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Sample records for buccal motor programs

  1. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone buccal systems are used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone buccal systems work by replacing testosterone that is normally produced ...

  2. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  3. Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

  4. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  5. Complementary interactions between command-like interneurons that function to activate and specify motor programs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity. PMID:24806677

  6. Effects of Perceptual-Motor Programs on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    Practical implications for physical education teachers are drawn after a review of research on perceptual motor training programs for elementary school children. Three categories of theorists are identified: those who emphasize the intellectual involvement of the child in motoric functioning; those who stress development of perceptual motor bases…

  7. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  8. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each

  9. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program

  10. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time. PMID:19823595

  11. [Buccal manifestations of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Burlibaşa, C; Tovaru, S

    1989-01-01

    The disease determined by HIV, increasingly more frequent, is affecting certain groups of patients (homosexuals, drug addicts, polytransfused subjects). The clinical picture at the onset is not specific. Later on in the course of the disease the immunological capacity of defense of the organism is affected and a series of symptoms including fever, infections with bacteria, lymph-node inflammation, encephalopathies, Kaposi sarcoma will develop. Apparently buccal infections with fungi are the earliest manifestations, and they are followed, by order of frequency, by herpetic lesions, "hairy" leucoplasia, tumours. Transmission through the saliva from the patient to the stomatologist of the HIV infection is theoretically possible due to scratches on the physicians' hands. Prophylactic measures are described for the stomatologists treating AIDS patients, as well as for the sterilization of the instruments. PMID:2535044

  12. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-01

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage. PMID:11546877

  13. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  15. The Motor Facilitation Program of School District 21, Wheeling, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrecht, Donna

    When selected as a model program the main objective of the kindergarten Motor Facilitation Program (MFP) was to prepare a child in readiness skills which would make possible easier achievement in reading at the first grade level. The purpose of the additional-help phase of the MFP was to help children in grades one through six who continue to…

  16. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  17. Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural

  18. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  19. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  1. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  5. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. PMID:24911355

  6. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  7. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  9. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  10. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Centralized motor... PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of...

  12. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  13. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  14. Pattern generation in the buccal system of freely behaving Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, R F; Pieneman, A W; Maat, A T

    1999-12-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neuronal circuits that drive active repeated movements such as walking or swimming. Although CPGs are, by definition, active in isolated central nervous systems, sensory input is thought play an important role in adjusting the output of the CPGs to meet specific behavioral requirements of intact animals. We investigated, in freely behaving snails (Lymnaea stagnalis), how the buccal CPG is used during two different behaviors, feeding and egg laying. Analysis of the relationship between unit activity recorded from buccal nerves and the movements of the buccal mass showed that electrical activity in laterobuccal/ventrobuccal (LB/VB) nerves was as predicted from in vitro data, but electrical activity in the posterior jugalis nerve was not. Autodensity and interval histograms showed that during feeding the CPG produces a much stronger rhythm than during egg laying. The phase relationship between electrical activity and buccal movement changed little between the two behaviors. Fitting the spike trains recorded during the two behaviors with a simple model revealed differences in the patterns of electrical activity produced by the buccal system during the two behaviors investigated. During egg laying the bursts contained less spikes, and the number of spikes per burst was significantly more variable than during feeding. The time between two bursts of in a spike train was longer during egg laying than during feeding. The data show what the qualitative and quantitative differences are between two motor patterns produced by the buccal system of freely behaving Lymnaea stagnalis. PMID:10601469

  15. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... efficiency of electric motors. 64 FR 54114. After determining that energy conservation standards for small electric motors would be technologically feasible and economically justified, see 71 FR 38799 (July 10... electric motors. 74 FR 32059 (July 7, 2009). That rule followed from an earlier December 2008 proposal...

  16. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  17. Motor neuron death in ALS: programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed

    Pirooznia, Sheila K; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2014-03-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al. (2014), in this issue of Neuron, discover that familial and sporadic ALS-derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  18. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  19. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... FR 54114. After determining that energy conservation standards for small electric motors would be... methods from the most current versions (at that time) of those industry testing standards. 73 FR 78220... of test procedures for certain small electric motors. 71 FR 38807 (July 10, 2006). Pursuant...

  20. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  1. [The Buccal Epithelium as Environmental Indicator].

    PubMed

    Korsakov, A V; Yablokov, A V; Troshin, V P; Mikhalev, V P

    2015-01-01

    The use of the buccal mucosa cell micronucleus test for comparison of chemical, radiation, and radiation-chemical environmental pollution has been considered. The combined impact of chemical and radiation factors has been found to cause additive effects, synergism, and inhibition. It has been noted that the cytogenetic characteristics of the buccal epithelium may be used as a "biological dosimeter" of the total level of environmental pollution. PMID:26349240

  2. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  3. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  4. Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  5. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...). 74 FR 12058 (March 23, 2009) It was recently discovered that the efficiency levels under 10 CFR 431... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy...

  6. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... rule regarding the energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on... energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error, an incorrect...

  7. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  8. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  9. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  10. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  11. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  12. Movement observation specifies motor programs activated by the action observed objective.

    PubMed

    Lago, Angel; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2011-04-15

    There are human cortical areas that fire both when a person executes an action and when he observes someone performing a similar action. The observer activates a motor program that resembles the observed action. However, it is not known whether the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. In this study, using simple pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), we investigated whether the Mirror System activates a muscle specific motor program, or codes the observed action in terms of its goal. The results showed that when subjects observed a static effector in front of an object, cortical excitability was enhanced even in muscles not involved in the observed movement, but that are able to achieve the goal of the action. When there was an effector-object interaction the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. These results suggest that when subjects observe an object related action there is an activation of a motor program based on the observed action goal, that is transformed into a muscle specific program when the subject shows an effector-object interaction. PMID:21354271

  13. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  14. A Program To Improve Fine Motor Development in Kindergarten Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Karen E.

    A 10-week practicum intervention was designed to reduce deficiencies in 10 kindergarten children in southwest Florida with poor fine motor skills. The intervention consisted of daily instruction and weekly activity tests. Activities included drawing, tracing, cutting with scissors, pasting, molding with clay, various games, lacing, weaving, and…

  15. Making sense(s) in dementia: a multisensory and motor-based group activity program.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Barbosa, Ana; Figueiredo, Daniela; Sousa, Liliana X

    2013-03-01

    Lack of engagement in meaningful activities is associated with poor quality of life in dementia; thus, the development of these activities has been recommended. This pilot study aimed to develop a multisensory and motor-based group activity program for residents with dementia and assess its impact on residents' behavior. The program was designed using a multisensory and motor-based approach in sixteen 45-minute weekly sessions tailored to residents' characteristics. Four residents with advanced dementia participated in the program. The frequency and duration of the residents' behavior were assessed using video recordings. All residents participated in the proposed activities, although they were more participative and communicative in some sessions than in others. Group activity programs based on multisensory and motor stimulation can be a promising approach for people with advanced dementia; however, further research is needed. This study may serve as reference to the implementation of future programs aiming to increase person-centeredness of the care provided. PMID:23307794

  16. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  17. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  18. The structure of motor programming: evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage. PMID:25082470

  19. Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections. PMID:25408677

  20. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  1. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. )

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  2. Buccal drug delivery of pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Shidhaye, Supriya S; Thakkar, Pritesh V; Dand, Neha M; Kadam, Vilasrao J

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic(R) F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter, weight, pH, and drug content. A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. levels of carrageenan gum, Pluronic F 127 and PVP K30, which significantly influenced characteristics like in vitro mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, swelling index, and in vitro residence time. The tablet was coated with an impermeable backing layer of ethyl cellulose to ensure unidirectional drug release. Different penetration enhancers were tried to improve the permeation of pravastatin sodium through buccal mucosa. Formulation containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate showed good permeation of pravastatin sodium through mucosa. Histopathological studies revealed no buccal mucosal damage. It can be concluded that buccal route can be one of the alternatives available for the administration of pravastatin sodium. PMID:20300898

  3. Manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

    2011-02-01

    The buccal route of administration has a number of advantages including bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and the hepatic first pass effect. Mucoadhesive films are retentive dosage forms and release drug directly into a biological substrate. Furthermore, films have improved patient compliance due to their small size and reduced thickness, compared for example to lozenges and tablets. The development of mucoadhesive buccal films has increased dramatically over the past decade because it is a promising delivery alternative to various therapeutic classes including peptides, vaccines, and nanoparticles. The "film casting process" involves casting of aqueous solutions and/or organic solvents to yield films suitable for this administration route. Over the last decade, hot-melt extrusion has been explored as an alternative manufacturing process and has yielded promising results. Characterization of critical properties such as the mucoadhesive strength, drug content uniformity, and permeation rate represent the major research areas in the design of buccal films. This review will consider the literature that describes the manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films. PMID:21130875

  4. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial…

  5. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  6. Annulus: A motorized tree ring measuring program. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, J.

    1995-09-01

    A computer program, called ANNULUS, has been developed for measuring tree rings. The equipment configuration for the program includes a microscope, video camera, motor-driven slide with stage, and a video capture card. The user can measure one ring at a time or a series of rings on the screen.

  7. Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

  8. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  10. NASA Glenn Research Center Program in High Power Density Motors for Aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.; Ebihara, Ben; Johnson, Dexter; Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark; Buccieri, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Electric drive of transport-sized aircraft propulsors, with electric power generated by fuel cells or turbo-generators, will require electric motors with much higher power density than conventional room-temperature machines. Cryogenic cooling of the motor windings by the liquid hydrogen fuel offers a possible solution, enabling motors with higher power density than turbine engines. Some context on weights of various systems, which is required to assess the problem, is presented. This context includes a survey of turbine engine weights over a considerable size range, a correlation of gear box weights and some examples of conventional and advanced electric motor weights. The NASA Glenn Research Center program for high power density motors is outlined and some technical results to date are presented. These results include current densities of 5,000 A per square centimeter current density achieved in cryogenic coils, finite element predictions compared to measurements of torque production in a switched reluctance motor, and initial tests of a cryogenic switched reluctance motor.

  11. Physical Verbalization: A Motor-Language Based Developmental Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Norma D.

    Physical Verbalization (PV) is a program designed to encourage language/speech development by combining movement with appropriate verbal patterns. Using the normal developmental stages of listening/watching, imitating, and initiating, the program allows the child to "play" with standard English in a nonthreatening and rhythmic fashion and to be…

  12. Speech Motor Programming in Hypokinetic and Ataxic Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, K.A.; Rogers, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the cerebellar and basal ganglia control circuits contribute to the programming of movement. Converging evidence from neuroimaging, limb control, and neuropsychological studies suggests that (1) people with cerebellar disease have reduced ability to program movement sequences in advance of movement onset and (2) people…

  13. Model of interactions between cortical areas for sensory-motor programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnod, Yves; Guigon, Emmanuel; Otto, Isabelle; Grandguillaume, Philippe; Boutkhil, Latifa; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Marchal, Patrick

    1992-04-01

    The brain represents perceptual and motor information in several reference frames (for example body-centered, object-centered, or retinal-centered reference frames). In a simple sensory-motor program such as looking at and taking an object, at least three fundamental processes must be carried out by the cerebral cortex; (1) in order to recognize the target object, the cortex has to transform the pattern of excitation on the retina from a retinotopic coordinate system to a coordinate system centered on the object itself; (2) in order to bring a hand to the desired position in space, the cortex must transform the visual information related to the target location (relative to the hand) into an appropriate motor command of the reaching hand; (3) in order to guide coherent behavioral actions, more complex sensory-motor programs (for example, conditional reaching of a target) are constructed from time-dependent relations between these basic transformations. The cortex correlates sensory and motor events and learns to prepare responses to forthcoming events. Neurophysiological data on the motor area of the monkey allowed us to model the coordinate transformations from body-centered to arm-centered reference frames involved in the command of arm reaching movements in 3-D space. Anatomical and neuropsychological data suggest similar coordinate transformations along the visual pathway to relate retinal-centered to object-centered reference frames and we have thus extended the model to this coordinate transformation. Time integration seems to proceed differently since internal representations of programs are dynamically constructed. Available physiological and anatomical data on frontal areas (and particularly prefrontal cortex) help to predict specific learning mechanisms for time processing and then construct a model for learning sensory-motor sequences.

  14. Buccal films of prednisolone with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kumria, Rachna; Nair, Anroop B; Goomber, Garima; Gupta, Sumeet

    2016-02-01

    The conventional formulation of prednisolone is considered to be low in efficacy, primarily on account of their failure in providing and maintaining effective therapeutic drug levels. This study aims to focus on development of a mucoadhesive buccal delivery system with a twofold objective of offering a rapid as well as a prolonged delivery of prednisolone coupled with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Buccoadhesive films of prednisolone were prepared by solvent-casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (K100), Carbopol 940 and/or Eudragit® NE 40 D. Placebo films possessing the most desirable physicomechanical properties were selected for drug loading. The effect of polymer and its content on film properties, i.e. mucoadhesive strength, swelling and hydration, in vitro drug release was studied. Based on these studies, film F7D was selected for ex vivo permeation across porcine cheek mucosa. The steady state flux of prednisolone across the buccal mucosa was found to be 105.33 ± 32.07 µg/cm(2)/h. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of prepared film (F7D) and oral suspension of prednisolone was conducted. In vivo data of buccal film show greater bioavailability (AUC0-α: 24.26 ± 4.06 µg.h/ml versus 10.65 ± 2.15 µg.h/ml) and higher Cmax (2.70 ± 0.38 µg/ml versus 2.29 ± 0.32 µg/ml) value when compared to oral suspension. The data observed from this study highlight the feasibility of the buccal route as a viable option for delivery of prednisolone. PMID:24892626

  15. Preparation, characterization and buccal permeation of naratriptan.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Mohammed; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2015-09-30

    Naratriptan (NAR) is currently used for the management of migraine as the hydrochloride salt (NAR.HCl) and is administered as an oral tablet. This work evaluates the feasibility of buccal delivery of NAR in order to ensure faster onset of action and avoid the side-effects associated with conventional oral formulations. We hypothesized that the unionized form of NAR would permeate buccal tissue to a greater extent than the salt. Therefore the first stage of this work required preparation of the free base from NAR.HCl. Characterisation of the base with thermal and elemental analyses confirmed its purity; logP and logD values were also determined. The pH permeation profile of NAR was also determined in the range 7.4-10. Solubility studies in non-aqueous solvents indicated that Transcutol™ (TC) and dipropylene glycol (DPG) were suitable vehicles for the free base. Maximum amounts of NAR which permeated after 6h were ∼ 130 μg/cm(2). Based on the pH permeation results and studies conducted at two different doses NAR appears to permeate porcine buccal tissue via the transcellular route. Finally, estimates of likely systemic values suggest that optimised formulations should be taken forward for in vivo evaluation. PMID:26196276

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a coupling between the defecation motor program and directed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Stanislav; Huang, Yung-Chi; Alkema, Mark J.; Biron, David

    2015-01-01

    Distinct motor programs can be coupled to refine the repertoire of behavior dynamics. However, mechanisms underlying such coupling are poorly understood. The defecation motor program (DMP) of C. elegans is composed of a succession of body contraction and expulsion steps, performed repeatedly with a period of 50–60 sec. We show that recurring patterns of directed locomotion are executed in tandem with, co-reset, and co-terminate with the DMP cycle. Calcium waves in the intestine and proton signaling were shown to regulate the DMP. We found that genetic manipulations affecting these calcium dynamics regulated the corresponding patterns of directed locomotion. Moreover, we observed the initiation of a recurring locomotion pattern 10 seconds prior to the posterior body contraction, suggesting that the synchronized motor program may initiate prior to the DMP. This study links two multi-step motor programs executed by C. elegans in synchrony, utilizing non-neuronal tissue to drive directed locomotion. PMID:26597056

  17. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  18. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The

  19. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

  20. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection... the National Highway Systems Designation Act of 1995. If Utah County fails to start its program...

  1. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  2. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Dican, Razvan; Beier, Jörn; Keller, Hansjörg

    2014-07-01

    The use of buccal mucosal grafts for the reconstruction of urethral strictures is an established procedure. Because of its robustness, the buccal mucosal graft could also potentially provide an alternative for other indications in reconstructive urology. We report here six consecutive patients who received a buccal mucosal graft for ureteral strictures, glans reconstruction and stoma stenosis. The follow up for all patients ranged from 26 to 50 months. The buccal mucosal graft showed excellent functional results for the ureteral strictures and stenosis from ureterocutaneostomy. For glans reconstructions, the buccal mucosal grafts delivered excellent cosmetic and functional results without causing meatal stenosis. We conclude the buccal mucosal graft can be used in reconstructive surgery beyond the reconstruction of urethral strictures. PMID:25110793

  3. Modular program for grain design and performance analysis of solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantharam, K. V.; Santha, V.

    1992-05-01

    A modular software program is described for conducting parametric analyses of solid-rocket-motor (SRM) grain designs to obtain preliminary propulsion data. The analysis package is described with particular attention given to the modular nature of the interactive subroutines, since the method is intended to give flexibility for inputs including port geometries, propellant characteristics, and motor variables. The software is applied to configurations typical of SRMs for launch vehicles, and sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impacts of different parameters on SRM performance. The software permits the evaluation of the effects of grain deformation on internal ballistics, and partial inhibition effects in some propellant grains can be assessed.

  4. Afferent-induced changes in rhythmic motor programs in the feeding circuitry of aplysia.

    PubMed

    Shetreat-Klein, Avniel N; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2004-10-01

    A manipulation often used to determine whether a neuron plays a role in the generation of a motor program involves injecting current into the cell during rhythmic activity to determine whether activity is modified. We perform this type of manipulation to study the impact of afferent activity on feeding-like motor programs in Aplysia. We trigger biting-like programs and manipulate sensory neurons that have been implicated in producing the changes in activity that occur when food is ingested, i.e., when bites are converted to bite-swallows. Sensory neurons that are manipulated are the radula mechanoafferent B21 and the retraction proprioceptor B51. Data suggest that both cells are peripherally activated during radula closing/retraction when food is ingested. We found that phasic subthreshold depolarization of a single sensory neuron can significantly prolong radula closing/retraction, as determined by recording both from interneurons (e.g., B64), and motor neurons (e.g., B15 and B8). Additionally, afferent activity produces a delay in the onset of the subsequent radula opening/protraction, and increases the firing frequency of motor neurons. These are the changes in activity that are seen when food is ingested. These results add to the growing data that implicate B21 and B51 in bite to bite-swallow conversions and indicate that afferent activity is important during feeding in Aplysia. PMID:15175374

  5. Decreased motor activity of hyperactive children on dextroamphetamine during active gym program.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Tepsic, P N; Grice, J; Johnson, C; Langer, D

    1980-07-01

    The motor activity of 10 hyperactive boys was measured during eight 1-hour active gym classes. Children received either dextroaomphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo elixir before each class, in a double-blind design. The program for each of the classes was participation in the active sports: hockey, basketball, and/or roller skating; the "task" throughout each hour was to play vigorously and continuously. The boys' mean hourly activity following amphetamine was slightly but significantly less than that following placebo. This finding is contradictory to the hypothesis that improved attention to an active task on stimulant would result in increased motor activity, and suggests the possibility of an independent direct effect of amphetamine on the motor system. PMID:6932064

  6. Overview of CFD Analyses Supporting the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Program at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric; McConnaughey, P.; Lin, J.; Reske, E.; Doran, D.; Whitesides, R. H.; Chen, Y.-S.

    1996-01-01

    During the past year, various computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program. The successful completion of these analyses involved application of the CFD codes FDNS and CELMINT. The topics addressed by the analyses were: (1) the design and prediction of slag pool accumulation within the five inch test motor, (2) prediction of slag pool behavior and its response to lateral accelerations, (3) the clogging of potential insulation debonds within the nozzle by slag accumulation, (4) the behavior of jets within small voids inside nozzle joint gaps, (5) The effect of increased inhibitor stiffness on motor acoustics, and (6) the effect of a nozzle defect on particle impingement enhanced erosion. The emphasis of this presentation will be to further discuss the work in topics 3, 4, and 5.

  7. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial order demands of longer sequences. Method A modified reaction time paradigm was used to assess INT and SEQ demands. Specifically, syllable complexity was dependent on syllable structure, whereas sequence complexity involved either repeated or unique syllabi within an utterance. Results INT execution was slowed when articulating single syllables in the form CCCV compared to simpler CV syllables. Planning unique syllables within a multisyllabic utterance rather than repetitions of the same syllable slowed INT but not SEQ. Conclusions The INT speech motor programming process, important for mental syllabary access, is sensitive to changes in both syllable structure and the number of unique syllables in an utterance. PMID:19474396

  8. Aberrant Fat Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants with Defects in the Defecation Motor Program

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ming; Gaur, Rahul; Selstam, Eva; Tuck, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are absorbed by the intestine, and the way in which the process is regulated are poorly understood. In a genetic screen for mutations affecting fat accumulation in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, nematode worms, we have isolated mutations in the aex-5 gene, which encodes a Kex2/subtilisin-family, Ca2+-sensitive proprotein convertase known to be required for maturation of certain neuropeptides, and for a discrete step in an ultradian rhythmic phenomenon called the defecation motor program. We demonstrate that aex-5 mutants have markedly lower steady-state levels of fat in the intestine, and that this defect is associated with a significant reduction in the rate at which labeled fatty acid derivatives are taken up from the intestinal lumen. Other mutations affecting the defecation motor program also affect steady-state levels of triglycerides, suggesting that the program is required per se for the proper accumulation of neutral lipids. Our results suggest that an important function of the defecation motor program in C. elegans is to promote the uptake of an important class of dietary nutrients. They also imply that modulation of the program might be one way in which worms adjust nutrient uptake in response to altered metabolic status. PMID:25849533

  9. Contamination Control Changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program: A Ten Year Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.

    1998-01-01

    During the post Challenger period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Thiokol implemented changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) contract to include provisions for contamination control to enhance the production environment. During the ten years since those agreements for contamination controls were made, many changes have taken place in the production facilities at Thiokol. These changes have led to the production of much higher quality shuttle solid rocket motors and improved cleanliness and safety of operations in the production facilities. The experience in contamination control over this past decade highlights the value these changes have brought to the RSRM program, and how the system can be improved to meet the challenges the program will face in the next ten years.

  10. Handedness of a Motor Program in C. elegans Is Independent of Left-Right Body Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Joanna C.; Birsoy, Bilge; Chipman, Kyle C.; Rothman, Joel H.

    2012-01-01

    Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or “motor handedness,” often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ∼1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans. PMID:23300601

  11. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

  12. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  13. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  14. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  15. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.

