(2)=0.98) was obtained between the observed in vitro permeabilities and the bioavailability observed in vivo, suggesting that the two in vitro models have good predictive power for drug delivery, which could be a useful tool for future formulation developments intended for buccal delivery. PMID:23500040

Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jřrgensen, Erling B; Jacobsen, Jette

2013-03-14

325

Energy-efficient electric motors study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

1981-03-01

326

Effect of Post-Brushing Water Rinsing on Caries-Like Lesions at Approximal and Buccal Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to study the effect of two different water rinsing procedures after toothbrushing with an NaF-containing dentifrice on the degree of de- or remineralization of enamel and dentine at approximal and buccal sites. Seven adults, wearing complete dentures, participated in two experimental periods (A and B) in a randomised order. During period A, they brushed with the dentifrice

K. Sjögren; D. Birkhed; J. Ruben; J. Arends

1995-01-01

327

Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update  

PubMed Central

More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients.

Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar

2010-01-01

328

Three new modes of luminescence in the leiognathid fish Gazza minuta : Discrete projected luminescence, ventral body flash, and buccal luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new modes of luminescence are described for Gazza minuta (Bloch) (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) as observed in specimens collected in the Philippines in April and May, 1982: discrete projected luminescence (DPL), ventral body flash, and buccal luminescence. DPL sharply contrasts with previously reported modes of diffuse luminescence in leiognathids (counterillumination and opercular flash) in being a pair of bright collimated beams

M. J. McFall-Ngai; P. V. Dunlap

1983-01-01

329

Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

2012-01-01

330

Maturation of static sensitivity is related to expansion of the capsular space in rat buccal stretch receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental relationship between static sensitivity and structure of the buccal stretch receptor (BSR) in rats was investigated. When responses to ramp-and-hold stretches were recorded from isolated BSRs, their static sensitivities suddenly increased between 2 and 4 weeks after birth. However, no apparent change was observed throughout other developmental stages examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed a conspicuous expansion of the

Tetsu Yamamoto; Satoru Ozono; Kazuko Watanabe; Sachio Nagasaki; Minoru Onozuka

1995-01-01

331

Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods A multicentre, randomised controlled trial was undertaken to compare buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam for emergency-room treatment of children aged 6 months and older presenting to hospital with active seizures and without intravenous access. The dose varied according to age from 2·5 to 10 mg. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success: cessation of seizures within 10 min and for

John McIntyre; Sue Robertson; Elizabeth Norris; Richard Appleton; William P Whitehouse; Barbara Phillips; Tim Martland; Kathleen Berry; Jacqueline Collier; Stephanie Smith; Imti Choonara

2005-01-01

332

Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris  

PubMed Central

Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to support its efficacy claims by long term pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in human beings.

Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

2013-01-01

333

Advanced motor and motor control development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of

Kenneth L. Wuertz; Edward D. Beauchamp

1988-01-01

334

Asynchronous induction roller motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of designing special modifications of roller induction motors of ARM2P type for variable-frequency electric drives\\u000a have been considered. Motor designs, energy indices, and adjustment properties are presented.

A. E. Gusel’nikov; V. S. Baklin; P. R. Baranov

2008-01-01

335

Micro Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews recent developments of micro ultrasonic rotary motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, four ultrasonic motors recently developed at Penn State University are introduced: windmill, PZT tube, m...

K. Uchino S. Cagatay B. Koc S. Dong P. Bouchilloux

2003-01-01

336

Long-term effects of orthodontic magnets on human buccal mucosa--a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this intra-individual study was to examine human buccal mucosa clinically, histologically and immunohistochemically after 9 months' exposure to orthodontic magnets. In each of eight subjects (17.8-42.4 years), a magnet and a demagnetized equivalent of parylene coated neodymium-iron-boron was bonded alternately on the left and right side, to the buccal surface of maxillary premolars. The buccal mucosa was clinically examined and photographed, and three punch biopsies (6 mm diameter) of the buccal mucosa were taken from each subject at the site of contact with the magnet (test), in contact with the demagnetized magnet (control), and also at a site on the control side without contact with the demagnetized magnet (normal). The biopsies were snap-frozen for histological and immunohistochemical investigation, using antibodies to PD7 (lymphocyte 'naive T'), UCHL 1 ('memory T'), HLADR, ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. Clinically, the buccal mucosa showed normal features before and after the experimental period. In four of the eight subjects, the epithelium was 1.4-2.3 times thicker in the control and test tissues than in normal tissues. The difference between controls and tests was negligible, and there were no signs of increased keratinization or other surface abnormalities. Compared with normal sites, all control and test sites showed slightly increased ELAM-1/ ICAM-1 vascular staining, accompanied in three subjects by small infiltrates of PD7/UCHL 1-positive lymphocytic cells and in all subjects by focal keratinocyte HLADR-staining. The minor tissue reactions found in test and control tissues were interpreted to be a result of microtrauma (contact irritation) and not caused by the static magnetic field per se, since there was no difference between test and control tissues. PMID:9699399

Bondemark, L; Kurol, J; Larsson, A

1998-06-01

337

[Typing of mitochondrial DNA from isolated cells of the human buccal epithelium].  

PubMed

The authors have developed a method for molecular-genetic analysis of DNA from isolated cells for the purpose of forensic medical diagnostics. The method is based on the use of the laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology in combination with typing of mitochondrial DNA. Optimization of the conditions for amplification of polymorphic mtDNA loci in preparations containing minimal amounts of the genetic material was accomplished at the initial stage of the work. To this effect, the two-round polymerase chain reaction was employed that allowed the amplified material to be accumulated in the amount sufficient for sequenation. At the next stages, the system thus obtained was tested on the cell model (using isolated cells of human buccal epithelium). It was shown that the proposed method is suitable for the analysis of specific mtDNA characteristics in a single human cell. PMID:22117476

Ivanov, P L; Leonov, S N; Zemskova, E Iu

338

Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat  

PubMed Central

A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis.

Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

2013-01-01

339

Buccal midazolam for pediatric convulsive seizures: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability  

PubMed Central

Prolonged seizures and status epilepticus are a common acute neurological presentation in pediatric practice. As a result, there is a need for effective and safe medications that can be delivered to convulsing children to effect rapid seizure termination both in hospital and community settings. The challenges of achieving intravenous access, particularly in young children, mandate alternative routes of administration for these drugs. Over the last ten years, midazolam delivered via the buccal mucosa has been demonstrated to be efficacious, safe, and acceptable to children and their caregivers, and a formulation has recently been licensed for use in Europe. The aim of this article is to review the clinical pharmacology with respect to these issues.

Anderson, Mark

2013-01-01

340

Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat.  

PubMed

A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis. PMID:23956608

Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

2013-07-01

341

[Measurement errors in 3D cephalometrics: about the buccal cranio-facial analysis].  

PubMed

The development of three-dimensional radiological techniques generating low levels of radiation, like computed tomography and positron emission tomography with cone beam, has made it possible for orthodontists to utilize three dimensional cephalometry for certain complex clinical cases instead of conventional two dimensional imagery. Nevertheless, these new techniques rely on the identification of the most dependable anatomic landmarks. Fifteen randomly selected orthodontists were asked to identify on a computed tomography film 33 points that were chosen for a buccal cranio-facial analysis because they have been traditionally recognized for their reproducibility. The results confirmed the high reliability level of the reference point vestibion that is related to the semi-circular canals. They showed, in the same way that conventional 2D cephalometry does, that each landmark presents a cloud and dispersion characteristic and that the most reliable landmarks are based on easily identifiable anatomic structures like foramens and osseous points. PMID:22455649

Papé, Romain de; Pizelle, Christophe; Foucart, Jean-Miche

2012-03-29

342

Implementing Motor Decision Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the significant savings that could be realized from improved motor decisions, most industrial facilities do not have plans in place. A number of reasons contribute to this including lack of resource to pay attention to these motors and a perception that the implementation of a plan is challenging and time consuming. In reality, motor plans can be

R. Neal Elliott; Ronald G. Wroblewski

343

Motor considerations for turbomachinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customers who use large rotating equipment realize motors can be subjected to hostile environmental conditions, nonstandard voltage levels and a variety of load requirements. The motor specifications they write reflect this change and have become far more detailed. Too often in the past, when large projects were being organized and highly technical equipment purchased, induction motors were thought of as

R. F. Halfpap; R. Brotherhood

1995-01-01

344

Polymerase chain reaction optimization for amplification of Guanine-Cytosine rich templates using buccal cell DNA  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Amplification of Guanine-Cytosine (GC) -rich sequences becomes important in screening and diagnosis of certain genetic diseases such as diseases arising due to expansion of GC-rich trinucleotide repeat regions. However, GC-rich sequences in the genome are refractory to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and require a special reaction conditions and/or modified PCR cycle parameters. AIM: Optimize a cost effective PCR assay to amplify the GC-rich DNA templates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR 1) is an ideal candidate for PCR optimization as its GC content is more than 80%. Primers designed to amplify the GC rich 5’ untranslated region of the FMR 1 gene, was selected for the optimization of amplification using DNA extracted from buccal mucosal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A simple and rapid protocol was used to extract DNA from buccal cells. PCR optimization was carried out using three methods, (a) substituting a substrate analog 7-deaza-dGTP to dGTP (b) in the presence of a single PCR additive and (c) using a combination of PCR additives. All PCR amplifications were carried out using a low-cost thermostable polymerase. RESULTS: Optimum PCR conditions were achieved when a combination of 1M betaine and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to amplify the GC rich region of FMR 1 gene with reproducibility in the presence of betaine and DMSO as additives without the use of commercially available kits for DNA extraction and the expensive thermostable polymerases.

