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Sample records for buccal motor programs

  1. Different roles of neurons B63 and B34 that are active during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, I; Kupfermann, I; Susswein, A J

    1997-09-01

    The buccal ganglion of Aplysia contains a central pattern generator (CPG) that organizes sequences of radula protraction and retraction during food ingestion and egestion. Neurons B63 and B34 have access to, or are elements of, the CPG. Both neurons are depolarized along with B31/B32 during the protraction phase of buccal motor programs. Both cells excite the contralateral B31/B32 neurons and inhibit B64 and other neurons active during the retraction phase. B63 and B34 also both have an axon exiting the buccal ganglia via the contralateral cerebrobuccal connective. Despite their similarities, B63 and B34 differ in a number of properties, which reflects their different functions. B63 fires during both ingestion and egestion-like buccal motor programs, whereas B34 fires only during egestion-like programs. The bilateral B63 neurons, along with the bilateral B31 and B32 neurons, act as a single functional unit. Sufficient depolarization of any of these neurons activates them all and initiates a buccal motor program. B63 is electrically coupled to both the ipsilateral and the contralateral B31/B32 neurons but monosynaptically excites the contralateral neurons with a mixed electrical and chemical excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Positive feedback caused by electrical and chemical EPSPs between B63 and B31/B32 contributes to the sustained depolarization in B31/B32 and the firing of B63 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B34 is excited during the protraction phase of all buccal motor programs, but, unlike B63, it does not always reach firing threshold. The neuron fires in response to current injection only after it is depolarized for 1-2 s or after preceding buccal motor programs in which it is depolarized. Firing of B34 produces facilitating EPSPs in the contralateral B31/B32 and B63 neurons and can initiate a buccal motor program. Firing in B34 is strongly correlated with firing in the B61/B62 motor neurons, which innervate the muscle (I2) responsible for much of protraction. B34 monosynaptically excites these motor neurons. B34 firing is also correlated with firing in motor neuron B8 during the protraction phase of a buccal motor program. B8 innervates the I4 radula closer muscle, which in egestion movements is active during protraction and in ingestion movements is active during retraction. B34 has a mixed, but predominantly excitatory, effect on B8 via a slow conductance-decrease EPSP. Thus firing in B34 leads to amplification of radula protraction that is coupled with radula closing, a pattern characteristic of egestion. PMID:9310422

  2. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  3. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  4. Complementary interactions between command-like interneurons that function to activate and specify motor programs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity. PMID:24806677

  5. Boron epoxy rocket motor case program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Three 28-inch-diameter solid rocket motor cases were fabricated using 1/8 inch wide boron/epoxy tape. The cases had unequal end closures (4-1/8-inch-diameter forward flanges and 13-inch-diameter aft flanges) and metal attachment skirts. The flanges and skirts were titanium 6Al-4V alloy. The original design for the first case was patterned after the requirements of the Applications Technology Satellite apogee kick motor. The second and third cases were designed and fabricated to approximate the requirements of a small Applications Technology Satellite apogee kick motor. The program demonstrated the feasibility of designing and fabricating large-scale filament-wound solid propellant rocket motor cases with boron/epoxy tape.

  6. Effects of Perceptual-Motor Programs on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    Practical implications for physical education teachers are drawn after a review of research on perceptual motor training programs for elementary school children. Three categories of theorists are identified: those who emphasize the intellectual involvement of the child in motoric functioning; those who stress development of perceptual motor bases…

  7. KinderSkills. An Intergenerational Motor Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Linda M.; Ostrow, Andrew C.

    1986-01-01

    The KinderSkills program, in which parents serve as motor development teachers of their children, has operated for five years. A recent innovation was to add grandparents to the program to see if the motor skill levels of the grandparents also would improve. This program is described and evaluated. (MT)

  8. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each

  9. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  10. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program

  11. The use of artificial neural networks in the motor program.

    PubMed

    Ping, Wu; Jia-Li, Bao; Qiang, Xia; Bruce, I C

    2004-01-01

    Though it is commonly assumed that the brain creates "motor programs" which store the information essential to perform a motor skill, little direct evidence exists for such motor programs. Electromyography (EMG) provides a look into the motoneurons--level of a movement by measuring the electrical activity in relation to the muscle's involvement in the movement In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied to define the temporal patterns of EMG activity used by normal subjects in performing step-tracking tasks, and how such patterns change with practice. Our results demonstrate that ANNs could be trained to detect the input-output relationship between muscles' onset times and reaction times, and provided evidence to support the existence of a motor program. PMID:17271334

  12. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time. PMID:19823595

  13. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  14. The Motor Facilitation Program of School District 21, Wheeling, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrecht, Donna

    When selected as a model program the main objective of the kindergarten Motor Facilitation Program (MFP) was to prepare a child in readiness skills which would make possible easier achievement in reading at the first grade level. The purpose of the additional-help phase of the MFP was to help children in grades one through six who continue to…

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and

  16. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  17. Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural

  18. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ?9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  19. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  20. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

  1. Fentanyl buccal tablet.

    PubMed

    Messina, John; Darwish, Mona; Fine, Perry G

    2008-01-01

    Studies of populations with chronic cancer pain have shown a high prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP), defined as transitory, severe flares of pain that occur on a background of otherwise controlled, persistent pain. High BTP prevalence rates have also been reported in patients with chronic noncancer pain, although data in these patient populations are more limited. The incidence of BTP appears to be associated with progression of chronic disease, with more than 80% of patients reporting BTP with far-advanced, end-stage cancer and noncancer terminal conditions (1). The most widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of BTP involves use of short-acting opioids taken as needed in addition to the around-the-clock opioid regimen being used for the continuous component of the persistent pain syndrome. For some patients, an optimal treatment outcome for BTP may be unattainable because of a mismatch between the time course of the BTP episode and the onset of analgesia of short-acting opioids. Breakthrough pain typically reaches peak intensity within a few minutes, whereas the onset of analgesia with traditional, orally administered short-acting opioids is between 30 and 60 minutes (2-7). Consequently, treatment outcomes for BTP are likely to be improved with agents that have a more rapid onset of analgesia. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a new formulation of fentanyl indicated for the management of BTP in patients with cancer who are already receiving, and who are tolerant to, opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. The FBT formulation uses OraVescent (Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) drug delivery technology to provide rapid absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. In pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers, FBT demonstrated high, early systemic absorption. In addition, FBT delivered a larger proportion of the fentanyl dose transmucosally and produced a greater early systemic exposure than oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), which is also indicated for the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant cancer patients. A number of short-term studies have evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of FBT in the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain. All these studies included an open-label dose-titration phase prior to randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment. Pain Intensity of a BTP episode was measured using an 11-point scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain), and the primary outcome measure was the Summed Pain Intensity Difference (SPID) at a specified time point. Secondary efficacy measures included Pain Relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of BTP episodes demonstrating >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity scores at each time point postdose, and the proportion of BTP episodes requiring supplemental medication. In a pivotal study of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related chronic pain and BTP, the primary outcome measure, SPID at 30 minutes (SPID(30)), significantly favored FBT compared with placebo (mean +/- SE: 3.0 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.18, p<0.0001). Better efficacy was also observed with FBT compared with placebo for pain relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of episodes showing >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity Scores. Treatment with FBT was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and typical of those associated with opioid use (e.g., nausea, dizziness) (8). Similar results have been observed in studies of opioid-tolerant patients with BTP in association with noncancer-related chronic pain. In a study of patients with chronic low back pain, the primary outcome measure, SPID(60), significantly favored FBT over placebo (mean +/- SE: 8.3 +/- 0.66 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.57, p <0.0001). All secondary efficacy measures were similarly improved, with Pain Intensity Differences and Pain Relief scores showing significant differences versus placebo as early as 10 and 15 minutes, respectively. As in the study of cancer patient

  2. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  3. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. PMID:24911355

  4. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  9. Buccal exostosis: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Medsinge, Sonali V; Kohad, Ramesh; Budhiraja, Harmeeta; Singh, Atamjeet; Gurha, Shradha; Sharma, Akash

    2015-05-01

    Buccal exostoses are broad-based, non-malignant surface growth occurring on the outer or facial surface of the maxilla and/or mandible, found usually in the premolar and molar region. Etiology is still not established, but it has been suggested that the bony overgrowth can be because of abnormally increased masticatory forces to the teeth. They tend to appear in early adolescence and may very slowly increase in size with time. They are painless, self-limiting and may increase patient concern about poor esthetics, inability to perform oral hygiene procedures, and compromised periodontal health by causing food lodgment. The following article presents a very rare case of bilateral buccal-sided maxillary exostoses and its management with surgical exploration. PMID:26028907

  10. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  11. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  12. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  13. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... rulemaking (NOPR). 73 FR 78220. For small electric motors, DOE proposed to base its test procedure on IEEE... efficiency of electric motors. 64 FR 54114. After determining that energy conservation standards for small electric motors would be technologically feasible and economically justified, see 71 FR 38799 (July...

  14. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  15. Motor neuron death in ALS: programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed

    Pirooznia, Sheila K; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2014-03-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al. (2014), in this issue of Neuron, discover that familial and sporadic ALS-derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  16. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  17. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  18. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  19. [The Buccal Epithelium as Environmental Indicator].

    PubMed

    Korsakov, A V; Yablokov, A V; Troshin, V P; Mikhalev, V P

    2015-01-01

    The use of the buccal mucosa cell micronucleus test for comparison of chemical, radiation, and radiation-chemical environmental pollution has been considered. The combined impact of chemical and radiation factors has been found to cause additive effects, synergism, and inhibition. It has been noted that the cytogenetic characteristics of the buccal epithelium may be used as a "biological dosimeter" of the total level of environmental pollution. PMID:26349240

  20. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management... vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor.... The centralized leasing program covers subcompact, compact, and midsize sedans, station wagons,...

  2. Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  3. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...). 74 FR 12058 (March 23, 2009) It was recently discovered that the efficiency levels under 10 CFR 431... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy...

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a coupling between the defecation motor program and directed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Stanislav; Huang, Yung-Chi; Alkema, Mark J; Biron, David

    2015-01-01

    Distinct motor programs can be coupled to refine the repertoire of behavior dynamics. However, mechanisms underlying such coupling are poorly understood. The defecation motor program (DMP) of C. elegans is composed of a succession of body contraction and expulsion steps, performed repeatedly with a period of 50-60?sec. We show that recurring patterns of directed locomotion are executed in tandem with, co-reset, and co-terminate with the DMP cycle. Calcium waves in the intestine and proton signaling were shown to regulate the DMP. We found that genetic manipulations affecting these calcium dynamics regulated the corresponding patterns of directed locomotion. Moreover, we observed the initiation of a recurring locomotion pattern 10?seconds prior to the posterior body contraction, suggesting that the synchronized motor program may initiate prior to the DMP. This study links two multi-step motor programs executed by C. elegans in synchrony, utilizing non-neuronal tissue to drive directed locomotion. PMID:26597056

  5. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  6. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  7. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  8. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  9. 49 CFR 350.101 - What is the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). The goal of the MCSAP is to reduce CMV-involved accidents, fatalities, and injuries through consistent, uniform, and effective CMV safety programs. Investing...

  10. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... regulations. 73 FR 78220. DOE proposed to base its test procedure on IEEE Standard 114-2001, ``Test Procedure... notice of proposed rulemaking, 73 FR 78220 (December 22, 2008). B. Background In the Energy Policy Act of... FR 54114. After determining that energy conservation standards for small electric motors would...

  11. The Effects of a Developmentally Appropriate Music and Movement Program on Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachopoulou, E.; Tsapakidou, A.; Derri, V.

    2004-01-01

    Basic motor skills development is achieved through the implementation of different types of physical education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program and of a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the development of jumping and

  12. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  13. New insights in gill/buccal rhythm spiking activity and CO(2) sensitivity in pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles (Pelophylax ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Quenet, Brigitte; Straus, Christian; Fiamma, Marie-Nolle; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Horcholle-Bossavit, Ginette

    2014-01-15

    Central CO(2) chemosensitivity is crucial for all air-breathing vertebrates and raises the question of its role in ventilatory rhythmogenesis. In this study, neurograms of ventilatory motor outputs recorded in facial nerve of premetamorphic and postmetamorphic tadpole isolated brainstems, under normo- and hypercapnia, are investigated using Continuous Wavelet Transform spectral analysis for buccal activity and computation of number and amplitude of spikes during buccal and lung activities. Buccal bursts exhibit fast oscillations (20-30Hz) that are prominent in premetamorphic tadpoles: they result from the presence in periodic time windows of high amplitude spikes. Hypercapnia systematically decreases the frequency of buccal rhythm in both pre- and postmetamorphic tadpoles, by a lengthening of the interburst duration. In postmetamorphic tadpoles, hypercapnia reduces buccal burst amplitude and unmasks small fast oscillations. Our results suggest a common effect of the hypercapnia on the buccal part of the Central Pattern Generator in all tadpoles and a possible effect at the level of the motoneuron recruitment in postmetamorphic tadpoles. PMID:24200645

  14. A Program To Improve Fine Motor Development in Kindergarten Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Karen E.

    A 10-week practicum intervention was designed to reduce deficiencies in 10 kindergarten children in southwest Florida with poor fine motor skills. The intervention consisted of daily instruction and weekly activity tests. Activities included drawing, tracing, cutting with scissors, pasting, molding with clay, various games, lacing, weaving, and

  15. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  16. The structure of motor programming: evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage. PMID:25082470

  17. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  18. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Mller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  19. The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were

  20. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial

  1. Annulus: A motorized tree ring measuring program. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, J.

    1995-09-01

    A computer program, called ANNULUS, has been developed for measuring tree rings. The equipment configuration for the program includes a microscope, video camera, motor-driven slide with stage, and a video capture card. The user can measure one ring at a time or a series of rings on the screen.

  2. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact

  3. Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

  4. Buccal drug delivery of pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Shidhaye, Supriya S; Thakkar, Pritesh V; Dand, Neha M; Kadam, Vilasrao J

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic(R) F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter, weight, pH, and drug content. A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. levels of carrageenan gum, Pluronic F 127 and PVP K30, which significantly influenced characteristics like in vitro mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, swelling index, and in vitro residence time. The tablet was coated with an impermeable backing layer of ethyl cellulose to ensure unidirectional drug release. Different penetration enhancers were tried to improve the permeation of pravastatin sodium through buccal mucosa. Formulation containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate showed good permeation of pravastatin sodium through mucosa. Histopathological studies revealed no buccal mucosal damage. It can be concluded that buccal route can be one of the alternatives available for the administration of pravastatin sodium. PMID:20300898

  5. Developmental Physical Education--Low Motor Ability: An Individualized Program for Enhancing Motor and Perceptual Motor Performance. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for prekindergarter through secondary level mentally retarded or learning disabled children.

  6. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  10. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur...

  11. NASA Glenn Research Center Program in High Power Density Motors for Aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.; Ebihara, Ben; Johnson, Dexter; Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark; Buccieri, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Electric drive of transport-sized aircraft propulsors, with electric power generated by fuel cells or turbo-generators, will require electric motors with much higher power density than conventional room-temperature machines. Cryogenic cooling of the motor windings by the liquid hydrogen fuel offers a possible solution, enabling motors with higher power density than turbine engines. Some context on weights of various systems, which is required to assess the problem, is presented. This context includes a survey of turbine engine weights over a considerable size range, a correlation of gear box weights and some examples of conventional and advanced electric motor weights. The NASA Glenn Research Center program for high power density motors is outlined and some technical results to date are presented. These results include current densities of 5,000 A per square centimeter current density achieved in cryogenic coils, finite element predictions compared to measurements of torque production in a switched reluctance motor, and initial tests of a cryogenic switched reluctance motor.

  12. Model of interactions between cortical areas for sensory-motor programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnod, Yves; Guigon, Emmanuel; Otto, Isabelle; Grandguillaume, Philippe; Boutkhil, Latifa; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Marchal, Patrick

    1992-04-01

    The brain represents perceptual and motor information in several reference frames (for example body-centered, object-centered, or retinal-centered reference frames). In a simple sensory-motor program such as looking at and taking an object, at least three fundamental processes must be carried out by the cerebral cortex; (1) in order to recognize the target object, the cortex has to transform the pattern of excitation on the retina from a retinotopic coordinate system to a coordinate system centered on the object itself; (2) in order to bring a hand to the desired position in space, the cortex must transform the visual information related to the target location (relative to the hand) into an appropriate motor command of the reaching hand; (3) in order to guide coherent behavioral actions, more complex sensory-motor programs (for example, conditional reaching of a target) are constructed from time-dependent relations between these basic transformations. The cortex correlates sensory and motor events and learns to prepare responses to forthcoming events. Neurophysiological data on the motor area of the monkey allowed us to model the coordinate transformations from body-centered to arm-centered reference frames involved in the command of arm reaching movements in 3-D space. Anatomical and neuropsychological data suggest similar coordinate transformations along the visual pathway to relate retinal-centered to object-centered reference frames and we have thus extended the model to this coordinate transformation. Time integration seems to proceed differently since internal representations of programs are dynamically constructed. Available physiological and anatomical data on frontal areas (and particularly prefrontal cortex) help to predict specific learning mechanisms for time processing and then construct a model for learning sensory-motor sequences.