  16. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  17. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  18. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Louie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  19. Management of Buccal Gap and Resorption of Buccal Plate in Immediate Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hardik; Shah, Sheekha

    2015-01-01

    When a dental implant is placed into a fresh extraction socket, a space between the implant periphery and surrounding bone occurs. A gap can occur on any aspect of an immediately placed implant: Buccal, lingual or proximally. The objective of immediate implant placement is to provide an osseointegrated fixture suitable for an aesthetic and functional restoration. Bone fill in the gap between the implant and the peripheral bone is important. Surgical management of the buccal gap to obtain an optimal result is controversial and confusing with respect to the best techniques to achieve the following: Optimal bone fills in the gap, most coronal level of bone-to-implant contact, and the least amount of buccal bone loss and soft tissue recession. This clinical case report illustrates the management of the buccal gap and reducing buccal plate resorption when contemplating immediate implant placement. PMID:26225110

  20. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  1. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  2. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  3. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V V; Puratchikody, A; Mathew, S T; Ashok, K B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  4. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee J.; Wolf, Steven L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Lane, Christianne J.; Nelsen, Monica A.; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cen, Steven Yong; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical trials suggest that higher doses of task-oriented training are superior to current clinical practice for patients with stroke with upper extremity motor deficits. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a structured, task-oriented motor training program vs usual and customary occupational therapy (UCC) during stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Phase 3, pragmatic, single-blind randomized trial among 361 participants with moderate motor impairment recruited from 7 US hospitals over 44 months, treated in the outpatient setting from June 2009 to March 2014. INTERVENTIONS Structured, task-oriented upper extremity training (Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program[ASAP]; n = 119); dose-equivalent occupational therapy (DEUCC; n = 120); or monitoring-only occupational therapy (UCC; n = 122). The DEUCC group was prescribed 30 one-hour sessions over 10 weeks; the UCC group was only monitored, without specification of dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was 12-month change in log-transformed Wolf Motor Function Test time score (WMFT, consisting of a mean of 15 timed arm movements and hand dexterity tasks). Secondary outcomes were change in WMFT time score (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] = 19 seconds) and proportion of patients improving ≥25 points on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand function score (MCID = 17.8 points). RESULTS Among the 361 randomized patients (mean age, 60.7 years; 56% men; 42% African American; mean time since stroke onset, 46 days), 304 (84%) completed the 12-month primary outcome assessment; in intention-to-treat analysis, mean group change scores (log WMFT, baseline to 12 months) were, for the ASAP group, 2.2 to 1.4 (difference, 0.82); DEUCC group, 2.0 to 1.2 (difference, 0.84); and UCC group, 2.1 to 1.4 (difference, 0.75), with no significant between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC:0.14; 95% CI, −0.05 to 0.33; P = .16; ASAP vs UCC: −0.01; 95% CI, −0.22 to 0.21; P = .94; and DEUCC vs UCC: −0.14; 95% CI, −0.32 to 0.05; P = .15). Secondary outcomes for the ASAP group were WMFT change score, −8.8 seconds, and improved SIS, 73%; DEUCC group, WMFT, −8.1 seconds, and SIS, 72%; and UCC group, WMFT, −7.2 seconds, and SIS, 69%, with no significant pairwise between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC: WMFT, 1.8 seconds; 95% CI, −0.8 to 4.5 seconds; P = .18; improved SIS, 1%; 95% CI, −12% to 13%; P = .54; ASAP vs UCC: WMFT, −0.6 seconds, 95% CI, −3.8 to 2.6 seconds; P = .72; improved SIS, 4%; 95% CI, −9% to 16%; P = .48; and DEUCC vs UCC: WMFT, −2.1 seconds; 95% CI, −4.5 to 0.3 seconds; P = .08; improved SIS, 3%; 95% CI, −9% to 15%; P = .22). A total of 168 serious adverse events occurred in 109 participants, resulting in 8 patients withdrawing from the study. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with motor stroke and primarily moderate upper extremity impairment, use of a structured, task-oriented rehabilitation program did not significantly improve motor function or recovery beyond either an equivalent or a lower dose of UCC upper extremity rehabilitation. These findings do not support superiority of this program among patients with motor stroke and primarily moderate upper extremity impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00871715 PMID:26864411

  5. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  6. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients. PMID:27007271

  7. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

  8. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  9. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  13. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's

  14. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music

  15. Systematic Instruction for Retarded Children: The Illinois Program - Experimental Edition. Part IV: Motor Performance and Recreation Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.

    The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists…

  16. Representation and execution of vocal motor programs for expert singing of tonal melodies.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Fontenot, Dwight L; Meyer, David E

    2006-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study motor programs used by expert singers to produce short tonal melodies. Each experiment involved a response-priming procedure in which singers prepared to sing a primary melody but on 50% of trials had to switch and sing a different (secondary) melody instead. In Experiment 1, secondary melodies in the same key as the primary melody were easier to produce than secondary melodies in a different key. Experiment 2 showed that it was the initial note rather than key per se that affected production of secondary melodies. In Experiment 3, secondary melodies involving exact transpositions were easier to sing than secondary melodies with a different contour than the primary melody. Also, switches between the keys of C and G were easier than those between C and E. Taken together, these results suggest that the initial note of a melody may be the most important element in the motor program, that key is represented in a hierarchical form, and that melodic contour is represented as a series of exact semitone offsets. PMID:16846290

  17. Premotor and motor reaction time of educable mentally retarded youths in a Taekwondo program.

    PubMed

    Song, Kang-Young; An, Jeong-Deok

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the educational effect of a Taekwondo program on premotor and motor reaction time in high school students who were mentally retarded but educable. Subjects were voluntarily recruited from the Special High School for the Mentally Retarded in Busan, South Korea. Subjects were divided into a trained group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10) with balanced ages, physical conditions, and IQ. Subjects took part in pretests after practicing a Taekwondo motion 10 times with a signal presented randomly between 2 and 8 sec. after "Ready!" The motion was raising the right knee powerfully enough to crush a pine board. Subjects in the trained group took a Taekwondo course three times a week for 7 mo. This program was designed for the cognitive and physical characteristics of mentally retarded persons. After 7 mo., all subjects underwent posttests like the pretests. A four-channel EMG analyzing device (LAXTHA Inc., 2001) recorded EMG activity. Analysis of co-variance analyzed the difference of mean pre- and posttests for the two groups. For premotor RT, mean performance of the groups showed no significant difference, but significant improvement in mean motor RT by the trained group (p <.01) was noted. PMID:15560364

  18. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... electric motors. 73 FR 78220. After considering comments from interested parties, DOE finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule (see 74 FR 32059 (July 7, 2009)) and further updated the test procedures for electric motors and small electric motors. See 77 FR 26608 (May...

  19. History and description of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) motor vehicle fuel economy program. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, C.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) fuel economy program from the early 1970's up to and including the 1984 model year. (Beginning with the 1985 model year program significant changes were made to the program to improve the accuracy of the label values. These changes are not addressed in this document.) The fuel economy program is conducted at the Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory (MVEL) located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The energy crisis of the early 1970's brought into focus the need for a reliable source of automobile fuel economy information. Because the EPA was already testing representative vehicles from all manufacturers for exhaust emissions compliance the task of generating fuel economy values on these vehicles was straight forward. Congress gave EPA the responsibility for establishing a mandatory fuel economy program beginning with the 1977 model year. This report describes the methodology used to group a manufacturer's product line into representative subgroups for testing and calculation purposes. The resulting data are used to calculate new car label values, each individual manufacturer's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), and any potential Gas Guzzler Tax liability.

  20. Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  1. Foxp1-mediated programming of limb-innervating motor neurons from mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Katrina L.; Rousso, David L.; Umbach, Joy A.; Novitch, Bennett G.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons (MNs) control diverse motor tasks including respiration, posture and locomotion that are disrupted by neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Methods directing MN differentiation from stem cells have been developed to enable disease modelling in vitro. However, most protocols produce only a limited subset of endogenous MN subtypes. Here we demonstrate that limb-innervating lateral motor column (LMC) MNs can be efficiently generated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells through manipulation of the transcription factor Foxp1. Foxp1-programmed MNs exhibit features of medial and lateral LMC MNs including expression of specific motor pool markers and axon guidance receptors. Importantly, they preferentially project axons towards limb muscle explants in vitro and distal limb muscles in vivo upon transplantation–hallmarks of bona fide LMC MNs. These results present an effective approach for generating specific MN populations from stem cells for studying MN development and disease. PMID:25868900

  2. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying. PMID:23501243

  3. Maternal cell contamination of buccal smear samples in nursing neonates.

    PubMed

    Babovic-Vuksanovic, D; Michels, V V; Law, M E; Lindor, N M; Jalal, S M

    1998-02-01

    Buccal smear analysis is a non-invasive method which is being popularized by new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. It is frequently used for gender identification and detection of sex chromosome aneuploidy in neonates. We attempted to determine whether or not buccal smears of nursing infants can be contaminated by maternal cells from breast feeding. FISH involving centromere specific directly labeled, multicolor probes for chromosomes X, Y and 18 were used for analysis of buccal smear samples. Buccal smear samples from 22 breast fed and 20 formula fed male neonates were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Twenty-seven percent of samples from breast fed infants had some (0.5-2.5%) XX signal pattern while the samples from formula fed infants had no XX signal pattern (difference statistically significant, p < 0.02, at 95% confidence interval). Our results indicate that breast feeding can cause maternal cell contamination of buccal smear samples that can lead to misinterpretation of results involving FISH analysis or other DNA based diagnostic studies. We have also modified the FISH technique to suit the neonates. PMID:9611071

  4. Effect of smoking on folate levels in buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, C J; Hine, R J; Dasanayake, A P; Richards, E W; Freeberg, L E; Vaughn, W H; Krumdieck, C L

    1992-10-21

    The objective of the study was to document the existence of localized deficiency of folate in a tissue exposed to cigarette smoke, by analysis of oral and circulatory levels of this vitamin in smokers and non-smokers. Buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were collected from 25 smokers and 34 non-smokers. The Health Habits and History Questionnaire was completed by each subject. A 96-well plate L. casei assay, along with preincubation with a folate-free chick pancreas pteroyl-gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, was used to quantitate total buccal mucosal cell folates. The reproducibility (CV 5 to 7%) and recovery (95 to 106%) of the folate assay were satisfactory. Smokers had significantly lower buccal mucosal cell folate levels than did non-smokers. The mean plasma folate level of smokers although within normal limits, was also significantly lower than that of non-smokers. There were no significant differences in mean dietary folate intake or in alcohol consumption between the 2 groups. The strength of the positive association between smoking and plasma and buccal mucosal cell folate deficiency (by any definition) was moderate to strong and statistically significant. Our results indicate that cigarette smoking may result in a localized folate deficiency in buccal mucosal cells, independent of the plasma folate levels. PMID:1399138

  5. Perceptions of middle-class mothers of their children with special needs participating in motor and sport programs.

    PubMed

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's age with their perceived favorable changes in the children's development. Fifty-one mothers participated in the study. The mothers completed a survey examining their perceptions of their children's developmental function along seven domains: understanding direction, communication, general physical functioning, fine motor skills, activities of daily living, vigilance and attention, and social behavior. The children were categorized by primary reason of referral to three categories: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, motor difficulties, and social/behavioral difficulties. Findings suggest that middle-class mothers showed awareness and understanding of their children's needs by identifying the general physical function as the desirable domain to be addressed by the motor group, vigilance and attention as associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and understanding directions and communication as the desirable domain by the social/behavioral group. The findings are discussed in terms of the complexity of mother's perception of their children participating in sports and motor programs as relating to the different domains as well as to their perceived needs of their children. PMID:19491700

  6. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... test procedures under 10 CFR part 431 both for electric motors and small electric motors. 73 FR 78220. DOE finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR... at 77 FR 26608 (May 4, 2012). Today's notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) focuses on electric...

  7. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... electric motor energy conservation standards. 74 FR 61410. Shortly after, DOE also published on its Web... recently adopted for small electric motors, 74 FR 32059 (July 7, 2009), appear at Title 10, Code of Federal...-run (CSCR) motors. 71 FR 38799, 38800-01 (July 10, 2006). In June 2006, DOE issued a report in...

  8. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  9. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Norfleet, W T; Degioanni, J J; Calkins, D S; Reschke, M F; Bungo, M W; Kutyna, F A; Homick, J L

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31%-35% reduction) and vomiting (50% reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. We conclude that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness. PMID:1550533

  10. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  11. Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation: incidence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Piquero, K; Ando, T; Sakurai, K

    1999-05-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation have been considered as one of the visible and reliable signs of bruxism. However, there have not been any reports justifying this relationship scientifically. Moreover, there have not been any studies reporting specific procedures to assess them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical incidence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and assess the possible relationship between certain factors that can influence their occurrence. A total of 244 (178 males and 66 females) dentulous adults from 20 to 59 years of age, who were employees at the Bank of Yokohama, were randomly selected. At first, the buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation were classified into three groups based in their intensity: none, mild, and severe. The incidence of both conditions in the different age groups, as well as the incidence by gender was evaluated. Furthermore, the possible relationships between buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and age, gender, clenching awareness, grinding awareness, headache, neck stiffness, vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to palpation, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, and the presence of premature contacts were evaluated using the chi-square test. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and gender (p < 0.01); both conditions were observed more frequently in females than in males. A positive relationship was also found to age; the group between 20-29 years old showed the highest incidence. The vertical dimension had a positive relationship with the occurrence of both buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation. Other factors evaluated did not show any correlation. PMID:10825817

  12. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.913 What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605 to introduce new nonroad engines into commerce if they are already certified to the requirements that apply to...

  13. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.913 What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605 to introduce new nonroad engines into commerce if they are already certified to the requirements that apply to...

  14. 40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.914 What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610 to introduce new nonroad... under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610, references to...

  15. 40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.914 What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610 to introduce new nonroad... under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610, references to...

  16. Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol; And Others

    The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

  17. The Effect of Group Participation in a Recreation Program on Perceptual-Motor Skills and Interpersonal Values of Potentially Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Kevin R.

    Effects of group participation in a recreation program emphasizing perceptual motor skills and interpersonal values of potentially delinquent boys were examined and compared to the same effects in a group of normal boys participating in a separate but similar program. The boys ranged in age from 12 to 18 years. Perceptual motor skills measured…

  18. A Motor Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes the five basic stages of motor development as activities in a perceptual motor program for children of normal intelligence who have learning problems. The program emphasizes the relation between sound motor development and academic achievement. (Author)

  19. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  20. Motor Response Programming and Movement Time in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n = 9) and children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA: n = 19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared to non-alcohol exposed children (NC: n = 23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT + Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT + Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT + Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable reaction times than either the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable reaction times. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. PMID:20598488

  1. Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wollman, Adam J M; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Carstairs, Helen M J; Cross, Robert A; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, cargo is transported on self-organised networks of microtubule trackways by kinesin and dynein motor proteins1,2. Synthetic microtubule networks have previously been assembled in vitro3–5 and microtubules have been used as shuttles to carry cargoes on lithographically-defined tracks consisting of surface-bound kinesin motors6,7. Here we show that molecular signals can be used to program both the architecture and the operation of a self-organized transport system based on kinesin and microtubules and spans three orders of magnitude in length scale. A single motor protein - dimeric kinesin 18 - is conjugated to various DNA nanostructures to accomplish different tasks. Instructions encoded into the DNA sequences are used to direct the assembly of a polar array of microtubules and can be used to control the loading, active concentration and unloading of cargo on this track network or to trigger the disassembly of the network. PMID:24213281

  2. Environmental code of practice for light-duty motor vehicle emission inspection and maintenance programs. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this code is to provide guidance to provincial transportation and environmental regulatory agencies regarding light-duty vehicle inspection and maintenance programs as a means of reducing excess exhaust and evaporative emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter from in-use motor vehicles in large urban centers. The code is intended as a basis for implementing consistent and uniform control measures employing the latest technology for the testing of in-use motor vehicles across Canada. Training requirements are included in the code to help maintain efficient inspection station and repair shop operation as well as the health and safety of the motorists who participate in the programs. This document includes an outline of the legislative and policy considerations behind the code, the basic program parameters, and information on test procedures and equipment, quality control and assurance, repair technician and facility certification, and development of public awareness.

  3. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  4. Design of the automatic motor Ke measurement system using the system on programming chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Sheng-Chan; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Liu, Yen-Chih; An, Nia-Chun; Tsai, Hsiu-An

    2013-01-01

    The induced electromotive force of traditional motor measurement usually uses another motor to connect the tested motor with the drive shaft to measure its speed and obtain Ke value of induced electromotive force of the tested motor. If the tested motor is not suitable for connection to the connect coupling because of the shape or volume of the rotor, it is difficult to measure the Ke values of the tested motor. So some scholars have proposed two-phase motor which drives the three-phase motor, and gain the measurement method of Ke from the third phase in a few years ago. The mainly way is using the digital logic circuits to redefine the truth table by entering the signals to the motor driver chip from the three Hall sensors. So it can still maintain a positive torque above 0 even if used the two-phase driver and the motor can be rotated by the two-phase driver. But the drawback is that it can only be measured the fixed Ke value at the same phase. And it has to redefine the truth table to measure the values of the other two phase. This paper provides a new measurement method that made the motor speed accelerate to the measured speed at the beginning and measuring the value of third phases while the rotation is maintained by the other two-phase. The advantage is that it can change the phase of measurement, so it can easily measure the Ke value. And the most of digital components which including processor, keyboard decoder and frequency counter etc can be achieved in FPGA by using SOPC method. It can significantly reduce the complexity of circuit and increase system reliability degree.

  5. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

  6. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  7. DNA elution from buccal cells stored on Whatman FTA Classic Cards using a modified methanol fixation method.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Helene C; Hyland, Valentine; Wicking, Carol; Sturm, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    We describe here a method for DNA elution from buccal cells and whole blood both collected onto Whatman FTA technology, using methanol fixation followed by an elution PCR program. Extracted DNA is comparable in quality to published Whatman FTA protocols, as judged by PCR-based genotyping. Elution of DNA from the dried sample is a known rate-limiting step in the published Whatman FTA protocol; this method enables the use of each 3-mm punch of sample for several PCR reactions instead of the standard, one PCR reaction per sample punch. This optimized protocol therefore extends the usefulness and cost effectiveness of each buccal swab sample collected, when used for nucleic acid PCR and genotyping. PMID:19450238

  8. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  9. Characterisation of human dental stem cells and buccal mucosa fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Bettina; Mäenpää, Katja; Ylikomi, Timo; Oja, Hannu; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2008-04-01

    Human craniofacial stem cells are recently discovered sources of putative mesenchymal stem cells that hold great promise for autogenic or allogenic cell therapy and tissue engineering. Prior to employing these cells in clinical applications, they must be thoroughly investigated and characterized. In this study, the surface marker expression was investigated on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle cells (DFCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) utilising surface markers for flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential was also examined by bone-associated markers alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. The results from our study demonstrate that the dental cell sources exhibit comparable surface marker and bone-associated marker profiles parallel to those of other mesenchymal stem cell sources, yet distinct from the buccal mucosa fibroblasts. Our data support evidence towards clinical applicability of dental stem cells in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:18230338

  10. Simplified buccal DNA extraction with FTA Elute Cards.

    PubMed

    Wolfgramm, Eldamária de Vargas; de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; Aguiar, Vitor Rezende da Costa; Sartori, Mariana Penha De Nadai; Hirschfeld-Campolongo, Gabriela C R; Tsutsumida, Weslley M; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2009-03-01

    DNA isolation is the initial step of most genetic studies, and ideally it should use a reliable and non-invasive method. Buccal samples are adequate for such purposes, being painless, easy to collect and a very reliable DNA source. FTA Elute Cards are relatively new on the market and are designed for rapid blood DNA extraction, in which DNA is solubilized in water, instead of attached to the paper matrix. In this study, we sought to test if FTA Elute Cards are suitable for buccal DNA extraction. Furthermore, several time and temperature conditions were analyzed in order to determine the best concentration/time ratio. Twenty-five different conditions were tested in quadruplicate and extracted DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. PMID:19215882

  11. Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

  12. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  13. Hormonal changes in exfoliated normal buccal mucosal cells

    PubMed Central

    Donald, Preethy Mary; George, Renjith; Sriram, G.; Kavitha, B.; Sivapathasundharam, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken as a baseline study to evaluate the nuclear diameter (ND), cell diameter (CD) and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (N:C) and their variation with age in normal buccal smears of female subjects. Materials and Methods: Buccal smears were collected from 400 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using the standard Papanicolaou laboratory procedure. The CD and ND were measured using a stage micrometer and an ocular micrometer. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the difference in the ND, CD and N:C with age in females. Multiple range tests by Tukey-honestly significant difference procedure were performed to evaluate the significance between various age groups. Results: The results showed an increase in ND and CD from the 5-10 age groups to 15-35 age groups. In the 15-35 age groups, there was a decline in ND and CD when comparing the first and the second half of the menstrual cycle, but the difference was not significant. There was further decline in ND and CD in the 45-60 age groups. Variations were also seen in ratio N: C. Pattern of exfoliation also varied in each age group. Conclusion: Age-related alterations are observed in buccal smears. PMID:24648669

  14. Role of naso-buccal passages in thermoregulation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. D.; Raghavan, G. V.

    1970-01-01

    1. Experiments with a face-mask in which the temperature of the air in the face-mask was raised to 40° C while the ambient temperature in the chamber was maintained at 20° C, resulted in a marked increase in respiratory frequency and a slight decline in carotid blood temperature of unshorn sheep. Partially shorn sheep showed only small respiratory responses. 2. Localized infra-red irradiation of the naso-buccal area of unshorn sheep also resulted in an increased respiratory rate. 3. It is suggested that the initiation of polypnoea during infra-red irradiation of the naso-buccal region and following rise in the temperature of the air in the face-mask is due to stimulation of warm receptors in the upper respiratory tract. 4. Cooling the naso-buccal air in the face-mask to 10° C after thermal polypnoea had been established at an ambient temperature of 40° C resulted in a moderate decline of 30-40 respirations/min. This decline was attributed to the stimulation of cold receptors located in the upper respiratory tract. PMID:5500727

  15. Role of Broca's area in motor sequence programming: a cTBS study.

    PubMed

    Clerget, Emeline; Badets, Arnaud; Duqué, Julie; Olivier, Etienne

    2011-12-21

    Besides language, the contribution of Broca's area to motor cognition is now widely accepted. In this study, we investigated the role of its posterior part (left Brodmann area 44) in learning of a motor sequence by altering its functioning with a continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) in 12 healthy participants before they learned the sequence by observation. Twelve control individuals underwent the same experiment with cTBS applied over the vertex. Although cTBS over Brodmann area 44 did not impair sequence learning, it significantly increased the response latency as measured during the retention test, performed 24 h later. This finding suggests that Broca's area might be critically involved in organizing, and/or storing, the individual components of a motor sequence before its execution. PMID:22089648

  16. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-02-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form. PMID:24892624

  17. 76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... this requirement at 10 CFR 431.25(f). 74 FR 12058 (March 23, 2009). Appendix C to Subpart B of 10 CFR... electric motors, in addition to the current certified mail option. In a future rulemaking, DOE anticipates... Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment.'' 76 FR 12422. In that final rule, DOE noted...

  18. Motoric Factors Influencing the Selection of Vocabulary for Sign Production Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Motoric factors that should be considered in selecting signs to teach severely handicapped learners are reviewed and discussed. They are grouped into three categories: prehension movement patterns, unilateral/bilateral movement patterns, and combinations of successive actions, with a fourth set included of less objectively definable factors…

  19. C. elegans dopaminergic D2-like receptors delimit recurrent cholinergic-mediated motor programs during a goal-oriented behavior.