Bhagya, C. H. W. M. R. Chandrasekara; Wijesundera Sulochana, W. S.; Hemamali, N. Perera

2013-01-01

345

40 CFR 1027.110 - What special provisions apply for certification related to motor vehicles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply for certification related to motor vehicles? 1027.110 Section 1027...POLLUTION CONTROLS FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS...apply for certification related to motor vehicles? (a) We will adjust...

2013-07-01

346

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 109 (Tires). The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

347

Improved Transistorized AC Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Passenger Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program for an improved ac motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles were: the design, fabrication, test, evaluation and cost analysis of an engineering model controller for an ac induction motor drive s...

S. C. Peak

1982-01-01

348

Improved SCR AC-Motor Controller for Battery-Powered Urban Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electric vehicle propulsion system controller which uses an ac induction electric motor as the electrical to mechanical energy conversion unit was designed and developed. The contract program was to design and test an improved ac motor controller, whic...

T. S. Latos

1982-01-01

349

FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

350

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages). Chrysler Corporation 1970 Dodge Challenger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1970-01-01

351

Chrysler Corporation 1970 Dodge Challenger. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105 (Brakes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

E. S. Dale

1969-01-01

352

76 FR 17487 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program; Final...2060-AP11 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air...

2011-03-29

353

A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

2009-04-01

354

Adiabatic quantum motors.  

PubMed

When parameters are varied periodically, charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic conductor without applied bias. Here, we consider the inverse effect in which a transport current drives a periodic variation of an adiabatic degree of freedom. This provides a general operating principle for adiabatic quantum motors which we discuss here in general terms. We relate the work performed per cycle on the motor degree of freedom to characteristics of the underlying quantum pump and discuss the motors' efficiency. Quantum motors based on chaotic quantum dots operate solely due to quantum interference, and motors based on Thouless pumps have ideal efficiency. PMID:23971547

Bustos-Marún, Raúl; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

2013-08-05

355

Imitating chemical motors with optimal information motors.  

PubMed

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. PMID:23862988

Horowitz, Jordan M; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M R

2013-07-03

356

Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple

Chris J. Zimmerman; Gerald E. Litzinger

1993-01-01

357

Rotary DNA motors.  

PubMed Central

Many molecular motors move unidirectionally along a DNA strand powered by nucleotide hydrolysis. These motors are multimeric ATPases with more than one hydrolysis site. We present here a model for how these motors generate the requisite force to process along their DNA track. This novel mechanism for force generation is based on a fluctuating electrostatic field driven by nucleotide hydrolysis. We apply the principle to explain the motion of certain DNA helicases and the portal protein, the motor that bacteriophages use to pump the genome into their capsids. The motor can reverse its direction without reversing the polarity of its electrostatic field, that is, without major structural modifications of the protein. We also show that the motor can be driven by an ion gradient; thus the mechanism may apply as well to the bacterial flagellar motor and to ATP synthase. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7

Doering, C; Ermentrout, B; Oster, G

1995-01-01

358

Motorized support jack  

DOEpatents

A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

2001-01-01

359

Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors  

SciTech Connect

Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performa

Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

2008-05-01

360

A pilot study of the Video Observations Aarts and Aarts (VOAA): a new software program to measure motor behaviour in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new computer software program to score video observations, Video Observations Aarts and Aarts (VOAA) was developed to evaluate paediatric occupational therapy interventions. The VOAA is an observation tool that assesses the frequency, duration and quality of arm\\/hand use in children, in particular those with cerebral palsy. Reliability studies show that the first module, designed to evaluate a forced-use programme,

Pauline BM Aarts; Peter H Jongerius; Michel AG Aarts; Margo J Van Hartingsveldt; Patricia G Anderson; Annechien Beumer

2007-01-01

361

Superconducting coil development and motor demonstration: Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting bismuth-cuprate wires, coils, and magnets are being produced by industry as part of a program to test the viability of using such magnets in Naval systems. Tests of prototype magnets, coils, and wires reveal progress in commercially produced products. The larger magnets will be installed in an existing superconducting homopolar motor and operated initially at 4.2K to test the performance. It is anticipated that approximately 400 Hp will be achieved by the motor. This article reports on the initial tests of the magnets, coils, and wires as well as the development program to improve their performance.

Gubser, D. U.

1995-12-01

362

Thermal analysis of induction and synchronous reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the thermal behavior of two induction motors (2.2 and 4 kW, four poles) and two synchronous reluctance motors [(SynRMs) transverse-laminated] are investigated and compared. Both motor types use the same stator but have different rotors. Using a lumped-parameter simulation program, a thermal analysis has been also carried out, and the obtained results have been compared with the

Aldo Boglietti; Andrea Cavagnino; Michele Pastorelli; David Staton; Alfredo Vagati

2006-01-01

363

Collaborative Teaching of Motor Skills for Preschoolers with Developmental Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe collaborative teaching between preschool teachers, adapted physical educators, physical\\u000a therapists, and occupational therapists of motor skills for preschoolers with developmental delays. The motor domain is typically\\u000a taught by the classroom teacher who may have little to no knowledge of how to initiate a motor program. For this reason, a\\u000a collaborative approach in

Nathan M. Murata; Carol A. Tan

2009-01-01

364

Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium-speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm and powered via a transistor-inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high-speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm and powered via a thyristor-inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium-speed motor and for a high-speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium-cobalt permanent magnet material.

Maslowski, E.A.

1981-01-01

365

Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 2, Functional indicator tests on a small electric motor subjected to accelerated aging  

SciTech Connect

A ten horsepower electric motor was artificially aged by plug reverse cycling for test purposes. The motor was manufactured in 1967 and was in service at a commercial nuclear power plant for twelve years. Various tests were performed on the motor throughout the aging process. The motor failed after 3.79 million reversals (3 seconds per reversal) over seven months of testing. Each test parameter was trended to assess its suitability in monitoring aging and service wear degradation in motors. Results and conclusions are discussed relative to the applicability of the tests performed to nuclear power plant motor maintenance programs. 15 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Lofaro, R.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.; Skreiner, K.M.

1987-11-01

366

Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all…

Kovacs, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

367

Modelling of a car starter with permanent magnet commutator motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a developed modelling method of a car starter with permanent magnet commutator motor. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Mathematical model, algorithm and computational program of electrical and mechanical quantities transients in the system: battery – car starter with permanent magnet commutator motor and planetary gear – combustion engine were developed. Circuit-field method was

M. Ciurys; I. Dudzikowski; D. Gierak

2009-01-01

368

The dynein microtubule motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyneins are large multi-component microtubule-based molecular motors involved in many fundamental cellular processes including vesicular transport, mitosis and ciliary\\/flagellar beating. In order to achieve useful work, these enzymes must contain motor, cargo-binding and regulatory components. The ATPase and microtubule motor domains are located within the very large dynein heavy chains that form the globular heads and stems of the complex.

Stephen M King

2000-01-01

369

Hybrid ultrasonic micromachined motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid ultrasonic motor has been fabricated using silicon micromachining and metallic micromechanical components. The concept of elastic force motors (EFMs) is applied for the conversion of standing waves to mechanical energy. Millimeter-size prototypes (6×6×2 mm) show interesting characteristics. Free rotation speed up to 600 rpm and net torque of 50 nNm are observed. Typical applications are the motorization of

G.-A. Racine; R. Luthier; N. F. de Rooij

1993-01-01

370

Main Drives and Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a brief discussion on variable speed motors and drives for the tandem cold rolling process. The basic\\u000a characteristics of the cage rotor induction motor and the synchronous motor are presented, along with the voltage converter\\u000a as a viable modern drive for these machines. Cycloconverters are also addressed as a less preferred drive. Material is included\\u000a which describes

John Pittner; Marwan A. Simaan

371

Mucoadhesive and penetration enhancement properties of three grades of hyaluronic acid using porcine buccal and vaginal tissue, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat jejunum.  