  13. Mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst: enucleation without extraction.

    PubMed

    Shohat, I; Buchner, A; Taicher, S

    2003-12-01

    The mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst (MBBC) is a cystic lesion, which occurs on the buccal surface of the permanent mandibular first molar in children around 6-8 years old. Treatment of the cyst has been controversial: extraction of the involved tooth and enucleation of the cyst, or only enucleation, without extraction. The aim of this article is to familiarize oral and maxillofacial surgeons with this entity and the appropriate treatment approach. The diagnostic features of MBBC are described and the treatment approach in five patients with a total of seven cysts is presented. Two cases were identified in identical twins. Enucleation of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth is the treatment of choice when the available data and experience in treating MBBC are considered. PMID:14636611

  14. Buccal films of prednisolone with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kumria, Rachna; Nair, Anroop B; Goomber, Garima; Gupta, Sumeet

    2016-02-01

    The conventional formulation of prednisolone is considered to be low in efficacy, primarily on account of their failure in providing and maintaining effective therapeutic drug levels. This study aims to focus on development of a mucoadhesive buccal delivery system with a twofold objective of offering a rapid as well as a prolonged delivery of prednisolone coupled with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Buccoadhesive films of prednisolone were prepared by solvent-casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (K100), Carbopol 940 and/or Eudragit NE 40?D. Placebo films possessing the most desirable physicomechanical properties were selected for drug loading. The effect of polymer and its content on film properties, i.e. mucoadhesive strength, swelling and hydration, in vitro drug release was studied. Based on these studies, film F7D was selected for ex vivo permeation across porcine cheek mucosa. The steady state flux of prednisolone across the buccal mucosa was found to be 105.33??32.07?g/cm(2)/h. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of prepared film (F7D) and oral suspension of prednisolone was conducted. In vivo data of buccal film show greater bioavailability (AUC0-?: 24.26??4.06?g.h/ml versus 10.65??2.15?g.h/ml) and higher Cmax (2.70??0.38?g/ml versus 2.29??0.32?g/ml) value when compared to oral suspension. The data observed from this study highlight the feasibility of the buccal route as a viable option for delivery of prednisolone. PMID:24892626

  15. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a coupling between the defecation motor program and directed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Stanislav; Huang, Yung-Chi; Alkema, Mark J.; Biron, David

    2015-01-01

    Distinct motor programs can be coupled to refine the repertoire of behavior dynamics. However, mechanisms underlying such coupling are poorly understood. The defecation motor program (DMP) of C. elegans is composed of a succession of body contraction and expulsion steps, performed repeatedly with a period of 50–60 sec. We show that recurring patterns of directed locomotion are executed in tandem with, co-reset, and co-terminate with the DMP cycle. Calcium waves in the intestine and proton signaling were shown to regulate the DMP. We found that genetic manipulations affecting these calcium dynamics regulated the corresponding patterns of directed locomotion. Moreover, we observed the initiation of a recurring locomotion pattern 10 seconds prior to the posterior body contraction, suggesting that the synchronized motor program may initiate prior to the DMP. This study links two multi-step motor programs executed by C. elegans in synchrony, utilizing non-neuronal tissue to drive directed locomotion. PMID:26597056

  17. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The

  18. Representation and Execution of Vocal Motor Programs for Expert Singing of Tonal Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Fontenot, Dwight L.; Meyer, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study motor programs used by expert singers to produce short tonal melodies. Each experiment involved a response-priming procedure in which singers prepared to sing a primary melody but on 50% of trials had to switch and sing a different (secondary) melody instead. In Experiment 1, secondary melodies in the same

  19. Improving Developmentally Appropriate Practices in the Kindergarten Program by Introducing Therapeutic Sensory Motor and Play Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakes-Greenway, Doris

    This practicum was designed to increase teacher knowledge base in developmentally appropriate practices and increase understanding of the need for play and sensory motor activities in the kindergarten program. The primary goal was that the kindergarten teachers would use more developmentally appropriate practices in achieving curriculum

  20. Palatal Myoclonus Associated with Orofacial Buccal Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Do Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition in which there are rhythmic jerky movements of the soft palate and sometimes of the other muscles innervated by the brainstem A particularly annoying symptom is a rhythmic clicking sound in the ear due to the opening and closing of the Eustachian tube. Orofacial buccal dystonia is a focal dystonia with sustained spasms of the masticatory, facial or lingual muscles. The frequent symptoms of this disease have mainly been reported to be involuntary and possibly painful jaw opening, closing, deflecting and retruding, or a combination of the above. However, the subtle and unnoticeable involuntary movement of multiple facial muscles, which might be an infrequent symptom of orofacial buccal dystonia, makes this disease hard to diagnose. Understanding the functional orofacial anatomy that is responsible for the clinical signs and symptoms is necessary for making a proper diagnosis. Here we report on a rare case of palatal myoclonus that was associated with orofacial buccal dystonia, and such a case has not been previously reported. We describe the diagnostic approach and excellent treatment results after Botulinum toxin A (Dysport) injection and proper counseling. PMID:22468202

  1. Effect of permeation enhancers on buccal absorption.

    PubMed

    Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Dini, Laura; Najarro, Marcela; Monti, Daniela; Morelli, Paolo; Saettone, M Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation on matrices based on the mucoadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate, intended for sublingual administration of 1 mg lorazepam (LZ, 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, CAS 846-49-1). The effect of different amounts of three permeation enhancers, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), polyethoxylated castor oil (PCO) and polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (PGDE) on LZ permeation from the matrices was investigated using three models: (a) cultured monolayer of human buccal epithelial cells; (b) hamster cheek pouch mucosa in vitro, and (c) buccal administration to rabbits in vivo. In the first two models the presence of promoters, except when present at the higher concentrations, increased the drug permeation rate. The permeation-reducing effect was rationalized on the basis of micellar complexation of the drug. In the living rabbit (c) model, only CPC at the highest tested concentration was moderately active, while in the cultured cell model activity differences among the enhancers were less evident. Different effects of the promoters in the ex vivo and in vivo models were tentatively explained on the basis of the structural characteristics of the absorbing membranes. The present study, while confirming the efficacy of CPC as promoter in models involving biological membranes, does not provide conclusive data on the validity of the cultured cells model for assessment of buccal drug absorption. PMID:16927540

  2. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  3. Modular program for grain design and performance analysis of solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantharam, K. V.; Santha, V.

    1992-05-01

    A modular software program is described for conducting parametric analyses of solid-rocket-motor (SRM) grain designs to obtain preliminary propulsion data. The analysis package is described with particular attention given to the modular nature of the interactive subroutines, since the method is intended to give flexibility for inputs including port geometries, propellant characteristics, and motor variables. The software is applied to configurations typical of SRMs for launch vehicles, and sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impacts of different parameters on SRM performance. The software permits the evaluation of the effects of grain deformation on internal ballistics, and partial inhibition effects in some propellant grains can be assessed.

  4. Transbuccal delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate from mucoadhesive buccal patches.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, K Chandra; Naidu, K V S; Vishnu, Y Vamshi; Gannu, Ramesh; Kishan, V; Rao, Y Madhusudan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes buccal permeation of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and its transbuccal delivery using mucoadhesive buccal patches. Permeation of CPM was calculated in vitro using porcine buccal membrane and in vivo in healthy humans. Buccal formulations were developed with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and evaluated for in vitro release, moisture absorption, mechanical properties, and bioadhesion, and optimized formulation was subjected for bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. In vitro flux of CPM was calculated to be 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg.h(-1).cm(-2) and buccal absorption also was demonstrated in vivo in human volunteers. In vitro drug release and moisture absorbed were governed by HEC content and formulations exhibited good tensile and mucoadhesive properties. Bioavailability from optimized buccal patch was 1.46 times higher than the oral dosage form and the results showed statistically significant difference. PMID:18379931

  5. Afferent-induced changes in rhythmic motor programs in the feeding circuitry of aplysia.

    PubMed

    Shetreat-Klein, Avniel N; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2004-10-01

    A manipulation often used to determine whether a neuron plays a role in the generation of a motor program involves injecting current into the cell during rhythmic activity to determine whether activity is modified. We perform this type of manipulation to study the impact of afferent activity on feeding-like motor programs in Aplysia. We trigger biting-like programs and manipulate sensory neurons that have been implicated in producing the changes in activity that occur when food is ingested, i.e., when bites are converted to bite-swallows. Sensory neurons that are manipulated are the radula mechanoafferent B21 and the retraction proprioceptor B51. Data suggest that both cells are peripherally activated during radula closing/retraction when food is ingested. We found that phasic subthreshold depolarization of a single sensory neuron can significantly prolong radula closing/retraction, as determined by recording both from interneurons (e.g., B64), and motor neurons (e.g., B15 and B8). Additionally, afferent activity produces a delay in the onset of the subsequent radula opening/protraction, and increases the firing frequency of motor neurons. These are the changes in activity that are seen when food is ingested. These results add to the growing data that implicate B21 and B51 in bite to bite-swallow conversions and indicate that afferent activity is important during feeding in Aplysia. PMID:15175374

  6. Overview of CFD Analyses Supporting the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Program at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric; McConnaughey, P.; Lin, J.; Reske, E.; Doran, D.; Whitesides, R. H.; Chen, Y.-S.

    1996-01-01

    During the past year, various computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program. The successful completion of these analyses involved application of the CFD codes FDNS and CELMINT. The topics addressed by the analyses were: (1) the design and prediction of slag pool accumulation within the five inch test motor, (2) prediction of slag pool behavior and its response to lateral accelerations, (3) the clogging of potential insulation debonds within the nozzle by slag accumulation, (4) the behavior of jets within small voids inside nozzle joint gaps, (5) The effect of increased inhibitor stiffness on motor acoustics, and (6) the effect of a nozzle defect on particle impingement enhanced erosion. The emphasis of this presentation will be to further discuss the work in topics 3, 4, and 5.

  7. Effects of motor programming on the power spectral density function of finger and wrist movements.

    PubMed

    Van Galen, G P; Van Doorn, R R; Schomaker, L R

    1990-11-01

    Power spectral density analysis was applied to the frequency content of the acceleration signal of pen movements in line drawing. The relative power in frequency bands between 1 and 32 Hz was measured as a function of motoric and anatomic task demands. Results showed a decrease of power at the lower frequencies (1-4 Hz) of the spectrum and an increase in the middle (9-12 Hz), with increasing motor demands. These findings evidence the inhibition of visual control and the disinhibition of physiological tremor under conditions of increased programming demands. Adductive movements displayed less power than abductive movements in the lower end of the spectrum, with a simultaneous increase at the higher frequencies. The relevance of the method for the measurement of neuromotor noise as a possible origin of delays in motor behavior is discussed. PMID:2148590

  8. Aberrant Fat Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants with Defects in the Defecation Motor Program

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ming; Gaur, Rahul; Selstam, Eva; Tuck, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are absorbed by the intestine, and the way in which the process is regulated are poorly understood. In a genetic screen for mutations affecting fat accumulation in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, nematode worms, we have isolated mutations in the aex-5 gene, which encodes a Kex2/subtilisin-family, Ca2+-sensitive proprotein convertase known to be required for maturation of certain neuropeptides, and for a discrete step in an ultradian rhythmic phenomenon called the defecation motor program. We demonstrate that aex-5 mutants have markedly lower steady-state levels of fat in the intestine, and that this defect is associated with a significant reduction in the rate at which labeled fatty acid derivatives are taken up from the intestinal lumen. Other mutations affecting the defecation motor program also affect steady-state levels of triglycerides, suggesting that the program is required per se for the proper accumulation of neutral lipids. Our results suggest that an important function of the defecation motor program in C. elegans is to promote the uptake of an important class of dietary nutrients. They also imply that modulation of the program might be one way in which worms adjust nutrient uptake in response to altered metabolic status. PMID:25849533

  9. Healing of Donor-site Buccal Mucosa Urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Harris, Catherine R; Enriquez, Anthony; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2015-09-01

    Buccal mucosal graft represents the gold standard graft material for urethroplasty because of its thick epithelium and a thin lamina propria for maximal graft uptake. There is an ongoing debate whether to close the buccal graft donor site. We show a unique look at buccal donor site healing through serial pictures over a 100-day period. In this patient, the anterior half of the buccal donor site was closed at the time of harvest, allowing real-time observation of wound healing from both the closed and open aspects of the wound. PMID:26151892

  10. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  11. Contamination Control Changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program: A Ten Year Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, David M.

    1998-01-01

    During the post Challenger period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Thiokol implemented changes to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) contract to include provisions for contamination control to enhance the production environment. During the ten years since those agreements for contamination controls were made, many changes have taken place in the production facilities at Thiokol. These changes have led to the production of much higher quality shuttle solid rocket motors and improved cleanliness and safety of operations in the production facilities. The experience in contamination control over this past decade highlights the value these changes have brought to the RSRM program, and how the system can be improved to meet the challenges the program will face in the next ten years.

  12. Handedness of a Motor Program in C. elegans Is Independent of Left-Right Body Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Joanna C.; Birsoy, Bilge; Chipman, Kyle C.; Rothman, Joel H.

    2012-01-01

    Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or “motor handedness,” often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ∼1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans. PMID:23300601

  13. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

  14. A single pair of interneurons commands the Drosophila feeding motor program

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Thomas; Iguchi, Shinya; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many feeding behaviors represent stereotyped, organized sequences of motor patterns that have been the subject of neuroethological studies1,2 such as electrophysiological characterization of neurons governing prey capture in toads1,3. Technical limitations, however, have prevented detailed study of the functional role of these neurons as in other studies on vertebrate organisms. Complexities involved in studies of whole animal behavior can be resolved in Drosophila, where remote activation of brain cells by genetic means4 allows one to interrogate the nervous system in freely moving animals to identify neurons that govern a specific behavior, and then to repeatedly target and manipulate these neurons to characterize their function. Here we show finding of neurons that generate the feeding motor program in Drosophila. We performed an unbiased screen using remote neuronal activation and identified a critical pair of brain cells that induces the entire feeding sequence when activated. These Fdg (feeding)-neurons are also essential for normal feeding as their suppression or ablation eliminates the sugar-induced feeding behavior. Activation of a single Fdg-neuron induced asymmetric feeding behavior and ablation of a single Fdg-neuron distorted the sugar-induced feeding behavior to be asymmetric, indicating the direct role of these neurons in shaping motor program execution. Simultaneously recording neuronal activity with calcium imaging during feeding behavior5 further revealed that the Fdg-neurons respond to food presentation, but only in starved flies. Our results demonstrate that Fdg-neurons operate firmly within the sensori-motor watershed, downstream of sensory and metabolic cues and at the top of the feeding motor hierarchy to execute the decision to feed. PMID:23748445

  15. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  16. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  17. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.

  18. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Louie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  19. Management of Buccal Gap and Resorption of Buccal Plate in Immediate Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hardik; Shah, Sheekha

    2015-01-01

    When a dental implant is placed into a fresh extraction socket, a space between the implant periphery and surrounding bone occurs. A gap can occur on any aspect of an immediately placed implant: Buccal, lingual or proximally. The objective of immediate implant placement is to provide an osseointegrated fixture suitable for an aesthetic and functional restoration. Bone fill in the gap between the implant and the peripheral bone is important. Surgical management of the buccal gap to obtain an optimal result is controversial and confusing with respect to the best techniques to achieve the following: Optimal bone fills in the gap, most coronal level of bone-to-implant contact, and the least amount of buccal bone loss and soft tissue recession. This clinical case report illustrates the management of the buccal gap and reducing buccal plate resorption when contemplating immediate implant placement. PMID:26225110

  20. Delayed buccal fat pad herniation: An unusual complication of buccal flap in cleft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Puneet; Parashar, Atul; Nanda, Vipul; Sharma, Ramesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Buccal musculomucosal flap is commonly used in cleft palate surgery for providing additional lining when nasal mucosa is inadequate. We report an unusual complication of progressively increasing fat herniation from the sutured donor site which started appearing on the third postoperative day. This necessitated excision of the protruding fat pad on the seventh postoperative day. The possible mechanism and precautions for prevention of this complication are discussed. PMID:19881029

  1. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Snia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abraho

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  2. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  3. Applicability of buccal fat pad grafting for oral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Toshihiro, Y; Nariai, Y; Takamura, Y; Yoshimura, H; Tobita, T; Yoshino, A; Tatsumi, H; Tsunematsu, K; Ohba, S; Kondo, S; Yanai, C; Ishibashi, H; Sekine, J

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of pedicled buccal fat pad grafting for the reconstruction of defects surgically created during oral surgery. A buccal fat pad graft was applied in 23 patients (5 males, 18 females; mean age 68.3 years) between 2003 and 2011. The graft was used to cover surgical defects of the palate, maxilla, upper gingiva, buccal mucosa, lower gingiva, oral floor, and temporomandibular joint region. Size of the surgical defects ranged from 15mm12mm to 30mm40mm; size of the buccal fat pad ranged from 15mm12mm to 43mm38mm. A pedicled buccal fat pad was prepared by incising the maxillary vestibule following primary surgery, and the surrounding connective tissue was preserved to supply nutrition to the pedicle during surgery. The buccal fat pad was placed on the raw surface of soft tissue or bone surface and sutured to the surrounding tissue of the defect. Complete epithelialization was observed within 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no complications or functional disorders during follow-up. Buccal fat pad grafting appears to be feasible for the reconstruction of surgically induced defects, and can be extended to the palate, mandible, mouth angle, and temporomandibular joint region. PMID:22902877