    PubMed

    Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L René

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and Gα(o/i) proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

  20. C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; García, L. René

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and Gαo/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

  1. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J M; Miller, C H

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced the ability of the bacterium to attach to human buccal epithelial cells. The neutralized and dialyzed NaOH extract contained both carbohydrate and protein substances in a ratio of about 1:1. Adding this extract back to the extracted bacterial cells partially restored their ability to attach to epithelial cells. When the NaOH extract was preincubated with epithelial cells and residual extract was removed by washing, attachment of normal A. naeslundii was partially blocked. The ability of the extracted material to block attachment was significantly reduced when treated with hyaluronidases or with wheat germ lipase. Treatment with heat, protease, or trypsin did not significantly reduce the ability of the extracted materials to block attachment. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate also reduced subsequent attachment of normal A. naeslundii cells. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with dextrans, proteins, or unpure mannose did not influence subsequent attachment of A. naeslundii. Pretreatment of A. naeslundii with galactose and lactose significantly inhibited attachment to normal epithelial cells. The results suggest that the attachment of A. naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells may involve mucopolysaccharides similar to hyaluronic acid on the surface of the bacterial cells. Other attachment mechanisms may also be operative. PMID:7000708

  2. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  3. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. PMID:24291123

  4. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

  5. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, R. M.; Kamath, V. V.; Komali, Y.; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20–30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  6. A comprehensive development strategy in buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Ana; Pais, Alberto A C C; Veiga, Francisco J B

    2010-12-01

    This work combines several methods in an integrated strategy to develop a matrix for buccal administration. For this purpose, tablets containing selected mucoadhesive polymers loaded with a model drug (omeprazole), free or in a complexed form with cyclodextrins, and in the absence and presence of alkali agents were subjected to a battery of tests. Mucoadhesion studies, including simple factorial analysis, in vitro release studies with both model-dependent and model-independent analysis, and permeation studies were performed. Mucoadhesive profiles indicated that the presence of the drug decreases the mucoadhesion profile, probably due its hydrophobic character. In tablets loaded with the drug complexed with β-cyclodextrin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, better results were obtained with the methylated derivative. This effect was attributed to the fact that in the case of β-cyclodextrin, more hydroxyl groups are available to interact with the mucoadhesive polymers, thus decreasing the mucoadhesion performance. The same result was observed in presence of the alkali agent (L: -arginine), in this case due to the excessive hydrophilic character of L: -arginine. Drug release from tablets was also evaluated, and results suggested that the dissolution profile with best characteristics was observed in the matrix loaded with omeprazole complexed with methyl-β-cyclodextrin in the presence of L: -arginine. Several mathematical models were applied to the dissolution curves, indicating that the release of the drug, in free or in complexed state, from the mucoadhesive matrices followed a super case II transport, as established on the basis of the Korsmeyer-Peppas function. The feasibility of drug buccal administration was assessed by permeation experiments on porcine buccal mucosa. The amount of drug permeated from mucoadhesive tablets presented a maximum value for the system containing drug complexed with the methylated cyclodextrin derivative in presence of L: -arginine. According to these results, the system containing the selected polymer mixture and the drug complexed with methyl-β-cyclodextrin in presence of L: -arginine showed a great potential as a buccal drug delivery formulation, in which a good compromise among mucoadhesion, dissolution, and permeation properties was achieved. PMID:21116750

  7. Carbocyanine dye labeling reveals a new motor nucleus in octopus brain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J D; Schwartz, O M; Lee, P

    1993-02-22

    This work aims at a better understanding of the organization of the brain of Octopus vulgaris, emphasizing the touch and visual learning centers. We injected the carbocyanine dye, DiI, into the cerebrobrachial connectives and, separately, into the brachial nerves of living octopuses. In both experiments, retrogradely transported granules of DiI appeared in motor neurons in the superior buccal, posterior buccal and subvertical lobes and in a hitherto unsuspected motor nucleus of several hundred neurons in the posterior dorsal basal and median basal lobes. In addition we labeled afferent fibers by injecting DiI into the caudal (sensory) division of the cerebrobrachial connective on one side; the label spread throughout the superior buccal, posterior buccal and the lateral and median inferior frontal lobes mainly on the injected side. It extended through the cerebral tract into the subvertical lobe, into the superior frontal lobe through the interfrontal tract, through the posterior buccal commissure into the opposite posterior buccal lobe and into the median inferior frontal lobe. The work suggests a new function for the posterior dorsal and median basal lobes, which are shown for the first time to project through the inferior frontal lobe system into the brachial nerves. In addition it represents the first full report of the successful use of the carbocyanine dyes DiI and DiO for labeling nerve tissue in a live invertebrate animal. PMID:8429131

  8. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-01-01

    To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

  9. Pre-Student Teaching Laboratory Experiences for Students Majoring in Physical Education and in Elementary Education. The Children's Motor Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Stevens Point. Dept. of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

    This report of the 1972 Distinguished Achievement Award Entry from the University of Wisconsin describes the Children's Motor Development Program which is designed to give student teachers experience in elementary physical education methods through volunteer laboratory training. After a review of the development of the program, the following…

  10. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of breakthrough pain: pharmacokinetics of buccal mucosa delivery and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA((R)), Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent((R)) drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. PMID:20634985

  11. Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

    This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

  12. Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers. PMID:24007755

  13. Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.

    PubMed

    Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S

    2000-04-01

    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools. PMID:10794205

  14. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

  15. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  16. Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Kumar T S; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

  17. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

  18. Oral lymphangioma of the buccal mucosa a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoganna, Saligrama Seema; Rajendra Prasad, Rame Gowda; Sekar, B.

    2014-01-01

    The lymphangioma are benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels that arises from the sequestration of lymphatic that fails to communicate with the lymphatic system. Most common intra oral site being the anterior two-thirds of tongue, usually superficial in location and demonstrates a pebbly surface that resembles a cluster of translucent vesicles, they are typically soft and fluctuant masses. Secondary hemorrhage into the lymphatic spaces may cause some of these vesicles to become purple. They have been known to grow to large size causing difficulties in mastication and speech. A variant of lymphangioma is cystic hygroma grows as lymphatic anomaly found in the neck commonly present with significant airway obstruction. We present a rare case of lymphangioma affecting the buccal mucosa of a 14-year-old male. PMID:25210370

  19. Buccal capnometry for quantitating the severity of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Castillo, Carlos J; Fries, Michael; Wang, Hao; Sun, Shijie; Tang, Wanchun

    2009-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that measurement of buccal mucosal PCO2 (PBUCO2) is a reliable alternative to sublingual mucosal PCO2 for measuring the severity of hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that measurement of PBUCO2 would serve as a continuous and a more sensitive and specific measurement for predicting survival during hemorrhagic shock than conventional measurements and thereby better guide initial management. Four groups of five pentobarbital anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to be bled over 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25%, 30%, 35%, or 40% of total blood volume. With an optical PCO2 sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left inner cheek, PBUCO2 was continuously measured together with arterial pressure, end-tidal PCO2, and intermittent measurement of cardiac output, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. Surviving animals had free access to water and food but no other treatment during the 72-h interval after recovery from anesthesia. After an estimated 40% blood loss, all animals died within 1 h. In the remaining animals, arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, blood lactate, and base deficit each failed to discriminate among animals with 35%, 30%, and 25% acute blood losses. This contrasted with PBUCO2, which discriminated between the magnitude of massive blood loss and untreated survival. Buccal mucosal PCO2 was predictive of outcome after rapid bleeding when compared with arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. This measurement is therefore likely to serve as a useful guide for the immediate management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:18520703

  20. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in Pakistani cotton weavers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmller, Siegfried; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cotton workers in small weaving household factories (power looms) in Pakistan are typically exposed to high levels of cotton dusts. Working in the textile manufacturing industry has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study set out to determine potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to cotton dusts in exfoliated buccal cells of exposed cotton workers. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were evaluated in a representative sample of 51 exposed male cotton weavers and in the same number of age-matched male non-exposed subjects applying the micronucleus cytome assay. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxicity (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis) were significantly elevated in exposed cotton workers. The frequency of micronucleated cells increased significantly with increasing years of work in power looms (odds ratio = 1.043 per year; 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.076, P = 0.007). Results were consistent with the typical inflammatory pattern and injury in epithelia due to unprotected occupational exposure to cotton dusts and other toxic, allergic and infectious substances in the working areas of the cotton industry. Occupational exposure in power looms induces cytotoxic effects and, upon chronic exposure, DNA damage. This may eventually result in typical obstructive patterns of pulmonary symptoms and in a clinical condition called byssinosis in exposed cotton workers. Long exposure may lead to chronic inflammation and cumulative damage of DNA in buccal stem cells that may indicate an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25805022

  1. Buccal Spectral Markers for Lung Cancer Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Radosevich, Andrew J.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Gould, Bradley; Hensing, Thomas A.; Ray, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US with >150,000 deaths per year. In order to more effectively reduce lung cancer mortality, more sophisticated screening paradigms are needed. Previously, our group demonstrated the use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy to detect and quantify the micro/nano-architectural correlates of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis. In the lung, the buccal (cheek) mucosa has been suggested as an excellent surrogate site in the “field of injury”. We, therefore, wanted to assess whether LEBS could similarly sense the presence of lung. To this end, we applied a fiber-optic LEBS probe to a dataset of 27 smokers without diagnosed lung cancer (controls) and 46 with lung cancer (cases), which was divided into a training and a blinded validation set (32 and 41 subjects, respectively). LEBS readings of the buccal mucosa were taken from the oral cavity applying gentle contact. The diagnostic LEBS marker was notably altered in patients harboring lung cancer compared to smoking controls. The prediction rule developed on training set data provided excellent diagnostics with 94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Applying the same threshold to the blinded validation set yielded 79% sensitivity and 83% specificity. These results were not confounded by patient demographics or impacted by cancer type or location. Moreover, the prediction rule was robust across all stages of cancer including stage I. We envision the use of LEBS as the first part of a two-step paradigm shift in lung cancer screening in which patients with high LEBS risk markers are funnelled into more invasive screening for confirmation. PMID:25299667

  2. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration. PMID:17192502

  3. A sustained release dosage form of acyclovir for buccal application: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Değim, Tuncer; Eğlen, Bilgen; Ocak, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Acyclovir is an antiviral agent and it has been particularly used for the treatment of herpes simplex infections. The treatment of infection in the oral cavity is often difficult, because of insufficient drug concentration in saliva when acyclovir is administered via the oral route in conventional tablet form for systemic uptake. Therefore, it was aimed to prepare a tablet for buccal administration and to investigate its effectiveness by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments.The solubility (1.559-4.584) and octanol/water partition coefficients ( - 2.176 to - 1.625) of the acyclovir were investigated at different pH conditions. A series of tablet formulations were prepared for buccal application and their dissolution properties were determined in artificial saliva medium. The effect of tablet ingredients on the release rate and mucoadhesion force was investigated. The dissolution properties of commercially available acyclovir tablets were also determined in the artificial gastric juice. Franz type diffusion cells were used to determine acyclovir penetration through buccal mucosa from prepared buccal tablets. Selected buccal tablets, commercial tablets and intravenous acyclovir solutions were administered to mongrel dogs and drug levels in the blood determined by HPLC.A pharmacokinetic model for buccal application was also developed and blood concentrations were calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Prepared buccal tablets were found to be effective for the treatment of viral infections locally within the oral cavity and also for systemic treatment. PMID:16603450

  4. Quality assessment of buccal versus blood genomic DNA using the Affymetrix 500 K GeneChip

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jessica G; Sun, Guangyun; Haverbusch, Mary; Indugula, Subbarao; Martin, Lisa J; Broderick, Joseph P; Deka, Ranjan; Woo, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background With the advent of genome-wide genotyping, the utility of stored buccal brushes for DNA extraction and genotyping has been questioned. We sought to describe the genomic DNA yield and concordance between stored buccal brushes and blood samples from the same individuals in the context of Affymetrix 500 K Human GeneChip genotyping. Results Buccal cytobrushes stored for ~7 years at -80°C prior to extraction yielded sufficient double stranded DNA (dsDNA) to be successfully genotyped on the Affymetrix ~262 K NspI chip, with yields between 536 and 1047 ng dsDNA. Using the BRLMM algorithm, genotyping call rates for blood samples averaged 98.4%, and for buccal samples averaged 97.8%. Matched blood samples exhibited 99.2% concordance, while matched blood and buccal samples exhibited 98.8% concordance. Conclusion Buccal cytobrushes stored long-term result in sufficient dsDNA concentrations to achieve high genotyping call rates and concordance with stored blood samples in the context of Affymetrix 500 K SNP genotyping. Thus, given high-quality collection and storage protocols, it is possible to use stored buccal cytobrush samples for genome-wide association studies. PMID:17996058

  5. Creative arts program as an intervention for PTSD: a randomized clinical trial with motor vehicle accident survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuling; Lan, Chao; Chen, Juwu; Wang, Wenying; Zhang, Hua; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the creative arts program (HA) is effective in preventing the onset of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD develops in 10-20% of motor vehicle accident survivors (MVAs). MVAs in the initial months after the accident were randomly assigned to receive 8-week HA intervention (n = 26) or wait the list (WL, n = 26). The arts program consisted of writing and drawing. PTSD severity was assessed at 2, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CAPS) and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R). Secondary outcomes were post-traumatic growth (PTG), depression and anxiety symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that both HA and WL group exhibited a significant effect of time (P < 0.01) on CAPS, but no significant group differences over time. There were no group differences on depression or anxiety over time. Pessimists did not benefit more from attending the HA than they did from attending the WL. Our results fail to support the hypothesis that the creative arts program is effect in avoiding MVA-related PTSD symptoms. But it only seems to be a short-term, rather than a long-term effect. PMID:26550298

  6. Creative arts program as an intervention for PTSD: a randomized clinical trial with motor vehicle accident survivors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuling; Lan, Chao; Chen, Juwu; Wang, Wenying; Zhang, Hua; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the creative arts program (HA) is effective in preventing the onset of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD develops in 10-20% of motor vehicle accident survivors (MVAs). MVAs in the initial months after the accident were randomly assigned to receive 8-week HA intervention (n = 26) or wait the list (WL, n = 26). The arts program consisted of writing and drawing. PTSD severity was assessed at 2, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CAPS) and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R). Secondary outcomes were post-traumatic growth (PTG), depression and anxiety symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that both HA and WL group exhibited a significant effect of time (P < 0.01) on CAPS, but no significant group differences over time. There were no group differences on depression or anxiety over time. Pessimists did not benefit more from attending the HA than they did from attending the WL. Our results fail to support the hypothesis that the creative arts program is effect in avoiding MVA-related PTSD symptoms. But it only seems to be a short-term, rather than a long-term effect. PMID:26550298

  7. Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus using Cytomorphometry of Buccal Cells and Correlation with Glycosylated Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, K Raghavendhar; Malathi, N; Poornima, K; Prakash, Sunil; Kadhiresan, R; Arunmozhi, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study cytological alterations in the exfoliated buccal cells of diabetic patients. To analyze the cytomorphometric findings in the smears of uncontrolled and controlled diabetic patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. To establish a correlation between cytomorphometric changes and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetics and normal controls, for evaluation of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 confirmed diabetic patients from a hospital out-patient diabetic ward and 20 healthy individuals as controls (Group A: n = 20), in Chennai. Specific exclusion criteria were used to select the study group from a larger group of subjects. Based on HbA1c values, the diabetic patients were categorized into Group B = Controlled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c <7%) and Group C = Uncontrolled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c >9%). After informed consent, buccal smear was collected from clinically normal appearing mucosa and stained with papanicoloau (PAP) stain. Cytomorphometric analysis of selective PAP stained cells was done using image analysis software, Image Pro Plus 5.5 (Olympus) and parameters determined were average cytoplasmic area (CA), average nuclear area (NA) and cytoplasmic:nuclear (C: N) ratio for an average of 50 cells/patient. Results: Comparing the average NA among three groups, an increase through Group A, B, C, with a maximum significance between Group C and A was seen. The average C: N ratio showed a statistically significant difference between all three groups. Significant correlation existed between the HbA1c values and both the C: N ratio and average NA in all the three groups. Conclusions: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal smears using the C: N ratio alteration as a reliable criteria, may serve as yet another non-invasive tool for screening programs for diabetic detection. And the technique may possibly be used also for evaluation of glycemic control in known diabetics. PMID:25859101

  8. Hox Proteins Coordinate Motor Neuron Differentiation and Connectivity Programs through Ret/Gfrα Genes.

    PubMed

    Catela, Catarina; Shin, Maggie M; Lee, David H; Liu, Jeh-Ping; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2016-03-01

    The accuracy of neural circuit assembly relies on the precise spatial and temporal control of synaptic specificity determinants during development. Hox transcription factors govern key aspects of motor neuron (MN) differentiation; however, the terminal effectors of their actions are largely unknown. We show that Hox/Hox cofactor interactions coordinate MN subtype diversification and connectivity through Ret/Gfrα receptor genes. Hox and Meis proteins determine the levels of Ret in MNs and define the intrasegmental profiles of Gfrα1 and Gfrα3 expression. Loss of Ret or Gfrα3 leads to MN specification and innervation defects similar to those observed in Hox mutants, while expression of Ret and Gfrα1 can bypass the requirement for Hox genes during MN pool differentiation. These studies indicate that Hox proteins contribute to neuronal fate and muscle connectivity through controlling the levels and pattern of cell surface receptor expression, consequently gating the ability of MNs to respond to limb-derived instructive cues. PMID:26904955

  9. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  10. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

  11. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... gas emission standards on July 8, 2009 (74 FR 32744). Subsequently, CARB adopted a series of... those model years. On June 14, 2011 (76 FR 34693), EPA confirmed that these series of amendments were...-the-scope decisions for CARB's ZEV program in 2006 (71 FR 78190, December 28, 2006) and 2011 (76...

  12. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor derived cells existed in the blood and buccal swabs, but not in hair follicles, which can be used to obtain the pre-transplant sample of the recipient after transplant. Conclusion Peripheral blood and buccal swab do not serve as a reliable source of recipients origin for DNA analysis of individuals who underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at least within 6 months after transplant. PMID:26088848

  13. Rare Carcinoma Ex-pleomorphic Adenoma of Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Agrawal, Dipti; Singh, Sompal

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is exceedingly rare in minor salivary glands of oral cavity. We present a case of CXPA arising from buccal mucosa in a 44-year-old male patient. The man presented to surgery outpatient department with right buccal mucosa swelling. Clinical impression suggests a neoplasm of buccal mucosa and the patient was sent for fine needle aspiration cytology. By examining the cytological smears, possibility of carcinoma was revealed. The mass was dissected and excised with safety margins. Examining Hematoxylin and Eosin slides, final diagnosis of CXPA was given. Patient did not turn for regular follow-ups and presented 1 year after surgery with recurrence at the same site. CXPA is an uncommon malignant tumor with highly aggressive biological behavior. Its occurrence in sites like buccal mucosa is rare. Hence, quite a diagnostic challenge at such sites cause diagnostic difficulties.

  14. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  15. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichats buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gonzlez, Roco; Pearrocha-Diago, Mara; Pearrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prsper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichats ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichats fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  16. Transmucosal delivery of domperidone from bilayered buccal patches: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Palem, Chinna Reddy; Gannu, Ramesh; Doodipala, Narender; Yamsani, Vamshi Vishnu; Yamsani, Madhusudan Rao

    2011-10-01

    Bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches for systemic administration of domperidone (DOM), a dopamine-receptor (D(2)) antagonist, were developed using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and PVPK30 as a primary layer and Eudragit RLPO and PEO as a secondary layer. Ex vivo drug permeation through porcine buccal membrane was performed. Bilayered buccal patches were developed by solvent casting technique and evaluated for in vitro drug release, moisture absorption, mechanical properties, surface pH, in vitro bioadhesion, in vivo residence time and ex vivo permeation of DOM through porcine buccal membrane from a bilayered buccal patch. Formulation DB4 was associated with 99.5% drug release with a higuchi model release profile and 53.9% of the drug had permeated in 6 h, with a flux of 0.492 mg/h/cm(2) through porcine buccal membrane. DB4 showed 5.58 N and 3.28 mJ peak detachment force and work of adhesion, respectively. The physicochemical interactions between DOM and the polymer were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. DSC and FTIR studies revealed no interaction between drug and polymer. Stability studies for optimized patch DB4 was carried out at 40°C/75% relative humidity. The formulations were found to be stable over a period of 3 months with respect to drug content, in vitro release and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal membrane. The results indicate that suitable bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared. PMID:22076770

  17. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  18. Biologic height-width ratio of the buccal supra-implant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Takeshi; Enomoto, Hiroaki; Tsurumaki, Shunzo; Ito, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, esthetic implant dentistry has focused on changes in buccal implant mucosal height. The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between the height and width of buccal supra-implant mucosa based on the physiologic mucosal form surrounding the implant. Fourteen patients who had buccal supra-implant mucosal heights of more than 1.5 mm and keratinized mucosa 1 year or more after superstructure placement (average period: 3 years 5 months) were studied. Silicone impressions were taken immediately after superstructures and abutments were removed. The study model used for the measurement process was manufactured using improved dental stone. The height and width of the buccal supra-implant mucosa were measured using digital slide calipers, and the ratio of the height and width was investigated. In all cases, the widths were greater than the heights. The average height of the buccal supra-implant mucosa was 2.17 mm, while the average width was 3.44 mm. The average biologic height-width ratio was 1:1.58. The width was larger in the posterior region than in the anterior. There were no differences in the biologic height-width ratio in terms of the diameter of the implant. These findings indicate that peri-implant soft tissue augmentation procedures resulting in an average biologic height-width ratio of 1:1.5 may provide a stable buccal cervical line around the implant superstructure, even for thin periodontal biotypes. PMID:19655487

  19. Evidence for mannose-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, R L; Rogers, A L; Patterson, R J; Beneke, E S

    1982-01-01

    Various lectins and sugars were used to study the possible role of saccharide-containing moieties on the surface of Candida albicans and human buccal cells in the adherence of this yeast to mucosal surfaces. The lectins possessed affinities for several different sugar moieties and were used to pretreat C. albicans or buccal cells before mixing and incubating in the adherence assay. It was found that concanavalin A, a lectin that recognizes mannose and glucose, inhibited adherence of the pretreated yeasts to buccal cells and also inhibited adherence of pretreated buccal cells to nonpretreated yeast cells. Adherence was restored by preincubating the concanavalin A with a mannose derivative, but preincubation of concanavalin A with other sugars did not produce this effect. Lectins that do not recognize mannose had no effect on adherence. The presence of alpha-D-methyl mannopyranoside in the incubation medium during the assay inhibited adherence, whereas other sugars did not. Germinated yeasts adhered to buccal cells more effectively than nongerminated cells and were more susceptible to adherence inhibition by concanavalin A than were nongerminated yeasts. Thus, mannose-containing moieties on the surface of C. albicans and buccal cells could mediate the adherence of this yeast to human epithelium. PMID:7033143

  20. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419

  1. Evaluation of quality of DNA extracted from buccal swabs for microarray based genotyping.

    PubMed

    Livy, Alex; Lye, Sayhean; Jagdish, Chahil K; Hanis, Nurul; Sharmila, Velapasamy; Ler, Lian Wee; Pramod, Bagali

    2012-01-01

    Buccal cell usage has been shown by many to be a cost effective and safe method to isolate DNA for various biological experiments especially large epidemiological studies (Garcia-Closas et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:687-696, 2001). Non-invasive DNA collection methods are preferred over phlebotomy in order to increase study participation and compliance in research centers and for sick patients in hospital settings. There have been conflicting reports about the methodology and results obtained from using buccal DNA. It is not very clear if phlebotomy can be confidently replaced by buccal cell DNA. It is often left for the user to take an intelligent decision. To address this issue, we compared the performance of buccal and blood DNA from same subjects in a genotyping experiment and this paper reports the results. Cotton swab derived buccal cells were scraped from the inner side of cheeks from 16 subjects, and blood was also drawn from the same 16 subjects participating in a genotypic association study of a lipid disease. The DNA quality was assessed by resolving on agarose gels, checking purity (A260/A280) and finally by microarray hybridization. This study showed that DNA degradation affects the total yield and performance of the buccal DNA when compared to the blood DNA in microarray based genotyping. Genotyping results can be seriously compromised if care is not taken to check the quality and yields of such specimens. PMID:23277709

  2. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    PubMed

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. PMID:25496850

  3. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  4. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  5. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  6. Fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal films: in vitro/in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Basalious, Emad B

    2009-01-01

    Fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal films were prepared using film forming polymers namely; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), chitosan, Eudragit and sodium alginate (SALG) either alone or in combination with bioadhesive polymers. The bioadhesive polymers studied were sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), Carbopol 974P, and polycarbophil (AA-A). The prepared films were characterized by means of film thickness, surface pH, swelling capacity, in vitro adhesion, in vivo residence time, in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release to determine the amount of drug release from selected film formulae using microbiological assay and HPLC. Optimum release behavior, convenient bioadhesion, acceptable elasticity were exhibited by film containing 2% HPMC and 1% SCMC (fresh or stored for 6 months). Determination of the amount of drug released in saliva after application of the selected fluconazole films confirmed the ability of the film to deliver the drug over a period of approximately 300 minutes and to reduce side effects and possibility of drug interaction encountered during systemic therapy of fluconazole, which would be beneficial in the case of oral candidiasis. PMID:19418952

  7. Peptide washout and permeability from glyceryl monooleate buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehwi; Kellaway, Ian W

    2002-10-01

    Simultaneous evaluation of the permeation and washout of a peptide from the mucoadhesive liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been investigated using a donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell. [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) was incorporated into the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and applied to excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in the donor compartment flow-through cell. Phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS) was pumped across the upper surface of the liquid crystalline phases to mimic salivary flow. The steady-state fluxes of DADLE and GMO from the cubic phase were significantly greater than that from the lamellar phase (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the amounts of DADLE and GMO washed out from the lamellar and cubic phases (P > 0.05). The donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell was found to be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of salivary washout on mucoadhesive oral mucosal delivery systems. PMID:12455474

  8. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei. PMID:20036721

  9. Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth W.; Zoller, Lowell K.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), a 150-in diameter segmented motor design that incorporates substantive design changes to improve the reliability and design safety margins of the Space Shuttle system, is discussed. The studies involved in the development of the ASRM are reviewed, and the ASRM design is summarized, including safety enhancement and performance improvement features. The ASRM program plan is briefly addressed.