PubMed

The influence of the molecular weight on mucoadhesive and penetration enhancement properties of three grades of hyaluronic acid (1878, 693 and 202 kDa) has been evaluated. The mucoadhesive properties were investigated using buccal and vaginal porcine mucosa by means of a tensile stress method and using rat jejunum by means of an inclined plane method. The mucoadhesive performances observed using animal tissues were compared with the mucoadhesive properties observed using submaxillary or gastric mucin dispersions. The penetration enhancement properties were investigated using porcine buccal epithelium membrane or vaginal tissue and a cell monolayer (Caco-2 cell line). Chitosan hydrochloride, already described as a penetration enhancer towards buccal and vaginal mucosae and Caco-2 cell monolayers, was used as reference. Aciclovir (acyclovir), a poorly soluble and absorbable drug, commonly used in the treatment of Herpes simplex virus (type I and II), was used as the model drug. Unlike chitosan hydrochloride, which does not show any mucoadhesive potential at pH close to neutrality (buccal and intestinal), all hyaluronic acid grades show mucoadhesive properties in all the environments considered (buccal, vaginal and intestinal). In all cases, a decrease in molecular weight of hyaluronic acid produced an increase in the mucoadhesive performance. The hyaluronic acid with the lowest molecular weight (202 kD) exhibited the best penetration enhancement properties, that, depending on the substrate under consideration, was either comparable with or even better than chitosan hydrochloride. Therefore, this grade would be the most promising for buccal, vaginal and intestinal delivery of aciclovir. PMID:15324476

Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Zerrouk, Naima; Caramella, Carla

2004-09-01

372

Effects of buccal and lingual enamel sandblasting on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a self-etching primer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting on the initial shear bond strength (SBS) and on the bracket/adhesive failure mode of orthodontic brackets bonded on buccal and lingual enamel using a self-etching primer (SEP). The brackets were bonded using a SEP and composite resin on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 premolars with intact enamel and 30 premolars pretreated by sandblasting with 50 ?m aluminum-oxide. Student's paired t-test was used to compare the groups for differences in SBS and a multiple Chi(2) test was performed to compare the bond failure mode. It was shown that sandblasting increases significantly SBS of the SEP on the buccal surfaces but the increase on the lingual surfaces is not statistically significant. A comparison of the adhesive remnant index scores indicated that there was more residual adhesive remaining on the teeth that were treated by sandblasting than on the teeth with intact enamel. Besides, there is no statistical difference between SBS of the SEP on buccal and lingual surfaces with intact enamel. Therefore, we can conclude that sandblasting improves the bond between buccal and lingual enamel and resin ant that the SEP provides the same SBS on buccal and lingual intact surfaces. PMID:23142141

Mati, Myriam; Amm, Elie; Bouserhal, Joseph; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla

2012-11-09

373

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Areca Nut-related Compounds in Cultured Human Buccal Epithelial Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because betel quid chewing has been linked to the development of oral cancer, pathobiological effects of an aqueous areca nut extract, four areca nut alkaloids (uri-coline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine), and four nitrosated derivatives |\\/V-nitrosoguvacoline, jV-nitrosoguvacine, 3- (yV-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde and ,V( V-niirosomethylam- ino)propionitrile| have been investigated using cultured human buccal epithelial cells. Areca nut extract in a dose-dependent manner decreases cell

Kristina Sundqvist; Yun Liu; Jagadeesan Nair; Helmut Bartsch; Kristina Arvidson

1989-01-01

374

Articaine for Supplemental Buccal Mandibular Infiltration Anesthesia in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis When the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Fails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental buccal infiltration injection of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block failed. Fifty-five emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an IAN block

Rachel Matthews; Melissa Drum; Al Reader; John Nusstein; Mike Beck

2009-01-01

375

Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

2010-02-01

376

Fatty acid profile of buccal cheek cell phospholipids as an index for dietary intake of docosahexaenoic acid in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheek cells (buccal epithelia) were utilized as a noninvasive index of fatty acid status in a study of the effects of n?3\\u000a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on visual function in preterm infants. The fatty acid profile of cheek\\u000a cell phospholipids was directly correlated with the dietary docosahexenoic acid (DHA) intake of infants receiving: (i) primarily\\u000a human milk; (ii)

Dennis R. Hoffman; Eileen E. Birch; David G. Birch; Ricardo Uauy

1999-01-01

377

Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for Relief of Breakthrough Pain in Opioid-Tolerant Patients With Cancer-Related Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a new opioid formulation pro- viding rapid-onset analgesia for the treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP). This study evaluated FBT for BTP in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic cancer pain. The study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled design and was conducted at 30 outpatient treatment centers in the United States. Following open-label titration, patients were ran-

Neal E. Slatkin; Fang Xie; John Messina; Thalia J. Segal

2007-01-01

378

Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application  

PubMed Central

Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH with optimum swelling approaching zero order release.

2012-01-01

379

The lom gene of bacteriophage ? is involved in Escherichia coli K12 adhesion to human buccal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the lom gene of bacteriophage ? in adhesion of Escherichia coli to human buccal epithelial cells (HBC) was studied testing the adherence of ?lom+ and ?lom::TnphoA E. coli lysogens. ?lom+ prophage increased 50% E. coli adhesion. This effect was not observed with ?lom::TnphoA. These results suggest that the normal Lom protein participates directly in adhesion or regulates

Sergio Vaca Pacheco; Octavio Garc??a González; Gloria Luz Paniagua Contreras

1997-01-01

380

Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of three dosage regimens of buccal adhesive testosterone tablets in healthy men suppressed with leuprorelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a randomised, double-blind, crossover design to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of three doses of buccal adhesive testosterone tablets (BATT). Twenty-four healthy men, whose endogenous testosterone was suppressed to 5·38 nmol\\/l with leuprorelin acetate, took BATT (10, 20 or 30 mg) daily for 10 days. There was a 4-day washout between treatments. Substantial testosterone absorption occurred from

K J Baisley; M J Boyce; S Bukofzer; R Pradhan; S J Warrington

2002-01-01

381

Effect of the color of intraradicular posts on the color of buccal gingiva: a clinical spectophotometric evaluation.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to test whether intraradicular posts of different colors induce different amounts of color change of the buccal gingiva. Twentythree patients in need of a post-and-core buildup at one endodontically treated incisor, canine, or premolar were included. Titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zi), and glass fiber (Gf) posts were consecutively inserted in each test tooth. Spectrophotometric color measuremement of the buccal gingiva was performed prior to post bed preparation and after insertion of Ti, Zi, and Gf posts. For control purposes, the gingival color at the contralateral vital tooth was assessed. The differences of color components ?L, ?a, and ?b and the total color difference (?E) between different experimental conditions were obtained. ?E value of 3.7 was considered the threshold value for intraoral color distinction. The gingival thickness at test teeth was measured. No difference occurred with regard to the amount of gingival discoloration induced by different posts. In the majority of cases, posts did not exhibit a visible influence on the color of buccal gingiva. The gingiva at endodontically treated teeth presented a visible discoloration compared to the gingiva at vital teeth. The degree of gingival discoloration at endodontically treated teeth was correlated with the gingival thickness, with more pronounced discolorations in cases of thinner soft tissue. PMID:24116358

Benic, Goran I; Wolleb, Karin; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

382

Description of microsatellite markers and genotyping performances using feathers and buccal swabs for the Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea).  