  4. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee J.; Wolf, Steven L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Lane, Christianne J.; Nelsen, Monica A.; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cen, Steven Yong; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical trials suggest that higher doses of task-oriented training are superior to current clinical practice for patients with stroke with upper extremity motor deficits. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a structured, task-oriented motor training program vs usual and customary occupational therapy (UCC) during stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Phase 3, pragmatic, single-blind randomized trial among 361 participants with moderate motor impairment recruited from 7 US hospitals over 44 months, treated in the outpatient setting from June 2009 to March 2014. INTERVENTIONS Structured, task-oriented upper extremity training (Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program[ASAP]; n = 119); dose-equivalent occupational therapy (DEUCC; n = 120); or monitoring-only occupational therapy (UCC; n = 122). The DEUCC group was prescribed 30 one-hour sessions over 10 weeks; the UCC group was only monitored, without specification of dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was 12-month change in log-transformed Wolf Motor Function Test time score (WMFT, consisting of a mean of 15 timed arm movements and hand dexterity tasks). Secondary outcomes were change in WMFT time score (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] = 19 seconds) and proportion of patients improving ≥25 points on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand function score (MCID = 17.8 points). RESULTS Among the 361 randomized patients (mean age, 60.7 years; 56% men; 42% African American; mean time since stroke onset, 46 days), 304 (84%) completed the 12-month primary outcome assessment; in intention-to-treat analysis, mean group change scores (log WMFT, baseline to 12 months) were, for the ASAP group, 2.2 to 1.4 (difference, 0.82); DEUCC group, 2.0 to 1.2 (difference, 0.84); and UCC group, 2.1 to 1.4 (difference, 0.75), with no significant between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC:0.14; 95% CI, −0.05 to 0.33; P = .16; ASAP vs UCC: −0.01; 95% CI, −0.22 to 0.21; P = .94; and DEUCC vs UCC: −0.14; 95% CI, −0.32 to 0.05; P = .15). Secondary outcomes for the ASAP group were WMFT change score, −8.8 seconds, and improved SIS, 73%; DEUCC group, WMFT, −8.1 seconds, and SIS, 72%; and UCC group, WMFT, −7.2 seconds, and SIS, 69%, with no significant pairwise between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC: WMFT, 1.8 seconds; 95% CI, −0.8 to 4.5 seconds; P = .18; improved SIS, 1%; 95% CI, −12% to 13%; P = .54; ASAP vs UCC: WMFT, −0.6 seconds, 95% CI, −3.8 to 2.6 seconds; P = .72; improved SIS, 4%; 95% CI, −9% to 16%; P = .48; and DEUCC vs UCC: WMFT, −2.1 seconds; 95% CI, −4.5 to 0.3 seconds; P = .08; improved SIS, 3%; 95% CI, −9% to 15%; P = .22). A total of 168 serious adverse events occurred in 109 participants, resulting in 8 patients withdrawing from the study. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with motor stroke and primarily moderate upper extremity impairment, use of a structured, task-oriented rehabilitation program did not significantly improve motor function or recovery beyond either an equivalent or a lower dose of UCC upper extremity rehabilitation. These findings do not support superiority of this program among patients with motor stroke and primarily moderate upper extremity impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00871715 PMID:26864411

  5. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V V; Puratchikody, A; Mathew, S T; Ashok, K B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  6. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  7. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  8. The observation and hearing of eating actions activates motor programs related to eating in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P F; Maiolini, C; Addessi, E; Fogassi, L; Visalberghi, E

    2005-06-01

    The observation of actions can lead, in some cases, to the repetition of those same actions. In other words, motor programs similar to those observed can be recruited. Since this phenomenon is expressed when in the presence of another individual, it has been named social facilitation. In the present study we investigated whether the observation and/or hearing of eating actions facilitate eating behaviors in observing/listening pig-tailed macaques. In experiment 1, the observation of an eating room mate significantly enhanced eating behavior in the observer. Similar results were obtained (experiment 2) in response to the sound of eating actions but not to control sounds (experiment 3). We propose that eating facilitation triggered by observation or listening of eating actions can rely on the mirror neuron system of ventral premotor cortex that provides a matching between the observed/listened action and the executed action. This matching system can subsequently trigger the motor programs necessary for repeating the observed/heard actions. PMID:15904715

  9. Representation and execution of vocal motor programs for expert singing of tonal melodies.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Fontenot, Dwight L; Meyer, David E

    2006-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study motor programs used by expert singers to produce short tonal melodies. Each experiment involved a response-priming procedure in which singers prepared to sing a primary melody but on 50% of trials had to switch and sing a different (secondary) melody instead. In Experiment 1, secondary melodies in the same key as the primary melody were easier to produce than secondary melodies in a different key. Experiment 2 showed that it was the initial note rather than key per se that affected production of secondary melodies. In Experiment 3, secondary melodies involving exact transpositions were easier to sing than secondary melodies with a different contour than the primary melody. Also, switches between the keys of C and G were easier than those between C and E. Taken together, these results suggest that the initial note of a melody may be the most important element in the motor program, that key is represented in a hierarchical form, and that melodic contour is represented as a series of exact semitone offsets. PMID:16846290

  10. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's

  11. Systematic Instruction for Retarded Children: The Illinois Program - Experimental Edition. Part IV: Motor Performance and Recreation Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.

    The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists

  12. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  16. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music

  17. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  18. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  19. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  20. Cerebral organization of motor programming and verbal processing as a function of degree of hand preference and familial sinistrality.

    PubMed

    Keane, A M

    1999-08-01

    Seventy-six right- and left-handed subjects responded to monaurally presented verbal stimuli (CVs) using their right and left hands on separate occasions. Both degree of hand preference and familial sinistrality (FS) were taken into account. It was found that, contrary to expectation, the manual response interfered with the verbal perception task, but only in the consistent strong handers. The pattern of interference suggests that those with a consistent hand preference (right or left) have general motor programming in the left hemisphere. Those with an inconsistent strong hand preference probably have some degree of general motor programming in both hemispheres. No effect for FS was found for the lateralization of verbal processing or general motor programming. PMID:10415134

  1. Optimal control strategy design based on dynamic programming for a dual-motor coupling-propulsion system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  2. Foxp1-mediated programming of limb-innervating motor neurons from mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Katrina L.; Rousso, David L.; Umbach, Joy A.; Novitch, Bennett G.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons (MNs) control diverse motor tasks including respiration, posture and locomotion that are disrupted by neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Methods directing MN differentiation from stem cells have been developed to enable disease modelling in vitro. However, most protocols produce only a limited subset of endogenous MN subtypes. Here we demonstrate that limb-innervating lateral motor column (LMC) MNs can be efficiently generated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells through manipulation of the transcription factor Foxp1. Foxp1-programmed MNs exhibit features of medial and lateral LMC MNs including expression of specific motor pool markers and axon guidance receptors. Importantly, they preferentially project axons towards limb muscle explants in vitro and distal limb muscles in vivo upon transplantation–hallmarks of bona fide LMC MNs. These results present an effective approach for generating specific MN populations from stem cells for studying MN development and disease. PMID:25868900

  3. Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  4. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying. PMID:23501243

  5. Perceptions of middle-class mothers of their children with special needs participating in motor and sport programs.

    PubMed

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's age with their perceived favorable changes in the children's development. Fifty-one mothers participated in the study. The mothers completed a survey examining their perceptions of their children's developmental function along seven domains: understanding direction, communication, general physical functioning, fine motor skills, activities of daily living, vigilance and attention, and social behavior. The children were categorized by primary reason of referral to three categories: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, motor difficulties, and social/behavioral difficulties. Findings suggest that middle-class mothers showed awareness and understanding of their children's needs by identifying the general physical function as the desirable domain to be addressed by the motor group, vigilance and attention as associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and understanding directions and communication as the desirable domain by the social/behavioral group. The findings are discussed in terms of the complexity of mother's perception of their children participating in sports and motor programs as relating to the different domains as well as to their perceived needs of their children. PMID:19491700

  6. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program development of solid rocket motor nozzle design and analysis capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyborne, C. M.

    1993-06-01

    The Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) work efforts currently underway to develop improved design and analysis capabilities for carbon-phenolic (C-P) solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzles is presented. The goals of SPIP are to (1) develop and conduct high temperature C-P material properties tests to enhance the existing material properties database, (2) use the enhanced database to develop accurate, physics-based models of C-P response in SRM nozzle operational environments, and (3) implement the new models in analytical computer codes and validate the codes' predictive capabilities. Significant progress has been made in each of the three areas. The improved understanding of C-P response in SRM nozzles, and the new data, models, and codes, are providing the necessary capabilities and tools to enhance confidence in analysis-based SRM nozzle designs and predicted margins of safety.

  7. Effect of smoking on folate levels in buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, C J; Hine, R J; Dasanayake, A P; Richards, E W; Freeberg, L E; Vaughn, W H; Krumdieck, C L

    1992-10-21

    The objective of the study was to document the existence of localized deficiency of folate in a tissue exposed to cigarette smoke, by analysis of oral and circulatory levels of this vitamin in smokers and non-smokers. Buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were collected from 25 smokers and 34 non-smokers. The Health Habits and History Questionnaire was completed by each subject. A 96-well plate L. casei assay, along with preincubation with a folate-free chick pancreas pteroyl-gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, was used to quantitate total buccal mucosal cell folates. The reproducibility (CV 5 to 7%) and recovery (95 to 106%) of the folate assay were satisfactory. Smokers had significantly lower buccal mucosal cell folate levels than did non-smokers. The mean plasma folate level of smokers although within normal limits, was also significantly lower than that of non-smokers. There were no significant differences in mean dietary folate intake or in alcohol consumption between the 2 groups. The strength of the positive association between smoking and plasma and buccal mucosal cell folate deficiency (by any definition) was moderate to strong and statistically significant. Our results indicate that cigarette smoking may result in a localized folate deficiency in buccal mucosal cells, independent of the plasma folate levels. PMID:1399138

  8. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... electric motor energy conservation standards. 74 FR 61410. Shortly after, DOE also published on its Web... recently adopted for small electric motors, 74 FR 32059 (July 7, 2009), appear at Title 10, Code of Federal...-run (CSCR) motors. 71 FR 38799, 38800-01 (July 10, 2006). In June 2006, DOE issued a report in...

  9. A Motor Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes the five basic stages of motor development as activities in a perceptual motor program for children of normal intelligence who have learning problems. The program emphasizes the relation between sound motor development and academic achievement. (Author)

  10. Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol; And Others

    The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

  11. 40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610 to introduce new nonroad... under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610, references to this part 89 or sections in this part shall be used instead of references to 40 CFR part 1039 or sections...

  12. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605 to introduce new nonroad... engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605, references to this part 89 or sections in this part shall be used instead of references to 40 CFR part 1039...

  13. Program for the Improvement of Downhole Drilling-Motor Bearings and Seals. Phase III, Part 2: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Six months of activity to improve downhole drilling-motor bearings and seals for geothermal applications are reported. The following are covered: seal testing and evaluation, bearing-seal package testing and evaluation, lubricant testing and evaluation, and program status, plans and schedule. (MHR)

  14. 40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610 to introduce new nonroad... under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.610, references to this part 89 or sections in this part shall be used instead of references to 40 CFR part 1039 or sections...

  15. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605 to introduce new nonroad... engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. However, when using the provisions of 40 CFR 1039.605, references to this part 89 or sections in this part shall be used instead of references to 40 CFR part 1039...

  16. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  17. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  18. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  19. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  20. The Effect of Group Participation in a Recreation Program on Perceptual-Motor Skills and Interpersonal Values of Potentially Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Kevin R.

    Effects of group participation in a recreation program emphasizing perceptual motor skills and interpersonal values of potentially delinquent boys were examined and compared to the same effects in a group of normal boys participating in a separate but similar program. The boys ranged in age from 12 to 18 years. Perceptual motor skills measured…

  1. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  2. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 2.2 to 8.8 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

  3. Mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Saulo Ellery; Sato, Fabio Ricardo Loureiro; Sawazaki, Renato; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Mrcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The mandibular buccal bifurcation cyst is a cystic lesion occurring on the buccal surface of the permanent mandibular first molar in 6- to 8-year-old children. The purpose of this article was to present a case report of an 8-year-old with a radiolucent area on the permanent mandibular left first molar, with clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics compatible with the pathological entity mentioned. The treatment adopted in this case was enucleation without extraction. The patient is still under observation without any sign of recurrence. PMID:22041012

  4. Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Carstairs, Helen M. J.; Cross, Robert A.; Turberfield, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, cargo is transported on self-organized networks of microtubule trackways by kinesin and dynein motor proteins. Synthetic microtubule networks have previously been assembled in vitro, and microtubules have been used as shuttles to carry cargoes on lithographically defined tracks consisting of surface-bound kinesin motors. Here, we show that molecular signals can be used to program both the architecture and the operation of a self-organized transport system that is based on kinesin and microtubules and spans three orders of magnitude in length scale. A single motor protein, dimeric kinesin-1, is conjugated to various DNA nanostructures to accomplish different tasks. Instructions encoded into the DNA sequences are used to direct the assembly of a polar array of microtubules and can be used to control the loading, active concentration and unloading of cargo on this track network, or to trigger the disassembly of the network.

  5. Differential modulation of motor neurons that innervate the same muscle but use different excitatory transmitters in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Keating, C; Lloyd, P E

    1999-10-01

    The medial portion of intrinsic buccal muscle 3 (I3m) is innervated by two excitatory motor neurons, B3 and B9. B3 uses glutamate as its fast transmitter and expresses the neuropeptide FMRFamide, whereas B9 uses acetylcholine as its fast transmitter and expresses the neuropeptide SCP. This preparation was used to study peptidergic modulation of muscles innervated by neurons that use different fast excitatory transmitters. First, we determined the effects of the application of the neuropeptides expressed in these neurons on excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) and contractions. FMRFamide increased the amplitude of EJPs and contractions evoked by B3 while decreasing those evoked by B9. This is the first observation in buccal muscle of a substance that modulates two excitatory neurons innervating the same muscle in opposite directions. SCP increased EJPs contraction amplitude, and the rate of muscle relaxation for both motor neurons. We determined that SCP potently increased cAMP levels in I3m as it does in other buccal muscles. Stimulation of B9 also caused increased cAMP levels in I3m providing independent evidence for SCP release. Finally, stimulation of B9 increased both the contraction amplitude and relaxation rate of B3-evoked I3m contractions in a manner similar to that observed using exogenous SCP. By inhibiting B9's cholinergic transmission with an antagonist, we were able to observe modulatory effects of B9 in the absence of fast excitatory effects. We found that the magnitude of the modulation was dependent on the firing frequency and did occur at frequencies and patterns of firing recorded previously for B9 during ingestive-like motor programs. PMID:10515965

  6. Autologous buccal mucosa graft for repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Fischer, Anne C; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Post-operative pediatric rectovaginal fistulas are rare, can be challenging to repair, and often recur. The versatility, ease of accessibility, vascularization, and likeness to native vaginal tissues make autologous buccal mucosal grafts a novel tissue substitute for the repair of a recurrent rectovaginal fistula after the surgical repair of anorectal malformations. PMID:24626879

  7. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  8. Design of the automatic motor Ke measurement system using the system on programming chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Sheng-Chan; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Liu, Yen-Chih; An, Nia-Chun; Tsai, Hsiu-An

    2013-01-01

    The induced electromotive force of traditional motor measurement usually uses another motor to connect the tested motor with the drive shaft to measure its speed and obtain Ke value of induced electromotive force of the tested motor. If the tested motor is not suitable for connection to the connect coupling because of the shape or volume of the rotor, it is difficult to measure the Ke values of the tested motor. So some scholars have proposed two-phase motor which drives the three-phase motor, and gain the measurement method of Ke from the third phase in a few years ago. The mainly way is using the digital logic circuits to redefine the truth table by entering the signals to the motor driver chip from the three Hall sensors. So it can still maintain a positive torque above 0 even if used the two-phase driver and the motor can be rotated by the two-phase driver. But the drawback is that it can only be measured the fixed Ke value at the same phase. And it has to redefine the truth table to measure the values of the other two phase. This paper provides a new measurement method that made the motor speed accelerate to the measured speed at the beginning and measuring the value of third phases while the rotation is maintained by the other two-phase. The advantage is that it can change the phase of measurement, so it can easily measure the Ke value. And the most of digital components which including processor, keyboard decoder and frequency counter etc can be achieved in FPGA by using SOPC method. It can significantly reduce the complexity of circuit and increase system reliability degree.

  9. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... equipment must have the vehicle emission control information and fuel labels we require under 40 CFR...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... equipment must have the vehicle emission control information and fuel labels we require under 40 CFR...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... equipment must have the vehicle emission control information and fuel labels we require under 40 CFR...

  12. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... equipment must have the vehicle emission control information and fuel labels we require under 40 CFR...

  13. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... equipment must have the vehicle emission control information and fuel labels we require under 40 CFR...

  14. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... test procedures under 10 CFR part 431 both for electric motors and small electric motors. 73 FR 78220...-10. 77 FR 26608, 26638 (the ``2012 final test procedure.'') DOE made these updates to ensure... exemptions. See 77 FR 43015 (July 23, 2012). Today's NOPR addresses and solicits comment on test...

  15. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... changes. 74 FR 12058. On December 22, 2008, DOE proposed to update the test procedures under Title 10 of... further updated the test procedures for electric motors and small electric motors. See 77 FR 26608 (May 4..., 1999, DOE published a final rule to implement these requirements. 64 FR 54114. In 2007, section 313...