  10. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p < 0.05). Conclusion This “real-life” physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460 PMID:23835207

  11. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  12. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines

  13. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

  14. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment were motor vehicles. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new pieces of... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the...

  15. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  16. Buccal capnometry to guide management of massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Fries, Michael; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Castillo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    In both clinical and experimental settings, tissue P(CO2) measured in the oral mucosa is a practical and reliable measurement of the severity of hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that a threshold level of buccal tissue P(CO2) (P(CO2) BU)) would prognosticate the effects of volume repletion on survival. Twenty pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male breeder rats, each weighing approximately 0.5 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Animals were bled over an interval of 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25, 30, 35, or 40% of total blood volume. One-half hour after the completion of bleeding, each animal received an infusion of Ringer lactate solution over the ensuing 30 min in amounts equivalent to two times the volume of blood loss. P(CO2) BU) was measured continuously with an optical P(CO2) sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left cheek. Arterial pressure and end-tidal CO2 were measured over the same interval. Neurological deficit and 72-h survival were recorded. Aortic pressures were restored to near baseline values for each of the four groups after fluid resuscitation. This contrasted with the improvement of P(CO2) BU), which differentiated between animals with short and long durations of postintervention survival. After electrolyte fluid resuscitation in rats subjected to rapid bleeding, noninvasive measurement of P(CO2) BU) was predictive of outcomes. Neither noninvasive end-tidal P(CO2) nor invasive aortic pressure measurements achieved such discrimination. Accordingly, P(CO2) BU) fulfills the criterion of a noninvasive and reliable measurement to guide fluid management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:16141375

  17. Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r = 0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P = .001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

  18. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  19. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  20. Assessment of buccal bone thickness of aesthetic maxillary region: a cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Tania; Navarro, Pablo; Salamanca, Carlos; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical dimensions of the buccal bone walls of the aesthetic maxillary region for immediate implant placement, based upon cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in a sample of adult patients. Methods Two calibrated examiners analyzed a sample of 50 CBCT scans, performing morphometric analyses of both incisors and canines on the left and right sides. Subsequently, in the sagittal view, a line was traced through the major axis of the selected tooth. Then, a second line (E) was traced from the buccal to the palatal wall at the level of the observed bone ridges. The heights of the buccal and palatal bone ridges were determined at the major axis of the tooth. The buccal bone thickness was measured across five lines. The first was at the level of line E. The second was at the most apical point of the tooth, and the other three lines were equidistant between the apical and the cervical lines, and parallel to them. Statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of P≤0.05 for the bone thickness means and standard deviations per tooth and patient for the five lines at varying depths. Results The means of the buccal wall thicknesses in the central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were 1.14±0.65 mm, 0.95±0.67 mm and 1.15±0.68 mm, respectively. Additionally, only on the left side were significant differences in some measurements of buccal bone thickness observed according to age and gender. However, age and gender did not show significant differences in heights between the palatal and buccal plates. In a few cases, the buccal wall had a greater height than the palatal wall. Conclusions Less than 10% of sites showed more than a 2-mm thickness of the buccal bone wall, with the exception of the central incisor region, wherein 14.4% of cases were ≥2 mm. PMID:26550524

  1. Preparation and in-vivo evaluation of dimenhydrinate buccal mucoadhesive films with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Pekoz, Ayca; Sedef Erdal, Meryem; Okyar, Alper; Ocak, Meltem; Tekeli, Fatma; Kaptan, Engin; Sagirli, Olcay; Araman, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Dimenhydrinate (DMH)-loaded buccal bioadhesive films for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness were prepared and optimized. This study examines the rate of drug release from the films for prolonged periods of time to reduce or limit the frequency of DMH administration. Based on preliminary studies using various polymers and concentrations, hydroxyethylcellulose (2.5, 3.0, and 3.2%), and xanthan gum (2.8%) were chosen as matrix polymers. The films were analyzed with respect to their mechanical, physicochemical, bioadhesive, swelling, and in-vitro release properties. In in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies, xanthan gum-based DMH buccal film was associated with significantly increased DMH plasma levels between 1 h and 5 h after DMH dosing when compared with an oral drug solution. The area under the curve AUC0-7 h value of the mucoadhesive buccal film was two-fold higher than the oral DMH solution. Histological analysis revealed that DMH films cause mild morphological and inflammatory changes in rabbit buccal mucosa. The DMH buccal film is effective for approximately 7 h, thus representing an option for single-dose antiemetic therapy. This dosage regimen could be particularly beneficial for chain travelers who travel for long periods of time. PMID:26460061

  2. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  3. PADDLEFISH BUCCAL FLOW VELOCITY DURING RAM SUSPENSION FEEDING AND RAM VENTILATION

    PubMed

    Cech; Cheer

    1994-01-01

    A micro-thermistor probe was inserted into the buccal cavity of freely swimming paddlefish to measure flow velocity during ram ventilation, ram suspension feeding and prey processing. Swimming speed was measured from videotapes recorded simultaneously with the buccal flow velocity measurements. Both swimming velocity and buccal flow velocity were significantly higher during suspension feeding than during ram ventilation. As the paddlefish shifted from ventilation to feeding, buccal flow velocity increased to approximately 60 % of the swimming velocity. During prey processing, buccal flow velocity was significantly higher than the swimming velocity, indicating that prey processing involves the generation of suction. The Reynolds number (Re) for flow at the level of the paddlefish gill rakers during feeding is about 30, an order of magnitude lower than the Re calculated previously for pump suspension-feeding blackfish. These data, combined with data available from the literature, indicate that the gill rakers of ram suspension-feeding teleost fishes may operate at a substantially lower Re than the rakers of pump suspension feeders. PMID:9317518

  4. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  5. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  6. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, p<.001), ball skills (t (13)=2.73, p<.05) and balance (t (13)=5.13, p<.001). Significant performance improvements were also found in MAT, THD, 5JT (t (13)=-4.55; p<.01), handwriting quality (t (12)=-2.73; p<.05) and speed (t (12)=-4.2; p<.01) after the training program. In conclusion, improvement in both practiced and non-practiced skills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills. PMID:26703915

  7. Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. Methods Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–last) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of Cmax, AUC0–∞, and AUC0–last vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received ≥1 FBT. Results Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for Cmax, 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC0–∞, and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC0–last). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median tmax of 90 minutes (range 30–180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 µg to 800 µg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate. PMID:19915713

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. CT and MR Imaging of the Buccal Space: Normal Anatomy and Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Moon, Min Hoan; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The buccal space is an anatomical compartment lying anterior to the masticator space and lateral to the buccinator muscle. Since the major purpose of imaging is to define the likely anatomic origin and also the extent of a given lesion, thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of the buccal space is essential, and this knowledge can aid the physician in narrowing down the list of possible maladies on the differential diagnosis. We illustrate here in this paper the important anatomic landmarks and typical pathologic conditions of the buccal space such as the developmental lesions and the neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of the expected pathologic conditions is useful for the radiologist when interpreting facial CT and MR images. PMID:15782016

  10. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum-based bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches of zolmitriptan.

    PubMed

    Shiledar, Rewathi R; Tagalpallewar, Amol A; Kokare, Chandrakant R

    2014-01-30

    A novel bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patch of zolmitriptan was prepared using xanthan gum (XG) as mucoadhesive polymer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E-15 was used as film-former and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was incorporated, to increase the tensile strength of the patches. To study the effect of independent variables viz. concentrations of XG and PVA, on various dependent variables like in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and swelling index, 3(2) factorial design was employed. In vitro drug release studies of optimized formulation showed initially, rapid drug release; 43.15% within 15 min, followed by sustained release profile over 5h. Incorporation of 4% dimethyl sulfoxide enhanced drug permeability by 3.29 folds, transported 29.10% of drug after 5h and showed no buccal mucosal damage after histopathological studies. In conclusion, XG can be used as a potential drug release modifier and mucoadhesive polymer for successful formulation of zolmitriptan buccal patches. PMID:24299896

  11. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power. PMID:22531616

  12. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (p<0.007). Nearly all implant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (p<0.046) although the difference was not significant for the Ti implant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  13. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  14. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors.

  15. Aphtose buccale récidivante, et si c'était une maladie coeliaque

    PubMed Central

    Zinelabidine, Kaoutar; Rhizlane, Idrissi; Meziane, Meriame; Zahra Mernissi, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    L'aphtose buccale récidivante est une maladie le plus souvent bénigne mais parfois invalidante qui évolue de façon chronique et récidivante. Elle peut être isolée ou associé à d'autre pathologie, d'où l'intérêt de la recherche d'une maladie sous jacente. Nous rapportons le cas d'une aphtose buccale récidivante révélant une maladie coeliaque chez une patiente âgée de 45 ans. PMID:23077709

  16. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  17. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  18. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  19. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision-and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  20. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86....

  1. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86....

  2. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86....

  3. 40 CFR 1045.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle or Large SI programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (i) Change any fuel-system or evaporative-system parameters from the certified configuration (this... SYSTEM DEPENDS ON THE USE OF FUEL MEETING SPECIFICATIONS THAT APPLY FOR MOTOR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS... marine engine cooling system so that temperatures or heat rejection rates are outside the original...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle...

  7. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... this section. Engines exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40...

  9. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... this section. Engines exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40...

  10. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86....

  11. Adapted physical activities for the intellectually challenged adolescent: psychomotor characteristics and implications for programming and motor intervention.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Hezkiah

    2005-01-01

    Intellectually challenged adolescents with varying degrees of functioning share common behavioral and psychomotor characteristics. A specially designed instructional approach and positive social attitude are necessary when dealing with this population. Research reveals that many of these individuals have developmental delays in the acquisition of basic motor skills. When compared as a group to their non-handicapped peers, intellectually challenged adolescents display low physical fitness and have perceptual-motor difficulties, which affect their learning. The major difficulty these individuals are faced with stems from language comprehension barriers and their failure to grasp instructions. In addition, some possess physical characteristics, which pose constraints in learning and performing of motor skills. A social attitude of equality and acceptance plays a major role in their successful inclusion in society. Researchers agree that the limitations mentioned above, affect the motivation of these individuals and lead to a lack of opportunity for regular participation in movement, physical activities and sports. This situation leads to low performance in the motor domain and in other areas as well. This article describes the behavioral and psychomotor characteristics of intellectually challenged individuals and offers general and specific recommendations for instruction and intervention. PMID:15900810

  12. FY2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  13. Buccal absorption of ergotamine tartrate using the bioadhesive tablet system in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Keiko; Obata, Yasuko; Nagai, Tsuneji; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Takayama, Kozo

    2002-05-15

    The buccal administration of ergotamine tartrate (ET) combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel brought about higher plasma concentration of ET compared with that of oral administration of capsules in guinea-pigs. T(max) of ET in plasma of buccal administration was significantly smaller than that of oral administration. For the buccal dosage form of ET, the bioadhesive tablet system (BTS) was newly developed. It consisted of a reservoir of drug and an adhesive region. BTS showed better absorption of ET compared with PVA gel in guinea pigs. Among several pharmaceutical bases in the reservoir of BTS, Witepsol W-35 was most effective. It is likely that the high lipophilic property of Witepsol W-35 in which ET was dissolved facilitated the drug release by its relatively low melting point (around 35 degrees C), consequently a rapid absorption. In addition, the enhancing activity of the cod-liver oil extract (CLOE) in hydrophilic ointment on the in vivo buccal ET absorption was clarified to be comparable to that in the in vitro study utilizing the keratinized epithelial-free membrane (KEF-membrane) of the hamster cheek pouch. PMID:11996820

  14. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ..., 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale.... The 1984 amendments include what is now section 505(j)(7) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  15. Connexin dynamics in the privileged wound healing of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicola G; Phillips, Anthony; Becker, David L

    2013-01-01

    Wound closure is fundamental to maintaining tissue homeostasis; a plethora of processes and signals must be coordinated, and gap junctions play a critical role. Some tissues exhibit privileged healing, such as buccal mucosa, repairing more rapidly, but gap junction connexin dynamics during wound healing in such tissues have not been investigated. To determine connexin changes during this rapid healing process, incisional wounds were made in the cheeks of mice and microscopically observed. We discovered that buccal mucosa wound edge keratinocytes do not form a thin tongue of migratory cells like epidermis; instead, a wedge of cells rapidly moves into the wound. The dorsal surfaces of opposing sides of the wounds then touch and join in a "V," which subsequently fills up with cells to form a "delta" that remodels into a flat sheet. Immunostaining showed that connexin26, connexin30, and connexin43 are expressed at significantly higher levels in the buccal mucosa than the epidermis and that, unlike the skin, all three are rapidly down-regulated at the wound edge within 6 hours of wounding. This rapid down-regulation of all three connexins may in part underlie the rapid healing of the buccal mucosa. PMID:23627777

  16. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  17. Engineering poly(ethylene oxide) buccal films with cyclodextrin: a novel role for an old excipient?

    PubMed

    Miro, Agnese; d'Angelo, Ivana; Nappi, Antonella; La Manna, Pietro; Biondi, Marco; Mayol, Laura; Musto, Pellegrino; Russo, Roberto; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2013-08-16

    Inspired by the multiple roles cyclodextrins can play in polymeric systems, here we engineered poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) films with (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (CD) as multipurpose ingredient. To shed light on the potential of CD in formulating PEO buccal films for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, we preliminarily assessed thermal and mechanical properties as well as wettability of films prepared at different PEO/CD ratios. PEO/CD platform containing 54% by weight of CD was chosen as the optimized composition since it matched acceptable mechanical properties, in terms of tensile strength and elasticity, with a good wettability. The platform was tested as buccal delivery system for triamcinolone acetonide (TrA), a lipophilic synthetic corticosteroid sparely water soluble. Confocal Raman imaging clearly showed that CD was homogeneously (i.e. molecularly) dispersed in PEO. Nevertheless, homogenous drug distribution in the film without TrA crystallization occurred only in the presence of CD. Finally, CD-containing PEO film placed in simulated buccal fluids provided a useful speed-up of TrA release rate while showing slower dissolution as compared to PEO film. These results, as well as compliance with quality specifications of pharmaceutical manufacturing products, strongly support the soundness of the strategy and prompt toward further applications of PEO/CD films in buccal drug delivery. PMID:23707963

  18. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and biocompatible hydrogel system for buccal drug delivery. PMID:25453967

  19. Characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, I; Kaneda, T; Sasaki, Y; Sekiya, K; Tokunaga, S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of buccal space tumorous and non-tumorous lesions. Methods: 48 patients with buccal space lesions were evaluated with greyscale sonography followed by power Doppler sonography with a 12 MHz linear transducer. On greyscale sonography, buccal space lesions were assessed for the boundary (clear or unclear), echogenicity (hypoechoic or isoechoic) and internal architecture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Power Doppler sonography was performed to evaluate the vascular signals within the buccal space lesions. Results: 48 lesions were found in the 48 patients; of these 48 lesions, 28 were tumourous and 20 were non-tumourous. In the 28 tumours, 15 cases showed clear boundaries, 15 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 22 cases presented with a heterogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. The internal vascularity of 19 tumours was shown using power Doppler sonography. In the 20 non-tumorous lesions, 11 cases showed clear boundaries, 17 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 13 cases presented with a homogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. 18 non-tumorous lesions showed no internal vascularity using power Doppler sonography. Logistic multivariate regression analysis between the tumour group and the non-tumorous lesions group demonstrated that the internal architecture (odds ratio = 8.270, p = 0.029) and vascular signals (odds ratio = 17.533, p = 0.003) were significant variables. Conclusions: Power Doppler sonography is a useful technique for the differential diagnosis of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions. PMID:23520393

  20. Effects of female sex hormones on adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to the buccal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, E G; Anokhina, I V; Rybas, Ya A; Sachivkina, N P; Ermolaev, A V; Brodskaya, S B

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of receptor expression and glycogen concentrations in the epithelial cells of the oral cavity remains poorly studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to the vaginal epithelium correlates with their adhesion to the buccal epithelium. Analysis of the correlation between Candida adhesion to the vaginal and buccal epithelium depending on the hormonal status has demonstrated that activity of Candida albicans strains in the buccal epithelium correlates with their adhesion activity in the vaginal epithelium, with the coefficient of correlations (r) reaching 0.76. PMID:24958376

  1. Motor Starters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  2. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  3. Challenges in motor vehicle safety.

    PubMed

    Waller, Patricia F

    2002-01-01

    Reductions in motor vehicle injury and death represent a major public health success. Since the advent of the federal program in highway safety in 1966, motor vehicle deaths have dropped dramatically, not only in rates per miles driven but also in absolute numbers. Key to this success has been the broad-based comprehensive approach promoted by the program's first administrator, a public health physician. The federal program provided leadership and coordination that leveraged national, state, and local programs to bring about safer vehicles, improved traffic records, more effective enforcement, enormously improved emergency medical services, more responsible judicial systems, and many other accomplishments. Although progress has been made on many fronts, major areas addressed here include federal motor vehicle safety standards, alcohol safety programs, occupant restraint laws and usage, and speed limits. The achievements in motor vehicle safety provide a model for other injury control efforts. PMID:11910056

  4. [Status of the buccal mucosa in subjects occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxyherbicides].

    PubMed

    Chemikosova, T S; Kamalova, O A; Ibragimova, Z N

    2004-01-01

    Examinations of workers engaged in the production of chlorophenoxyherbicides showed high prevalence of diseases of the buccal and labial mucosa with a trend to development of hyperkeratosis (exfoliative cheilitis, hyperkeratosis of the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa (BM), flat form of the BM and red lip leukoplakia). Cytogenetic effects of toxins on BM result in an increase of keratinization level, higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities, and appearance of the micronuclei in BM epithelium. A direct relationship between the severity of these symptoms, duration of exposure, and intensity of workers' contact with chlorophenoxyherbicides was revealed. The complex of noninvasive and atraumatic methods used in our study helped evaluate the BM status and can be used not only for visual examination, but also for the diagnosis of transformation of the defense reaction of the epithelium into pathological process and for preclinical detection of precancer changes in BM. PMID:15021869

  5. Evaluation of intraoral complications of buccal mucosa graft in augmentation urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Güneş, Mustafa; Koca, Orhan; Sertkaya, Zülfü; Kanberoğlu, Hüseyin; Karaman, Muhammet İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate intraoral complications of buccal mucosa grafts harvested from one cheek, and used in augmentation urethroplasty. Material and methods: Twenty-one patients with anterior urethral strictures were included in our study. In twelve patients, dorsal onlay, in five patients ventral onlay and in four patients lateral onlay procedures were applied. Average length of buccal mucosa graft from one cheek was 5.2 cm (3–8 cm). In all graft harvesting patients, bleeding in graft side, swelling, pain intensity of oral or perineal area, analgesic use, transition time to normal diet, slurred speech, loss of sensation, and patients’ opinions about oral mucosa regrafting using this technique were evaluated using nine-item questionnaire forms. Results: Eighteen (85.7%) of our patients had mild pain, 13 (61.9%) had mild intraoral swelling, none of our patients had oral bleeding that needed extra procedure and all of our patients were observed to start off their normal diet in the first 3 days. Twelve (57.1%) of our patients needed analgesic agents after the operation while 14 (66.7%) of them have remarked that perineal incision was more painful. Twenty (95.3%) of our patients stated that they could go under the same procedure again. None of our patients had speech disorders or intraoral numbness. Conclusion: Even though buccal mucosal grafting used in augmentation urethroplasty is not a completely painless procedure, buccal mucosa graft is an ideal source of allograft in terms of safe and easy obtainance and improved patient tolerance. PMID:26328170

  6. Evaluation of the scatter doses in the direction of the buccal mucosa from dental metals.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Sumida, Iori; Kakimoto, Naoya; Marutani, Keisuke; Okahata, Ryoko; Usami, Ai; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    The presence of dental metals creates radiation dose perturbation due to scattered radiation during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. The purpose of our study was to compare the scatter doses resulting from various dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa among a single-field technique, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. We used nine metal cubes with 10 mm sides, which were placed inside a water phantom. The scatter doses from the cubes in the direction of the buccal mucosa were measured using radiochromic films. The films were placed perpendicularly to the surface of the cubes. The phantom was irradiated with a 4 MV photon energy by a linear accelerator for all techniques. In the single-field technique, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 3.7%-19.3% dose increases, and gold showed the largest dose increase. In 3D CRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 1.4%-6.9% dose increases, which were within the measurement uncertainty (except for gold). In IMRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed only 1.4%-4.3% dose increases, which were all within the measurement uncertainty. During radiation therapy for the head and neck region, the scatter doses from the tested dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT or IMRT were lower than those using the single-field technique. However, there were no differences between the scatter doses resulting from particular dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT and those in IMRT, except for gold. PMID:26103496

  7. Functional morphology of the cephalopod buccal mass: a novel joint type.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Theodore A; Kier, William M

    2005-05-01

    The arrangement of the musculature and connective tissues of the buccal mass of the coleoid cephalopods Octopus bimaculoides, Sepia officinalis, and Loliguncula brevis was examined using dissection and histology. Serial sections in three mutually perpendicular planes were used to identify the muscles and connective tissues responsible for beak movements and stability and to describe their morphology and fiber trajectories. Four major beak muscles were identified: the anterior, posterior, superior, and lateral mandibular muscles. The anterior, posterior, and superior mandibular muscles connect the upper beak and the lower beak. Although the lateral mandibular muscles originate on the upper beak, they do not connect to the lower beak and instead insert on a connective tissue sheath surrounding the buccal mass. Examination of the fibers of the lateral mandibular muscles reveals that they have the organization of a muscular hydrostat, with muscle fibers oriented in three mutually perpendicular orientations. Although the beaks are capable of complex opening, closing, and shearing movements, they do not contact one another and are instead connected only by the musculature of the buccal mass. Based on the morphological analysis and observations of freshly dissected beaks undergoing the stereotyped bite cycle, the functional role of the beak muscles is hypothesized. The anterior and superior mandibular muscles are likely responsible for beak closing and shearing movements. The posterior mandibular muscle is likely also involved in beak closing, but may act synergistically with the lateral mandibular muscles to open the beaks. The lateral mandibular muscles may use a muscular-hydrostatic mechanism to control the location of the pivot between the beaks and to generate the force required for beak opening. The lack of contact between the beaks and the morphology of the lateral mandibular muscles suggests that the buccal mass of coleoid cephalopods may represent a previously unexamined flexible joint mechanism. The term "muscle articulation" is proposed here to denote the importance of the musculature in the function of such a joint. PMID:15789421

  8. Use of overlapping buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for complex anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complex anterior urethral stricture disease typically manifests as a symptomatic, severely narrowed, long stricture (or multiple strictures) in which conventional excision and/or augmentation is not feasible. Overlapping buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (OBMGU) is an innovative hybrid technique, combining the well-established principles of dorsal and ventral graft augmentation to allow single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. In this review, we discuss the rationale, techniques, and outcomes of OBMGU for complex anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26813234

  9. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  10. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  11. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  12. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum of the buccal mucosa: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Park, Bong-Wook

    2014-10-01

    Angiokeratoma is a benign cutaneous lesion of the capillaries, presenting as dilated vessels in the upper part of the dermis. Although this disorder is classified into various types and has been occasionally reported in the skin of the scrotum or extremities, the involvement of the oral cavity mucosa has been rarely reported. The present study reports a case of angiokeratoma circumscriptum in the buccal mucosa. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and both of its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the endothelial cells lining the dilated vessels. The expression of VEGFR-2 was higher than that of VEGFR-1 in the endothelial cells in the lesion, indicating an increased rate of endothelial cell proliferation within the lesion. Interestingly, some of the endothelial cells co-expressed VEGF and its two receptors. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the pathologically dilated vessels possess VEGF autocrine growth activity involved in vasculogenesis and maintenance in angiokeratoma lesions. To our knowledge, this is the second report published on isolated oral angiokeratoma confined to the buccal mucosa and the first case report on angiokeratoma circumscriptum involving the buccal mucosa. PMID:25368837