PubMed

We report 22 new polymorphic microsatellites for the Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), and we describe how they can be efficiently co-amplified using multiplexed polymerase chain reactions. In addition, we report DNA concentration, amplification success, rates of genotyping errors and the number of genotyping repetitions required to obtain reliable data with three types of noninvasive or nondestructive samples: shed feathers collected in colonies, feathers plucked from living individuals and buccal swabs. In two populations from Greenland (n=21) and Russia (Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, n=21), the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 17, and expected heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.18 to 0.92. Twenty of the markers conformed to Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium expectations. Most markers were easily amplified and highly reliable when analysed from buccal swabs and plucked feathers, showing that buccal swabbing is a very efficient approach allowing good quality DNA retrieval. Although DNA amplification success using single shed feathers was generally high, the genotypes obtained from this type of samples were prone to error and thus need to be amplified several times. The set of microsatellite markers described here together with multiplex amplification conditions and genotyping error rates will be useful for population genetic studies of the Ivory gull. PMID:21518427

Yannic, Glenn; Sermier, Roberto; Aebischer, Adrian; Gavrilo, Maria V; Gilg, Olivier; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Sabard, Brigitte; Strřm, Hallvard; Pouivé, Emmanuelle; Broquet, T

2011-04-26

383

Evaluation of a physiological in vitro system to study the transport of nanoparticles through the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

A buccal physiological in vitro testing system for the evaluation of the permeability, the transport route and toxic effects of nanoparticles was developed. Carboxyl polystyrene (CP, 20 nm, 200 nm) and amine modified polystyrene (AP, 200 nm) particles were used as reference particles and characterized in biological media. The permeability through excised porcine buccal mucosa was investigated with Franz diffusion cells. To evaluate the transport route, particle uptake into oral H376 cells was recorded and the cell damage was measured. All particles immediately formed aggregates once dispersed in saliva. 20 nm CP particles permeated the mucus layer and penetrated into the stratum superficiale of the top third region of the epithelium by the transcellular route. The positively-charged 200 nm AP particles permeated the mucus-layer and penetrated into deeper regions of the tissue. By decreasing the temperature to 4°C, particle uptake was inhibited for 20 nm CP and 200 nm AP particles. 200 nm CP particles interacted with the mucus, formed agglomerates and did not penetrate into the epithelium. It can be concluded that the presented system serves as a valuable tool to evaluate the behavior of nanoparticles in the buccal mucosa. PMID:21591874

Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Meindl, Claudia; Teubl, Birgit; Zaversky, Michaela; Zimmer, Andreas

2011-05-18

384

Human buccal plate extraction socket regeneration with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB or enamel matrix derivative.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the osseous healing of buccal plate extraction socket defects. There were four cohorts: group A (mineral collagen bone substitute [MCBS] scaffold alone), group B (MCBS with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB [rhPDGF-BB; 0.3 mg/mL]), group C (MCBS with enamel matrix derivative [EMD]), and group D (combination of EMD with bone ceramic). The primary outcome of bone quality was evaluated using light microscopy, backscatter scanning electron microscopy, and histomorphometrics. Reentry surgery provided an opportunity for clinical observation of the healed ridge morphology. Sixteen patients with buccal wall extraction socket defects were randomized into four treatment groups of equal size. Grafting was provided at the time of extraction with advancement of the buccal flap for primary closure. A trephine core biopsy of the implant site preparation was performed after 5 months for implant placement. Histologic examination identified new bone healing around the biomaterial scaffolds. Statistically significant differences in new bone formation were not observed among the treatment groups. There was a histomorphometric trend toward more new bone for the rhPDGF-BB-treated group (group B). This group had the most favorable ridge morphology for optimal implant placement. PMID:21845243

Nevins, Marc L; Camelo, Marcelo; Schupbach, Peter; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Kim, David M

385

Genetic damage in soybean workers exposed to pesticides: evaluation with the comet and buccal micronucleus cytome assays.  

PubMed

Soybean cultivation is widespread in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil), especially in the city of Espumoso. Soybean workers in this region are increasingly exposed to a wide combination of chemical agents present in formulations of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. In the present study, the comet assay in peripheral leukocytes and the buccal micronucleus (MN) cytome assay (BMCyt) in exfoliated buccal cells were used to assess the effects of exposures to pesticides in soybean farm workers from Espumoso. A total of 127 individuals, 81 exposed and 46 non-exposed controls, were evaluated. Comet assay and BMCyt (micronuclei and nuclear buds) data revealed DNA damage in soybean workers. Cell death was also observed (condensed chromatin, karyorhectic, and karyolitic cells). Inhibition of non-specific choline esterase (BchE) was not observed in the workers. The trace element contents of buccal samples were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Higher concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, and Cl were observed in cells from workers. No associations with use of personal protective equipment, gender, or mode of application of pesticides were observed. Our findings indicate the advisability of monitoring genetic toxicity in soybean farm workers exposed to pesticides. PMID:23347873

Benedetti, Danieli; Nunes, Emilene; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-22

386

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor\\/controller combinations can be obtained at

R. R. Secunde

1981-01-01

387

Computer aided design of multi-phase switched reluctance motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a comprehensive computer-aided design (CAD) procedure of multiphase switched reluctance motor (SRM) is presented. Better approach for calculation of the outer dimensions, phase inductance, flux linkage and losses, and also a different concept for calculating the average torque of the motor are incorporated in the CAD program. The average torque is calculated based on the most effective 15° (for 8/6 SRM) of the static torque profile of the motor. A sample design of a 5 hp SRM is presented in detail and the design is validated by conducting a two-dimensional finite element analysis of the motor.

Sheth, N. K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

2005-05-01

388

Absolute and relative bioavailability of fentanyl buccal tablet and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate.  

PubMed

This study assessed the absolute and relative bioavailabilities and transmucosal and gastrointestinal absorbency of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC). In a randomized crossover design, 26 healthy subjects received FBT 400 microg (transmucosal), FBT 800 microg (oral), OTFC 800 microg (transmucosal), and fentanyl 400 microg (intravenous). The transmucosal FBT had the highest absolute bioavailability (0.65) compared with the oral FBT (0.31) or transmucosal OTFC (0.47). More fentanyl was absorbed transmucosally from FBT than OTFC (48% vs 22%). Median t(max) values were shorter following the transmucosal FBT (47 minutes) than the oral FBT (90 minutes) or the transmucosal OTFC (91 minutes). Transmucosal administration of FBT compared with dose-normalized OTFC resulted in higher total systemic fentanyl exposure, higher early systemic exposure, and higher C(max). The rate and extent of fentanyl absorption were greater following administration of FBT compared to OTFC. An approximately 30% smaller dose of FBT achieved systemic exposures comparable to OTFC. PMID:17322146

Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Tracewell, William; Jiang, John G

2007-03-01

389

Error rates in buccal-dental microwear quantification using scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Dental microwear, usually analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, is a good indicator of the abrasive potential of past human population diets. Scanning electron microscopy secondary electrons provide excellent images of dental enamel relief for characterizing striation density, average length, and orientation. However, methodological standardization is required for interobserver comparisons since semiautomatic counting procedures are still used for micrograph characterization. The analysis of normally distributed variables allows the characterization of small interpopulation differences. However, the interobserver error rates associated with SEM experience and the degree of expertise in measuring striations are critical to population dietary interpretation. The interobserver comparisons made here clearly indicate that the precision of SEM buccal microwear measurements depends heavily on variable definition and the researcher's expertise. Moreover, error rates are not the only concern for dental microwear research. Low error rates do not guarantee that all researchers are measuring the same magnitudes of the variables considered. The results obtained show that researchers tend to maintain high intrapopulation homogeneity and low measurement error rates, whereas significant interobserver differences appear. Such differences are due to a differential interpretation of SEM microwear features and variable definitions that require detailed and precise agreement among researchers. The substitution of semiautomatic with fully automated procedures will completely avoid interobserver error rate differences. PMID:15712754

Galbany, J; Martínez, L M; López-Amor, H M; Espurz, V; Hiraldo, O; Romero, A; De Juan, J; Pérez-Pérez, A

390

Bipaddled radial forearm flap for the reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects in oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis can result in progressive closure of the mouth. A total of 10 patients with advanced oral submucous fibrosis were surgically treated. The procedure consisted of (1) release of all the intraoral fibrotic tissue, (2) masticatory muscle myotomy and coronoidotomy, and (3) reconstruction with a bipaddled radial forearm flap. Preoperative mouth opening was 0-5mm (mean 2.3mm). The intraoperative mouth opening was 12-20mm (mean 16 mm) after submucous release, and 32-42 mm (mean 35.5mm) after further release via myotomy and coronoidotomy. The proximal flap included one perforator in four patients and two perforators in the remaining six patients. The flaps were 8-9 cm in length and 2-2.5 cm in width. Nine flaps survived uneventfully. Arterial thrombosis was noted in one flap, which was successfully salvaged. Temporomandibular joint subluxation developed in one patient. Two patients needed flap revision due to bulkiness. The postoperative mouth opening was 18-38 mm (mean 28.2mm) after a mean of 21 months' follow-up, and the mean increase was 25.9 mm. A bipaddled radial forearm flap, using a single donor site, can cover two separate buccal defects after release of oral submucosal fibrosis and obviate the need for a second free flap. PMID:17499479

Lee, J-T; Cheng, L-F; Chen, P-R; Wang, C-H; Hsu, H; Chien, S-H; Wei, F-C

2007-05-11

391

Development and evaluation of a biphasic buccal adhesive tablet for nicotine replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Bilayer nicotine mucoadhesive tablets were prepared and evaluated to determine the suitability of the formulation as a nicotine replacement product to aid in smoking cessation. A range of formulations containing 0-50% w/w Carbopol 934 and 0-50% w/w hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were prepared and tested for adhesive properties and drug release. Mucoadhesion was assessed using bovine buccal mucosa. Peak detachment force of the tablets was found to reach a maximum at 20% w/w Carbopol 934, whilst work of adhesion continued to increase with Carbopol 934 concentration. HPC concentrations of 20-30% w/w were found to provide nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) release approaching zero order kinetics over a 4 h test period. A combination of 20% w/w Carbopol 934 and 20% w/w HPC was thus found to provide suitable adhesion and controlled drug release. The formulation of a bilayer tablet containing the adhesive controlled release layer (CRL) and a fast releasing layer provided an initial burst release of NHT followed by the controlled release for a period of up to 4 h. The same biphasic type of release was identified during an in vivo assessment using human volunteers This biphasic drug release could represent an improvement over current methods of nicotine replacement. PMID:11955819

Park, Calum R; Munday, Dale L

2002-04-26

392

Spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures as buccal bioadhesive carriers.  