  16. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

  17. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  18. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  19. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanovi?, Aleksandar; Milanovi?, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools. PMID:23940980

  20. Intramucosal nevus of buccal mucosa in a male child

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Chandra P; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Singh, Raghvendra

    2013-01-01

    Nevus (mole or birthmark) is a benign tumour of skin and mucosa characterised by the presence of melanin-producing, neuroectodermally derived cells, which can be light to dark brown, reddish brown, blue or flesh coloured. It varies in shape from oval to round. Oral melanotic nevi are uncommon oral lesions causing focal pigmentation. They were found only in 0.1% of population in a large survey. Nevi can be acquired over time or congenital. Acquired nevi are considered benign neoplasms whereas congenital nevi are hamartomas. They are located usually on the palate but less commonly on buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. This article presents a case report of an intramucosal nevus of buccal mucosa in a 5-year-old boy with its surgical removal. PMID:23887988

  1. Intramucosal nevus of buccal mucosa in a male child.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Chandra P; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Singh, Raghvendra

    2013-01-01

    Nevus (mole or birthmark) is a benign tumour of skin and mucosa characterised by the presence of melanin-producing, neuroectodermally derived cells, which can be light to dark brown, reddish brown, blue or flesh coloured. It varies in shape from oval to round. Oral melanotic nevi are uncommon oral lesions causing focal pigmentation. They were found only in 0.1% of population in a large survey. Nevi can be acquired over time or congenital. Acquired nevi are considered benign neoplasms whereas congenital nevi are hamartomas. They are located usually on the palate but less commonly on buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. This article presents a case report of an intramucosal nevus of buccal mucosa in a 5-year-old boy with its surgical removal. PMID:23887988

  2. Simplified buccal DNA extraction with FTA Elute Cards.

    PubMed

    Wolfgramm, Eldamria de Vargas; de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; Aguiar, Vitor Rezende da Costa; Sartori, Mariana Penha De Nadai; Hirschfeld-Campolongo, Gabriela C R; Tsutsumida, Weslley M; Louro, Iri Drumond

    2009-03-01

    DNA isolation is the initial step of most genetic studies, and ideally it should use a reliable and non-invasive method. Buccal samples are adequate for such purposes, being painless, easy to collect and a very reliable DNA source. FTA Elute Cards are relatively new on the market and are designed for rapid blood DNA extraction, in which DNA is solubilized in water, instead of attached to the paper matrix. In this study, we sought to test if FTA Elute Cards are suitable for buccal DNA extraction. Furthermore, several time and temperature conditions were analyzed in order to determine the best concentration/time ratio. Twenty-five different conditions were tested in quadruplicate and extracted DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. PMID:19215882

  3. Characterisation of human dental stem cells and buccal mucosa fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Bettina; Mäenpää, Katja; Ylikomi, Timo; Oja, Hannu; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2008-04-01

    Human craniofacial stem cells are recently discovered sources of putative mesenchymal stem cells that hold great promise for autogenic or allogenic cell therapy and tissue engineering. Prior to employing these cells in clinical applications, they must be thoroughly investigated and characterized. In this study, the surface marker expression was investigated on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle cells (DFCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) utilising surface markers for flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential was also examined by bone-associated markers alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. The results from our study demonstrate that the dental cell sources exhibit comparable surface marker and bone-associated marker profiles parallel to those of other mesenchymal stem cell sources, yet distinct from the buccal mucosa fibroblasts. Our data support evidence towards clinical applicability of dental stem cells in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:18230338

  4. Role of Broca's area in motor sequence programming: a cTBS study.

    PubMed

    Clerget, Emeline; Badets, Arnaud; Duqu, Julie; Olivier, Etienne

    2011-12-21

    Besides language, the contribution of Broca's area to motor cognition is now widely accepted. In this study, we investigated the role of its posterior part (left Brodmann area 44) in learning of a motor sequence by altering its functioning with a continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) in 12 healthy participants before they learned the sequence by observation. Twelve control individuals underwent the same experiment with cTBS applied over the vertex. Although cTBS over Brodmann area 44 did not impair sequence learning, it significantly increased the response latency as measured during the retention test, performed 24 h later. This finding suggests that Broca's area might be critically involved in organizing, and/or storing, the individual components of a motor sequence before its execution. PMID:22089648

  5. 76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... this requirement at 10 CFR 431.25(f). 74 FR 12058 (March 23, 2009). Appendix C to Subpart B of 10 CFR... electric motors, in addition to the current certified mail option. In a future rulemaking, DOE anticipates... Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment.'' 76 FR 12422. In that final rule, DOE noted...

  6. Motoric Factors Influencing the Selection of Vocabulary for Sign Production Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Motoric factors that should be considered in selecting signs to teach severely handicapped learners are reviewed and discussed. They are grouped into three categories: prehension movement patterns, unilateral/bilateral movement patterns, and combinations of successive actions, with a fourth set included of less objectively definable factors…

  7. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of that rule, it has come to DOE's attention that, due to a..., provides a date of February 28, 2015. 75 FR 10947. Instead, that date should be March 9, 2015, which is 60... unnecessary. In FR Doc. 2010- 4358, appearing in the document beginning on page 10947 in the Federal...

  8. Anatomical organization of brainstem circuits mediating feeding motor programs in the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rakesh; Anderson, Curtis W

    2009-11-17

    The goal of our research has been to investigate the neuronal integration that coordinates feeding movements in the marine toad (genus Bufo). Using injections of fluorescein dextran amines, combined with activity-dependent uptake of sulforhodamine 101, peripheral hypoglossal and trigeminal nerves involved with tongue and jaw movements were labeled. We identified the rostrocaudal distribution of hypoglossal and trigeminal motor nuclei, and their sensory projections. We also identified the extent of neuronal networks for the medial reticular formation, the raphe nucleus, the glossopharyngeal nuclei, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The sensory fibers of the hypoglossal and trigeminal nerves were found projecting to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and the trigeminal motor nuclei. The activity-dependent sulforhodamine 101 uptake after the trigeminal and hypoglossal nerves stimulation labeled the bilateral hypoglossal motor nuclei, the trigeminal motor nuclei, the medial reticular formation nuclei, the raphe nuclei, the glossopharyngeal nuclei, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, suggesting that all these neurons have the potential to be the components of feeding pathways. Taken together, these data are important for understanding the neuronal integration of extremely rapid jaw-tongue coordination during feeding in the marine toad. PMID:19703424

  9. C. elegans Dopaminergic D2-Like Receptors Delimit Recurrent Cholinergic-Mediated Motor Programs during a Goal-Oriented Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Paola; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garca, L. Ren

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA) signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and G?o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context. PMID:23166505

  10. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-02-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form. PMID:24892624

  11. Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit IV: Motor Development in Young Children. Module 1: Fostering the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Young Children. Unit Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module enables CDA interns to identify, prescribe, plan and implement activities and lessons which foster the development of gross motor skills in young children. At a satisfactoy level of proficiency the trainee will be able to identify levels of gross motor maturation, select appropriate equipment,

  12. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

  13. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  14. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-01-01

    To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

  15. Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP) for verifiable enhanced solid rocket motor reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-02-01

    To increase the success rate of U.S. built Rocket Motors (SRM), the approach taken is: (1) set common reliability goals for nozzles, cases, bondline, propellant, and insulation; (2) build a common engineering data base to support standard industry-wide reliability assessment models; (3) structure or enhance existing industry/government/user term to develop the tools, methods needed, and the data to support them; and (4) areas where unreliabilities are found must be improved.

  16. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, R M; Kamath, V V; Komali, Y; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20-30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  17. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, R. M.; Kamath, V. V.; Komali, Y.; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20–30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  18. Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Microparticles for Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Bigucci, Federica; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Propranolol administration through buccal route offers some distinct advantages thanks to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal existing in the buccal cavity, mucoadhesive delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact with the buccal mucosa. The aim of this study was to prepare mucoadhesive tablets based on chitosan/gelatin microparticles for buccal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Spray-dried microparticles were prepared with different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios and characterized in terms of yield and morphology. Microparticles were subsequently compressed with the drug to obtain loaded buccal tablets. In vitro water uptake, mucoadhesion, release, and permeation tests were performed to investigate tablet ability to hydrate, to adhere to the mucosa, and to deliver drug through buccal mucosa. Microparticles showed a different morphology based on the different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios. Moreover, buccal tablets based on the prepared microparticles showed different technological and functional characteristics in virtue of their composition. In particular, tablets with an excess of chitosan showed the best mucoadhesive properties, allowed the permeation of the greatest drug amount among all formulations, and could be promising for buccal administration of propranolol hydrochloride. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:4365-4372, 2015. PMID:26505621

  19. Transcription factor-induced lineage programming of noradrenaline and motor neurons from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mong, Jamie; Panman, Lia; Alekseenko, Zhanna; Kee, Nigel; Stanton, Lawrence W; Ericson, Johan; Perlmann, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    An important goal in stem cell biology is to develop methods for efficient generation of clinically interesting cell types from relevant stem cell populations. This is particularly challenging for different types of neurons of the central nervous system where hundreds of distinct neuronal cell types are generated during embryonic development. We previously used a strategy based on forced transcription factor expression in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors to generate specific types of neurons, including dopamine and serotonin neurons. Here, we extend these studies and show that noradrenergic neurons can also be generated from pluripotent embryonic stem cells by forced expression of the homeobox transcription factor Phox2b under the signaling influence of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and bone morphogenetic proteins. In neural progenitors exposed to FGF8 and sonic hedgehog both Phox2b and the related Phox2a instead promoted the generation of neurons with the characteristics of mid- and hindbrain motor neurons. The efficient generation of these neuron types enabled a comprehensive genome-wide gene expression analysis that provided further validation of the identity of generated cells. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the generated cell types are amenable to drug testing in vitro and we show that variants of the differentiation protocols can be applied to cultures of human pluripotent stem cells for the generation of human noradrenergic and visceral motor neurons. Thus, these studies provide a basis for characterization of yet an additional highly clinically relevant neuronal cell type. PMID:24549637

  20. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils.

    PubMed

    Lalueza, C; Prez-Prez, A; Turbn, D

    1996-07-01

    Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS). Results show that intergroup variability is significantly higher than the intragroup variability. There exists a tendency toward fewer striations and a higher proportion of vertical striations in the carnivorous groups than in the vegetarian ones. This microwear pattern is concordant with biomechanics (predominantly vertical mandible movements in meat eaters) and phytolith content in plants (more abrasive particles in vegetarian diets). The variability found has been used in a multivariate analysis as a base to compare the microwear pattern of a sample of 20 Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils, mainly from Europe, analyzed with the same methodology. The sample includes specimens usually classified as archaic H. sapiens (Broken Hill, Banyoles, Montmaurin, La Chaise-Suard, La Chaise-Bourgeios et Delaunay), Neanderthal (La Quina V, Gibraltar 2, Tabun 1 and 2, Amud 1, Malarnaud, St. Cesaire, Marillac), and anatomically modern H. sapiens (Skhl 4, Qafzeh 9, Cro-Magnon 4, Abri-Pataud, Veyrier, La Madelaine, Rond-du-Barry). Results indicate that some of the Neanderthal specimens have a microwear pattern close to that of the carnivorous groups (such as Inuit and Fueguians), suggesting that these individuals follow a hunter strategy. In contrast, archaic H. sapiens and H. sapiens sapiens seem to have a more abrasive diet, probably more depending on vegetable materials, than the Neanderthals. PMID:8798994

  1. Cigarette smoking, intracellular vitamin deficiency, and occurrence of micronuclei in epithelial cells of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, C J; Macaluso, M; Hine, R J; Vinter, D W; Richards, E W; Krumdieck, C L

    1995-01-01

    The study focuses on the assessment of chromosomal damage associated with folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, and with cigarette smoking in a tissue directly exposed to cigarette smoke (buccal mucosa) while controlling for potential confounding factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 39 current smokers (CSs) and 60 noncurrent smokers (NCSs). Buccal mucosal cells, saliva, and blood samples were collected from each subject. The Health Habits and History Questionnaire (Block et al., 1986) was modified to obtain dietary and other relevant information. Methods used to measure folate, vitamin B12 levels, and the frequency of micronucleated cells in buccal mucosal cells gave reproducible results. The study results suggest that CSs have buccal mucosal folate and vitamin B12 levels that are lower than those among NCSs. CSs were three times more likely to have micronucleated buccal mucosal cells compared to NCSs. There appeared to be no association between low buccal folate and vitamin B12 levels chromosomal damage. The salivary vitamin B12 concentrations and plasma vitamin C and E concentrations, however, seem to be marginally protective against the occurrence of buccal mucosal micronuclei, whereas plasma beta-carotene seems to increase the occurrence of micronuclei. Overall, the results do not support the concept that localized folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies in the buccal mucosal cells of smokers are associated with chromosomal damage in those cells. The presence of vitamin B12 deficiencies in the buccal mucosal cells of smokers are associated with chromosomal damage in those cells. The presence of vitamin B12 in the immediate environment (saliva) and vitamin C and E in the plasma, however, appear to be marginally protective against chromosomal damage in buccal mucosal cells. PMID:8672992

  2. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA, Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. PMID:20634985

  3. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of breakthrough pain: pharmacokinetics of buccal mucosa delivery and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Hamed, Ehab; Messina, John

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA((R)), Cephalon, Inc.) employs OraVescent((R)) drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer-related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP. PMID:20634985

  4. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

  5. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  6. Changes in motor control and muscle performance after a short-term body mass reduction program in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Lafortuna, C L; Conte, G; Faglia, G; Narici, M V

    2001-06-01

    Two hundred and thirty obese subjects (age: 18-77 yr, BMI: 31.1-65.8 kg/m2) were studied before and after a 3-week body mass reduction (BMR) program, coupling restricted energy diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) with low intensity exercise prescription. It involved 5 days per week (consisting of one-hour dynamic aerobic standing and floor exercise plus 30 min of cycloergometer exercise at 60 W or, alternatively, 4 km outdoor leisure walking on flat terrain) and psychological counseling. One-leg standing balance test (OLSB) and stair climbing test (SCT) were employed to assess motor control and maximal lower limb muscle power, respectively. The BMR program induced a significant weight loss (4.1%; p<0.001), a higher reduction of body mass index (BMI) being observed in males than in females (p<0.001). OLSB performance time increased by 20.5% (p<0.001) after treatment, the improvement being evident in both genders. A 20.8% reduction in SCT time (p<0.05) was also observed and corresponded to a 13.2% increase (p<0.001) in average absolute muscle power and 15.0% increase (p<0.001) in specific muscle power (i.e. the power output per kg of body mass), with no differences between genders. In conclusion, in spite of the moderate reduction of body mass after restricted energy diet and low intensity physical conditioning, significant improvements in motor control and performance, likely to ameliorate the execution of simple daily activities, were observed in obese subjects. PMID:11434662

  7. Phase contrast imaging of buccal mucosa tissues-Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, A.; Tripathi, S.; Shripathi, T.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Banda, N. R.; Agrawal, A. K.; Sarkar, P. S.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2015-06-01

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) technique has been used to interpret physical parameters obtained from the image taken on the normal buccal mucosa tissue extracted from cheek of a patient. The advantages of this method over the conventional imaging techniques are discussed. PCI technique uses the X-ray phase shift at the edges differentiated by very minute density differences and the edge enhanced high contrast images reveal details of soft tissues. The contrast in the images produced is related to changes in the X-ray refractive index of the tissues resulting in higher clarity compared with conventional absorption based X-ray imaging. The results show that this type of imaging has better ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues with good contrast, which can lead to the diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of the diseases.

  8. Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report

    PubMed Central

    G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkins lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

  9. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

  10. Creative arts program as an intervention for PTSD: a randomized clinical trial with motor vehicle accident survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuling; Lan, Chao; Chen, Juwu; Wang, Wenying; Zhang, Hua; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the creative arts program (HA) is effective in preventing the onset of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD develops in 10-20% of motor vehicle accident survivors (MVAs). MVAs in the initial months after the accident were randomly assigned to receive 8-week HA intervention (n = 26) or wait the list (WL, n = 26). The arts program consisted of writing and drawing. PTSD severity was assessed at 2, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CAPS) and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R). Secondary outcomes were post-traumatic growth (PTG), depression and anxiety symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that both HA and WL group exhibited a significant effect of time (P < 0.01) on CAPS, but no significant group differences over time. There were no group differences on depression or anxiety over time. Pessimists did not benefit more from attending the HA than they did from attending the WL. Our results fail to support the hypothesis that the creative arts program is effect in avoiding MVA-related PTSD symptoms. But it only seems to be a short-term, rather than a long-term effect. PMID:26550298

  11. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not...

  13. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not...

  14. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not...

  15. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to... 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505. (d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not...