  13. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktunc, Erol; Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Altinyazar, Cevdet; Koca, Rafet; Bostan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet's disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet's disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients' cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls' cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet's disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques. PMID:27088074

  14. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  15. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  16. Visibility of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations using different radiographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Murat, S; Kamburoğlu, K; Isayev, A; Kurşun, S; Yüksel, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess intraoral images and two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. Class V cavities were made for composite (30 teeth) and amalgam (30 teeth). Full restorations with thermoplastic polymer (30 teeth) and nickel-chromium metal crown (30 teeth) were constructed. In 60 teeth, artificial buccal recurrent caries were simulated; 60 other teeth served as controls. Intraoral film, intraoral digital, Veraviewepocs 3D, and Kodak 9000 images were scored twice. κ Coefficients were calculated and Az values were compared using Z-tests, with a significance level of α=0.05. Higher interobserver agreement was obtained from the CBCT images compared with the intraoral images. The Az values of both readings of all three observers were highest for the Veraviewepocs 3D followed by Kodak 9000 except for the second reading of the third observer. CBCT outperformed intraoral radiography in detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. PMID:22917443

  17. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of nano based drug delivery system for the buccal delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2015-12-01

    Oral bioavailability of acyclovir is limited, primarily because of low permeability across the gastrointestinal membrane. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of buccal films impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system to improve systemic bioavailability. Acyclovir polymeric nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanospheres were embedded into buccoadhesive films (A1-A4) comprising of different concentrations of polymers (Eudragit RL 100, HPMC K15 and carbopol 974P). Films were characterized for physico-mechanical properties, mucoadhesive strength, hydration, drug release and ex vivo permeation. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of buccal film (A3) as compared to oral therapy. The prepared films demonstrated excellent physical properties, adequate hydration and buccoadhesive strength. In vitro drug release data inferred that the drug release was dependent on the composition of film. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated greater flux in film A3. In vivo studies revealed a significant enhancement in absorption of acyclovir (P<0.0001) with Cmax (∼3 folds) and AUC0-α (∼8 folds, P<0.0001) when compared to oral dosing. Moreover, the extended Tmax value (6h) signifies the potential of the prepared film to prolong acyclovir delivery. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film (A3) impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of acyclovir. PMID:26547315

  19. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  20. Study protocol: an early intervention program to improve motor outcome in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial and a qualitative study of physiotherapy performance and parental experiences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge about early physiotherapy to preterm infants is sparse, given the risk of delayed motor development and cerebral palsy. Methods/Design A pragmatic randomized controlled study has been designed to assess the effect of a preventative physiotherapy program carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit. Moreover, a qualitative study is carried out to assess the physiotherapy performance and parents' experiences with the intervention. The aim of the physiotherapy program is to improve motor development i.e. postural control and selective movements in these infants. 150 infants will be included and randomized to either intervention or standard follow-up. The infants in the intervention group will be given specific stimulation to facilitate movements based on the individual infant's development, behavior and needs. The physiotherapist teaches the parents how to do the intervention and the parents receive a booklet with photos and descriptions of the intervention. Intervention is carried out twice a day for three weeks (week 34, 35, 36 postmenstrual age). Standardized tests are carried out at baseline, term age and at three, six, 12 and 24 months corrected age. In addition eight triads (infant, parent and physiotherapist) are observed and videotaped in four clinical encounters each to assess the process of physiotherapy performance. The parents are also interviewed on their experiences with the intervention and how it influences on the parent-child relationship. Eight parents from the follow up group are interviewed about their experience. The interviews are performed according to the same schedule as the standardized measurements. Primary outcome is at two years corrected age. Discussion The paper presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effect of physiotherapy to preterm infants at neonatal intensive care units. It also studies physiotherapy performance and the parent's experiences with the intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01089296 PMID:22336194

  1. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  2. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  3. Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program

  4. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  5. Chaotic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, C.; Labbé, R.; Pétrélis, F.; Fauve, S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that electric motors and dynamos can be used to illustrate most elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses on nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. These examples are easier to understand and display a richer behavior than the ones commonly used from mechanics, electronics, hydrodynamics, lasers, chemical reactions, and population dynamics. In particular, an electric motor driven by a dynamo can display stationary, Hopf, and codimension-two bifurcations by tuning the driving speed of the dynamo and the electric current in the stator of the electric motor. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque instead of constant rotation rate, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. Simple deterministic models are presented which capture the observed dynamical regimes.

  6. Buccal delivery of methimazole as an alternative means for improvement of drug bioavailability: permeation studies and matrix system design.

    PubMed

    De Caro, Viviana; Giandalia, Giulia; Siragusa, Maria Gabriella; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for systemic administration of Methimazole (MMI) through the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for drug delivery. Considering that the most important restriction in buccal drug delivery could be the low permeability of the mucosa, the ability of MMI to cross the mucosal barrier was assessed. Permeation of MMI through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated ex vivo using Franz type diffusion cells, buffer solution simulating saliva or natural human saliva as donor phase. The collected data suggested that buccal mucosa does not hinder MMI diffusion and the drug crosses the membrane (J(s) = 0.068 mg cm(-2) h(-1) and K(p) = 0.065 cm h(-1)). Matrix tablets, suitable for administration on buccal mucosa, were then designed and prepared by direct compression of MMI loaded matrices (70% w/w) using Eudragit(®) RS 100 as a matrixing, low permeable, pH-independent, mucoadhesive and insoluble agent. The matrix tablets were evaluated in vitro for dissolution; however, the drug was discharged too rapidly from tablets. To obtain drug release rate suitable to maintain constant drug levels in the central compartment the tablets were coated with lipophilic material (glycerol tristearate). In ex vivo permeation experiments, therapeutically MMI plasma levels were obtained when matrix tablets were coated with 0.10 mm thick lipophilic coating film. Coated tablets placed on buccal porcine mucosa provide optimal drug release rate. Coated buccal matrix tablets may represent a potential alternative dosage form for systemic delivery of MMI in hyperthyroidism management. PMID:22632389

  7. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  8. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,

  9. The Comparative Motor and Affective Benefits of Three Physical Education Programming Techniques Used with Emotionally Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul A.; And Others

    The effectiveness of three methods of physical education programing for improving the physical performance and reducing undesirable behavior of 96 emotionally disturbed boys (ages 8 to 14 years) was studied in an 8-week summer camp setting. Subjects were initially diagnosed and grouped by psychiatrists as aggressive, hyperactive, or withdrawn.…

  10. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because cannot exclude completely the migration of superficial tissues. In following experiments it was shown that the intensive pressure on the cheek area in vertical position produce the volume excess in the temporal area similar and more exaggerate than in gravity test. To correlate the excess of tissue with underlying anatomical structures we had acquired the CT's of some probationers, performed 3D reconstruction of bony structures, Bichat fat pad, and aligned with the previous surface scans. The projection of this excess in both experiments corresponds with the temporal process of Bichat fat pad. That means that the leading mechanism of these changes is protrusion of temporal process of Bichat fat pad through the leaves of temporal fascia due to pressure on the buccal extension: in these conditions, the buccal fat pad works as a communicating vessel between the cheek area and temporal fossa. This fact has suggested us that the phenomenon of the deepening of temporal area during the ageing could be produced as by the atrophy of buccal fat pad as by the migration of the fat pad to the cheek area due to ptosis.

  11. Balancing speed and efficiency in motor selection

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, B.; Shepard, M.

    1993-12-31

    Motor speed can be just as important as efficiency in selecting the most economical induction motor to drive so-called ``cube-law`` loads such as HVAC fans or centrifugal pumps. The amount of energy used in these loads is very sensitive to rotational speed. An increase in motor efficiency can be quickly negated by the extra energy consumed by a faster turning cube-law load. For induction motors, operating speed is always less than the synchronous speed, the familiar round number usually associated with motors (1,200 rpm, 1,800 rpm, 3,600 rpm and so on). The difference between the synchronous speed of an induction motor -- how fast it would spin if the rotor kept perfect pace with the rotating magnetic field that it is chasing -- and the rotor`s actual speed of rotation is called ``slip.`` Slip ranges from about half a percent of the synchronous speed in large motors to over 5 percent in small units; the higher the slip, the slower the motor. Induction motors of identical synchronous speed can differ significantly in operating speed. Most utility motor programs provide incentives simply on the basis of motor efficiency, ignoring the potential impact of a motor`s speed on the system`s energy use. In many cases, then, utilities are overestimating the energy savings in motor installations on cube-law loads.

  12. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1181-1192, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355705

  13. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  14. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Bugarín, O; Covarrubias‐Bugarín, R; Zamora‐Perez, A L; Torres‐Mendoza, B M G; García‐Ulloa, M; Martínez‐Sandoval, F G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n = 6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n = 5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6 weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

  15. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID:25657792

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of buccal tablet formulations of ritodrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Sakata, Osamu; Yumoto, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80 mg and with hardness of greater than 30 N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4 mg)/LC (38.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg) and RD-HCl (4 mg)/AL(7 mg)/LC (28.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15 min to 7 h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80 ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1 h to 7 h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7 h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels. PMID:26027834

  17. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations. PMID:26596545

  18. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  19. In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-02-01

    Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

  20. In vivo, in vitro evaluation of linseed mucilage based buccal mucoadhesive microspheres of venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Nerkar, Pankaj Padmakar; Gattani, Surendra

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to extract linseed mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent and to develop mucoadhesive microspheres for buccal delivery with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Linseed mucilage was extracted and used to prepare microspheres with varying concentrations of mucilage from formulation F1-F4 (1-2.5%) by spray-drying technique. The microspheres were evaluated for the yield, particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling property, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, histological study, and stability. Microspheres were characterized by differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction study. Further, the bioavailability study using the New Zealand rabbits was carried out. Formulation F4 showed the maximum mucoadhesion 89.37 ± 1.35%, 92.10 ± 1.37% incorporation efficiency, highest swelling index 0.770 ± 1.23. F4 showed a marked increase in the bioavailability after buccal administration (51.86 ± 3.95) as compared to oral route (39.60 ± 6.16). Also it took less time to reach maximum plasma concentration of 21.38 ± 1.05 ng/ml as compared to oral solution where it required 180 min to reach maximum plasma concentration of 17.98 ± 1.14. It is concluded from the results that linseed mucilage can be used in the production of the mucoadhesive microspheres. PMID:20954808

  1. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  2. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Hoon, Bas; Monkhorst, Kim; Riegman, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for every female individual, and can influence an X-encoded trait or disease. A multitude of X linked conditions is known, and for many of them it is recognised that the phenotype in affected female carriers of the causative mutation is modulated by the XCI ratio. To predict disease severity an XCI ratio is usually determined in peripheral blood samples. However, the correlation between XCI ratios in peripheral blood and disease affected tissues, that are often inaccessible, is poorly understood. Here, we tested several tissues obtained from autopsies of 12 female individuals for patch size and XCI ratio. Methods XCI ratios were analysed using methyl-sensitive PCR-based assays for the AR, PCSK1N and SLITRK4 loci. XCI patch size was analysed by testing the XCI ratio of tissue samples with decreasing size. Results XCI patch size was analysed for liver, muscle, ovary and brain samples and was found too small to confound testing for XCI ratio in these tissues. XCI ratios were determined in the easily accessible tissues, blood, buccal epithelium and hair follicle, and compared with ratios in several inaccessible tissues. Conclusions Buccal epithelium is preferable over peripheral blood for predicting XCI ratios of inaccessible tissues. Ovary is the only inaccessible tissue showing a poor correlation to blood and buccal epithelium, but has a good correlation to hair follicle instead. PMID:26220467

  3. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the regular use of headphones. PMID:27135009

  4. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography. PMID:27034764

  5. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  6. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  7. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  8. [Prevascularization of an in vitro buccal mucosa equivalent for regeneration of the urethra].

    PubMed

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E; Stein, R; Thüroff, J W; Brenner, W

    2015-08-01

    For reconstructive interventions on the urethra the use of autologous buccal mucosa has a proven value. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro preparation which is already infiltrated by capillary-like structures and is more rapidly incorporated after implantation. Commercially available collagen matrices which have been approved for use in humans were used as the substrate. Application possibilities of such artificial tissue in addition to reconstruction of the urethra include coverage of large defects in the oral, neck, nasal and aural areas, in gynecology and in ophthalmology. PMID:26246208

  9. Palatopharyngoplasty with bilateral buccal mucosal graft repair to alleviate oropharyngeal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Jared J; Vaughn, Cory A; Shaikh, Faisal A; Stocks, Rose Mary; Thompson, Jerome W

    2015-09-01

    Oropharyngeal stenosis is rare, but known complication from tonsillectomy procedure. A 15-year-old female presented with refractory dyspnea, mild obstructive sleep apnea, and dysphagia. She underwent tonsillectomy 3 years prior. Severe cicatricial oropharyngeal scar involving soft palate, anterior tonsillar pillars, and base of tongue, resulted in 1-cm(2) airway. Case report describing lysis of severe palatopharyngeal scar bands from tonsillectomy misadventure with immediate buccal mucosal grafts to repair resultant oropharyngeal defects. Patient no longer complains of difficulty breathing or dysphagia. PMID:26145205

  10. Conscious and anaesthetised Gttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jrgensen, Erling B; Holm, Ren

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Gttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Gttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55??5 and 35??5?min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120??0 and 165??15?min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7??4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets. PMID:24724915

  11. Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad in 1 year old child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gadipelly, Srinivas; Sudheer, M V S; Neshangi, Srisha; Harsha, G; Reddy, Vijaybaskar

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad (BFP) is very rare, usually seen in infants and young children ranging from 5 months to 12 years of age. Etiology will be blunt injury to buccal mucosa from foreign objects or trauma due to teeth and fall. The suckling activity in infants may also encourage the herniation following trauma. A minor injury or perforation to the buccal mucosa can cause herniation of BFP. The size of herniated mass is very large when compared to the size of the perforation. The history of trauma, absence of prolapse before the injury, its occurrence in infants and young children, specific anatomic sites and location of perforation in mucosa, histopathological appearance of adipose tissue are the characteristic features important for diagnosing the condition. The treatment options for the herniated BFP are usually excision. Alternative to excision is repositioning of the herniated fat in its anatomical location if noticed early. PMID:25848153

  12. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  13. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet.

    PubMed

    Freye, Enno

    2008-01-01

    Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH "pumping" mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

  14. Motor Ability and the Deaf: Research Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennella, Lou

    1979-01-01

    Research studies have indicated that the deaf are inferior to the hearing in motor ability, including the components of static and dynamic balance performance. Also, the deaf can improve their motor performance. In addition to a well-rounded physical education program, a program of gymnastics can meet the special needs of students with balance,…

  15. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  16. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  17. Language and motor control.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Bertolani, L; Daprati, E; Gangitano, M

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the possible influence of automatic word reading on processes of visuo-motor transformation. Subjects reached and grasped an object on which the following Italian words were printed: "VICINO" (near) or "LONTAN" (far) on an object either near or far from the agent (experiments 1, 2); PICCOLO (small) or "GRANDE" (large) on either a small or a large object (experiment 4); and "ALTO" (high) or "BASSO" (low) on either a high or a low object (experiment 5). The kinematics of the initial phase of reaching-grasping was affected by the meaning of the printed words. Namely, subjects automatically associated the meaning of the word with the corresponding property of the object and activated a reach and/or a grasp motor program influenced by the word. No effect on initial reach kinematics was observed for words related to object properties not directly involved in reach control (experiment 3). Moreover, in all the experiments, the presented words poorly influenced perceptual judgement of object properties. In experiments 5-7, the effects of the Italian adjectives "ALTO" (high) and "BASSO" (low) on reaching-grasping control were compared with those of the Italian adverbs "SOPRA" (up) and "SOTTO" (down). Adjectives influenced visual analysis of target-object properties, whereas adverbs more directly influenced the control of the action. We suggest that these effects resemble the structure of a sentence, where adjectives are commonly referred to nouns, and adverbs to verbs. In other words, class of words and, in a broad sense, grammar influenced motor control. The results of the present study show that cognitive functions such as language can affect visuo-motor transformation. They are discussed according to the notion that a strict relation between language and motor control exists, and that the frontal cortex can be involved in interactions between automatic word reading and visuo-motor transformation. PMID:10985682

  18. Buccal smear

    MedlinePlus

    This test is done to get cells for chromosome or DNA analysis, most often for genetic testing. This test may also help establish sexual identity. When the test is used in this way, it's called the sex chromatin test.

  19. Buccal microRNA dysregulation in lung field carcinogenesis: Gender-specific implications

    PubMed Central

    WALI, RAMESH K.; HENSING, THOMAS A.; RAY, DANIEL W.; DELA CRUZ, MART; TIWARI, ASHISH K.; RADOSEVICH, ANDREW; JEPEAL, LISA; FERNANDO, HIRAN C.; LITLE, VIRGINIA R.; CHARLOT, MARJORY; MOMI, NAVNEET; BACKMAN, VADIM; ROY, HEMANT K.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be reliable early biomarkers in a variety of cancers including that of lung. We ascertained whether the biomarker potential of miRNAs could be validated in microscopically normal and easily accessible buccal epithelial brushings from cigarette smokers as a consequence of lung cancer linked ‘field carcinogenesis’. We found that compared to neoplasia-free subjects, a panel of 68 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 downregulated in the normal appearing buccal mucosal cells collected from patients harboring lung cancer (n=76). The performance characteristics of selected miRNAs (with ≥1-fold change) were excellent with an average under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of >0.80. Several miRNAs also displayed gender specificity between the groups. These results provide the first proof-of-concept scenario in which minimally intrusive cheek brushings could provide an initial screening tool in a large at-risk population. PMID:24919547

  20. Anthocyanin structure determines susceptibility to microbial degradation and bioavailability to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Failla, Mark L; Kumar, Purnima S; Giusti, M Mónica

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids with reported chemoprotective activities in the oral cavity. However, information about their stability, metabolism, and tissue uptake in the mouth is limited. Anthocyanin chemical structure was recently shown to affect their stability ex vivo in saliva, and it was hypothesized that structure may affect their availability in oral tissues in vivo. Here, 12 healthy individuals retained red grape or chokeberry juice in the mouth for 5 min. Anthocyanin stability, mucus binding, and uptake into epithelial cells were evaluated. Loss of delphinidin-3-glucoside in red grape juice exceeded that of other anthocyanin-glucosides, and lesser amounts of delphinidin- and petunidin-glucosides were associated with buccal scraping, suggesting the loss was due to degradation. In chokeberry juice, loss of cyanidin-3-xyloside exceeded that of other anthocyanins, whereas cyanidin-3-glucoside preferentially accumulated in epithelium cells. These results suggest that anthocyanin structure affects stability and buccal cell uptake and therefore the potential efficacy of anthocyanin-rich products for the promotion of oral health. PMID:24579959

  1. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

  2. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  3. Carvedilol-loaded mucoadhesive buccal tablets: influence of various mucoadhesive polymers on drug release behavior.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal; Bangale, Ganesh Shesrao; Ananthi, Jesudoss Jeya; Sivakumar, Vellaichamy; Vinothapooshan, Ganesan; Palanivelu, Madasamy; Viswanathan, Mabepalli Byrappagowbu

    2009-01-01

    The major objectives of the current study were (i) to prepare carvedilol-loaded buccal tablets by direct compression technique, and (ii) to study the influence of low and high proportions of sodium carboxy methylcellulose (SCMC) in conjunction with the corresponding high and low proportions of sodium alginate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-K-30), carbopol 974P, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the basic properties (hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness uniformity, drug content, mucoadhesive strength, surface pH, swelling property, and drug release behavior) of the tablets. Altering the polymer combinations did not affect the physical properties of the buccal tablets. However, the presence of SCMC and sodium alginate at 1:2 ratio in the tablet showed a sustained drug release. In addition, this polymer combination at 2:1 ratio did release the drug completely during the stipulated dissolution time. Swelling study indicated the tablet structure collapse over time at 2:1 polymer ratio, thus exposing the drug molecules directly to the dissolution medium to attain the complete drug release from the SCMC and sodium alginate-based tablets. On the other hand, whatever the polymer ratios, the SCMC and carbopol 974P combination always retarded the drug release in an almost similar manner. Though the SCMC- and carbopol 974P-based tablets did display an impressive mucoadhesion property, the surface pH value determined for this polymer combination was found to decrease considerably due to the liberation of the free carboxylic acid over the time period. PMID:20069792

  4. Cytogenetic Biomonitoring in Buccal Mucosa Cells from Women Submitted to Chemotherapy After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina Flygare; DA Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Seixas, Camila; DE Oliveira Scudeller, Tania Terezinha; DO Amaral, Maria Teresa Pace; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-04-01

    In addition to surgery, one of the most widely applied treatments for breast cancer is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is currently considered efficient in curing this disease; however, the therapy may induce damage to the patient's genetic material. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate putative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 42 women, aged 18 to 70 years, allocated according to the diagnosis and stage of breast cancer treatment: control group (healthy) (n=15), chemotherapy group (n=11) and post-chemotherapy group (n=16). Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were analyzed by the micronucleus test in buccal mucosa cells. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of micronucleated cells was detected in the chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy groups when compared to the control. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of karyorrhexis and pyknosis in the chemotherapy group was also noted. Taken together, our results indicate that chemotherapy induces mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal mucosa cells of women diagnosed with breast cancer, being persistent after finishing their treatment. PMID:27069186

  5. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  6. Mucoadhesive films containing chitosan-coated nanoparticles: a new strategy for buccal curcumin release.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Letícia; Borsali, Redouane; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2014-11-01

    Mucoadhesive films containing curcumin-loaded nanoparticles were developed, aiming to prolong the residence time of the dosage form in the oral cavity and to increase drug absorption through the buccal mucosa. Films were prepared by the casting method after incorporation of curcumin-loaded chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles into plasticized chitosan solutions. Different molar masses of mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan and concentrations of plasticizer glycerol were used to optimize the preparation conditions. Films obtained using medium and high molar mass chitosan were found to be homogeneous and flexible. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the film surface, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) images. Analyses of film cross sections using FEG-SEM demonstrate the presence of nanoparticles inside the films. In addition, films proved to have a good rate of hydration in simulated saliva solution, displaying a maximum swelling of around 80% and in vitro prolonged-controlled delivery of curcumin. These results indicate that the mucoadhesive films containing nanoparticles offer a promising approach for buccal delivery of curcumin, which may be particularly useful in the treatment of periodontal diseases that require a sustained drug delivery. PMID:25187001

  7. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Madgulkar, A.; Kadam, S.; Pokharkar, V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  8. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  9. Biopolymeric film containing bioactive naphthoquinone (shikonin) in combined therapy of inflammatory destructive lesions in the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnyaya, E B; Oskol'skii, G I; Basharov, A Ya; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Zagorodnii, A S

    2013-12-01

    Clinical morphological efficiency of local application of a new biopolymeric film was studied. The film was based on methylcellulose derivatives and contained shikonin (preparation of plant origin) and its esters isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon L. cell culture. Combined therapy of 30 patients (34-72 years) with erosive ulcerative lichen planus and leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa was carried out. Local application of the new drug led to more rapid pain relief, epithelialization of the inflammatory destructive foci in the buccal mucosa, and reduced the intensity of morphological signs of lesions in the studied patient population. PMID:24319756