PubMed

In the present study, spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures were evaluated as potential buccal bioadhesive tablets. Carbopol (C 974P) concentrations from 5 to 75% were tested. All spray-dried mixtures showed a comparable or better bioadhesive capacity compared to a reference formulation (DDWM/C 974P 95/5). The bioadhesive capacities of Amioca/Carbopol 974P mixtures were improved by spray-drying. All spray-dried mixtures showed significantly higher work of adhesion values compared to their equivalent physical mixtures. The influence of Carbopol concentration on the in vivo adhesion time of placebo tablets and in vitro miconazole nitrate release was tested. The ratio Amioca/C 974P 70/30 showed the longest in vivo adhesion time (24.5+/-8.5 h). Lower and higher C 974P concentrations had a shorter in vivo adhesion time. The mixtures containing between 15 and 30% C 974P could all sustain the in vitro miconazole nitrate release over 20 h. Again, lower and higher C 974P concentrations showed a faster in vitro miconazole release. The drug loading capacity of a spray-dried mixture containing 20% C 974P was investigated in vivo in dogs using testosterone as model drug. The spray-dried mixture could be loaded with 60% drug without loosing its in vivo bioadhesive and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:16019172

Ameye, D; Mus, D; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

2005-09-14

393

Development and characterization of mucoadhesive patches of salbutamol sulfate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate were prepared using five different water soluble polymers in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. A 32 full factorial design was used to design the experiments for each polymer combination. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm and showed an increase in mass whenever PEG-400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of all patches approached neutral. Eight formulations which had shown high folding endurance (> 300) were selected for evaluation. Patches prepared with PEG-400 showed a high swelling index. The residence time of the tested patches ranged between 105 and 130 min. Formulations A10, A32, B10 and B32 fitted the Higuchi model best, whereas formulations A19 and B19 showed super case II transport drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period of 6 months. PMID:21684844

Puratchikody, Ayrivan; Prasanth, Viswanadhan Vasantha; Mathew, Sam Thomas; Kumar, Balaraman Ashok

2011-06-01

394

The application of a crosslinked pectin-based wafer matrix for gradual buccal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop crosslinked wafer matrices and establish the influence of the crosslinker type and processing sequence on achieving gradual buccal drug delivery. Three sets of drug-loaded crosslinked pectin wafers were produced employing the model water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine and were compared with noncrosslinked wafers. The formulations were crosslinked with CaCl(2), BaCl(2), or ZnSO(4) pre- or postlyophilization (sets 1 and 2) as well as pre- and postlyophilization (set 3), respectively. The surface morphology, porositometry, molecular vibrational transitions, textural attributes, thermal and in vitro drug release were characterized and supported by in silico molecular mechanics simulations. Results revealed that crosslinked wafers produced smaller pore sizes (107.63 Ĺ) compared with noncrosslinked matrices (180.53 Ĺ) due to molecular crosslinks formed between pectin chains. Drug release performance was dependent on the wafer crosslinking production sequence. Noncrosslinked wafers displayed burst-release with 82% drug released at t(30min) compared with first-order kinetic profiles obtained for prelyophilized crosslinked matrices (50% released at t(30min) followed by steady release). Wafers crosslinked postlyophilization displayed superior control of drug release (40% at t(30min)). Molecular mechanics simulations corroborated with the experimental data and established that Ba(++), having the largest atomic radii (1.35 Ĺ) formed a number of ionic bridges producing wafers of higher porosity (0.048 cm(2)/g) and had more influence on drug release. PMID:22323418

Shaikh, Rubina P; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, Riaz A

2012-02-10

395

Test of Visual-Motor Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the Test of Visual-Motor Integration for regular educational program students, ages 6 to 17 years old, in a large metropolitan public school system, were examined using two distinct techniques. Both classical test theory and Rasch item response theory (latent trait) models yielded convergent results paralleling those of Beery's, up to age 12. A marked ceiling effet on test

Aurelius Abbatiello; Wolanyo Kpo

1989-01-01

396

Comparison of Motor Development in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the gross motor development of children at two day care centers, one with a movement-oriented physical education program and the other with an unstructured free play period. Also studied were the biological factors of age and sex. A total of 146 children were tested during a 3-year period. During the last two years,…

Bohren, Judy M.; Vlahov, Eric

397

Linear Induction Motor. Design and Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the procedure for the design and construction of a linear induction motor. At the beginning, a theorical support of the functioning principle and the electric model assumed is presented; subsequently, the generalities of the design program made in Matlab are explained and the experimental tests that ratified the design procedure selected as well as the selected model

Facultad Tecnológica; José Roberto Bedoya; Alexander Rodríguez García

398

25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance....

2013-04-01

399

In vitro transport of the steroidal glycoside P57 from Hoodia gordonii across excised porcine intestinal and buccal tissue.  

PubMed

Hoodia gordonii was traditionally used by the Khoisan people as a thirst and appetite suppressant and is currently commercially available as a popular weight-loss supplement. The perceived active ingredient isolated from this plant is a steroidal glycoside named P57. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro transport of P57 across excised porcine intestinal and buccal mucosa in a Sweetana-Grass diffusion apparatus. For both the intestinal and buccal experiments, the transport of pure P57 was compared to that obtained from a crude plant extract. Bi-directional transport experiments were conducted across the intestinal tissue in two different media namely Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and simulated intestinal fluid. Apical-to-basolateral transport experiments were conducted across the buccal tissue in two different media namely Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and artificial saliva. Apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) and flux values were calculated and analysed by means of a one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if differences were significant (p?0.05). The transport of pure P57 across intestinal tissue was significantly higher in the secretory direction than in the absorptive direction indicating efflux by membrane transporters. Much higher intestinal transport was obtained for P57 in both directions when applied in the form of a crude extract, possibly due to inhibition of efflux as indicated by lower secretory transport compared to absorptive transport. For the buccal tissue, no transport was obtained for the pure P57, while relatively high transport was obtained when applied in the form of a crude extract. Furthermore, the intestinal transport of P57 was significantly decreased when the crude extract was prepared in simulated intestinal fluid compared to when it was prepared in buffer. On the other hand, buccal transport was higher in artificial saliva than in buffer. It is therefore evident that the transport of P57 across mucosal tissues is significantly affected on exposure to conditions simulating the in vivo situation. PMID:21353512

Vermaak, I; Viljoen, A M; Chen, W; Hamman, J H

2011-02-25

400

Fast Forward: An Upskilling Programme for Ford Motor Company Foundry Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of an upgrading program for British Ford Motor Company employees was getting trainees back into learning environments and improving communication, listening, calculation, reading, and cooperation. (SK)

Cousin, Glynis; Pound, Gill

1991-01-01

401

The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

1993-01-01

402

Electric Vehicle Motors and Controllers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on deve...