  16. Buccal capnometry for quantitating the severity of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Castillo, Carlos J; Fries, Michael; Wang, Hao; Sun, Shijie; Tang, Wanchun

    2009-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that measurement of buccal mucosal PCO2 (PBUCO2) is a reliable alternative to sublingual mucosal PCO2 for measuring the severity of hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that measurement of PBUCO2 would serve as a continuous and a more sensitive and specific measurement for predicting survival during hemorrhagic shock than conventional measurements and thereby better guide initial management. Four groups of five pentobarbital anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to be bled over 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25%, 30%, 35%, or 40% of total blood volume. With an optical PCO2 sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left inner cheek, PBUCO2 was continuously measured together with arterial pressure, end-tidal PCO2, and intermittent measurement of cardiac output, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. Surviving animals had free access to water and food but no other treatment during the 72-h interval after recovery from anesthesia. After an estimated 40% blood loss, all animals died within 1 h. In the remaining animals, arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, blood lactate, and base deficit each failed to discriminate among animals with 35%, 30%, and 25% acute blood losses. This contrasted with PBUCO2, which discriminated between the magnitude of massive blood loss and untreated survival. Buccal mucosal PCO2 was predictive of outcome after rapid bleeding when compared with arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. This measurement is therefore likely to serve as a useful guide for the immediate management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:18520703

  17. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in Pakistani cotton weavers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmller, Siegfried; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cotton workers in small weaving household factories (power looms) in Pakistan are typically exposed to high levels of cotton dusts. Working in the textile manufacturing industry has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study set out to determine potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to cotton dusts in exfoliated buccal cells of exposed cotton workers. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were evaluated in a representative sample of 51 exposed male cotton weavers and in the same number of age-matched male non-exposed subjects applying the micronucleus cytome assay. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxicity (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis) were significantly elevated in exposed cotton workers. The frequency of micronucleated cells increased significantly with increasing years of work in power looms (odds ratio = 1.043 per year; 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.076, P = 0.007). Results were consistent with the typical inflammatory pattern and injury in epithelia due to unprotected occupational exposure to cotton dusts and other toxic, allergic and infectious substances in the working areas of the cotton industry. Occupational exposure in power looms induces cytotoxic effects and, upon chronic exposure, DNA damage. This may eventually result in typical obstructive patterns of pulmonary symptoms and in a clinical condition called byssinosis in exposed cotton workers. Long exposure may lead to chronic inflammation and cumulative damage of DNA in buccal stem cells that may indicate an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25805022

  18. Quality assessment of buccal versus blood genomic DNA using the Affymetrix 500 K GeneChip

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jessica G; Sun, Guangyun; Haverbusch, Mary; Indugula, Subbarao; Martin, Lisa J; Broderick, Joseph P; Deka, Ranjan; Woo, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background With the advent of genome-wide genotyping, the utility of stored buccal brushes for DNA extraction and genotyping has been questioned. We sought to describe the genomic DNA yield and concordance between stored buccal brushes and blood samples from the same individuals in the context of Affymetrix 500 K Human GeneChip genotyping. Results Buccal cytobrushes stored for ~7 years at -80°C prior to extraction yielded sufficient double stranded DNA (dsDNA) to be successfully genotyped on the Affymetrix ~262 K NspI chip, with yields between 536 and 1047 ng dsDNA. Using the BRLMM algorithm, genotyping call rates for blood samples averaged 98.4%, and for buccal samples averaged 97.8%. Matched blood samples exhibited 99.2% concordance, while matched blood and buccal samples exhibited 98.8% concordance. Conclusion Buccal cytobrushes stored long-term result in sufficient dsDNA concentrations to achieve high genotyping call rates and concordance with stored blood samples in the context of Affymetrix 500 K SNP genotyping. Thus, given high-quality collection and storage protocols, it is possible to use stored buccal cytobrush samples for genome-wide association studies. PMID:17996058

  19. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration. PMID:17192502

  20. A sustained release dosage form of acyclovir for buccal application: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Değim, Tuncer; Eğlen, Bilgen; Ocak, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Acyclovir is an antiviral agent and it has been particularly used for the treatment of herpes simplex infections. The treatment of infection in the oral cavity is often difficult, because of insufficient drug concentration in saliva when acyclovir is administered via the oral route in conventional tablet form for systemic uptake. Therefore, it was aimed to prepare a tablet for buccal administration and to investigate its effectiveness by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments.The solubility (1.559-4.584) and octanol/water partition coefficients ( - 2.176 to - 1.625) of the acyclovir were investigated at different pH conditions. A series of tablet formulations were prepared for buccal application and their dissolution properties were determined in artificial saliva medium. The effect of tablet ingredients on the release rate and mucoadhesion force was investigated. The dissolution properties of commercially available acyclovir tablets were also determined in the artificial gastric juice. Franz type diffusion cells were used to determine acyclovir penetration through buccal mucosa from prepared buccal tablets. Selected buccal tablets, commercial tablets and intravenous acyclovir solutions were administered to mongrel dogs and drug levels in the blood determined by HPLC.A pharmacokinetic model for buccal application was also developed and blood concentrations were calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Prepared buccal tablets were found to be effective for the treatment of viral infections locally within the oral cavity and also for systemic treatment. PMID:16603450

  1. Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus using Cytomorphometry of Buccal Cells and Correlation with Glycosylated Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, K Raghavendhar; Malathi, N; Poornima, K; Prakash, Sunil; Kadhiresan, R; Arunmozhi, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study cytological alterations in the exfoliated buccal cells of diabetic patients. To analyze the cytomorphometric findings in the smears of uncontrolled and controlled diabetic patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. To establish a correlation between cytomorphometric changes and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetics and normal controls, for evaluation of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 confirmed diabetic patients from a hospital out-patient diabetic ward and 20 healthy individuals as controls (Group A: n = 20), in Chennai. Specific exclusion criteria were used to select the study group from a larger group of subjects. Based on HbA1c values, the diabetic patients were categorized into Group B = Controlled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c <7%) and Group C = Uncontrolled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c >9%). After informed consent, buccal smear was collected from clinically normal appearing mucosa and stained with papanicoloau (PAP) stain. Cytomorphometric analysis of selective PAP stained cells was done using image analysis software, Image Pro Plus 5.5 (Olympus) and parameters determined were average cytoplasmic area (CA), average nuclear area (NA) and cytoplasmic:nuclear (C: N) ratio for an average of 50 cells/patient. Results: Comparing the average NA among three groups, an increase through Group A, B, C, with a maximum significance between Group C and A was seen. The average C: N ratio showed a statistically significant difference between all three groups. Significant correlation existed between the HbA1c values and both the C: N ratio and average NA in all the three groups. Conclusions: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal smears using the C: N ratio alteration as a reliable criteria, may serve as yet another non-invasive tool for screening programs for diabetic detection. And the technique may possibly be used also for evaluation of glycemic control in known diabetics. PMID:25859101

  2. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and

  3. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were

  4. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... gas emission standards on July 8, 2009 (74 FR 32744). Subsequently, CARB adopted a series of... those model years. On June 14, 2011 (76 FR 34693), EPA confirmed that these series of amendments were...-the-scope decisions for CARB's ZEV program in 2006 (71 FR 78190, December 28, 2006) and 2011 (76...

  5. A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2012-01-01

    We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500 stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000 stiffness fin rays. PMID:22162853

  6. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor derived cells existed in the blood and buccal swabs, but not in hair follicles, which can be used to obtain the pre-transplant sample of the recipient after transplant. Conclusion Peripheral blood and buccal swab do not serve as a reliable source of recipients origin for DNA analysis of individuals who underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at least within 6 months after transplant. PMID:26088848

  7. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Masayasu; Saida, Naotaka; Tanaka, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma. PMID:26885425

  8. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  9. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichats buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gonzlez, Roco; Pearrocha-Diago, Mara; Pearrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prsper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichats ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichats fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  10. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Masayasu; Saida, Naotaka; Tanaka, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma. PMID:26885425

  11. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  12. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  13. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Navneet; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia. PMID:24959419

  14. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    PubMed

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. PMID:25496850

  15. Biologic height-width ratio of the buccal supra-implant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Takeshi; Enomoto, Hiroaki; Tsurumaki, Shunzo; Ito, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, esthetic implant dentistry has focused on changes in buccal implant mucosal height. The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between the height and width of buccal supra-implant mucosa based on the physiologic mucosal form surrounding the implant. Fourteen patients who had buccal supra-implant mucosal heights of more than 1.5 mm and keratinized mucosa 1 year or more after superstructure placement (average period: 3 years 5 months) were studied. Silicone impressions were taken immediately after superstructures and abutments were removed. The study model used for the measurement process was manufactured using improved dental stone. The height and width of the buccal supra-implant mucosa were measured using digital slide calipers, and the ratio of the height and width was investigated. In all cases, the widths were greater than the heights. The average height of the buccal supra-implant mucosa was 2.17 mm, while the average width was 3.44 mm. The average biologic height-width ratio was 1:1.58. The width was larger in the posterior region than in the anterior. There were no differences in the biologic height-width ratio in terms of the diameter of the implant. These findings indicate that peri-implant soft tissue augmentation procedures resulting in an average biologic height-width ratio of 1:1.5 may provide a stable buccal cervical line around the implant superstructure, even for thin periodontal biotypes. PMID:19655487

  16. DNA amplification using phi29 DNA polymerase validates gene polymorphism analysis from buccal mucosa samples.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryoji; Taniguchi, R; Masaki, Chihiro; Masaki, C; Murashima, Yuhi; Murashima, Y; Makino, Michiko; Makino, M; Kojo, Tatsuro; Kojo, T; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, Ryuji; Hosokawa, R

    2011-07-01

    Venous blood is currently the most common source of DNA for gene polymorphism screening; however, blood sampling is invasive and difficult to perform in general dental treatment. Buccal mucosa samples provide an alternative source of DNA, but it is frequently difficult to effectively amplify the DNA owing to the small amounts of sample material obtained. This study was performed to establish a method for performing total genomic DNA amplification from buccal mucosa samples using phi29 DNA polymerase. Total genomic DNA was isolated from buccal mucosa samples obtained from healthy subjects and was amplified using phi29 DNA polymerase. To determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for genotyping, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed for the IL-1 gene polymorphism. Genotyping of the IL-1 polymorphism was successful using the amplified DNA from a buccal mucosa, but genotyping was unsuccessful using the unamplified control because of low DNA purity. The method of extracting DNA from a buccal mucosa is painless, simple, minimally invasive, and rapid. Genomic DNA from a buccal mucosa can be amplified by phi29 DNA polymerase in sufficient quantity and quality to conduct gene polymorphism analyses. PMID:21296640

  17. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  18. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  19. Fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal films: in vitro/in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Basalious, Emad B

    2009-01-01

    Fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal films were prepared using film forming polymers namely; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), chitosan, Eudragit and sodium alginate (SALG) either alone or in combination with bioadhesive polymers. The bioadhesive polymers studied were sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), Carbopol 974P, and polycarbophil (AA-A). The prepared films were characterized by means of film thickness, surface pH, swelling capacity, in vitro adhesion, in vivo residence time, in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release to determine the amount of drug release from selected film formulae using microbiological assay and HPLC. Optimum release behavior, convenient bioadhesion, acceptable elasticity were exhibited by film containing 2% HPMC and 1% SCMC (fresh or stored for 6 months). Determination of the amount of drug released in saliva after application of the selected fluconazole films confirmed the ability of the film to deliver the drug over a period of approximately 300 minutes and to reduce side effects and possibility of drug interaction encountered during systemic therapy of fluconazole, which would be beneficial in the case of oral candidiasis. PMID:19418952

  20. Peptide washout and permeability from glyceryl monooleate buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehwi; Kellaway, Ian W

    2002-10-01

    Simultaneous evaluation of the permeation and washout of a peptide from the mucoadhesive liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been investigated using a donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell. [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) was incorporated into the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and applied to excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in the donor compartment flow-through cell. Phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS) was pumped across the upper surface of the liquid crystalline phases to mimic salivary flow. The steady-state fluxes of DADLE and GMO from the cubic phase were significantly greater than that from the lamellar phase (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the amounts of DADLE and GMO washed out from the lamellar and cubic phases (P > 0.05). The donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell was found to be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of salivary washout on mucoadhesive oral mucosal delivery systems. PMID:12455474

  1. In vitro peptide release from liquid crystalline buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    Swelling and [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) release from the lamellar and cubic liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) were studied using two in vitro methods, a total immersion method and a Franz cell method. The swelling of the lamellar phase and glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w water content) and DADLE release from the liquid crystalline phases were temperature dependent. The swelling ratio was greater at 20 degrees C than 37 degrees C while DADLE release increased at 37 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C for both the lamellar and cubic phases. The water uptake increased dramatically with decreasing initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases. However, DADLE release increased with increasing initial water content, which corresponded to increased viscosity. The swelling and DADLE release profiles obtained using a Franz cell method with a moist nylon membrane to mimic buccal drug release conditions were slower than the total immersion method. These results show that the swelling and DADLE release strongly depended on temperature, the initial water content of the liquid crystalline matrix and the methodology employed for determining the swelling and DADLE release. PMID:10675679

  2. Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Seema; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Jose, Renju; Puthalath, Ushass

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient. PMID:24015022

  3. Interconnections of identified multiaction interneurons in buccal ganglia of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D

    1977-03-01

    1. The 26 identified neurons of Aplysia buccal ganglia include 4 interneurons and their follower cells. Each interneuron makes cholinergic synaptic connections on eight identified ipsilateral follower neurons. Each interneuronal action potential also produces a zero-latency, Mg-intensitive electrotonic coupling potential in one cholinergic and electrotonic input from the interneurons. Electrotonic connections are bidirectional and nonrectifying. 2. Ipsilateral pairs of interneurons receive extensive common synaptic input from several unidentified neurons: each interneuron also receives some input not received by the other. These pairs are linked by bidirectional nonrectifying electronic coupling which is insensitive to high Mg. As a consequence of this organization, ipsilateral interneuron pairs can fire a) independently, or b) synchronously, or c) one active interneuron can depolarize the other. 3. Each follower receiving synaptic input from one ipsilateral interneuron also receives similar input from the other interneuron. Common follower cells thus receive a) asynchronous PSPs, or b) large summated PSPs, or c) an increased number of PSPs from each interneuron. The latter two modes constitute feed-forward summation of interneuronal action. 4. Interneuronal output is confined to ipsilateral neurons. Symmetric pairs of interneurons are coordinated by common inputs and are not directly interconnected by either chemical or electrotonic synapses. Synchrony of firing of symmetric pairs is, therefore, looser than that of ipsilateral pairs. PMID:845626

  4. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... equipment; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that...

  5. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... equipment; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that...

  6. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... equipment; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that...

  7. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... equipment; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that...

  8. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine... equipment; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that...

  9. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines

  10. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p < 0.05). Conclusion This “real-life” physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460 PMID:23835207

  11. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  12. General Motors Goes Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Ted

    1976-01-01

    Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

  13. Buccal capnometry to guide management of massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Fries, Michael; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Castillo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    In both clinical and experimental settings, tissue P(CO2) measured in the oral mucosa is a practical and reliable measurement of the severity of hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that a threshold level of buccal tissue P(CO2) (P(CO2) BU)) would prognosticate the effects of volume repletion on survival. Twenty pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male breeder rats, each weighing approximately 0.5 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Animals were bled over an interval of 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25, 30, 35, or 40% of total blood volume. One-half hour after the completion of bleeding, each animal received an infusion of Ringer lactate solution over the ensuing 30 min in amounts equivalent to two times the volume of blood loss. P(CO2) BU) was measured continuously with an optical P(CO2) sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left cheek. Arterial pressure and end-tidal CO2 were measured over the same interval. Neurological deficit and 72-h survival were recorded. Aortic pressures were restored to near baseline values for each of the four groups after fluid resuscitation. This contrasted with the improvement of P(CO2) BU), which differentiated between animals with short and long durations of postintervention survival. After electrolyte fluid resuscitation in rats subjected to rapid bleeding, noninvasive measurement of P(CO2) BU) was predictive of outcomes. Neither noninvasive end-tidal P(CO2) nor invasive aortic pressure measurements achieved such discrimination. Accordingly, P(CO2) BU) fulfills the criterion of a noninvasive and reliable measurement to guide fluid management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:16141375

  14. Brown Adipose Tissue in the Buccal Fat Pad during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Patil, Shilpa; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Pavlova, Zdena; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background The buccal fat pad (BFP) is an encapsulated mass of adipose tissue thought to enhance the sucking capabilities of the masticatory muscles during infancy. To date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to the composition of the BFP in early postnatal life. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the BFP of neonates and infants is primarily composed of white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Materials and Methods The percentage of fat in the BFP in 32 full-term infants (16 boys and 16 girls), aged one day to 10.6 months, was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determinations of fat fraction. Results BFP fat fraction increased with age (r = 0.67; P<.0001) and neonates had significantly lower values when compared to older infants; 72.6±9.6 vs. 91.8±2.4, P<.0001. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the age-dependent relationship persisted after accounting for gender, gestational age, and weight percentile (P = .001). Two subjects (aged one and six days) depicted a change in the MRI characteristics of the BFP from primarily BAT to WAT at follow-up examinations two to six weeks later, respectively. Histological post-mortem studies of a 3 day and 1.1 month old revealed predominantly BAT and WAT in the BFP, respectively. Conclusion The BFP is primarily composed of BAT during the first weeks of life, but of WAT thereafter. Studies are needed to investigate the contributions of BAT in the BFP to infant feeding and how it is altered by postnatal nutrition. PMID:24586852

  15. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  16. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, p<.001), ball skills (t (13)=2.73, p<.05) and balance (t (13)=5.13, p<.001). Significant performance improvements were also found in MAT, THD, 5JT (t (13)=-4.55; p<.01), handwriting quality (t (12)=-2.73; p<.05) and speed (t (12)=-4.2; p<.01) after the training program. In conclusion, improvement in both practiced and non-practiced skills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills. PMID:26703915

  17. Assessment of buccal bone thickness of aesthetic maxillary region: a cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Tania; Navarro, Pablo; Salamanca, Carlos; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical dimensions of the buccal bone walls of the aesthetic maxillary region for immediate implant placement, based upon cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in a sample of adult patients. Methods Two calibrated examiners analyzed a sample of 50 CBCT scans, performing morphometric analyses of both incisors and canines on the left and right sides. Subsequently, in the sagittal view, a line was traced through the major axis of the selected tooth. Then, a second line (E) was traced from the buccal to the palatal wall at the level of the observed bone ridges. The heights of the buccal and palatal bone ridges were determined at the major axis of the tooth. The buccal bone thickness was measured across five lines. The first was at the level of line E. The second was at the most apical point of the tooth, and the other three lines were equidistant between the apical and the cervical lines, and parallel to them. Statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of P≤0.05 for the bone thickness means and standard deviations per tooth and patient for the five lines at varying depths. Results The means of the buccal wall thicknesses in the central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were 1.14±0.65 mm, 0.95±0.67 mm and 1.15±0.68 mm, respectively. Additionally, only on the left side were significant differences in some measurements of buccal bone thickness observed according to age and gender. However, age and gender did not show significant differences in heights between the palatal and buccal plates. In a few cases, the buccal wall had a greater height than the palatal wall. Conclusions Less than 10% of sites showed more than a 2-mm thickness of the buccal bone wall, with the exception of the central incisor region, wherein 14.4% of cases were ≥2 mm. PMID:26550524

  18. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  19. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  20. PADDLEFISH BUCCAL FLOW VELOCITY DURING RAM SUSPENSION FEEDING AND RAM VENTILATION

    PubMed

    Cech; Cheer

    1994-01-01

    A micro-thermistor probe was inserted into the buccal cavity of freely swimming paddlefish to measure flow velocity during ram ventilation, ram suspension feeding and prey processing. Swimming speed was measured from videotapes recorded simultaneously with the buccal flow velocity measurements. Both swimming velocity and buccal flow velocity were significantly higher during suspension feeding than during ram ventilation. As the paddlefish shifted from ventilation to feeding, buccal flow velocity increased to approximately 60 % of the swimming velocity. During prey processing, buccal flow velocity was significantly higher than the swimming velocity, indicating that prey processing involves the generation of suction. The Reynolds number (Re) for flow at the level of the paddlefish gill rakers during feeding is about 30, an order of magnitude lower than the Re calculated previously for pump suspension-feeding blackfish. These data, combined with data available from the literature, indicate that the gill rakers of ram suspension-feeding teleost fishes may operate at a substantially lower Re than the rakers of pump suspension feeders. PMID:9317518

  1. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  2. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power. PMID:22531616

  3. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors.