  10. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

  11. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature

  12. Effect of surfactants and pH on naltrexone (NTX) permeation across buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vishwas; Tan, Hock S.; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this pre-formulation study was to systematically investigate the effects of two surfactants (Brij 58® and Tween 80®) and change in solution pH on in vitro permeation of naltrexone HCl (NTX-HCl) across tissue engineered human buccal mucosa. For the study, 10 mg/mL solutions of Tween 80® (0.1 and 1 % w/v) and Brij 58® (1 % w/v) were prepared in standard artificial saliva buffer solution (pH 6.8). For studying pH effects, solution pH was adjusted to either 7.5 or 8.2. As controls, three concentrations of NTX-HCl (2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL) were prepared. Using NTX standard solution (10mg/ml; pH 6.8), the permeation was observed between in vitro human and ex vivo porcine mucosa. It was observed that Brij 58® increased the permeation rates of NTX significantly. The flux of 10mg/ml solution (pH 6.8) increased from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) to 13.9 ± 2.2 (×102) μg/cm2/h (approximately 6 fold) in presence of 1% Brij 58®. Increasing pH of NTX-HCl solution was found to increase the drug flux from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 6.8) to 3.0 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 7.4) and 8.0 ± 3.5 (×102) (pH 8.2) μg/cm2/h respectively. Histological analyses exhibited no tissue damage due to exposure of buccal tissue to Brij 58®. The mean permeability coefficients (Kp) for 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL solutions of NTX-HCl (pH 6.8) were 5.0 (×10−2), 1.8 (×10−2) and 3.2 (×10−2) cm/h respectively, consistent with data from published literature sources. Increase of NTX flux observed with 1% Brij 58® solution may be due to the effects of ATP. Increase in flux and the shortening of lag time observed by increasing in solution pH confirmed earlier finding that distribution coefficient (log D) of NTX is significantly affected by small increments in pH value and therefore plays an important role in NTX permeation by allowing faster diffusion across tissue engineered human buccal membranes. PMID:21443939

  13. Motor evoked potential depression following repetitive central motor initiation.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi M; Palmer, Candace; Shattuck, Johanna T; Triggs, William J

    2012-02-01

    Prior reports have described a transient and focal decline in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude following fatiguing motor tasks. However, the neurophysiological causes of this change in MEP amplitude are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether post-task depression of MEPs is associated with repetitive central motor initiation. We hypothesized that MEP depression is related to repeated central initiation of motor commands in task-related cortex independent of motor fatigue. Twenty healthy adults had MEPs measured from the dominant first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle before and after six different tasks: rest (no activity), contralateral fatiguing hand-grip, ipsilateral fatiguing hand-grip, contralateral finger tapping, ipsilateral finger tapping, and imagined hand-grip (motor imagery). Changes in MEPs from baseline were assessed for each task immediately following the task and at 2-min intervals until MEPs returned to a stable baseline. Measures of subjective effort and FDI maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) were also recorded following each task. A statistically significant drop in MEP amplitude was noted only with contralateral finger tapping and imagined grip. Changes in MEP amplitude did not correlate with subjective fatigue or effort. There was no significant change in FDI MVCs following hand-grip or finger-tapping tasks. This study extends our knowledge of the observed decline in MEP amplitude following certain tasks. Our results suggest that central initiation of motor programs may induce a change in MEP amplitude, even in the absence of objective fatigue. PMID:22130780

  14. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar

    2010-01-01

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients. PMID:21301590

  16. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of

  17. Buccal permeation of [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin from liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    The ex vivo buccal permeability of a [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was examined from the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and aqueous phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4, PBS) solution across excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in a Franz cell. GMO was released in vitro from the liquid crystalline phases indicating the erosion of the liquid crystal matrices. GMO released from the liquid crystalline matrices permeated the porcine buccal mucosa with fluxes of 0.10+/-0.03 and 0.07+/-0.00%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively. The flux of DADLE (1.21+/-0.32 and 1. 15+/-0.11%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively) from the liquid crystalline phases was significantly enhanced by the GMO compared with PBS solution (0.43+/-0.08%/cm(2) per h) during the initial permeation phase (t<3 h). Our results suggest that the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases can be considered as promising buccal drug carriers for peptide drugs as well as acting as permeation enhancers. PMID:10675680

  18. Differences in molar relationships and occlusal contact areas evaluated from the buccal and lingual aspects using 3-dimensional digital models

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sook-Yoon; Kim, Minji

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to use a 3-dimensional (3D) system to compare molar relationship assessments performed from the buccal and lingual aspects, and to measure differences in occlusal contact areas between Class II and Class I molar relationships. Methods Study casts (232 pairs from 232 subjects, yielding a total of 380 sides) were evaluated from both the buccal and lingual aspects, so that molar relationships could be classified according to the scheme devised by Liu and Melsen. Occlusal contact areas were quantified using 3D digital models, which were generated through surface scanning of the study casts. Results A cusp-to-central fossa relationship was observed from the lingual aspect in the majority of cases classified from the buccal aspect as Class I (89.6%) or mild Class II (86.7%). However, severe Class II cases had lingual cusp-to-mesial triangular fossa or marginal ridge relationships. Mean occlusal contact areas were similar in the Class I and mild Class II groups, while the severe Class II group had significantly lower values than either of the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Buccal and lingual assessments of molar relationships were not always consistent. Occlusal contact areas were lowest for the Class II-severe group, which seems to have the worst molar relationships - especially as seen from the lingual aspect. PMID:23112949

  19. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  20. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  1. The treatment of lymphangioma in the buccal mucosa by radiofrequency ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Süleyman; Uğar, Dilek; Karaca, Inci; Ceylan, Alper; Uslu, Sabri; Bariş, Emre; Tokman, Benay

    2006-11-01

    Lymphangioma is a benign, hamartomatous tumor of the lymphatic system. It is usually found in the head and neck region and is widely regarded as a developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasia. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60%), and by the age of 2 years 80% to 90% are present. In the head and neck area, the most common location is the submandibular region, followed by the parotid gland. When lymphangioma occurs in the mouth, the anterior two thirds of the tongue is the most commonly affected region. Various methods have been tried for treatment of lymphangioma including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Recently, a new and more conservative surgical approach to this lesion using radiofrequency ablation has been described. In this report, a case of lymphangioma in the right buccal mucosa of the mental foramen area that has been treated by radiofrequency ablation is presented. PMID:17052620

  2. Radiotherapy-Induced Vitiligo in a Patient with Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sunil

    2015-08-01

    Vitiligo significantly affects self-esteem and deteriorates the quality of life of affected persons. Radiotherapy has several early and late effects but it is not known to induce vitiligo. This is a case report of a patient suffering from carcinoma buccal mucosa that had developed vitiligo in the radiotherapy portal. To the best of my knowledge this is a one of the first case reports of its kind as this patient had no history of vitiligo but developed it soon after radiotherapy. Since radiotherapy is an essential component of cancer management, the radiation oncologist must be aware of this toxicity of radiotherapy. Choosing the high energy of photon beam may reduce the risk of such toxicities. PMID:26436032

  3. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  4. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  5. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sukhwant Singh; Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  6. [Cytologic study of buccal epithelium in various lengths of service in chrysotile-asbestos production].

    PubMed

    Kurkin, A V; Dauletkalieva, Zh A; Rybalkina, D H

    2015-01-01

    Buccal epithelium cytograms were analyzed in workers of chrysotile-asbestos production "Kostanaiskiye mineraly" JSC. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are associated with increased number of 4th differentiation grade cells and correspondingly decreased number of 5th differentiation grade cells. Later, with 20 years of service, numbers of 4th and 5th grade epitheliocytes reach initial values. With 10-20 years of service, integral parameters of differentiation index, cornification index and intracellular relations decrease. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are connected with domination of proliferation over differentiation processes. Length of service over 20 years is with adaptive processess in the workers. These data are important in evaluation of mucosal system in variable length of occupational service. PMID:26036017

  7. Masseter flap for reconstruction of defects after excision of buccal mucosa cancers with intact mandible.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Lerra, Sandeep; Ustad, Farheen; Pai, Prathamesh S; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'Cruz, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Among the reconstructive options available for buccal mucosa defects with an intact mandible, free flap with microvascular anastomosis is the best option. However, in the developing world, with poor resources, limited infrastructure, and high patient load, this cannot be offered to all patients. We report on the success of the masseter flap for reconstruction of such defects in carefully selected patients. Despite some known limitations, this flap is easy to learn and carries acceptable complications. The results of this flap may not be comparable to those of microvascular reconstructions, but they are better than those from other options such as skin graft, nasolabial flap, submental flap, etc., in terms of surgical time required, no donor site morbidity, and minimal aesthetic deformity. PMID:26535825

  8. [Measurement errors in 3D cephalometrics: about the buccal cranio-facial analysis].

    PubMed

    Papé, Romain de; Pizelle, Christophe; Foucart, Jean-Miche

    2012-03-01

    The development of three-dimensional radiological techniques generating low levels of radiation, like computed tomography and positron emission tomography with cone beam, has made it possible for orthodontists to utilize three dimensional cephalometry for certain complex clinical cases instead of conventional two dimensional imagery. Nevertheless, these new techniques rely on the identification of the most dependable anatomic landmarks. Fifteen randomly selected orthodontists were asked to identify on a computed tomography film 33 points that were chosen for a buccal cranio-facial analysis because they have been traditionally recognized for their reproducibility. The results confirmed the high reliability level of the reference point vestibion that is related to the semi-circular canals. They showed, in the same way that conventional 2D cephalometry does, that each landmark presents a cloud and dispersion characteristic and that the most reliable landmarks are based on easily identifiable anatomic structures like foramens and osseous points. PMID:22455649

  9. Distribution of injected dexamethasone from the buccal vestibule of the rat mandible.

    PubMed

    Wayman, B E; Smith, J J; Cunningham, C J; Patten, J A; Patten, J R; Hutchins, M O

    1994-11-01

    Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 12. Group 1 was a control, whereas group 2 had the dental pulp of the first mandibular molar acutely exposed, and group 3 had dental pulp exposure for 10 days. All animals were injected with 125I-labeled dexamethasone phosphate into the right mandibular vestibule. Each group of 12 was divided into subgroups of 4 and sacrificed at 1, 2, or 4 h. The soft tissue on the buccal side and the mandible with the molars were collected and the radioactivity determined. Dexamethasone was absorbed from the injection site and distributed to the ipsilateral mandible and to the contralateral muscle and bone similarly, regardless of the treatment. Results also indicate a possible osseous affinity for this steroid, which could be beneficial in relieving the pain of intraosseous endodontic flare-ups. PMID:7643034

  10. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    PubMed

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Renê Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia. PMID:26590633

  11. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  12. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  13. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  14. Brazil's alcohol motor fuel program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This is a status report on the production and use of ethanol as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol, called in Portuguese Proalcool, will supply at least one-third of Brazil's expected fuel demand for transportation in the year 2000. In total energy terms, it should contribute on the same level as coal and twice the combined level of nuclear, solar and geothermal energies. 2 refs.

  15. Buccal swab analysis of mitochondrial enzyme deficiency and DNA defects in a child with suspected myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF).

    PubMed

    Yorns, William R; Valencia, Ignacio; Jayaraman, Aditya; Sheth, Sudip; Legido, Agustin; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe mitochondrial studies in a 6-year-old patient with a seizure disorder that can be seen in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers. Using a recently developed noninvasive approach, analysis of buccal mitochondrial enzyme function revealed severe respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies in the patient. In addition, analysis of buccal mitochondrial DNA showed significant amounts of the common 5 kb and 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletions, also detectable in blood. This study suggests that a buccal swab approach can be used to informatively examine mitochondrial dysfunction in children with seizures and may be applicable to screening mitochondrial disease with other clinical presentations. PMID:22114216

  16. Filament overwrapped motor case technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Joel P.

    1993-11-01

    Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

  17. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  18. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  19. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  20. Starting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

  1. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  2. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  3. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled DC vehicle motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-12-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  4. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  5. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  6. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  7. Relationship between the buccal bone plate thickness and the healing of postextraction sockets with/without ridge preservation.

    PubMed

    Cardaropoli, Daniele; Tamagnone, Lorenzo; Roffredo, Alessandro; Gaveglio, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    In 48 postextraction sites, sockets were grafted with bovine bone mineral plus collagen membrane (test) or had spontaneous healing (control). After 4 months, horizontal ridge width reduction was 0.71 mm in the test group and 4.04 mm in the control group, while vertical ridge loss was 0.58 mm and 1.67 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between the thickness of the buccal bone wall and the alveolar bone loss in the test group, while an inverse correlation was found in the control group. Ridge preservation compensated for postextraction alveolar ridge resorption irrespective of the buccal plate thickness, whereas leaving the extraction socket undisturbed may result in alveolar bone loss. PMID:24600657

  8. Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M A; Burns, G R; Elteen, K A; Radwan, S S

    1986-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, but not from the weakly adherent C. pseudotropicalis, significantly blocked in vitro adherence of the respective yeast cells to buccal epithelial cells. The percentage of reduction from control values ranged between 16.4 and 42.1%, depending on the species, the strain, and the solvent used for lipid extraction. The constituent lipid classes of both the acetone and chloroform-methanol extracts of C. albicans ATCC 10231 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The individual classes were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography and then tested for their effects on the adherence of this strain to buccal epithelial cells. Individual phospholipids, sterols, and steryl esters blocked adherence significantly (between 15.5 and 55.7% reduction). Triacylglycerols and free fatty acids showed no effect whatsoever. The same results were obtained when standard lipid samples were investigated. Images PMID:3759234

  9. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  10. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  11. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  12. Screening for fragile X syndrome among Brazilian mentally retarded male patients using PCR from buccal cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Christofolini, D M; Lipay, M V N; Ramos, M A P; Brunoni, D; Melaragno, M I

    2006-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. Since the phenotype in this syndrome is quite variable, clinical diagnosis is not easy and molecular laboratory diagnosis is necessary. Usually DNA from blood cells is used in molecular tests to detect the fragile X mutation which is characterized by an unstable expansion of a CGG repeat in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1). In the present study, blood and buccal cells of 53 mentally retarded patients were molecularly analyzed for FMR1 mutation by PCR. Our data revealed that DNA extraction from buccal cells is a useful noninvasive alternative in the screening of the FMR1 mutation among mentally retarded males. PMID:17117359

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic action of budesonide after buccal administration in healthy subjects and patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Karin; Halter, Jörg; Bertz, Hartmut; Lopez-Lazaro, Luis; Gratwohl, Alois; Finke, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Buccal administration of budesonide (mouthwash) may be effective as a topical add-on therapy in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Safety of approved oral budesonide is based on high intestinal and hepatic extraction by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presystemic extraction and pharmacodynamic action of buccal budesonide. Oral budesonide (3 mg) was taken as reference to which various single and multiple dose regimens of buccal budesonide were compared. Budesonide and the 2 main CYP3A-dependent metabolites (6beta-hydroxybudesonide, 16alpha-hydroxyprednisolone) were analyzed in blood and urine along with the drug's effect on endogenous cortisol in 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with oral cGVHD. We assessed CYP3A-dependent metabolites in both healthy subjects and patients after buccal budesonide. Whereas systemic exposure to budesonide was markedly lower in healthy subjects after the mouthwash compared to oral dosing (mean relative bioavailability 18%-36%), the systemic concentrations thereafter in patients were as high as those after the identical dose of oral budesonide. Reduced buccal CYP3A activity (lower inactivation of budesonide) in patients contributed to this remarkable difference. Endogenous cortisol was suppressed in some patients during 1 week of continuous treatment with buccal budesonide (3 x 3 mg per day). We are the first to report the biotransformation of budesonide via CYP3A enzymes after buccal drug administration. Only 2% of a buccal dose of budesonide achieves systemic circulation in healthy individuals; that fraction is 10% in patients with oral cGVHD, probably because of alterations in drug uptake and metabolization. PMID:19203724

  14. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, Giath; Alharbi, Abdullah Muteb; Al-Samadani, Khalid HidayatAllah; Kanaa, Mohammad Dib

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen) and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen). Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P < 0.001), however, both articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltrations are equally effective in securing anesthetic success for first molar pulp anesthesia when supplemented to mepivacaine IANB injections (P > 0.05). Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively) than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively) for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and longer duration than mepivacaine buccal infiltration following mepivacaine IANB injections. PMID:26543456

  15. A Cadaveric Study of the Communication Patterns Between the Buccal Trunks of the Facial Nerve and the Infraorbital Nerve in the Midface.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Phanchart, Piyaporn; Chinnawong, Dawinee; Apinuntrum, Prawit; Phetudom, Thavorn; Sahraoui, Yasmina M E

    2016-01-01

    Most nerve communications reported in the literature were found between the terminal branches. This study aimed to clarify and classify patterns of proximal communications between the buccal branches (BN) of the facial nerve and the infraorbital nerve (ION).The superficial musculoaponeurotic system protects any communication sites from conventional dissections. Based on this limitation, the soft tissues of each face were peeled off the facial skull and the facial turn-down flap specimens were dissected from the periosteal view. Dissection was performed in 40 hemifaces to classify the communications in the sublevator space. Communication site was measured from the ala of nose.A double communication was the most common type found in 62.5% of hemifaces. Triple and single communications existed in 25% and 10% of 40 hemiface specimens, respectively. One hemiface had no communication. The most common type of communication occurred between the lower trunk of the BN of the facial nerve and the lateral labial (fourth) branch of the ION (70% in 40 hemifaces). Communication site was deep to the levator labii superioris muscle at 16.2 mm from the nasal ala. Communications between the motor and the sensory nerves in the midface may be important to increase nerve endurance and to compensate functional loss from injury.Proximal communications between the main trunks of the facial nerve and the ION in the midface exist in every face. This implies some specific functions in normal individuals. Awareness of these nerves is essential in surgical procedure in the midface. PMID:26674887

  16. Specific Noninvasive Detection of Leishmania donovani in Desquamated Buccal Cell Swab Samples from Human Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Halder, Avishek; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Mandal, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection is challenging. Specific diagnosis of VL in HIV-coinfected patients was evaluated by molecular methods in desquamated buccal swab samples, demonstrating 86.3% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity in controls. This test holds significant potential for development as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for VL in HIV-coinfected patients. PMID:24478413

  17. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  18. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH with optimum swelling approaching zero order release. PMID:23351403

  19. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  20. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from Buccal Epithelial Cells, Small Amounts of Serum, and Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Halfon, Philippe; Ouzan, Denis; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Castellani, Paul; Oulès, Valerie; Kahloun, Asma; Amrani, Nolwenn; Fanteria, Lise; Martineau, Agnès; Naldi, Lou; Bourlière, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860) have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC), dried blood spots (DBS), and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. Methods Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL). Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days) Results There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies) as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies). These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. Conclusion We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:22412970

  1. Role of specific determinants in mannan of Candida albicans serotype A in adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Y; Kuribayashi, T; Kagaya, K; Suzuki, M; Nakase, T; Fukazawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    Candida albicans serotype A (C. albicans A) possesses a specific antigen, designated antigen 6, which resides in mannans on the cell surface. To determine the role of the mannan moiety of the C. albicans cell wall in adherence to buccal epithelial cells, we used antigen 6-deficient mutants which had been isolated by screening with an agglutinating monoclonal antibody against antigen 6 (MAb-6). 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis of the purified mannans from the mutants showed a loss of the signals related to that beta-linkage of the side chains. Moreover, acetolyzed fragments of the mutant mannans showed a decreased amount of mannohexaose and mannopentaose. The mutant yeast cells exhibited significantly reduced ability to adhere both to exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and to a human buccal cell line. A number of strains of C. albicans A, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, all of which bear antigen 6, showed significantly higher adherence to the cell line than did those of C. albicans serotype B, which lack antigen 6. The whole mannan from the C. albicans A parent inhibited the adherence of C. albicans A to epithelial cells dose dependently, whereas mannan from a mutant strains did not. Moreover, C. albicans A treated with MAb-6 or polyclonal factor 6 serum showed reduced adherence. A close correlation was found between adhesive ability and agglutinability with MAb-6 in the C. albicans A parent, the antigenic mutants, and their spontaneous revertants. These results suggest that so far as mannan adhesion is concerned, serotype A-specific determinants are largely involved in the mechanisms of adherence of C. albicans A to human buccal epithelial cells. PMID:1375200

  2. The Effect of a Sensory Integration Program on Academic Achievement, Motor Performance, and Self-Esteem in Children Identified as Learning Disabled: Results of a Clinical Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, Helene J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study assigned children aged 6-8 with sensory integration (SI) dysfunction to 3 groups: 35 used sensory modalities, 32 received psychomotor (PM) training, and 13 no intervention. SI and PM administered one hour per week for six months proved equally effective in improving academic and motor performance but had little effect on self-esteem. (SK)

  3. Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Stewart D.

    2001-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

  4. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel mucoadhesive buccal discs of an antifungal drug: relationship between swelling, erosion, and drug release.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Basalious, Emad B

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal discs were prepared: (a) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by direct compression containing bioadhesive polymers, namely, Carbopol 974p (Cp), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), or sodium alginate (SALG) in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). (b) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by freeze drying containing different polymer combinations (SCMC/HPMC, Cp/HPMC, SALG/HPMC, and chitosan/SALG). The prepared discs were evaluated by investigating their release pattern, swelling capacity, mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro adhesion time. In vivo evaluation of the buccal disc and in vivo residence times were also performed. Fluconazole salivary concentration after application of fluconazole buccal systems to four healthy volunteers was determined using microbiological assay and high-performance liquid chromatography. SCMC/HPMC buccal disc prepared by direct compression could be considered comparatively superior mucoadhesive disc regarding its in vitro adhesion time, in vivo residence time, and in vitro/in vivo release rates of the drug. Determination of the amount of drug released in saliva after application of the selected fluconazole disc confirmed the ability of the disc to deliver the drug over a period of approximately 5 h and to reduce side effects and possibility of drug interaction encountered during systemic therapy of fluconazole, which would be beneficial in the case of oral candidiasis. PMID:19082739

  5. Ultrastructure and distribution of the taste buds in the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a herbivorous fish: Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, E H; Nasr, E S; Gamal, A M

    2012-06-01

    The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. The buccal cavity distinguished into the roof and the floor. Three different types of taste buds (type I, II and III) are distributed in the buccal cavity. The proximal part of the buccal cavity bears relatively high epidermal papillae in which type I TBs was found. The middle region of the buccal cavity is mostly occupied by low epidermal papillae containing type II TBs. Type III TBs which are present within the metabranchial buccal cavity; never rise above the normal level of the epithelium. The different types of TBs are useful for ensuring full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish. It is postulated that the TBs serve different functions: TBs type I and II may act as chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. TBs type III acts predominantly as a chemoreceptors. TBs of each type show two kinds of receptor villi within their receptor areas: tall villi and small villi. The surface of the lining epithelial cells shows a delicate microridge system. These structures protect against physical abrasion potentially caused during food maneuvering and swallowing. Furthermore, protection of the epithelium from abrasion is enhanced with goblet cells secretion. PMID:22440511

  6. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  7. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  8. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  9. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  10. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  11. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  12. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  13. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. PMID:26802493

  14. Genetic relatedness of subgingival and buccal Candida dubliniensis isolates in immunocompetent subjects assessed by RAPD-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jewtuchowicz, Virginia Marta; Mujica, Maria Teresa; Malzone, Maria celina; Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Maria lorena; Iovannitti, Cristina Adela; Rosa, Alcira Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Background It is recognized that Candida dubliniensis commonly colonizes oral and subgingival sites in immunocompetent subjects with periodontal disease. Objective Since there are few data available on genetic characterization of C. dubliniensis in periodontal pockets and other oral sites, the aim of this study was to characterize subgingival and mucosal C. dubliniensis isolates recovered from immunocompetent subjects and to assay the genetic similarity of such isolates from both niches in the same patient by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Design C. dubliniensis recovered from subgingival plaque and from buccal cavity samples were studied in 240 immunocompetent non-smoking individuals. Arbitrary amplification was carried out by RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes of C. dubliniensis in different sampling sites (buccal cavity and subgingival areas) in eight of 10 patients except for those derived from two participants who presented presumably unrelated isolates. Conclusions On the basis of the findings presented, the origin of the colonization of C. dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm seems to be the buccal cavity in a single patient. Consequently, it may be assumed that most of C. dubliniensis in these sites arise from the endogenous commensal strains. PMID:21523209

  15. Genetic damage in soybean workers exposed to pesticides: evaluation with the comet and buccal micronucleus cytome assays.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Danieli; Nunes, Emilene; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-04-15

    Soybean cultivation is widespread in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil), especially in the city of Espumoso. Soybean workers in this region are increasingly exposed to a wide combination of chemical agents present in formulations of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. In the present study, the comet assay in peripheral leukocytes and the buccal micronucleus (MN) cytome assay (BMCyt) in exfoliated buccal cells were used to assess the effects of exposures to pesticides in soybean farm workers from Espumoso. A total of 127 individuals, 81 exposed and 46 non-exposed controls, were evaluated. Comet assay and BMCyt (micronuclei and nuclear buds) data revealed DNA damage in soybean workers. Cell death was also observed (condensed chromatin, karyorhectic, and karyolitic cells). Inhibition of non-specific choline esterase (BchE) was not observed in the workers. The trace element contents of buccal samples were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Higher concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, and Cl were observed in cells from workers. No associations with use of personal protective equipment, gender, or mode of application of pesticides were observed. Our findings indicate the advisability of monitoring genetic toxicity in soybean farm workers exposed to pesticides. PMID:23347873

  16. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

  17. The Efficacy of a Repeated Buccal Infiltration of Articaine in Prolonging Duration of Pulpal Anesthesia in the Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Lindsay; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown declining rates of pulpal anesthesia over 60 minutes when a cartridge of 4% articaine is used with 1∶100,000 epinephrine for buccal infiltration in the mandibular first molar. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, crossover study comparing the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with 2 sets of mandibular first molar buccal infiltrations, given in 2 separate appointments, to 86 adult subjects: an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a repeated infiltration of the same anesthetic and dose given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration versus an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a mock repeated infiltration given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration. The authors used an electric pulp tester to test the first molar for anesthesia in 3-minute cycles for 112 minutes after the injections. The repeated infiltration significantly improved pulpal anesthesia from 28 minutes through 109 minutes in the mandibular first molar. A repeated infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine given 25 minutes after an initial infiltration of the same type and dose of anesthetic significantly improved the duration of pulpal anesthesia, when compared with only an initial buccal infiltration, in the mandibular first molar. PMID:20020793

  18. Differences in adhesion of Candida albicans 3153A cells exhibiting switch phenotypes to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum.