R. R. Secunde

1981-01-01

403

Improved SCR ac-motor controller for battery-powered urban electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric vehicle propulsion system controller which uses an ac induction electric motor as the electrical to mechanical energy conversion unit was designed and developed. The contract program was to design and test an improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery, would provide a complete electric vehicle power train

Latos

1982-01-01

404

Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

2013-01-01

405

Zfh1, a somatic motor neuron transcription factor, regulates axon exit from the CNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor neurons are defined by their axon projections, which exit the CNS to innervate somatic or visceral musculature, yet remarkably little is known about how motor axons are programmed to exit the CNS. Here, we describe the role of the Drosophila Zfh1 transcription factor in promoting axon exit from the CNS. Zfh1 is detected in all embryonic somatic motor neurons,

Michael J. Layden; Joanne P. Odden; Aloisia Schmid; Alain Garces; Stefan Thor; Chris Q. Doe

2006-01-01

406

Fault detection and management system for fault-tolerant switched reluctance motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior fault tolerance characteristics of the switched reluctance motor (SRM) have been proved in a working laboratory drive system. The program started by defining the performance effects of various types of motor winding faults. Motor winding fault detection devices were developed, along with control circuitry, to isolate a faulted winding by blocking the gating signals to the semiconductor power

C. M. Stephens

1991-01-01

407

Neural Underpinnings of Impaired Predictive Motor Timing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dysfunction in predictive motor timing is put forward to underlie DCD-related motor problems. Predictive timing allows for the pre-selection of motor programmes (except "program" in computers) in order to decrease processing load and facilitate reactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural…

Debrabant, Julie; Gheysen, Freja; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vingerhoets, Guy

2013-01-01

408

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02

409

Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. Recently

Jorg Wallaschek

1995-01-01

410

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

411

Electronic Motor Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic motor brakes (EMB's) can be applied to both new and existing machines to provide a rapid nonmechanical adjustable braking profile. They can also be used to supplement the braking torque of existing brake motors, forming a complete sequential braking system for demanding applications. The EMB stops without friction or wear. It also provides for an adjustable soft stop and

Richard Shemanske

1983-01-01

412

Brushless DC motor selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the process of brushless DC motor selection through the specification of load torque and the desired load motion as a function of time. The peak and RMS torque requirements of the application are discussed along with the procedure to find the correct motor size and performance. Gearing and power transmissions are also considered in the drive system

B. K. Fussell; C. K. Taft

1995-01-01

413

Synchronous machine models for simulation of induction motor transients  

SciTech Connect

Induction motors form a considerable portion of industrial loads; hence, the analysis of their performance is often required in system studies. The analysis is either concerned with steady-state performance, or with transient performance during start-up and during system disturbances. The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is one type of computer program which can be used for transient analysis. This paper presents the details of using the existing EMTP synchronous machine model to simulate induction motor transients.

Hung, R.; Dommel, H.W. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01

414

Superconducting stepper motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available stepper motor designed for a remote positioning system of cryogenic acoustic microscopes was modified for use at liquid-He temperatures. The coils of the original disk-magnet motor were rewound with a superconducting wire consisting of 0.076-mm-thick Nb-Ti alloy clad with a 0.025-mm-thick layer of copper and insulated with Formvar. The four coils (each with the resistance of 35 ohm at room temperature) were wound on plastic coil forms, and the three pole pieces were pressed into each coil form. No adhesive was used, making it easy to remove coils from the motor, and the pole pieces from the coil forms. Three motors were thus modified and have proved reliable after many cooldowns over a period of several months. The motors were operated with about 400 mA per coil.

Moulthrop, Andrew A.; Muha, Michael S.

1988-04-01

415

Prevalence of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are manifest as impairments in social interaction, language and speech development, and the appearance of repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Motor impairments in individuals with ASD have been categorized as "associated symptoms". The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of motor deficits in ASD. Specifically, using retrospective clinical record review, we report the prevalence of hypotonia, motor apraxia, reduced ankle mobility, history of gross motor delay, and toe-walking, as well as the improvement of these symptoms with age, in a cohort of 154 children with ASD. The possible association of motor deficits with epilepsy or developmental regression was also assessed. To address whether the motor deficits in children with ASD were properly identified and treated, we evaluated whether the children with the motor deficits were more likely to receive physical and/or occupational therapies as compared to the children with ASD who did not show motor deficits. Hypotonia was the most common motor symptom in our ASD cohort (51%) and this appeared to improve over time, as suggested by the significant reduction in prevalence in older children (p=0.002). Likewise, motor apraxia (34%) showed a tendency to be more prevalent among younger children as compared with older children (p=0.06). Historical intermittent toe-walking was found in 19% of children while reduced ankle mobility was a rare occurrence. Gross motor delay was reported in 9% of children, all of whom gained motor independence by the time of examination. Except for gross motor delay, ASD children with fine motor deficits were not more likely to receive interventional services, as compared with ASD children without the motor deficits. The results suggest that fine motor control and programming deficits are common co-occurrence of children with ASD in this cohort. The reduced prevalence of these motor deficits in older children suggests improvement over time, whether through natural progression, results of interventional therapy, or the combination of the two. However, ASD children with the motor deficits were not more likely to receive service than those without the motor deficits. PMID:17467940

Ming, Xue; Brimacombe, Michael; Wagner, George C

2007-04-30

416

A randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the sandwich bone augmentation technique in increasing buccal bone thickness during implant placement surgery: I. Clinical and radiographic parameters.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Sandwich bone augmentation (SBA) has been proposed to augment the width of edentulous ridges for implant placement. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a membrane on SBA for the regeneration of buccal implant dehiscence defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy patients, each with a single defect, were randomly assigned into two groups. Both groups received an inner and outer layer of mineralized human cancellous and cortical particulate allograft. In the test group, a bovine pericardium membrane covered the bone grafts, while no membrane was placed in the control group. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and immediately after implant placement and at 6 months post-surgery. RESULTS: All implants placed were successfully osseointegrated at 6 months. Clinical re-entry measurements showed significant buccal bone gain in the test group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The test group had 1.12, 2.21 and 2.44 mm more buccal bone thickness at 2, 4 and 6 mm below the bone crest. There were no significant differences in the mid-buccal vertical bone height, defect height and width reductions and bone fill between the two groups (P > 0.05). Cone beam computed tomography analysis demonstrated significant buccal bone gain of 1.22 mm in the test group. Radiographic vertical bone loss at 1-year post-surgery showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: Sandwich bone augmentation is a predictable technique for regenerating buccal bone on implant dehiscence defects. Addition of a barrier membrane prevented significant horizontal buccal bone resorption as space was maintained more effectively when compared with sites treated without a membrane. PMID:23594026

Fu, Jia-Hui; Oh, Tae-Ju; Benavides, Erika; Rudek, Ivan; Wang, Hom-Lay

2013-04-17

417

ISRO's solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

418

10 CFR 431.408 - Preemption of State regulations for covered equipment other than electric motors and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning...ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions...equipment other than electric motors and commercial heating, ventilating,...

2013-01-01

419

The use of the motor as a transducer to monitor system conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor current and power analysis methods have been developed to assist in the condition monitoring of a variety of motor-driven devices. The early work in this area was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on motor-operated valves in the mid-to-late 1980`s in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The successful implementation of motor

D. A. Casada; S. L. Bunch

1996-01-01

420

Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate films for buccal delivery of nicotine.  

PubMed

Sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) dispersions with nicotine (NCT) were prepared at different pHs and characterized for the particle size and zeta potential, NCT adsorbed by MAS, and flow behavior before film casting. The physicochemical properties, NCT content, in vitro bioadhesive property, and NCT release and permeation of the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films were investigated. This study showed that incorporation of NCT into the SA-MAS dispersions caused a change in particle size and flow behavior and that NCT could be adsorbed by MAS. The formation of protonated NCT at acidic and neutral pHs could interact with negatively charged MAS via an electrostatic force, resulting in the formation of NCT-MAS flocculates/complexes that could act as microreservoirs in the films. The NCT-loaded SA-MAS films prepared at pH 5 yielded the highest NCT content due to non-significant loss of NCT during drying. Moreover, pH of the preparation also affected the crystallinity and thermal properties of the films. The NCT release and permeation across the mucosal membrane of the films could be described using a matrix diffusion controlled mechanism. In addition, the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films also possessed a bioadhesive property for adhesion to the mucosal membrane. This finding suggests that the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films composed of numerous NCT-MAS complexes as microreservoirs demonstrated a strong potential for use as a buccal delivery system. PMID:19643587

Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Suksri, Hatairat

2009-07-07

421

The influence of recrystallized caffeine on water-swellable polymethacrylate mucoadhesive buccal films.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of particles on the properties of polymethacrylate films intended for buccal delivery. A solvent casting method was used with Eudragit RS and RL (ERS and ERL, respectively) as film-forming rate-controlling polymers, with caffeine as a water-soluble model drug. The physicochemical properties of the model films for a series of formulations with increasing concentrations of caffeine were determined in terms of morphology, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug content uniformity, and drug release and associated kinetics. Typically regarded as non-mucoadhesive polymers, ERS and mainly ERL, were found to be good mucoadhesives, with ERL01 exhibiting a work of mucoadhesion (WoA) of 118.9 ?J, which was about five to six times higher than that observed for commonly used mucoadhesives such as Carbopol(®) 974P (C974P, 23.9 ?J) and polycarbophil (PCP, 17.4 ?J). The mucoadhesive force for ERL01 was found to be significantly lower yet comparable to C974P and PCP films (211.1 vs. 329.7 and 301.1 mN, respectively). Inspection of cross-sections of the films indicated that increasing the concentration of caffeine was correlated with the appearance of recrystallized agglomerates. In conclusion, caffeine agglomerates had detrimental effects in terms of mucoadhesion, mechanical properties, uniformity, and drug release at large particle sizes. ERL series of films exhibited very rapid release of caffeine while ERS series showed controlled release. Analysis of release profiles revealed that kinetics changed from a diffusion controlled to a first-order release mechanism. PMID:23456475

Morales, Javier O; Su, Rong; McConville, Jason T

2013-03-02

422

Mucoadhesive patches of Salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery: development and evaluation.  