  4. Prosthetic improvement of pronounced buccally positioned zygomatic implants: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Atas; Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Nbilo, Mauro Antonio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2014-08-01

    This report presents a prosthetic technique for the improvement of surgically positioned, buccally placed zygomatic implants with the use of custom abutments for improved retention screw position and an esthetic implant reconstruction. The patient presented four zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. The anterior implants were inclined toward the location where the anterior artificial teeth should be placed during rehabilitation. As the manufacturer does not provide angulated abutments, we attempted the waxing and overcasting of a prosthetic abutment, repositioning the access holes of the prosthetic screws to a more palatal position. This clinical report demonstrates that abutment customization could be an interesting way to relocate the access holes of the prosthetic screws in cases of zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. PMID:24750357

  5. CT and MR Imaging of the Buccal Space: Normal Anatomy and Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Moon, Min Hoan; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The buccal space is an anatomical compartment lying anterior to the masticator space and lateral to the buccinator muscle. Since the major purpose of imaging is to define the likely anatomic origin and also the extent of a given lesion, thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of the buccal space is essential, and this knowledge can aid the physician in narrowing down the list of possible maladies on the differential diagnosis. We illustrate here in this paper the important anatomic landmarks and typical pathologic conditions of the buccal space such as the developmental lesions and the neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of the expected pathologic conditions is useful for the radiologist when interpreting facial CT and MR images. PMID:15782016

  6. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum-based bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patches of zolmitriptan.

    PubMed

    Shiledar, Rewathi R; Tagalpallewar, Amol A; Kokare, Chandrakant R

    2014-01-30

    A novel bilayered mucoadhesive buccal patch of zolmitriptan was prepared using xanthan gum (XG) as mucoadhesive polymer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E-15 was used as film-former and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was incorporated, to increase the tensile strength of the patches. To study the effect of independent variables viz. concentrations of XG and PVA, on various dependent variables like in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and swelling index, 3(2) factorial design was employed. In vitro drug release studies of optimized formulation showed initially, rapid drug release; 43.15% within 15 min, followed by sustained release profile over 5h. Incorporation of 4% dimethyl sulfoxide enhanced drug permeability by 3.29 folds, transported 29.10% of drug after 5h and showed no buccal mucosal damage after histopathological studies. In conclusion, XG can be used as a potential drug release modifier and mucoadhesive polymer for successful formulation of zolmitriptan buccal patches. PMID:24299896

  7. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  8. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40??1.24?g/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99??0.7?g/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  9. Quantitation of DNA in buccal cell samples collected in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Garca-Closas, M; Moore, L E; Rabkin, C S; Franklin, T; Struewing, J; Ginzinger, D; Alguacil, J; Rothman, N

    2006-01-01

    Buccal cell samples are increasingly used in epidemiological studies as a source of genomic DNA. The accurate and precise quantitation of human DNA is critical for the optimal use of these samples. However, it is complicated by the presence of bacterial DNA and wide inter-individual variation in DNA concentration from buccal cell collections. The paper evaluated the use of ultraviolet light (UV) spectroscopy, Hechst (H33258) and PicoGreen as measures of total DNA, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a measure of human amplifiable DNA in buccal samples. Using serially diluted white blood cell DNA samples (at a concentration range of 300 to 0.5 ng microl-1), UV spectroscopy showed the largest bias, followed by Hechst, especially for low concentrations. PicoGreen and real-time PCR provided the most accurate and precise estimates across the range of concentrations evaluated, although an increase in bias with decreasing concentrations was observed. The ratio of real-time PCR to PicoGreen provided a reasonable estimate of the percentage of human DNA in samples containing known mixtures of human and bacterial DNA. Quantification of buccal DNA from samples collected in a breast cancer case-control study by PicoGreen and real-time PCR indicated that cytobrush and mouthwash DNA samples contain similar percentages of human amplifiable DNA. Real-time PCR is recommended for the quantification of buccal cell DNA in epidemiological studies since it provides precise estimates of human amplifiable DNA across the wide range of DNA concentrations commonly observed in buccal cell DNA samples. PMID:16966163

  10. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  11. Aphtose buccale récidivante, et si c'était une maladie coeliaque

    PubMed Central

    Zinelabidine, Kaoutar; Rhizlane, Idrissi; Meziane, Meriame; Zahra Mernissi, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    L'aphtose buccale récidivante est une maladie le plus souvent bénigne mais parfois invalidante qui évolue de façon chronique et récidivante. Elle peut être isolée ou associé à d'autre pathologie, d'où l'intérêt de la recherche d'une maladie sous jacente. Nous rapportons le cas d'une aphtose buccale récidivante révélant une maladie coeliaque chez une patiente âgée de 45 ans. PMID:23077709

  12. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  13. Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2013-01-01

    In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool. This extracellular technique has advantages. First, extracellular electrodes can stimulate and record neurons through the sheath5, so it does not need to be removed. Thus, neurons will be healthier in extracellular experiments than in intracellular ones. Second, if ganglia are rotated by appropriate pinning of the sheath, extracellular electrodes can access neurons on both sides of the ganglion, which makes it easier and more efficient to identify multiple neurons in the same preparation. Third, extracellular electrodes do not need to penetrate cells, and thus can be easily moved back and forth among neurons, causing less damage to them. This is especially useful when one tries to record multiple neurons during repeating motor patterns that may only persist for minutes. Fourth, extracellular electrodes are more flexible than intracellular ones during muscle movements. Intracellular electrodes may pull out and damage neurons during muscle contractions. In contrast, since extracellular electrodes are gently pressed onto the sheath above neurons, they usually stay above the same neuron during muscle contractions, and thus can be used in more intact preparations. To uniquely identify motor neurons for a motor pool (in particular, the I1/I3 muscle in Aplysia) using extracellular electrodes, one can use features that do not require intracellular measurements as criteria: soma size and location, axonal projection, and muscle innervation4,6,7. For the particular motor pool used to illustrate the technique, we recorded from buccal nerves 2 and 3 to measure axonal projections, and measured the contraction forces of the I1/I3 muscle to determine the pattern of muscle innervation for the individual motor neurons. We demonstrate the complete process of first identifying motor neurons using muscle innervation, then characterizing their timing during motor patterns, creating a simplified diagnostic method for rapid identification. The simplified and more rapid diagnostic method is superior for more intact preparations, e.g. in the suspended buccal mass preparation8 or in vivo9. This process can also be applied in other motor pools10,11,12 in Aplysia or in other animal systems2,3,13,14. PMID:23568081

  14. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision-and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  15. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.000.29 (10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.830.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  16. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  17. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  18. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  19. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  20. 40 CFR 1039.605 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and equipment... requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... 40 CFR part 86 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1039...

  1. A subscale solid propellant rocket motor experimental program to validate the performance and gasdynamic analysis of the Titan IV SRMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrechcinski, T.; Drzewiecki, R.; Pierowicz, J.; Wehe, S.; Wurster, W.; Lundgreen, R.; Daines, W.

    1992-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to support Hercules Aerospace investigations into the failure of the Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) during its first ground test firing and to demonstrate the effectiveness of a remedial grain configuration. Motor internal flow processes for several propellant comfigurations were examined using a 7 percent scale reusable solid propellant combustor in short duration tests. Propellant surface pressure distributions in the combustor were determined by rapid response piezoelectric pressure tranducers. Results of the PQM-1 and PQM-1 one second propellant grain configurations indicated that a high pressure gradient across the joint of the aft and central motor segments led to deformation of the aft grain segment which caused a partial blockage of flow in the central bore of the motor, overpressurization of the forward case and subsequent failure. Tests with the June 5th Baseline redesigned grain configuration showed that chamfering the sharp edges of the forward face of the aft segment leads to a significant reduction in loads across the center-to-aft interface. Test results are discussed and provide a basis to proceed with the remedial design and second ground firing test of the Titan IV SRMU.

  2. Adapted physical activities for the intellectually challenged adolescent: psychomotor characteristics and implications for programming and motor intervention.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Hezkiah

    2005-01-01

    Intellectually challenged adolescents with varying degrees of functioning share common behavioral and psychomotor characteristics. A specially designed instructional approach and positive social attitude are necessary when dealing with this population. Research reveals that many of these individuals have developmental delays in the acquisition of basic motor skills. When compared as a group to their non-handicapped peers, intellectually challenged adolescents display low physical fitness and have perceptual-motor difficulties, which affect their learning. The major difficulty these individuals are faced with stems from language comprehension barriers and their failure to grasp instructions. In addition, some possess physical characteristics, which pose constraints in learning and performing of motor skills. A social attitude of equality and acceptance plays a major role in their successful inclusion in society. Researchers agree that the limitations mentioned above, affect the motivation of these individuals and lead to a lack of opportunity for regular participation in movement, physical activities and sports. This situation leads to low performance in the motor domain and in other areas as well. This article describes the behavioral and psychomotor characteristics of intellectually challenged individuals and offers general and specific recommendations for instruction and intervention. PMID:15900810

  3. Motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Martin; Halsband, Ulrike

    2006-06-01

    We describe general concepts about motor imagery and differences to motor execution. The problem of controlling what the subject actually does during imagery is emphasized. A major part of the chapter is dealing with mental training by imagery and the usage of motor imagination in athletes, musicians and during rehabilitation. Data of altered representations of the body after loss of afferent information and motor representation due to limb amputation or complete spinal cord injury are demonstrated and discussed. Finally we provide an outlook on additional work about motor imagery important for further understanding of the topic. PMID:16716573

  4. Premovement high-alpha power is modulated by previous movement errors: Indirect evidence to endorse high-alpha power as a marker of resource allocation during motor programming.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Andrew; Gallicchio, Germano; Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Previous electroencephalographic studies have identified premovement high-alpha power as a predictor of movement accuracy; less frontal-central high-alpha power is associated with accurate movements (e.g., holed golf putts), and could reflect more cognitive resources being allocated to response programming. The present experiment tested this interpretation. Ten expert and ten novice golfers completed 120 putts while high-alpha power was recorded and analyzed as a function of whether the previous putt was holed (i.e., a correct response) or missed (i.e., an error). Existing evidence indicates that more resources are allocated to response programming following errors. We observed less premovement high-alpha power following errors, especially in experts. Our findings provide indirect evidence that high-alpha power is an inverse marker of the amount of resources allocated to motor response programming. PMID:25684215

  5. FY2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  6. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200?g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 14.60 and 28.12 11.48 on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  7. Engineering poly(ethylene oxide) buccal films with cyclodextrin: a novel role for an old excipient?

    PubMed

    Miro, Agnese; d'Angelo, Ivana; Nappi, Antonella; La Manna, Pietro; Biondi, Marco; Mayol, Laura; Musto, Pellegrino; Russo, Roberto; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2013-08-16

    Inspired by the multiple roles cyclodextrins can play in polymeric systems, here we engineered poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) films with (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (CD) as multipurpose ingredient. To shed light on the potential of CD in formulating PEO buccal films for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, we preliminarily assessed thermal and mechanical properties as well as wettability of films prepared at different PEO/CD ratios. PEO/CD platform containing 54% by weight of CD was chosen as the optimized composition since it matched acceptable mechanical properties, in terms of tensile strength and elasticity, with a good wettability. The platform was tested as buccal delivery system for triamcinolone acetonide (TrA), a lipophilic synthetic corticosteroid sparely water soluble. Confocal Raman imaging clearly showed that CD was homogeneously (i.e. molecularly) dispersed in PEO. Nevertheless, homogenous drug distribution in the film without TrA crystallization occurred only in the presence of CD. Finally, CD-containing PEO film placed in simulated buccal fluids provided a useful speed-up of TrA release rate while showing slower dissolution as compared to PEO film. These results, as well as compliance with quality specifications of pharmaceutical manufacturing products, strongly support the soundness of the strategy and prompt toward further applications of PEO/CD films in buccal drug delivery. PMID:23707963

  8. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  9. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model. PMID:25370025

  10. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in a case of urethral amyloidosis presenting with long anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Stojanovic, Borko; Dubskiy, Sergey; Lepetukhin, Alex; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral amyloidosis is a rare condition, but clinically relevant because it can mimic urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of localized urethral amyloidosis presenting with a long anterior urethral stricture. We used extensive grafts of buccal mucosa for standard augmentation urethroplasty, with a successful outcome at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600896

  11. A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tonekaboni, Seyed-Hassan; Shamsabadi, Farhad Mahvelati; Anvari, Seyed-Saeed; Mazrooei, Ali; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children. Methods This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases) or intravenous diazepam (60 cases) at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one. Findings In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8%) patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes. Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70%) patients within 10 minutes. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P=0.9). The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09). No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam. Conclusion Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures. PMID:23399743

  12. Connexin dynamics in the privileged wound healing of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicola G; Phillips, Anthony; Becker, David L

    2013-01-01

    Wound closure is fundamental to maintaining tissue homeostasis; a plethora of processes and signals must be coordinated, and gap junctions play a critical role. Some tissues exhibit privileged healing, such as buccal mucosa, repairing more rapidly, but gap junction connexin dynamics during wound healing in such tissues have not been investigated. To determine connexin changes during this rapid healing process, incisional wounds were made in the cheeks of mice and microscopically observed. We discovered that buccal mucosa wound edge keratinocytes do not form a thin tongue of migratory cells like epidermis; instead, a wedge of cells rapidly moves into the wound. The dorsal surfaces of opposing sides of the wounds then touch and join in a "V," which subsequently fills up with cells to form a "delta" that remodels into a flat sheet. Immunostaining showed that connexin26, connexin30, and connexin43 are expressed at significantly higher levels in the buccal mucosa than the epidermis and that, unlike the skin, all three are rapidly down-regulated at the wound edge within 6 hours of wounding. This rapid down-regulation of all three connexins may in part underlie the rapid healing of the buccal mucosa. PMID:23627777

  13. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Darb, Josep; Kaskens, Lisette; Snchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in Spain. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 20122015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal). Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. Results Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at 2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of 5.4 million. Conclusion The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by 29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet. PMID:24368889

  14. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  15. Effect of a 3-week body mass reduction program on body composition, muscle function and motor performance in pubertal obese boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, N A; De Col, A; Agosti, F; Ottolini, S; Moro, D; Genchi, M; Massarini, M; Lafortuna, C L; Sartorio, A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary body mass reduction (BMR) program on body composition, muscle function and motor performance in 50 obese [mean body mass index (BMI): 35.9+/-5.8 kg/m2] boys and girls aged 12-17 yr (Tanner stage III, IV and V). The hospital-based BMR program combined an energy-restricted diet (1400-1600 kcal), nutritional education, psychological counselling and moderate physical activity (45-60 min/ session; 5 sessions/week; 60-80% of the maximal heart rate) during a 3-week period. Fat mass, fat-free mass, maximal power during jumping and stair climbing as well as maximal strength of the upper and lower limb muscles were quantified before and after the treatment. Body mass and fat mass significantly decreased following the BMR program, respectively -5.1 and -7.8% (p<0.001), while percent fat-free mass increased 2.3% (p<0.001). The treatment significantly increased both stair climbing and jumping power, respectively 8.2 and 8.9% (p<0.05), and the same was true for maximal strength of the upper and lower limb muscles (p<0.001). For the first time, it was demonstrated that a BMR program entailing diet and physical exercise significantly improved body composition, muscle function and motor performance in obese boys and girls aged 12-17 yr, while gender and pubertal stages had no influence on BMR program-induced changes. PMID:15648544

  16. Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane) was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedgesg effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score?=?10.82(SD2.96)). Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8) and a significant correlation (r?=?0.67; p?Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level) have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component client-centred and exercise progression may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components distribution based practice, feedback and random practice in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research. PMID:22747894

  17. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    PubMed Central

    PITHON, Matheus Melo; da MATA, Kayure Rocha; ROCHA, Karina Silva; COSTA, Brenda do Nascimento; NEVES, Fernando; BARBOSA, George Caique Gouveia; COQUEIRO, Raildo da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%). To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA). The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient's facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive. PMID:25466472

  18. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, Jos; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, lvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  19. Motor Starters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  20. Evaluating Solid Boost Demonstrator Motor Specific Impulse Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; Laubacher, Brian

    2001-02-01

    The Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Phase I solid Boost Demonstrator (Boost Demo) motor was fabricated as the Phase I demonstration of technologies from the IHPRPT program. This motor incorporates new technologies in an attempt to increase delivered performance compared with the IHPRPT Baseline motor. The IHPRPT Baseline motor and Boost Demo nozzle motor aft and nozzle contours are compared.