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, K; Wertz, P W; Drake, D; Morrow, B; Soll, D R

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the laboratory strain 3153A of Candida albicans can be stimulated to undergo high-frequency phenotypic switching by a low dose of UV. We have compared the adhesive properties of cells exhibiting the basic original smooth (o-smooth) phenotype and three switch phenotypes (star, irregular wrinkle, and revertant smooth) to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum. The generalized hierarchy of adhesion is as follows: o-smooth > irregular wrinkle > revertant smooth > star. This is the inverse of the hierarchy of the proportions of elongate hyphae formed by these phenotypes in culture. These results suggest that the differences in adhesion between o-smooth and the three switch phenotypes of strain 3153A reflect, at least in part, the level of interference due to the formation of elongate hyphae, which tend to cause clumping in suspension. No major differences in the levels of adhesion of cells of the different phenotypes between buccal epithelium and stratum corneum were observed. Results which demonstrate that buccal epithelium induces germination (hypha formation) by conditioning the medium are also presented. Images PMID:8132340

  19. Surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with the use of buccal fat pad: case report.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luiz Fernando Mathias; Alonso, Kleber; Basso, Elaine Cristina; Dib, Luciano Lauria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BROJ) has been described since 2003 as an adverse effect of bisphosphonate medications. These drugs act on the vasculature and bone remodeling, mainly on osteoclastic activity and can cause areas of necrotic bone exposure. Treatment for the BROJ is not yet defined, but surgical treatment is one of the forms proposed, which may cause oral deformities like sinus communication in some cases. In situations like this the buccal fat pad is an important alternative for coating nasal-oral communications, due its large blood supply, elasticity, absence of restriction by age and safety. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old woman with BROJ in the left maxilla caused by the use of zoledronic acid for metastatic breast cancer. The extensive necrotic bone area was surgically removed resulting in oral sinus communication. A buccal fat pad was used to cover the defect. More studies should be performed regarding the treatment of BROJ but, if necessary, a buccal fat pad flap could be an alternative to solve nasal-oral communications related to BROJ. PMID:26200161

  20. From the mouths of monkeys: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from buccal swabs of synanthropic macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, AK; Engel, G; Rompis, A; Putra, IGA A; Lee, BP Y-H; Aggimarangsee, N; Chalise, M; Shaw, E; Oh, G; Schillaci, MA; Jones-Engel, L

    2012-01-01

    Although the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects a third of all humans, little is known regarding the prevalence of mycobacterial infection in nonhuman primates (NHP). For more than a century, tuberculosis has been regarded as a serious infectious threat to NHP species. Advances in the detection of MTBC open new possibilities for investigating the effects of this poorly understood pathogen in diverse populations of NHP. Here we report results of a cross-sectional study using well-described molecular methods to detect a nucleic acid sequence (IS6110) unique to the MTBC. Sample collection was focused on the oral cavity, the presumed route of transmission of MTBC. Buccal swabs were collected from 263 macaques representing 11 species in four Asian countries and Gibraltar. Contexts of contact with humans included free ranging, pets, performing monkeys, zoos, and monkey temples. Following DNA isolation from buccal swabs, the PCR amplified IS6110 from 84 (31.9%) of the macaques. In general, prevalence of MTBC DNA was higher among NHP in countries where the World Health Organization reports higher prevalence of humans infected with MTBC. This is the first demonstration of MTBC DNA in the mouths of macaques. Further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding at both the individual and population levels. PCR of buccal samples holds promise as a method to elucidate the mycobacterial landscape among NHP, particularly macaques that thrive in areas of high human MTBC prevalence. PMID:22644580

  1. Buccal delivery of metformin: TR146 cell culture model evaluating the use of bioadhesive chitosan discs for drug permeability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-12-31

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses. PMID:24148665

  2. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  3. Human buccal plate extraction socket regeneration with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB or enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Marc L; Camelo, Marcelo; Schupbach, Peter; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Kim, David M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the osseous healing of buccal plate extraction socket defects. There were four cohorts: group A (mineral collagen bone substitute [MCBS] scaffold alone), group B (MCBS with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB [rhPDGF-BB; 0.3 mg/mL]), group C (MCBS with enamel matrix derivative [EMD]), and group D (combination of EMD with bone ceramic). The primary outcome of bone quality was evaluated using light microscopy, backscatter scanning electron microscopy, and histomorphometrics. Reentry surgery provided an opportunity for clinical observation of the healed ridge morphology. Sixteen patients with buccal wall extraction socket defects were randomized into four treatment groups of equal size. Grafting was provided at the time of extraction with advancement of the buccal flap for primary closure. A trephine core biopsy of the implant site preparation was performed after 5 months for implant placement. Histologic examination identified new bone healing around the biomaterial scaffolds. Statistically significant differences in new bone formation were not observed among the treatment groups. There was a histomorphometric trend toward more new bone for the rhPDGF-BB-treated group (group B). This group had the most favorable ridge morphology for optimal implant placement. PMID:21845243

  4. Gamma and alpha motor neurons distinguished by expression of transcription factor Err3.

    PubMed

    Friese, Andreas; Kaltschmidt, Julia A; Ladle, David R; Sigrist, Markus; Jessell, Thomas M; Arber, Silvia

    2009-08-11

    Spinal motor neurons are specified to innervate different muscle targets through combinatorial programs of transcription factor expression. Whether transcriptional programs also establish finer aspects of motor neuron subtype identity, notably the prominent functional distinction between alpha and gamma motor neurons, remains unclear. In this study, we identify DNA binding proteins with complementary expression profiles in alpha and gamma motor neurons, providing evidence for molecular distinctions in these two motor neuron subtypes. The transcription factor Err3 is expressed at high levels in gamma but not alpha motor neurons, whereas the neuronal DNA binding protein NeuN marks alpha but not gamma motor neurons. Signals from muscle spindles are needed to support the differentiation of Err3(on)/NeuN(off) presumptive gamma motor neurons, whereas direct proprioceptive sensory input to a motor neuron pool is apparently dispensable. Together, these findings provide evidence that transcriptional programs define functionally distinct motor neuron subpopulations, even within anatomically defined motor pools. PMID:19651609

  5. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage. PMID:24927390

  6. The flavonoid quercetin modulates the hallmark capabilities of hamster buccal pouch tumors.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Manikandan, Palrasu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer risk. Quercetin, a ubiquitous dietary flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive as well as the therapeutic ability of quercetin to modulate the key hallmark capabilities of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival (PCNA, p21, p53, cyclin D1, GST-P), apoptosis (Fas, Fas-L, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome-C, Apaf-1, caspases, PARP, survivin, cFLIP, API1), invasion (MMPs, TIMP-2, RECK), angiogenesis (PlGF, VEGF, VEGF receptors, HIF-1α), as well as the epigenetic markers (HDAC-1, DNMT1) by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. Simultaneous administration of quercetin to DMBA-painted hamsters reduced tumor incidence and tumor burden, while posttreatment of quercetin resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. In addition, quercetin administration induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and blocked invasion and angiogenesis. We found a positive correlation between the inhibition of HDAC-1 and DNMT1 by quercetin and its anticancer properties. A dietary phytochemical such as quercetin that modulates a plethora of molecules offers promise as an ideal candidate for multitargeted cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:21294050

  7. A keratocyst in the buccal mucosa with the features of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  8. Fimbria-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to glycosphingolipid receptors on human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Lee, K K; Sheth, H B; Lane-Bell, P; Srivastava, G; Hindsgaul, O; Paranchych, W; Hodges, R S; Irvin, R T

    1994-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist fungal pathogen that has the ability to adhere to host cell surface receptors via a number of adhesins. Yu et al. (L. Yu, K. K. Lee, K. Ens, P. C. Doig, M. R. Carpenter, W. Staddon, R. S. Hodges, W. Paranchych, and R. T. Irvin, Infect. Immun. 62:2834-2842, 1994) described the purification and initial characterization of a fimbrial adhesin from C. albicans. In this paper, we show that C. albicans fimbriae also bind to asialo-GM1 [gangliotetraosylceramide: beta Gal(1-3)beta GalNAc(1-4) beta Gal(1-4)beta Glc(1-1)Cer] immobilized on microtiter plates in a saturable and concentration-dependent manner. C. albicans fimbrial binding to exfoliated human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) was inhibited by asialo-GM1 in in vitro binding assays. The fimbriae interact with the glycosphingolipid receptors via the carbohydrate portion of the receptors, since fimbriae were observed to bind to synthetic beta GalNAc(1-4)beta Gal-protein conjugates and the disaccharide was able to inhibit binding of fimbriae to BECs in in vitro binding assays. We conclude from these results that the C. albicans yeast form expresses a fimbrial adhesin that binds to glycosphingolipids displayed on the surface of human BECs. Images PMID:8005674

  9. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective β-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  10. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    PubMed Central

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  11. Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D; McMackin, Marissa Z; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L; Pook, Mark A; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2014-12-20

    Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the iron-sulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

  12. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

  13. Combination of the buccal mucosa and amniotic membrane: a novel approach for graft augmentation urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Güneş, Alime; Altok, Muammer

    2014-12-01

    Today, complicated and long-segment stricture is usually treated by augmentation urethroplasty with buccal mucosa (BM) as the grafted tissue. Augmentation urethroplasty is applied in different parts of the urethra with varying success. Success rate is quite low in one-step penile ventral urethra rehabilitations due to weak subcutaneous tissue in the penile urethra tissue. The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biologically compatible tissue with growth factors, antimicrobial qualities, and immunoregulatory activity that minimizes tissue rejection and scarring. Due to these characteristics, it has been used in various surgical areas, particularly in ophthalmology, with success for more than 50 years. According to our hypothesis, when AM is combined with BM, the success rates in penile ventral augmentation urethroplasty would be increased by decreasing postoperative complications. New evidence could be added to the literature by using AM and BM in combination on an animal model. The positive results of this combined method would give a new point of view to reconstructive urethral surgery practice. PMID:25468786

  14. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of amlexanox in bioadhesive buccal tablets: application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Tolba, M M; Halawa, M I

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of Amlexanox (AMX) in its bioadhesive buccal tablets. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of the methanolic solution of AMX at 400 nm after excitation at 242 nm in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 10) and 0.5% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The interaction of AMX with SDS was studied, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity was exploited to develop an assay method for the determination of AMX. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 5.0-80.0 ng/mL, with a lower detection limit of 0.57 ng/mL and a lower quantification limit of 1.74 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AMX in its commercial tablets. Moreover, content uniformity testing was conducted by applying official USP guidelines. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the data obtained using the proposed and comparison methods revealed good accuracy and precision for the proposed method. PMID:25611457

  15. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  16. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  17. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  18. Early Motor Stimulation and Personal Development. A Study of Four- to Six-Year-Old German Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Liselott

    1982-01-01

    A study of 165 West German preschool children participating in a motor program which included swimming as an important activity showed that early motor stimulation affected the children's motor, social, and individual development. (CJ)

  19. Dental Occlusal Changes Induce Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, L; Lee, J-C; Sessle, B J

    2015-12-01

    Modification to the dental occlusion may alter oral sensorimotor functions. Restorative treatments aim to restore sensorimotor functions; however, it is unclear why some patients fail to adapt to the restoration and remain with sensorimotor complaints. The face primary motor cortex (face-M1) is involved in the generation and control of orofacial movements. Altered sensory inputs or motor function can induce face-M1 neuroplasticity. We took advantage of the continuous eruption of the incisors in Sprague-Dawley rats and used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to map the jaw and tongue motor representations in face-M1. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that multiple trimming of the right mandibular incisor, to keep it out of occlusal contacts for 7 d, and subsequent incisor eruption and restoration of occlusal contacts, can alter the ICMS-defined features of jaw and tongue motor representations (i.e., neuroplasticity). On days 1, 3, 5, and 7, the trim and trim-recovered groups had 1 to 2 mm of incisal trimming of the incisor; a sham trim group had buccal surface trimming with no occlusal changes; and a naive group had no treatment. Systematic mapping was performed on day 8 in the naive, trim, and sham trim groups and on day 14 in the trim-recovered group. In the trim group, the tongue onset latency was shorter in the left face-M1 than in the right face-M1 (P < .001). In the trim-recovered group, the number of tongue sites and jaw/tongue overlapping sites was greater in the left face-M1 than in the right face-M1 (P = 0.0032, 0.0016, respectively), and the center of gravity was deeper in the left than in the right face-M1 (P = 0.026). Therefore, incisor trimming and subsequent restoration of occlusal contacts induced face-M1 neuroplasticity, reflected in significant disparities between the left and right face-M1 in some ICMS-defined features of the tongue motor representations. Such neuroplasticity may reflect or contribute to subjects' ability to adapt their oral sensorimotor functions to an altered dental occlusion. PMID:26310722

  20. Multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nowacek, Dustin G; Teener, James W

    2012-11-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy is an acquired disorder in which demyelination of motor axons, presumably due to autoimmune attack, results in progressive painless weakness without sensory loss. Motor axonal damage also occurs. It is a frequent mimic of motor neuron disease. Recognition of multifocal motor neuropathy is critical because it tends to be very responsive to treatment. Infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin is the initial treatment of choice, but other immunosuppressive treatments may also be effective. It appears that corticosteroids produce minimal benefit. PMID:23677657

  1. A Study of the Effects of an Intensive Training Program on the Motor Skills of Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sheila A.

    In a study on improvement of basic motor skills by educable mentally retarded (EMR) children with special training in a sport and game situation, 21 EMR boys and 19 EMR girls (aged 4-1 to 10-1) were divided into an experimental and a control group, matched by chronological age, IQ, sex, and pretest scores on the Basic Skills Test (reliability .97)…

  2. Transposed firing activation of motor units

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Joshua C.; Contessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Muscles are composed of groups of muscle fibers, called motor units, each innervated by a single motoneuron originating in the spinal cord. During constant or linearly varying voluntary force contractions, motor units are activated in a hierarchical order, with the earlier-recruited motor units having greater firing rates than the later-recruited ones. We found that this normal pattern of firing activation can be altered during oscillatory contractions where the force oscillates at frequencies ≥2 Hz. During these high-frequency oscillations, the activation of the lower-threshold motor units effectively decreases and that of the higher-threshold motor units effectively increases. This transposition of firing activation provides means to activate higher-threshold motor units preferentially. Our results demonstrate that the hierarchical regulation of motor unit activation can be manipulated to activate specific motoneuron populations preferentially. This finding can be exploited to develop new forms of physical therapies and exercise programs that enhance muscle performance or that target the preferential atrophy of high-threshold motor units as a result of aging or motor disorders such as stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24899671

  3. Motor imagery influences the execution of repetitive finger opposition movements.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Giannini, Alessandro; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2009-11-27

    Motor imagery (MI) is the ability to imagine performing a movement without executing it. In literature, there have been numerous reports on the influence of MI on motor practice and the beneficial effects of "mental practice" on the physical performance has been suggested to rely to the close temporal association between motor rehearsal and actual performance. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether the addition of a period of motor imagery between two motor practice trials could modify movement execution in a repetitive finger opposition motor task performed at maximal speed and whether the effect of motor imagery on motor practice is dependant on the complexity of movement. We observed that the addition of motor imagery to the sole motor practice was able to influence the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements inducing an increase of the velocity of movement greater than that observed with the motor practice alone. Further the addition of motor imagery was able to induce a modification in the motor strategy in terms of duration of the main phases of movements. This was more evident when subjects executed a finger sequential task with respect to a simple finger tapping task. We assume that mental rehearsal facilitates the brain network involved in sensorimotor control, particularly acting on those neural structures involved in the motor program. PMID:19770024

  4. The sensitivity of biomarkers for genotoxicity and acute cytotoxicity in nasal and buccal cells of welders.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Jakse, Robert; Beham, Alfred; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Welders are inhalatively exposed to fumes which contain genotoxic carcinogens and it was found in epidemiological studies that they have increased cancer rates which may be causally related to DNA damage. In order to assess their health risks and to find out which chemicals cause the adverse effects, bioassays can be performed which enable the detection of genetic damage. The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation with exfoliated buccal and nasal cells in regard to induction of chromosomal alterations and acute cytotoxicity in welders and unexposed controls (n=22 per group). To elucidate the factors which account for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, additional biochemical parameters were monitored reflecting the redox status as well as concentrations of different metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in body fluids. We found in the nasal cells significant induction of alterations which are indicative for DNA damage, i.e. of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds, while elevated rates of nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, karyolylsis) were detected in cells from both organs. The levels of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni), but not markers of oxidative damage were significantly higher in the body fluids of the welders. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses indicate that exposure to Mo (15% MNi increase by one standard deviation increase of Mo in serum), Ni (9% increase) and Mn (14% increase) are positively associated with the induction of MNi in nasal cells while Ni was associated with cytotoxic effects in both types of cells (12 and 16% increase). Taken together, our findings indicate that epithelial cells from the respiratory tract are suitable for the detection of DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects in welders and can be used to assess health risks associated with genomic instability. PMID:24698449

  5. Induction of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells of coca chewers: results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Barcelos, Gustavo; Mišík, Miroslav; Wultsch, Georg; Carrion, Juan; Carrion-Carrera, Gladys; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2013-03-01

    The leaves of coca (Erythroxylum coca var. coca), a South American shrub which contains cocaine, other alkaloids and phenolics are widely used by indigenous populations of the Andes. It is currently not known if coca consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans. This information is important to predict potential long-term toxic effects such as cancer induction. Therefore, the buccal cytome assay was used to analyze oral cells from 45 uni- and bilateral chewers and 23 controls living in the Altiplano of the Peruvian Andes. In total, 123,471 cells were evaluated from chewers and 57,916 from controls. Information concerning the consumption levels and habits and also use of lime were collected with questionnaires. Chewing of the leaves did not induce nuclear anomalies reflecting genetic damage such as micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds; in the highest exposure group (but not in the overall group) even a significant decrease in the frequencies of cells with MNi (by 64 %) was observed. However, we found significantly elevated levels of other nuclear anomalies (karyorrhexis and karyolysis) which reflect cytotoxic effects in the coca users. The frequencies of these anomalies increased with the daily consumption and when lime was used to improve the release of the alkaloids. In contrast to other chewing habits (betel, tobacco and khat), consumption of coca leaves does not induce genetic instability in cells from the oral cavity and our findings indicate that no adverse health effects take place in chewers which are associated with DNA damage. However, the significant increase in certain anomalies shows that acute toxic effects are caused by coca consumption. PMID:23128829

  6. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies. PMID:24873758

  7. Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. Materials and methods A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18–29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Results Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p < 0.001). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259–1.790, p < 0.001), crowding (OR = 2.102, 95% CI = 1.706–2.590, p < 0.001) and overjet (OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.418–0.818, p = 0.002). On the other hand, BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Conclusions Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration. PMID:23692316

  8. The influence of recrystallized caffeine on water-swellable polymethacrylate mucoadhesive buccal films.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Su, Rong; McConville, Jason T

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of particles on the properties of polymethacrylate films intended for buccal delivery. A solvent casting method was used with Eudragit RS and RL (ERS and ERL, respectively) as film-forming rate-controlling polymers, with caffeine as a water-soluble model drug. The physicochemical properties of the model films for a series of formulations with increasing concentrations of caffeine were determined in terms of morphology, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug content uniformity, and drug release and associated kinetics. Typically regarded as non-mucoadhesive polymers, ERS and mainly ERL, were found to be good mucoadhesives, with ERL01 exhibiting a work of mucoadhesion (WoA) of 118.9 μJ, which was about five to six times higher than that observed for commonly used mucoadhesives such as Carbopol(®) 974P (C974P, 23.9 μJ) and polycarbophil (PCP, 17.4 μJ). The mucoadhesive force for ERL01 was found to be significantly lower yet comparable to C974P and PCP films (211.1 vs. 329.7 and 301.1 mN, respectively). Inspection of cross-sections of the films indicated that increasing the concentration of caffeine was correlated with the appearance of recrystallized agglomerates. In conclusion, caffeine agglomerates had detrimental effects in terms of mucoadhesion, mechanical properties, uniformity, and drug release at large particle sizes. ERL series of films exhibited very rapid release of caffeine while ERS series showed controlled release. Analysis of release profiles revealed that kinetics changed from a diffusion controlled to a first-order release mechanism. PMID:23456475

  9. Mucoadhesive patches of Salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Prasanth, V V; Mathew, Sam T; Kumar, B Ashok

    2011-07-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal patches of Salbutamol Sulphate were prepared using five different polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]), polyvinyl alcohol [PVA], water soluble chitosan [CH(WS)], acid soluble chitosan [CH(AS)], hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC])in various proportions and combinations (CH(WS)/PVP/HPMC, CH(WS)/PVA/HPMC, CH(AS)/PVP/HPMC, and CH(AS)/PVA/HPMC). A 3(2) full factorial design was used to design the experiments. A total of 72 patches were prepared. Thickness of the patches ranged between 0.3±0.003 and 0.6±0.009 mm. Mass of the patches were in the range of 68.12±4.6 to 95.02±7.2 mg. Patches showed increased mass whenever PEG -400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of patches were acidic to neutral (pH 4-pH 7). Patches showed satisfactory drug loading efficiency (85%to 97%). Eight formulations(C9, C18, C27, C36, D9, D18, D27, and D36)-which showed high folding endurance- were selected for further characterization. Patches with PEG -400 showed higher swelling index when compared to PG. The residence time of the patches ranged between 115 min and 120 min. Formulation C18 showed the maximum in vitro drug release of 101.4 % over a period of 120 min. Formulations D36 and C36 were best fitted to Higuchi model. The remaining formulations were best fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Drug permeation was fast and showed the similar profile as that of the in vitro drug release. Patches were stable, during and at the end of the accelerated stability study. PMID:21453255

  10. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  11. GDE2 regulates subtype specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-01-01

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here, we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons. PMID:21943603

  12. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  13. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-?B and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  14. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

    1982-09-01

    Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

  15. Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  16. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    PubMed

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology. PMID:26551593

  17. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

  18. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  19. Buccal Swabbing as a Noninvasive Method To Determine Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Microbial Community Structures in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Michelle R.; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  20. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  1. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  2. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...