PubMed

Mucoadhesive buccal patches of Salbutamol Sulphate were prepared using five different polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]), polyvinyl alcohol [PVA], water soluble chitosan [CH(WS)], acid soluble chitosan [CH(AS)], hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC])in various proportions and combinations (CH(WS)/PVP/HPMC, CH(WS)/PVA/HPMC, CH(AS)/PVP/HPMC, and CH(AS)/PVA/HPMC). A 3(2) full factorial design was used to design the experiments. A total of 72 patches were prepared. Thickness of the patches ranged between 0.3±0.003 and 0.6±0.009 mm. Mass of the patches were in the range of 68.12±4.6 to 95.02±7.2 mg. Patches showed increased mass whenever PEG -400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of patches were acidic to neutral (pH 4-pH 7). Patches showed satisfactory drug loading efficiency (85%to 97%). Eight formulations(C9, C18, C27, C36, D9, D18, D27, and D36)-which showed high folding endurance- were selected for further characterization. Patches with PEG -400 showed higher swelling index when compared to PG. The residence time of the patches ranged between 115 min and 120 min. Formulation C18 showed the maximum in vitro drug release of 101.4 % over a period of 120 min. Formulations D36 and C36 were best fitted to Higuchi model. The remaining formulations were best fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Drug permeation was fast and showed the similar profile as that of the in vitro drug release. Patches were stable, during and at the end of the accelerated stability study. PMID:21453255

Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Prasanth, V V; Mathew, Sam T; Kumar, B Ashok

2011-07-01

423

36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...temporary or permanent roads; no aircraft landing...helispots, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2013-07-01

424

Noradrenergic modulation of respiratory motor output during tadpole development: Role of alpha-adrenoceptors.  

PubMed

Noradrenaline (NA) is an important modulator of respiratory activity. Results from in vitro studies using immature rodents suggest that the effects exerted by NA change during development, but these investigations have been limited to neonatal stages. To address this issue, we used in vitro brainstem preparations of an ectotherm, Rana catesbeiana, at three developmental stages: pre-metamorphic tadpoles, metamorphic tadpoles and fully mature adult bullfrogs. We first compared the effects of NA bath application (0.02-10 micromol l(-1)) on brainstem preparations from both pre-metamorphic (Taylor-Köllros stages VII-XI) and metamorphic tadpoles (TK stages XVIII-XXIII) and adult frogs. The fictive lung ventilation frequency response to NA application was both dose- and stage-dependent. Although no net change was observed in the pre-metamorphic group, NA application decreased fictive lung burst frequency in preparations from more mature animals. These effects were attenuated by application of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. Conversely, NA application elicited dose- and stage-dependent increases in fictive buccal ventilation frequency. We then assessed the contribution of alpha-adrenoceptors towards these responses by applying specific agonists (alpha1: phenylephrine; alpha2: clonidine; concentration range from 10 to 200 micromol l(-1) for both). Of the two agonists used, only phenylephrine application consistently mimicked the lung burst frequency response observed during NA application in each stage group. However, both agonists decreased buccal burst frequency, thus suggesting that other (beta) adrenoceptor types mediate this response. We conclude that modulation of both buccal and lung-related motor outputs change during development. NA modulation affects both types of respiratory activities in a distinct fashion, owing to the different adrenoceptor type involved. PMID:16943508

Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

2006-09-01

425

RPM of AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the rotations per minute (RPM) of AC motors. Bartelt begins with a discussion of the magnetism that allows most of these motors to function. The author addresses such factors as the frequency of the applied voltage and also the number of stator poles located in the magnetic field. Two and four pole motors are then discussed and compared to each other. Bartelt explains each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. The author concludes the presentation with a brief series of questions.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-14

426

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

427

Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

1993-06-01

428

Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect

In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-02-11

429

Experimenting with Theoretical Motor Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor neuroscience is well over 100 years old, with seminal work such as G. T. Fritz and E. Hitzig's discovery of motor cortex occurring in 1870. Theoretical motor neuroscience has been ongoing for at least the last 50 years. How mature a scientific discipline is motor neuroscience? Are experimentalists and theoreticians working together productively to help the field progress? This

Robert Ajemian; Neville Hogan

2010-01-01

430

Optimal induction motor bearing selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no choice in bearing selection on small motors (less than 200 HP), where only anti-friction bearings are available. Likewise, a choice does not exist on larger motors (motors in excess of 2000 HP), where various design requirements leave only the sleeve bearing (or tilting pad bearing) as a viable option. On the intermediate size motors a choice exists.

W. R. Finley; M. M. Hodowanec

2003-01-01

431

Cryogenic testing of stepper motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepper motors may be used in several subsystems of the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Very high reliability is required in all considered applications. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to study the operational reliability of stepper motors, taking into account tests with a type of stepper motor which had previously performed well in uncooled spectrographic instruments. Two stepper motors were

S. M. Pompea; F. Bartko; J. R. Houck

1982-01-01

432

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

433

Dielectric fluid motors  

SciTech Connect

On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

1997-07-01

434

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. Normally, messages from nerve cells in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called ...

435

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. Normally, messages from nerve cells in the brain (called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called ...

436

Stepper Motors Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents tutorials about stepper motors. Topics include unipolar, bipolar, current control, and micro stepping. Clicking on each topic provides an in-depth tutorial complete with graphics.

2013-07-18

437

Magnetostriction and Motor Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These days, a quiet induction motor is strongly demanded. Electromagnetic factor is main cause of vibration and acoustic noise of small induction motor. Electromagnetic forces and magnetostrictive forces are considered of origin of electromagnetic vibration and noise. In this paper, magnetostrictive vibration of ring of electrical steel sheets was simulated by mechanical Finite Element Method. Magnetostriction was assumed as external forces and they were added at each node of meshed ring. Resonant frequency and mode of ring were calculated. In steel sheet ring excited by PWM voltage source inverter, frequency spectrum of vibration of ring was measured and compared with calculated results. It was confirmed that these procedure simulated magnetostriction behavior of electrical steel sheets. Furthermore, electromagnetic forces of small induction motor was calculated and compared with magnetostriction data. It became clear that electromagnetic vibration was affected by the magnetostriction of steel. These results will be useful to reduce the acoustic noise and to develop quiet motors.

Ishibashi, Fuminori; Noda, Shinichi; Yanase, Shunji; Sasaki, Tadashi

438

Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-01-01

439

Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.  

PubMed

Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary to suggestions in educational literature, the gross-motor training program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications for educators and for the development of the technology of generalization are outlined. PMID:3771421

Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

1986-01-01

440

Synaptic modulation contributes to firing pattern generation in jaw motor neurons during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.  

PubMed

Japanese species, Aplysia kurodai, feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium (Geli.) or Pachydictyon (Pach.) with different rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. During ingestion the jaws open at the radula-protraction phase and remain half open at the initial phase of the radula-retraction, whereas during rejection the jaws open similarly but start to close immediately after the onset of the radula-retraction. These can be induced not only by the natural seaweed but by the extract solutions. We previously showed that the change of the patterned jaw movements from the ingestion to the rejection may result from the decrease in the delay of the firing onset of the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons during their depolarization. This diminished delay produces a phase advance relative to the radula-retraction phase. In that study, we showed that during ingestion the buccal multiaction (MA) neurons may generate the delay of firing onset of the JC motor neurons by producing monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) during the initial portion of their depolarization. In the present experiments, the firing patterns in the MA neurons induced by application of the Geli. or Pach. extract to the lips were explored in the semi-intact preparations. During the Pach. response the duration and the firing frequency of the MA firing at each depolarizing phase were decreased in comparison with the Ulva response. No decreases in the MA firing were observed during the Geli. response, suggesting that the similar patterned jaw movements during rejection of Geli. and Pach. may be generated by different neural mechanisms. Moreover, the size of the MA-induced IPSP in the JC motor neurons was largely decreased by application of the Geli. or Pach. extract to the lips in the reduced preparations consisting of the tentacle-lips and the cerebral-buccal ganglia. Voltage-clamp experiments on the JC motor neurons showed that the size of synaptic current induced by the MA spikes was decreased by application of these solutions to the lips. The decrease was induced when the buccal ganglia were bathed in a solution to block polysynaptic pathways. These results suggest that the advance of the onset of the JC firing at each depolarizing phase during the Geli. or Pach. response may be mainly or partly caused by the decrease in the size of the MA-induced IPSP in the motor neurons. Modulatory action of cerebral neurons or peripheral afferent neurons in the lip region may contribute to this synaptic plasticity. PMID:10561428