  1. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

  2. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  3. An In-School-Based Program of Combined Fine Motor Exercise and Educational Activities for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Szturm, Tony; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Marotta, Jonathan; Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces a game-based rehabilitation platform designed to integrate training of fine motor skills and cognitive functions. A novel computer interface device was developed that can effectively replace a standard computer mouse when doing exercises to rehabilitate hand function. This smart device converts signals from miniature motion sensors to signals equivalent to that of a computer mouse. In this way, nearly any object or utensil can be changed to function exactly as a computer mouse, simply by attaching the motion sensor. Multiple objects with varied sizes, shapes, weights, and functional demands for precision can be used for exercise and to practice a variety of gross or fine motor skills, and, importantly, while playing fun computer games. The platform was designed to work with modern and common computer games, which have a broad range of movement speeds and accuracy levels, cognitive activities (puzzles, choices, distractors), and educational content. The platform includes a designed assessment game with advanced data logging for electronic monitoring. Data analysis methods have been developed to quantify performance metrics that provide insights into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a child and thus mean to conduct trend analyses that indicate how the child is performing over time. PMID:26192639

  4. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of a motor vehicle must sign a program...

  5. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in petrol station attendants: micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ayla; Cava?, Tolga; Ergene-Gzkara, Serap

    2003-09-01

    To study the effects of occupational exposure to petroleum derivates such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 50 petrol station attendants and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects were examined for micronucleus (MN) frequency. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis and karyolysis, were also evaluated. Benzene exposure was ascertained by measuring urinary phenol levels. The mean urinary phenol level of station workers was found to be significantly higher than that of control subjects (P < 0.05). Analysis of buccal cells revealed that MN and NA frequencies in petrol station workers were significantly higher than in control subjects (P < 0.01) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that the petrol station workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:12960409

  6. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  7. Effect of folic Acid supplementation on the folate status of buccal mucosa and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Basten, Graham P; Hill, Marilyn H; Duthie, Susan J; Powers, Hilary J

    2004-07-01

    Folate deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of cancer at certain sites. There is a need to measure folate status and putative biomarkers of cancer risk in the same target tissue, or in surrogate tissues. A study was carried out to develop a method for the rapid measurement of folate in human buccal mucosa and lymphocytes and to evaluate the responsiveness of this measurement in both tissues to folic acid supplementation in healthy subjects, relative to conventional markers of folate status. Three hundred and twenty-three adults, ages between 20 and 60 years, were screened for RBC folate concentrations. Sixty-five subjects with red cell folate between 200 and 650 nmol/L participated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, folic acid (1.2 mg) intervention trial, lasting 12 weeks. As anticipated, a significant baseline correlation (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between red cell folate and plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). Lymphocyte total folate was significantly associated with plasma 5-MeTHF (r = 0.28, P < 0.05) and plasma total homocysteine concentration (r = -0.34, P < 0.05). Buccal mucosa total folate showed no correlation with either red cell folate or 5-MeTHF, but was significantly associated with lymphocyte total folate (r = 0.35, P < 0.01). Supplementation elicited a significant increase in lymphocyte total folate (P < 0.01), and this was strongly associated with the increase in RBC total folate (P < 0.01) and plasma 5-MeTHF (P < 0.01). Buccal mucosa total folate was not influenced by folate supplementation. Methods have been developed for the rapid measurement of lymphocyte and buccal mucosal total folate. Lymphocyte folate is sensitive to folate intake and is reflected by plasma 5-MeTHF. PMID:15247137

  8. Functional morphology of the cephalopod buccal mass: a novel joint type.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Theodore A; Kier, William M

    2005-05-01

    The arrangement of the musculature and connective tissues of the buccal mass of the coleoid cephalopods Octopus bimaculoides, Sepia officinalis, and Loliguncula brevis was examined using dissection and histology. Serial sections in three mutually perpendicular planes were used to identify the muscles and connective tissues responsible for beak movements and stability and to describe their morphology and fiber trajectories. Four major beak muscles were identified: the anterior, posterior, superior, and lateral mandibular muscles. The anterior, posterior, and superior mandibular muscles connect the upper beak and the lower beak. Although the lateral mandibular muscles originate on the upper beak, they do not connect to the lower beak and instead insert on a connective tissue sheath surrounding the buccal mass. Examination of the fibers of the lateral mandibular muscles reveals that they have the organization of a muscular hydrostat, with muscle fibers oriented in three mutually perpendicular orientations. Although the beaks are capable of complex opening, closing, and shearing movements, they do not contact one another and are instead connected only by the musculature of the buccal mass. Based on the morphological analysis and observations of freshly dissected beaks undergoing the stereotyped bite cycle, the functional role of the beak muscles is hypothesized. The anterior and superior mandibular muscles are likely responsible for beak closing and shearing movements. The posterior mandibular muscle is likely also involved in beak closing, but may act synergistically with the lateral mandibular muscles to open the beaks. The lateral mandibular muscles may use a muscular-hydrostatic mechanism to control the location of the pivot between the beaks and to generate the force required for beak opening. The lack of contact between the beaks and the morphology of the lateral mandibular muscles suggests that the buccal mass of coleoid cephalopods may represent a previously unexamined flexible joint mechanism. The term "muscle articulation" is proposed here to denote the importance of the musculature in the function of such a joint. PMID:15789421

  9. Use of overlapping buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for complex anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complex anterior urethral stricture disease typically manifests as a symptomatic, severely narrowed, long stricture (or multiple strictures) in which conventional excision and/or augmentation is not feasible. Overlapping buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (OBMGU) is an innovative hybrid technique, combining the well-established principles of dorsal and ventral graft augmentation to allow single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. In this review, we discuss the rationale, techniques, and outcomes of OBMGU for complex anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26813234

  10. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  11. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD?1?mm was classified as buccal position, 1?mm>MD>-1?mm was classified as central position, MD?-1?mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  12. Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Crescioni, Keyla

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five large motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four small premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns transmitted to the myocardium. PMID:21775716

  13. Tumor Thickness: A predictor of nodal disease in early squamous cell carcinomas of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, G; Das, S

    2015-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of buccal mucosa is one the highest number of malignancies seen in the Southeast Asian region. It is related to chewing a combination of tobacco mixed with betel leaves, areca nut, and lime shell called quid. As it is most commonly due to substance abuse and affects younger population, it has tremendous economical and social consequences. Surgery is the most successful modality of management in these patients. The surgery involves wide excision of the diseased mucosa and neck dissection. Neck dissection is associated with certain morbidities, but is routinely practiced in some centers like ours. We have attempted to evaluate the occurrence of the nodal disease in relation to the thickness of the tumor in cases of early cancers of buccal mucosa (stage I and II). We have used ultrasound of the lesion as our modality to assess the tumor thickness preoperatively. AJCC 7th edition was used to assess the clinical and pathological stage of the disease. We have studied 52 patients of early buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma, and we observed that tumors thicker than 7mm (p-0.05) have highest co-relation with nodal metastases. This study also recommends that neck dissection should be prophylactically performed for tumors thicker than 4mm. Tumor characteristics such as grade, perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion should be considered as predictors for early nodal involvement. PMID:26003104

  14. Formulation and evaluation of nano based drug delivery system for the buccal delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2015-12-01

    Oral bioavailability of acyclovir is limited, primarily because of low permeability across the gastrointestinal membrane. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of buccal films impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system to improve systemic bioavailability. Acyclovir polymeric nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanospheres were embedded into buccoadhesive films (A1-A4) comprising of different concentrations of polymers (Eudragit RL 100, HPMC K15 and carbopol 974P). Films were characterized for physico-mechanical properties, mucoadhesive strength, hydration, drug release and ex vivo permeation. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of buccal film (A3) as compared to oral therapy. The prepared films demonstrated excellent physical properties, adequate hydration and buccoadhesive strength. In vitro drug release data inferred that the drug release was dependent on the composition of film. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated greater flux in film A3. In vivo studies revealed a significant enhancement in absorption of acyclovir (P<0.0001) with Cmax (?3 folds) and AUC0-? (?8 folds, P<0.0001) when compared to oral dosing. Moreover, the extended Tmax value (6h) signifies the potential of the prepared film to prolong acyclovir delivery. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film (A3) impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of acyclovir. PMID:26547315

  15. Preparation and evaluation of ritodrine buccal tablets for rational therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Yumoto, Kei; Sakata, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Ritodrine hydrochloride (RD-HCl) tablets containing alginate (AL) and lactose (LC) with or without microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients were produced as a buccal dosage form. The RD-HCl (2 mg) tablets with AL/LC but no MC swelled and dissolved gradually in the in vitro dissolution test. The tablet showing the fastest dissolution and highest drug release rate, called Tablet A1, was selected as a tablet to show rapid and prolonged absorption. However, in the in vivo buccal absorption test using rats, it could not give a plasma concentration over the human minimal effective level (15 ng/mL). The modified tablet containing AL, LC, MC and RD-HCl (4 mg), named Tablet B/MC, showed better hardness and faster drug release. Tablet B/MC gave a plasma concentration over the human effective level within 15 min, and the plasma concentration was maintained at >15 ng/mL over 4 h. Moreover, the deconvolution analyses demonstrated that a prolonged high absorption rate could be achieved in vivo best with Tablet B/MC. Tablet B/MC improved the pharmacokinetic profile in comparison with Tablet A1 and the solution dosage form. The RD-HCl buccal tablets with AL, LC and MC as excipients are suggested to be possibly useful for the treatment of premature labor. PMID:24709218

  16. Visibility of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations using different radiographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Murat, S; Kamburoğlu, K; Isayev, A; Kurşun, S; Yüksel, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess intraoral images and two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. Class V cavities were made for composite (30 teeth) and amalgam (30 teeth). Full restorations with thermoplastic polymer (30 teeth) and nickel-chromium metal crown (30 teeth) were constructed. In 60 teeth, artificial buccal recurrent caries were simulated; 60 other teeth served as controls. Intraoral film, intraoral digital, Veraviewepocs 3D, and Kodak 9000 images were scored twice. κ Coefficients were calculated and Az values were compared using Z-tests, with a significance level of α=0.05. Higher interobserver agreement was obtained from the CBCT images compared with the intraoral images. The Az values of both readings of all three observers were highest for the Veraviewepocs 3D followed by Kodak 9000 except for the second reading of the third observer. CBCT outperformed intraoral radiography in detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. PMID:22917443

  17. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  18. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum of the buccal mucosa: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Park, Bong-Wook

    2014-10-01

    Angiokeratoma is a benign cutaneous lesion of the capillaries, presenting as dilated vessels in the upper part of the dermis. Although this disorder is classified into various types and has been occasionally reported in the skin of the scrotum or extremities, the involvement of the oral cavity mucosa has been rarely reported. The present study reports a case of angiokeratoma circumscriptum in the buccal mucosa. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and both of its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the endothelial cells lining the dilated vessels. The expression of VEGFR-2 was higher than that of VEGFR-1 in the endothelial cells in the lesion, indicating an increased rate of endothelial cell proliferation within the lesion. Interestingly, some of the endothelial cells co-expressed VEGF and its two receptors. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the pathologically dilated vessels possess VEGF autocrine growth activity involved in vasculogenesis and maintenance in angiokeratoma lesions. To our knowledge, this is the second report published on isolated oral angiokeratoma confined to the buccal mucosa and the first case report on angiokeratoma circumscriptum involving the buccal mucosa. PMID:25368837

  19. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  20. Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content. PMID:25639306

  1. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  2. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  3. Assessment of silk fibroin for the repair of buccal mucosa in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ge, Z; Yang, Q; Xiang, X; Liu, K-Z

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of silk fibroin materials for wound repair confined to the buccal mucosa in a rat model by assessing several key clinical parameters and the associated local and systemic immune response. Ninety male SD rats were subjected to microscopic oral surgery to establish a full thickness wound on the buccal mucosa. Rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the treatments received: group A, covered with polyporous silk fibroin scaffold; group B, repaired with crosslinking silk fibroin film; and group C, control. Visual observation of the wounds suggests that wound shrinkage 5 days after the operation was significantly lower in both silk fibroin repaired groups (A and B) than that in the controls. The distribution of inflammatory neutrophils in group A was significantly lower than those in the control group throughout the entire study. The percentage of fibroblasts and capillary endothelia (CD34(+)), and the subgroups of peripheral lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)) were similar amongst the groups. The results revealed that placement of silk fibroin in an oral buccal defect can reduce the degree of wound shrinkage and enhance the growth of mucosal epithelial cells without any local or systemic immunological incompatibility. PMID:22197592

  4. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  5. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  6. Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program

  7. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations

  8. Chaotic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, C.; Labb, R.; Ptrlis, F.; Fauve, S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that electric motors and dynamos can be used to illustrate most elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses on nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. These examples are easier to understand and display a richer behavior than the ones commonly used from mechanics, electronics, hydrodynamics, lasers, chemical reactions, and population dynamics. In particular, an electric motor driven by a dynamo can display stationary, Hopf, and codimension-two bifurcations by tuning the driving speed of the dynamo and the electric current in the stator of the electric motor. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque instead of constant rotation rate, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. Simple deterministic models are presented which capture the observed dynamical regimes.

  9. Physiological insights into the social-context-dependent changes in the rhythm of the song motor program.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Brenton G; Goller, Franz

    2006-06-01

    Precisely timed behaviors are central to the survival of almost all organisms. Song is an example of a learned behavior under exquisite temporal control. Song tempo in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) is systematically modified depending on social context. When male zebra finches sing to females (directed), it is produced with a faster motor pattern compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected). We measured heart rate and air sac pressure during directed and undirected singing to quantify motivation levels and respiratory timing. Heart rate was significantly higher when male birds sang to females and was negatively correlated with song duration. The change in song tempo between directed and undirected song was accounted for by varying the duration of vocal expiratory events, whereas the duration of silent inspirations was unchanged. Song duration increased with repeated singing during directed song bouts, which was caused by a uniform increase in the duration of both expirations and inspirations. These results illustrate the importance of motivational state in regulating song tempo and demonstrate that multiple timing oscillators are necessary to control the rhythm of song. At least two different neural oscillators are required to control context-dependent changes in song tempo. One oscillator controlling expiratory duration varies as function of social context and another controlling inspiratory duration is fixed. In contrast, the song tempo change affecting expiratory and inspiratory duration within a directed bout of song could be achieved by slowing the output of a single oscillator. PMID:16554509

  10. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,

  11. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  12. Buccal delivery of methimazole as an alternative means for improvement of drug bioavailability: permeation studies and matrix system design.

    PubMed

    De Caro, Viviana; Giandalia, Giulia; Siragusa, Maria Gabriella; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for systemic administration of Methimazole (MMI) through the buccal mucosa as an alternative route for drug delivery. Considering that the most important restriction in buccal drug delivery could be the low permeability of the mucosa, the ability of MMI to cross the mucosal barrier was assessed. Permeation of MMI through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated ex vivo using Franz type diffusion cells, buffer solution simulating saliva or natural human saliva as donor phase. The collected data suggested that buccal mucosa does not hinder MMI diffusion and the drug crosses the membrane (J(s) = 0.068 mg cm(-2) h(-1) and K(p) = 0.065 cm h(-1)). Matrix tablets, suitable for administration on buccal mucosa, were then designed and prepared by direct compression of MMI loaded matrices (70% w/w) using Eudragit(®) RS 100 as a matrixing, low permeable, pH-independent, mucoadhesive and insoluble agent. The matrix tablets were evaluated in vitro for dissolution; however, the drug was discharged too rapidly from tablets. To obtain drug release rate suitable to maintain constant drug levels in the central compartment the tablets were coated with lipophilic material (glycerol tristearate). In ex vivo permeation experiments, therapeutically MMI plasma levels were obtained when matrix tablets were coated with 0.10 mm thick lipophilic coating film. Coated tablets placed on buccal porcine mucosa provide optimal drug release rate. Coated buccal matrix tablets may represent a potential alternative dosage form for systemic delivery of MMI in hyperthyroidism management. PMID:22632389

  13. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  14. Balancing speed and efficiency in motor selection

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, B.; Shepard, M.

    1993-12-31

    Motor speed can be just as important as efficiency in selecting the most economical induction motor to drive so-called ``cube-law`` loads such as HVAC fans or centrifugal pumps. The amount of energy used in these loads is very sensitive to rotational speed. An increase in motor efficiency can be quickly negated by the extra energy consumed by a faster turning cube-law load. For induction motors, operating speed is always less than the synchronous speed, the familiar round number usually associated with motors (1,200 rpm, 1,800 rpm, 3,600 rpm and so on). The difference between the synchronous speed of an induction motor -- how fast it would spin if the rotor kept perfect pace with the rotating magnetic field that it is chasing -- and the rotor`s actual speed of rotation is called ``slip.`` Slip ranges from about half a percent of the synchronous speed in large motors to over 5 percent in small units; the higher the slip, the slower the motor. Induction motors of identical synchronous speed can differ significantly in operating speed. Most utility motor programs provide incentives simply on the basis of motor efficiency, ignoring the potential impact of a motor`s speed on the system`s energy use. In many cases, then, utilities are overestimating the energy savings in motor installations on cube-law loads.

  15. Motor neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity. PMID:6842219

  16. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because cannot exclude completely the migration of superficial tissues. In following experiments it was shown that the intensive pressure on the cheek area in vertical position produce the volume excess in the temporal area similar and more exaggerate than in gravity test. To correlate the excess of tissue with underlying anatomical structures we had acquired the CT's of some probationers, performed 3D reconstruction of bony structures, Bichat fat pad, and aligned with the previous surface scans. The projection of this excess in both experiments corresponds with the temporal process of Bichat fat pad. That means that the leading mechanism of these changes is protrusion of temporal process of Bichat fat pad through the leaves of temporal fascia due to pressure on the buccal extension: in these conditions, the buccal fat pad works as a communicating vessel between the cheek area and temporal fossa. This fact has suggested us that the phenomenon of the deepening of temporal area during the ageing could be produced as by the atrophy of buccal fat pad as by the migration of the fat pad to the cheek area due to ptosis.