  3. Teamwork in microtubule motors.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2013-11-01

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

  4. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. When there are disruptions in these signals, the result can be gradual ...

  5. IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

  6. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    PubMed

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried buccal tablet for the rapid delivery of naloxone in opioid overdose. The tablet composition was optimized to produce an amorphous matrix, which was confirmed by the absence of peaks associated with crystallinity observed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Tablets with high gelatin content lacked adequate porosity. Mannitol was added to the formulation to bridge and intercalate gelatin's tight polymer aggregates, however sodium bicarbonate was also required to prevent crystallization within the tablets. A linear reduction in mannitol's recrystallization enthalpy was observed with increasing sodium bicarbonate concentration (ΔrecryH = -20.3[NaHCO3] + 220.9; r(2) = 0.9, n = 18). The minimum sodium bicarbonate concentration for full inhibition of mannitol crystallization was 10.9% w/w. Freeze-dried tablets with lower amounts of sodium bicarbonate possessed a crystalline fraction that PXRD identified as mannitol hemihydrate from the unique peak at 9.7° 2θ. Mannitol's greater affinity for both ions and residual water rather than its affinity for self-association was the mechanism for the inhibition of crystallization observed here. The optimized tablet (composition mannitol 24% w/w (4.26 mg), gelatin 65% w/w (11.7 mg), sodium bicarbonate 11% w/w (1.98 mg), and naloxone 800 μg) formed predominantly amorphous tablets that disintegrated in less than 10 s. Optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable over 9 months storage at 25 °C. As speed of drug liberation is the critical performance attribute for a solid dosage form designed to deliver drug in an emergency, a novel imaging based in vitro disintegration assay for buccal tablets was developed. The assay was optimized with regard to conditions in the buccal cavity: i.e., temperature 33-37 °C, volume of medium (0.1-0.7 mL), and use of mucin-containing biorelevant medium. The disintegration assay was sensitive to temperature, medium volume, and medium composition; naloxone tablet disintegration was extremely rapid, with full disintegration ranging from 5 to 20 s. In conclusion, rapidly disintegrating tablets have been developed which are suitable for proof-of-concept clinical trial in humans to determine the pharmacokinetics of naloxone delivered via the buccal route. PMID:26977787

  7. Description of a Rare Case of Nodular Fasciitis of the Apical Aspect of the Upper Buccal Sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Amélia; Cariri Neto, Eldon Guttenberg; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of nodular fasciitis (NF) of the oral cavity, discussing the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Histopathologic diagnosis of this type of lesion can be challenging due to its differential diagnosis, which principally includes sarcoma. The patient presented with a painless, well-defined nodule, reported as increasing in size, located at the apical aspect of the upper left buccal sulcus. Histologically, the lesion revealed spindle cell proliferation arranged in fascicles, while immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for smooth muscle actin. Eight months after complete surgical excision, no signs of local recurrence have been observed.

  8. [Preliminary study of the frequency of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells sampled from patients with laryngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Belowska, Jadwiga; Fraczek, Agnieszka; Ra?, Ma?gorzata; Schmager, Jan; Sk?adzien, Jacek; Strek, Pawe?; Scig, Anna; Tryba?a, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The examination of frequency of micronuclei was carried out on two groups of patients with tumors of upper respiratory tract: cancer of larynx (36 individuals) and polyps of larynx (13 persons). Groups of habitants from Katowice, Czestochowa and Nowy Sacz (cities with the different level of air pollution) and separately group of smokers, were considered as the control. It was observed that high frequency of micronuclei in cell of buccal mucosa from individuals exposed on mutagenic substances from the air and cigarette smoke could be a marker of higher risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:15521576

  9. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  10. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  11. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  12. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ∼40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

  13. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altuğ, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the determination of BEC-MN frequency (per mille) and frequency of BEC with MN (per mille). The same children were also recruited for lung function measurements within a MATRA project ("Together Towards Clean Air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun") Measured NO2 and SO2 concentrations did not exceed the European Union (EU) limit levels either in urban-traffic or suburban regions. Higher O3 concentrations were measured in the suburban site especially in the summer period. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels which did not differ statistically between two regions were above the EU limits in general. Although BEC-MN frequencies of children living in the suburban sites were higher in general, the difference between two regions was not significant either in the summer or winter periods. BEC-MN frequencies of the urban-traffic children were found to be significantly higher in summer period (mean ± SD, 2.68 ± 1.99) when compared to winter period (1.64 ± 1.59; p = 0.004). On the other hand, no seasonality was observed for the suburban children. Similar results have been obtained in the BEC frequency with MN in our study. In summer, BEC-MN frequencies were significantly increased with the decrease in pulmonary function levels based on forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) levels (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, children living in urban-traffic and suburban areas in the city of Eskişehir exhibited similar genotoxicity. Seasonal variation in genotoxicity may be interpreted as relatively high ozone levels and increasing time spent at outdoors in the summer. PMID:23884878

  14. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  15. Relative Bioavailability of Fentanyl Following Various Dosing Regimens of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Simonson, Philip G

    2008-01-01

    Background Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) is indicated in the US for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer who are already receiving and are tolerant to around-the-clock opioid therapy for underlying persistent cancer pain. For each individual patient, FBT should be titrated to the effective dose. Objective The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of FBT 400 µg administered as a single 400 µg tablet (regimen A) or as two 200 µg tablets given simultaneously (regimen B) and determine whether these are bioequivalent in healthy Japanese volunteers. Regimen C (two 200 µg tablets 30 minutes apart) was also compared as a secondary objective. Methods Healthy Japanese adults received regimens A, B, and C in a crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined in venous blood collected through 36 hours post dose. Regimens were declared bioequivalent with respect to bioavailability (as reflected by AUC0–∞, AUC0–last, and Cmax) if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the regimens' ratio fell within 0.80–1.25 (80%–125%). Results Twenty-nine volunteers (13 men, 16 women) were enrolled; 24 completed the study. Regimens A and B had bioequivalent systemic exposure parameters (B/A [90% CI]: AUC0–∞108.4 [103.4, 113.7], AUC0–last 106.1 [100.7, 111.7], and Cmax 92.3 [83.2, 102.4]). Regimen C was bioequivalent to both A and B for AUCs, but only to B for Cmax. Median time to Cmax was 45 minutes for regimen A and 60 minutes for regimens B and C. The most frequent AEs were dizziness, application-site erythema, headache, somnolence, nausea, and vomiting. All AEs were mild or moderate. Conclusions Bioavailability of fentanyl after FBT 400 µg administered as a single tablet was bioequivalent to that after 2 simultaneously administered 200 µg tablets in healthy Japanese volunteers. AEs were mild or moderate. PMID:19915709

  16. Advanced solid rocket motor project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the project are the following: (1) to improve system safety and reliability; (2) to improve Space Shuttle Payload performance - 12,000 lb; (3) to optimize program cost; and (4) to promote a competitive solid rocket motor industry. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) project team, ASRM design, design schedules, and technical issues.

  17. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

  19. Energy efficient motors for HVAC applications: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, J.; Biesemeyer, W.D.

    1995-06-01

    The empirically derived data presented in this paper are the result of a program established by the State of Arizona to replace all the existing HVAC motors in the majority of State-owned buildings. All motors from 5 HP up were selected as candidates for retrofit. The largest motor was 125 HP. After obtaining questionable data from the initial existing motor field measurements, it was decided that some further study and testing was needed. By dynamometer testing aging motors from the field and new energy efficient motors, some startling conclusions were realized. One of the most common methods for determining motor loads in the field, the slip method, is highly inaccurate and cannot be used to reliably determine the load on the motor. Field measurements reconciled with dynamometer testing reveals that the slip method can be over 40% in error. Replacing an existing motor with an energy efficient motor may actually use more energy due to the effects of full load speed differences. Energy efficient motors generally run faster than standard motors because of the inherent lower internal losses. However, because the power required by a centrifugal load induction motor varies as the cube of the speed, the savings due to the higher efficiency may be completely offset by the increased power requirement due to the faster speed. Some of the conventional practices for protecting and determining energy savings from HVAC system energy efficient motor retrofits are misleading. Using the slip method for calculating motor load and not accounting for the speed difference between the existing motor and new motor are two examples presented here.

  20. Motor Development: A Lifelong Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberton, Mary Ann; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A collection of articles on the lifelong process of motor development focuses on: (1) neural changes in lifespan motor development; (2) the effects of developmental memory differences on learning motor skills; (3) physical growth and motor performance; (4) motor development in children with learning disabilities; (5) a motor development program…

  1. In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elsabé; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Drug delivery via the buccal route has emerged as a promising alternative to oral drug delivery. Didanosine (DDI) undergoes rapid degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and low oral bioavailability, making DDI a suitable candidate for buccal delivery. Recent developments in buccal drug delivery show an increased interest toward nano-enabled delivery systems. The advantages of buccal drug delivery can be combined with that of nanoparticulate delivery systems to provide a superior delivery system. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the preparation of novel nano-enabled films for buccal delivery of DDI. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared via hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication and were characterized before being incorporated into nano-enabled monolayered multipolymeric films (MMFs). Glyceryl tripalmitate with Poloxamer 188 was identified as most suitable for the preparation of DDI-loaded SLNs. SLNs with desired particle size (PS) (201 nm), polydispersity index (PDI) (0.168) and zeta potential (-18.8 mV) were incorporated into MMFs and characterized. Conventional and nano-enabled MMFs were prepared via solvent casting/evaporation using Eudragit RS100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Drug release from the nano-enabled films was found to be faster (56% versus 20% in first hour). Conventional MMFs exhibited higher mucoadhesion and mechanical strength than nano-enabled MMFs. SLNs did not adversely affect the steady state flux (71.63 ± 13.54 µg/cm(2) h versus 74.39 ± 15.95 µg/cm(2) h) thereby confirming the potential transbuccal delivery of DDI using nano-enabled MMFs. Nano-enabled buccal films for delivery of DDI can be successfully prepared, and these physico-mechanical studies serve as a platform for future formulation optimization work in this emerging field. PMID:24576267

  2. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  3. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  4. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  5. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  6. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  7. Do you mind if I vape? Immediate effects of electronic cigarettes on perfusion in buccal mucosal tissue - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuther, William J; Hale, Beverley; Matharu, Jas; Blythe, John N; Brennan, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoking and postoperative complications is compounded in patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations by an additional local effect, and patients often continue to smoke after operation despite advice to stop. Recent studies have suggested that nicotine may reduce inflammation and improve angiogenesis, so topical application may be beneficial for smokers. The electronic cigarette is increasing in popularity and more patients ask whether they can vape after operation. We investigated the effect of electronic cigarettes (of which half contained nicotine and half did not) on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers immediately after vaping. Smokers were excluded as this was considered an additional variable in a small pilot study and our Trust has a no-smoking policy. After vaping for 5minutes, capillary blood flow was measured in the buccal mucosa at 5-minute intervals using a laser Doppler probe, and the results were expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. There was a wide variation in results and a small but significant rise (p=0.008) as a result of nicotine vaping, but these fell to the same levels as before within 30minutes. Electronic cigarettes may have an effect on blood flow to the oral mucosa, although further studies are needed to show whether they improve healing time after operation. Additional work is also needed to compare them with cigarettes. PMID:26809237

  8. A comparative study of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in urethral stricture disease: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Depak Kumar; Ghosh, Bastab; Bera, Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: A prospective study to compare the outcomes of lingual versus buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long segment anterior urethral strictures disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients for buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (group I) and 30 patients for lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty (group II) for treatment of long segment (>3 cm) incomplete anterior urethral stricture disease using single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between February 2013 to September 2014. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Results: The results of urethroplasty in between two group were not significant (P > 0.05) in terms of Qmax (P = 0.63), mean postoperative AUA symptom score (P = 0.83), operative time (P = 0.302) intra operative blood loss (P = 0.708), duration of postoperative hospitalization (P = 0.83), but slurring of speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. Long-term complications of salivary disturbance, tightness of the mouth, persistent pain at graft site, perioral numbness, seen only in group I (BMGU). Conclusion: LMG urethroplasty is an excellent alternative to BMG urethroplasty with comparable results of urethroplasty and minimal donor site complications. PMID:27141184

  9. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication. PMID:25963705

  10. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  11. Microsurgical Urethroplasty for Complex Bulbar Urethral Strictures Using the Radial Forearm Free Flap Prelaminated with Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ajay; Sham, Eric; Chee, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Background Complex bulbar urethral strictures are a heterogeneous group, including those secondary to radiotherapy, failed previous open urethroplasty, and total bulbar necrosis following pelvic trauma. Traditional urethroplasty techniques in this group are unpredictable. We describe a novel technique of a buccal mucosa-prelaminated radial forearm free flap urethroplasty, which seeks to improve the quality of life for this group of patients. Methods Known, reliable techniques from two surgical specialties were combined to create a novel surgical solution, consisting of a radial forearm free flap prelaminated with buccal mucosa. Prospective data were collected on patient and stricture characteristics, complications, and results, including voiding flow rates, urethrography, and cystourethroscopy. Success was defined as the ability to void per urethra. The procedure was performed in four patients, previously considered unreconstructable and who were suprapubic catheter dependent. Results Microsurgical transfer was successful in all four cases. All patients were voiding per urethra and remained catheter free at a minimum of 12-month follow-up. There was no significant donor morbidity and all patients were able to return to their usual occupation. Mean voiding flow rates were 17.3 mL/s. Flexible cystoscopy revealed well-vascularized, patent neomucosa. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of concept for a novel technique of microsurgical urethroplasty. We believe this technique may have widespread application in the treatment of radiation-induced and other complex urethral strictures where traditional urethroplasty has limited success. PMID:26848566

  12. An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-12-01

    Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37°C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1μg/cm(2)/h and 4×10(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

  13. Comparison of transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system

    PubMed Central

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Unver, Fatih; Tortop, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system (KIDS). Methods We evaluated the pre- and post distalization orthodontic models of 39 patients, including 19 treated using the Frog appliance, which is palatally positioned (Frog group), and 20 treated using KIDS, which is buccally positioned (KIDS group). Changes in intermolar and interpremolar distances and the amount of maxillary premolar and molar rotation were evaluated on model photocopies. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluations. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Significant distopalatal rotation of premolars and distobuccal rotation of molars were observed in Frog group (p < 0.05), while significant distopalatal rotation of molars (p < 0.05), with no significant changes in premolars, was observed in KIDS group. The amount of second premolar and first molar rotation was significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, expansion in the region of the first molars and second premolars was significantly greater in KIDS group than in Frog group (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions Our results suggest that the type and amount of first molar rotation and expansion vary with the design of the distalization appliance used. PMID:27019824

  14. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  15. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  16. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performance. The lessons learned from the development and testing of the 1000 hp motor were the basis for the tasks proposed for the project that is being described in this final report. These eight tasks and the technology and commercial issues they address are listed in Table 1-1.

  17. Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development

    PubMed Central

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurological deficits in auditory and motor processes using computational modeling with the DIVA model. Method In a series of computer simulations, we investigated the effect of a motor processing deficit alone (MPD), and the effect of a motor processing deficit in combination with an auditory processing deficit (MPD+APD) on the trajectory and endpoint of speech motor development in the DIVA model. Results Simulation results showed that a motor programming deficit predominantly leads to deterioration on the phonological level (phonemic mappings) when auditory self-monitoring is intact, and on the systemic level (systemic mapping) if auditory self-monitoring is impaired. Conclusions These findings suggest a close relation between quality of auditory self-monitoring and the involvement of phonological vs. motor processes in children with pediatric motor speech disorders. It is suggested that MPD+APD might be involved in typically apraxic speech output disorders and MPD in pediatric motor speech disorders that also have a phonological component. Possibilities to verify these hypotheses using empirical data collected from human subjects are discussed. PMID:24491630

  18. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G

    2015-11-06

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  19. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  20. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  1. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  2. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor.

    PubMed

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-12-01

    During closed-loop control of a brain-computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement--including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain-computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  3. Motor cortex inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, K.M.; Augusta, M.; MacNeil, L.K.; Mostofsky, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset behavioral diagnosis in which children often fail to meet age norms in development of motor control, particularly timed repetitive and sequential movements, motor overflow, and balance. The neural substrate of this motor delay may include mechanisms of synaptic inhibition in or adjacent to the motor cortex. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–evoked measures, particularly short interval cortical inhibition (SICI), in motor cortex correlate with the presence and severity of ADHD in childhood as well as with commonly observed delays in motor control. Methods: In this case-control study, behavioral ratings, motor skills, and motor cortex physiology were evaluated in 49 children with ADHD (mean age 10.6 years, 30 boys) and 49 typically developing children (mean age 10.5 years, 30 boys), all right-handed, aged 8–12 years. Motor skills were evaluated with the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS) and the Motor Assessment Battery for Children version 2. SICI and other physiologic measures were obtained using TMS in the left motor cortex. Results: In children with ADHD, mean SICI was reduced by 40% (p < 0.0001) and less SICI correlated with higher ADHD severity (r = −0.52; p = 0.002). Mean PANESS motor development scores were 59% worse in children with ADHD (p < 0.0001). Worse PANESS scores correlated modestly with less SICI (r = −.30; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reduced TMS-evoked SICI correlates with ADHD diagnosis and symptom severity and also reflects motor skill development in children. PMID:21321335

  4. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafstrm, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  5. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  6. FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

  7. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  8. Evaluation of efficient motors

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1981-04-01

    New factors of importance in customer specification of electric motors are discussed. These factors are: (1) efficiency; and (2) power factor. The importance of these factors are discussed as is the importance of energy conservation and energy costs. Confusion existing concerning motor efficiency is reviewed and an exact definiton (watts output divided by watts imput) is provided. Motor losses (of energy) are discussed as well as test methods to determine electric motor efficiency. Motor power factor is defined and illustrated and it is shown how efficiency or power factor vary with the percent load and how the power factor penalty may be calculated. Knowing the charactristics of the motor, including efficiency and power factor, it is shown how potential savings may be evaluated. Relative importance of efficiency and power factor are treated briefly. (MJJ)

  9. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  10. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  11. Superconducting coil development and motor demonstration: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1995-12-01

    Superconducting bismuth-cuprate wires, coils, and magnets are being produced by industry as part of a program to test the viability of using such magnets in Naval systems. Tests of prototype magnets, coils, and wires reveal progress in commercially produced products. The larger magnets will be installed in an existing superconducting homopolar motor and operated initially at 4.2K to test the performance. It is anticipated that approximately 400 Hp will be achieved by the motor. This article reports on the initial tests of the magnets, coils, and wires as well as the development program to improve their performance.

  12. Immediate placement of a porous-tantalum, trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant with demineralized bone matrix into a socket with deficient buccal bone: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Byrd, Warren C.; Hosseini, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    A missing or deficient buccal alveolar bone plate is often an important limiting factor for immediate implant placement. Titanium dental implants enhanced with porous, tantalum-based trabecular metal material (PTTM) are designed for osseoincorporation, a combination of vascularized bone ingrowth and osseointegration (bone on-growth). Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) contains growth factors with good handling characteristics. However, the combination of these 2 materials in facial alveolar bone regeneration associated with immediate implant therapy has not been reported. A 65-year-old Asian woman presented with a failing central incisor. Most of the buccal alveolar bone plate of the socket was missing. A PTTM enhanced implant was immediately placed with DBM. Cone beam CT scans 12 months after the insertion of the definitive restoration showed regeneration of buccal alveolar bone. A combination of a PTTM enhanced implant, DBM, and a custom healing abutment may have an advantage in retaining biologically active molecules and form a scaffold for neovascularization and osteogenesis. This treatment protocol may be a viable option for immediate implant therapy in a failed tooth with deficient buccal alveolar bone. PMID:25702965

  13. An SEM study of the cephalic region, buccal cavity and male tail of the species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780 (Nematoda, Strongyloidea).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, L M

    1984-06-01

    The four species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780, namely, S. equinus, S. edentatus, S. vulgaris and S. asini were examined with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The buccal cavity of each species was cut transversely and longitudinally and the scanning electron micrographs illustrate the shape of the buccal cavity and the dorsal gutter. The micrographs also show the presence of denticles near the oral rim of the buccal cavity of S. edentatus and the shape of the teeth in the buccal cavity of S. equinus, S. vulgaris and S. asini. The bursa of the four species has three symmetrical lobes, one dorsal and two lateral. The length of the three lobes in relation to each other varies between the species. The genital cone has a single large ventral papilla, a pair of dorsal raylets, a median dorsal cuticular appendage and a variety of cuticular appendages lateral and ventral to the cloaca. The development and arrangement of these components differs between the four species of the genus and can be used as a supportive character for specific identification. PMID:6747258

  14. Electromyography of the buccal musculature of octopus (Octopus bimaculoides): a test of the function of the muscle articulation in support and movement.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Theodore A; Kier, William M

    2007-01-01

    The buccal mass musculature of the octopus (Octopus bimaculoides) was studied with electromyography to test the predictions of a previous morphological study in which we suggested that the muscles of the buccal mass serve as both the effectors of movement and as the joint itself, forming a new category of flexible joint termed a ;muscle articulation'. The predictions of muscle function were tested by correlating muscle electrical activity in isolated buccal masses with spontaneous beak movements. Bipolar electromyography electrodes were implanted in the various beak muscles and beak position was recorded simultaneously with an electronic movement monitor (N=14). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the lateral mandibular muscles produce opening movements of the beaks and provide the first definitive explanation of the opening mechanism. The results are also consistent with the hypothesis that the superior mandibular muscle functions primarily in closing. Co-contraction of the lateral mandibular muscles and the superior mandibular muscles was also observed, suggesting that these muscles may also stabilize the beaks during movement or provide a means of controlling the location of the pivot between the beaks. This study provides an important first test of the predictions of the role of the complex musculature found in muscle articulations such as the cephalopod buccal mass. PMID:17170155

  15. CHRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKING IS ASSOCIATED WITH DIMINISHED FOLATE STATUS, ALTERED FOLATE FORM DISTRIBUTION, AND INCREASED GENETIC DAMAGE IN THE BUCCAL MUCOSA OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Smoking causes genetic damage in buccal cells and increases the risk of oral cancer. Since folate is instrumental in DNA synthesis and repair, it is a determinant of genetic stability and therefore might attenuate the genotoxic effects of smoking. Objective: To compare folate metabolites...

  16. The use of demineralized freeze-dried bone and nonresorbable hydroxyapatite in the treatment of buccal dehiscences around implants: clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A; Hempton, T J

    1993-01-01

    A mixture of equal parts of demineralized freeze-dried human cortical bone and nonresorbable porous hydroxyapatite was used in conjunction with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane to promote deposition of bone in buccal dehiscences around dental implants. Two case studies are presented. PMID:8358377

  17. A finite element code for electric motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  18. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  19. The Frostig Program for Perceptual-Motor Development Developed by the Marianne Frostig Center of Educational Therapy. Product Development Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    This is one of 21 reports dealing with the developmental history of recent and successful educational products. The report on the Frostig program is based upon: (1) published materials; (2) documents in the files of the developing agency; and (3) interviews with staff who were involved in the product development. All phases in the developmental…

  20. Motor neurons control locomotor circuit function retrogradely via gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianren; Ampatzis, Konstantinos; Bjrnfors, E Rebecka; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2016-01-21

    Motor neurons are the final stage of neural processing for the execution of motor behaviours. Traditionally, motor neurons have been viewed as the 'final common pathway', serving as passive recipients merely conveying to the muscles the final motor program generated by upstream interneuron circuits. Here we reveal an unforeseen role of motor neurons in controlling the locomotor circuit function via gap junctions in zebrafish. These gap junctions mediate a retrograde analogue propagation of voltage fluctuations from motor neurons to control the synaptic release and recruitment of the upstream V2a interneurons that drive locomotion. Selective inhibition of motor neurons during ongoing locomotion de-recruits V2a interneurons and strongly influences locomotor circuit function. Rather than acting as separate units, gap junctions unite motor neurons and V2a interneurons into functional ensembles endowed with a retrograde analogue computation essential for locomotor rhythm generation. These results show that motor neurons are not a passive recipient of motor commands but an integral component of the neural circuits responsible for motor behaviour. PMID:26760208