Nagahama, T; Narusuye, K; Arai, H

1999-11-01

441

Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and

1999-01-01

442

Preparation and Characterization of Nicotine–Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Complex-Loaded Sodium Alginate Matrix Tablets for Buccal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine (NCT) buccal tablets consisting of sodium alginate (SA) and nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate (NCT–MAS) complexes\\u000a acting as drug carriers were prepared using the direct compression method. The effects of the preparation pH levels of the\\u000a NCT–MAS complexes and the complex\\/SA ratios on NCT release, permeation across mucosa, and mucoadhesive properties of the tablets\\u000a were investigated. The NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets

Sopaphan Kanjanabat; Thaned Pongjanyakul

2011-01-01

443

Cryogenic testing of stepper motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stepper motors may be used in several subsystems of the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Very high reliability is required in all considered applications. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to study the operational reliability of stepper motors, taking into account tests with a type of stepper motor which had previously performed well in uncooled spectrographic instruments. Two stepper motors were tested, in vacuum, at liquid nitrogen temperature. One motor was lubricated with a vacuum stable grease, while the other used unlubricated bearings. Both motors failed after less than 18,000 revolutions. The failure of the unlubricated motor indicated that motor modifications would have to be made to achieve operation at liquid helium temperature. The motor was modified to compensate for the magnitude of different thermal contractions. It was then found that modified stepper motors can perform reliably at LHe temperature for extended periods.

Pompea, S. M.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

1982-10-01

444

Motor delays: early identification and evaluation.  

PubMed

Pediatricians often encounter children with delays of motor development in their clinical practices. Earlier identification of motor delays allows for timely referral for developmental interventions as well as diagnostic evaluations and treatment planning. A multidisciplinary expert panel developed an algorithm for the surveillance and screening of children for motor delays within the medical home, offering guidance for the initial workup and referral of the child with possible delays in motor development. Highlights of this clinical report include suggestions for formal developmental screening at the 9-, 18-, 30-, and 48-month well-child visits; approaches to the neurologic examination, with emphasis on the assessment of muscle tone; and initial diagnostic approaches for medical home providers. Use of diagnostic tests to evaluate children with motor delays are described, including brain MRI for children with high muscle tone, and measuring serum creatine kinase concentration of those with decreased muscle tone. The importance of pursuing diagnostic tests while concurrently referring patients to early intervention programs is emphasized. PMID:23713113

Noritz, Garey H; Murphy, Nancy A

2013-05-27

445

Sensing with the Motor Cortex  

PubMed Central

The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development.

Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

2011-01-01

446

Battery powered electric motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The battery energized electric motor vehicle has a main driving motor connected to the battery via a footpedal operated control circuit; an auxiliary electric motor for a steering device is connected to the battery in series with the main driving motor and across the control circuit of the latter so that a difference voltage between the battery voltage and the instant driving voltage applied to the main driving motor controls the steering device.

Olbrich, G.; Pfeffer, P.

1982-09-21

447

Multiple propellant solid rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated stage solid propellant rocket motor arrangement provides boost and repeated throttling post-boost operations on demand and includes an attitude control system. The rocket motor includes a plurality of casings for enclosing an initial boost motor, a post-boost motor, and gas generator means for producing gases that are used for reignition of the post-boost motor and as a motive

Allan J. McDonald

1994-01-01

448

The Malemute development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malemute vehicle systems are two-stage systems based on utilizing a new high performance upper stage motor with two existing military boosters. The Malmute development program is described relative to program structure, preliminary design, vehicle subsystems, and the Malemute motor. Two vehicle systems, the Nike-Malemute and Terrier-Malemute, were developed which are capable of transporting comparatively large diameter (16 in.) 200-lb

W. J. Bolster; P. W. Hoekstra

1976-01-01

449

Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik; Min, Kyung-San

2012-08-29

450

Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology.

Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

2012-01-01

451

Relative Bioavailability of Fentanyl Following Various Dosing Regimens of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA(R), Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) is indicated in the US for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer who are already receiving and are tolerant to around-the-clock opioid therapy for underlying persistent cancer pain. For each individual patient, FBT should be titrated to the effective dose. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of FBT 400 microg administered as a single 400 microg tablet (regimen A) or as two 200 microg tablets given simultaneously (regimen B) and determine whether these are bioequivalent in healthy Japanese volunteers. Regimen C (two 200 microg tablets 30 minutes apart) was also compared as a secondary objective. METHODS: Healthy Japanese adults received regimens A, B, and C in a crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined in venous blood collected through 36 hours post dose. Regimens were declared bioequivalent with respect to bioavailability (as reflected by AUC(0-infinity), AUC(0-last), and C(max)) if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the regimens' ratio fell within 0.80-1.25 (80%-125%). RESULTS: Twenty-nine volunteers (13 men, 16 women) were enrolled; 24 completed the study. Regimens A and B had bioequivalent systemic exposure parameters (B/A [90% CI]: AUC(0-infinity)108.4 [103.4, 113.7], AUC(0-last) 106.1 [100.7, 111.7], and C(max) 92.3 [83.2, 102.4]). Regimen C was bioequivalent to both A and B for AUCs, but only to B for C(max). Median time to C(max) was 45 minutes for regimen A and 60 minutes for regimens B and C. The most frequent AEs were dizziness, application-site erythema, headache, somnolence, nausea, and vomiting. All AEs were mild or moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Bioavailability of fentanyl after FBT 400 microg administered as a single tablet was bioequivalent to that after 2 simultaneously administered 200 microg tablets in healthy Japanese volunteers. AEs were mild or moderate. PMID:19915709

Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Simonson, Philip G

2008-09-01

452

Relative Bioavailability of Fentanyl Following Various Dosing Regimens of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) is indicated in the US for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer who are already receiving and are tolerant to around-the-clock opioid therapy for underlying persistent cancer pain. For each individual patient, FBT should be titrated to the effective dose. Objective The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of FBT 400 µg administered as a single 400 µg tablet (regimen A) or as two 200 µg tablets given simultaneously (regimen B) and determine whether these are bioequivalent in healthy Japanese volunteers. Regimen C (two 200 µg tablets 30 minutes apart) was also compared as a secondary objective. Methods Healthy Japanese adults received regimens A, B, and C in a crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined in venous blood collected through 36 hours post dose. Regimens were declared bioequivalent with respect to bioavailability (as reflected by AUC0–?, AUC0–last, and Cmax) if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the regimens' ratio fell within 0.80–1.25 (80%–125%). Results Twenty-nine volunteers (13 men, 16 women) were enrolled; 24 completed the study. Regimens A and B had bioequivalent systemic exposure parameters (B/A [90% CI]: AUC0–?108.4 [103.4, 113.7], AUC0–last 106.1 [100.7, 111.7], and Cmax 92.3 [83.2, 102.4]). Regimen C was bioequivalent to both A and B for AUCs, but only to B for Cmax. Median time to Cmax was 45 minutes for regimen A and 60 minutes for regimens B and C. The most frequent AEs were dizziness, application-site erythema, headache, somnolence, nausea, and vomiting. All AEs were mild or moderate. Conclusions Bioavailability of fentanyl after FBT 400 µg administered as a single tablet was bioequivalent to that after 2 simultaneously administered 200 µg tablets in healthy Japanese volunteers. AEs were mild or moderate.

Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Simonson, Philip G

2008-01-01

453

Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate  

PubMed Central

For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period.

Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

2011-01-01

454

Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

2012-01-01

455

Development of bioadhesive buccal tablets for felodipine and pioglitazone in combined dosage form: in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo characterization.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present research was to develop bioadhesive buccal tablets for Felodipine (FDP) and Pioglitazone (PIO), low bioavailability drugs, in a combined dosage form for the management of diabetes and hypertension. Buccal tablets were prepared by direct compression method using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and carbopol, alone or in combination of two polymers, and were evaluated for physicochemical properties, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion, in vivo residence time, in vitro drug release, and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal membrane. Formulation (PF6) showed peak detachment force (3.12 N), work of adhesion (0.72 mJ), swelling index (196%), erosion (10.8%), in vivo residence time of 280 min, in vitro drug release (99.65% and 98.96% in 6 h for FDP and PIO, respectively) with higuchi model release profile and permeated 66.1 and 64.6 % with a flux of 0.118 and 0.331 mg/h/cm(2) of FDP and PIO through porcine buccal membrane. The bioavailability study for optimized formulation (PF6) in pigs showed 2.05- and 2.13-times statistically significant (p?buccal tablets compared to oral suspension. The ex vivo-in vivo correlation was found to have a biphasic pattern and followed type A correlation.