  17. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  18. Micronuclei in lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal cells of postmenopausal women with dietary changes in folate.

    PubMed

    Titenko-Holland, N; Jacob, R A; Shang, N; Balaraman, A; Smith, M T

    1998-09-11

    Folate deficiency is associated with anemia, birth defects, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine if a moderate folate deficiency during controlled changes in folate intake would affect chromosomal damage in lymphocytes and buccal cells. A study of nine healthy postmenopausal women volunteers (age 49-63 years) was carried out in a metabolic unit (baseline week with folate intake of 195 microg/day, five-week depletion at 56 microg/day, and gradual repletion including four weeks at 111 microg/day, 11 days at 286 microg/day and 9 days at 516 microg/day). Plasma folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine were measured weekly. Cytogenetic damage was assessed by scoring micronucleus (MN) frequency in lymphocytes and buccal cells three times: (1) at the beginning of the study, (2) at the end of depletion, and (3) after repletion. The MN frequency increased in binucleated lymphocytes, as well as in all lymphocytes, after depletion (p=0.037), and later decreased following repletion (p=0. 028). Both kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative MN were increased after depletion (p=0.015 and 0.028), but after repletion only the change in kinetochore-positive MN was statistically significant (p=0.048). The main variables affecting MN were: (1) vitamin B-12 level, (2) plasma folate level, and (3) baseline frequency of MN. The MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells was decreased after dietary supplementation of 516 microg/day folate (p=0.010). Thus, low folate, without clinical symptoms of anemia, results in higher levels of cytogenetic damage in both the blood and oral cavity of postmenopausal women. PMID:9733936

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-01-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K30, a hydrophilic polymer, significantly reduced the bioadhesive strength and in vitro mucoadhesion time of the films, although the degree of swelling increased. In vitro drug release studies in simulated saliva showed a prolonged release of over five to six hours for all formulations, except C4, with 99.98% release in 1.5 hours. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated that the best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient for all formulations was the Peppas model. In vivo studies, on selected films in rabbits, were conducted, to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-?, using model-independent methods with nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. The AUC and values of Cmax of ondansetron hydrochloride were found to be significantly greater (P < 0.005) than the selected films C2 and C3, as compared to those from the oral solution, thereby confirming improved bioavailability via the buccal route. The Tmax values were also significantly greater (P < 0.005), indicating the slower release of the drug from buccal films, thereby, providing prolonged effects. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed with R2 values exceeding 0.98, when the percentage of drug released was correlated with the percentage of drug absorbed. PMID:23071939

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of buccal tablet formulations of ritodrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Sakata, Osamu; Yumoto, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80?mg and with hardness of greater than 30?N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4?mg)/LC (38.5?mg)/ST (0.5?mg)/MC (37?mg) and RD-HCl (4?mg)/AL(7?mg)/LC (28.5?mg)/ST (0.5?mg)/MC (37?mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15?min to 7?h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80?ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1?h to 7?h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7?h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels. PMID:26027834

  1. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Bugarín, O; Covarrubias‐Bugarín, R; Zamora‐Perez, A L; Torres‐Mendoza, B M G; García‐Ulloa, M; Martínez‐Sandoval, F G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n = 6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n = 5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6 weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

  2. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID:25657792

  3. Management of recurrent anterior urethral strictures following buccal mucosal graft-urethroplasty: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Javali, Tarun Dilip; Katti, Amit; Nagaraj, Harohalli K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the safety, feasibility and outcome of redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients presenting with recurrent anterior urethral stricture following previous failed BMG urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 21 patients with recurrent anterior urethral stricture after buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty, who underwent redo urethroplasty at our institute between January 2008 to January 2014. All patients underwent preoperative evaluation in the form of uroflowmetry, RGU, sonourethrogram and urethroscopy. Among patients with isolated bulbar urethral stricture, who had previously undergone ventral onlay, redo dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty was done and vice versa (9+8 patients). Three patients, who had previously undergone Kulkarni-Barbagli urethroplasty, underwent dorsal free graft urethroplasty by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach. One patient who had previously undergone urethroplasty by ASOPA technique underwent 2-stage Bracka repair. Catheter removal was done on 21st postoperative day. Follow-up consisted of uroflow, PVR and AUA-SS. Failure was defined as requirement of any post operative procedure. Results: Idiopathic urethral strictures constituted the predominant etiology. Eleven patients presented with stricture recurrence involving the entire grafted area, while the remaining 10 patients had fibrotic ring like strictures at the proximal/distal graft-urethral anastomotic sites. The success rate of redo surgery was 85.7% at a mean follow-up of 41.8 months (range: 1 yr-6 yrs). Among the 18 patients who required no intervention during the follow-up period, the graft survival was longer compared to their initial time to failure. Conclusion: Redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty is safe and feasible with good intermediate term outcomes. PMID:26834398

  4. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations. PMID:26596545

  5. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  6. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  7. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1181-1192, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355705

  8. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  9. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  10. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Hoon, Bas; Monkhorst, Kim; Riegman, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for every female individual, and can influence an X-encoded trait or disease. A multitude of X linked conditions is known, and for many of them it is recognised that the phenotype in affected female carriers of the causative mutation is modulated by the XCI ratio. To predict disease severity an XCI ratio is usually determined in peripheral blood samples. However, the correlation between XCI ratios in peripheral blood and disease affected tissues, that are often inaccessible, is poorly understood. Here, we tested several tissues obtained from autopsies of 12 female individuals for patch size and XCI ratio. Methods XCI ratios were analysed using methyl-sensitive PCR-based assays for the AR, PCSK1N and SLITRK4 loci. XCI patch size was analysed by testing the XCI ratio of tissue samples with decreasing size. Results XCI patch size was analysed for liver, muscle, ovary and brain samples and was found too small to confound testing for XCI ratio in these tissues. XCI ratios were determined in the easily accessible tissues, blood, buccal epithelium and hair follicle, and compared with ratios in several inaccessible tissues. Conclusions Buccal epithelium is preferable over peripheral blood for predicting XCI ratios of inaccessible tissues. Ovary is the only inaccessible tissue showing a poor correlation to blood and buccal epithelium, but has a good correlation to hair follicle instead. PMID:26220467

  11. Programmable controller for multiphase stepper motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lozovoi, L.N.

    1987-04-01

    A programmable controller for a multiphase stepper motor is described that is designed for use in scanning devices of x-ray spectrometers and other physics apparatus. The system provides considerable memory economy with respect to total size and the number of bits, permits automatic development of stepper-motor control programs, and allows stepper motors with any number of phases to be controlled merely by changing the program stored in the memory unit.

  12. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad flap in zygomatic implant surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Eduardo Jose

    2008-01-01

    The scientific literature has demonstrated the use of the buccal fat pad (BFP) flap to cover bone grafts in the correction of maxillary osseous defects and in the closure of oroantral communications. The use of the pedicled BFP flap to provide an immediate blood supply to a recipient site is recommended to provide closure of oroantral communications. The author presents a case report of zygomatic implant surgery in which the BFP flap technique was used in the closure of an oroantral communication caused by maxillofacial surgery. PMID:18416426

  13. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  14. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bijalwan, Priyank; Saini, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology. PMID:25133002

  15. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography.

  16. Conscious and anaesthetised Gttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jrgensen, Erling B; Holm, Ren

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Gttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Gttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55??5 and 35??5?min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120??0 and 165??15?min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7??4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets. PMID:24724915

  17. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  18. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  19. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  20. Language and motor control.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Bertolani, L; Daprati, E; Gangitano, M

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the possible influence of automatic word reading on processes of visuo-motor transformation. Subjects reached and grasped an object on which the following Italian words were printed: "VICINO" (near) or "LONTAN" (far) on an object either near or far from the agent (experiments 1, 2); PICCOLO (small) or "GRANDE" (large) on either a small or a large object (experiment 4); and "ALTO" (high) or "BASSO" (low) on either a high or a low object (experiment 5). The kinematics of the initial phase of reaching-grasping was affected by the meaning of the printed words. Namely, subjects automatically associated the meaning of the word with the corresponding property of the object and activated a reach and/or a grasp motor program influenced by the word. No effect on initial reach kinematics was observed for words related to object properties not directly involved in reach control (experiment 3). Moreover, in all the experiments, the presented words poorly influenced perceptual judgement of object properties. In experiments 5-7, the effects of the Italian adjectives "ALTO" (high) and "BASSO" (low) on reaching-grasping control were compared with those of the Italian adverbs "SOPRA" (up) and "SOTTO" (down). Adjectives influenced visual analysis of target-object properties, whereas adverbs more directly influenced the control of the action. We suggest that these effects resemble the structure of a sentence, where adjectives are commonly referred to nouns, and adverbs to verbs. In other words, class of words and, in a broad sense, grammar influenced motor control. The results of the present study show that cognitive functions such as language can affect visuo-motor transformation. They are discussed according to the notion that a strict relation between language and motor control exists, and that the frontal cortex can be involved in interactions between automatic word reading and visuo-motor transformation. PMID:10985682

  1. Motor Ability and the Deaf: Research Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennella, Lou

    1979-01-01

    Research studies have indicated that the deaf are inferior to the hearing in motor ability, including the components of static and dynamic balance performance. Also, the deaf can improve their motor performance. In addition to a well-rounded physical education program, a program of gymnastics can meet the special needs of students with balance,

  2. Motor Ability and the Deaf: Research Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennella, Lou

    1979-01-01

    Research studies have indicated that the deaf are inferior to the hearing in motor ability, including the components of static and dynamic balance performance. Also, the deaf can improve their motor performance. In addition to a well-rounded physical education program, a program of gymnastics can meet the special needs of students with balance,…

  3. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet.

    PubMed

    Freye, Enno

    2008-01-01

    Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH "pumping" mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

  4. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that cause hypogonadism. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your testosterone levels to see ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to testosterone ...

  5. Improving the efficiency of electric motor systems: Moving beyond efficient motors

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.N.; Pye, M.; Nadel, S.

    1997-07-01

    Electric motors operating in the US consume more than half of the nation's electricity. Electric utilities were among the first groups to begin offering programs to promote efficiency in electric motors. A 1994 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) survey of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs found 151 efficient-motors and drives programs being offered by 95 utilities in the US. The most common programs have been prescriptive rebates for the purchase of high-efficiency motors. While many of these programs have been popular and successful, their cost is an issue of contention with some industrial consumer groups and within utilities attempting to reduce program costs. With the minimum motor efficiency regulations in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) set to go into effect for most products in October 1997, utilities will need to move beyond these simple high-efficiency motor rebate programs if they are to continue to offer motor programs to their customers. The focus will also have to shift from simply motors to motor-system issues. As a 1993 US Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored motor-system roundtable identified, motor-system expertise is not widely available, and many electric utilities will need assistance to develop and implement new programs. It is thus important that information be made available to these utilities on how to analyze customers' motor-systems needs, what program designs will most likely meet these needs, what resources they will need to implement their programs, and where to find those resources. DOE's Motor Challenge has already been identifying or developing many of these resources, and these are already being used by some utilities. If utilities are provided a program context, more of them can make better use of these resources and achieve success from their own standpoint (e.g., increased customer satisfaction and improved customer retention), from the customers' standpoint (e.g., lower motor-system costs and improved performance), and from the national standpoint (e.g., reduced motorsystem energy consumption and lower carbon emissions). The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) has begun to establish this context by analyzing utility motor-systems programs. This work builds upon past ACEEE analyses of other utility DSM programs and ACEEE's extensive involvement in the technical aspects and design of programs involving electric motor systems.

  6. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Madgulkar, A.; Kadam, S.; Pokharkar, V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  7. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  8. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies.

    PubMed

    Madgulkar, A; Kadam, S; Pokharkar, V

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  9. Formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride tablets.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Gazzi; Kumar, Chegonda K; Gonugunta, Chandra Sekhara Rao; Kumar, B Vijaya; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    The study aim was concerned with formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride tablets, which is extensively metabolized by liver. The tablets were prepared by direct compression using bioadhesive polymers such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose alone, and a combination of these two polymers. In order to improve the permeation of drug, different permeation enhancers like beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD), and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were added to the formulations. The beta-CD and HP-beta-CD were taken in 1:1 molar ratio to drug in formulations. Bioadhesion strength, ex vivo residence time, swelling, and in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation studies were performed. In vitro release of optimized bioadhesive buccal tablet was found to be non-Fickian. SDC was taken in 1%, 2%, and 3% w/w of the total tablet weight. Stability studies in natural saliva indicated that optimized formulation has good stability in human saliva. In vivo mucoadhesive behavior of optimized formulation was performed in five healthy male human volunteers and subjective parameters were evaluated. PMID:19424804

  10. Anthocyanin structure determines susceptibility to microbial degradation and bioavailability to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Failla, Mark L; Kumar, Purnima S; Giusti, M Mónica

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids with reported chemoprotective activities in the oral cavity. However, information about their stability, metabolism, and tissue uptake in the mouth is limited. Anthocyanin chemical structure was recently shown to affect their stability ex vivo in saliva, and it was hypothesized that structure may affect their availability in oral tissues in vivo. Here, 12 healthy individuals retained red grape or chokeberry juice in the mouth for 5 min. Anthocyanin stability, mucus binding, and uptake into epithelial cells were evaluated. Loss of delphinidin-3-glucoside in red grape juice exceeded that of other anthocyanin-glucosides, and lesser amounts of delphinidin- and petunidin-glucosides were associated with buccal scraping, suggesting the loss was due to degradation. In chokeberry juice, loss of cyanidin-3-xyloside exceeded that of other anthocyanins, whereas cyanidin-3-glucoside preferentially accumulated in epithelium cells. These results suggest that anthocyanin structure affects stability and buccal cell uptake and therefore the potential efficacy of anthocyanin-rich products for the promotion of oral health. PMID:24579959

  11. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  12. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  13. Micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of Polish farmers exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Pastor, S; Gutirrez, S; Creus, A; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A; Marcos, R

    2001-08-22

    In this biomonitoring study, we investigated whether an occupational exposure to a complex mixture of chemical pesticides produced a significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cells. Forty-nine male workers exposed to pesticides, from an agricultural area of Malopolska Region in Southern Poland, together with 50 men from the same area without indication of exposure to pesticides that served as controls, were used in this investigation. No statistically significant differences in the frequencies of cytogenetic damage were detected between exposed and control individuals, for either type of cells. The multiple linear regression analysis in the case of lymphocytes indicated that the studied cytogenetic endpoints were inversely influenced by alcohol; whilst a negative binomial regression, in the case of buccal cells, indicated that the MN values were directly influenced by the ingestion of red meat. An inverse negative relationship between the cytokinesis-block proliferation index and age, and a significant increase of miscarriages due to the exposure to pesticides were also observed. PMID:11448652

  14. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the buccal minor salivary gland with liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinomas (BCACs) of salivary glands are rare malignant neoplasms that mostly affect the major salivary glands. They are generally considered low-grade carcinomas that are locally destruc.tive and tend to recur, but only occasionally metastasize. Currently there are only a few reported cases of distant metastases from BCAC, and metastasis to the liver is not previously described. We report the first case of BCAC with histologically confirmed liver metastases. A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of a painless swelling in the left buccal region. The lesion was completely resected, and the patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Permanent histology and immunohistochemical studies revealed a BCAC of the buccal minor salivary gland. After 14 months, two hepatic metastatic nodules were detected. The patient underwent a partial hepatectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy. No evidence of progressive disease or further recurrence was observed for 20 months after the hepatic metastasectomy. BCACs grow indolently and long-term survival can be expected. Surgery should be considered in selected patients as a therapeutic option in metastatic disease. PMID:26497713

  15. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Ruchi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Virendra; Bhagol, Amrish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brief background: Oroantral communication (OAC) is the space created between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which, if not treated, will progress to oroantral fistula (OAF). Several methods of surgical OAC repair have been described, but only a few have gained recognition. Materials and methods: A 13 years old male child patient with complaint of difficulty in drinking water and change in voice diagnosed as OAF managed with closure with buccal fat pad (BFP). Discussion: Oroantral fistula is an abnormal communication resulting most frequently from extraction of the upper posterior teeth. Many techniques have been proposed for the closure. The preferred technique may vary from one surgeon to another. Conclusion: The adequate availability of BFP in children, effortless mobilization excellent blood supply and minimal donor site morbidity make it a perfect flap for OAF closure in pediatric patient. How to cite this article: Agrawal A, Singhal R, Kumar P, Singh V, Bhagol A. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):138-140. PMID:26379383

  16. Biopolymeric film containing bioactive naphthoquinone (shikonin) in combined therapy of inflammatory destructive lesions in the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnyaya, E B; Oskol'skii, G I; Basharov, A Ya; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Zagorodnii, A S

    2013-12-01

    Clinical morphological efficiency of local application of a new biopolymeric film was studied. The film was based on methylcellulose derivatives and contained shikonin (preparation of plant origin) and its esters isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon L. cell culture. Combined therapy of 30 patients (34-72 years) with erosive ulcerative lichen planus and leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa was carried out. Local application of the new drug led to more rapid pain relief, epithelialization of the inflammatory destructive foci in the buccal mucosa, and reduced the intensity of morphological signs of lesions in the studied patient population. PMID:24319756

  17. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  18. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature

  19. A Cadaveric Study of the Communication Patterns Between the Buccal Trunks of the Facial Nerve and the Infraorbital Nerve in the Midface.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Phanchart, Piyaporn; Chinnawong, Dawinee; Apinuntrum, Prawit; Phetudom, Thavorn; Sahraoui, Yasmina M E

    2016-01-01

    Most nerve communications reported in the literature were found between the terminal branches. This study aimed to clarify and classify patterns of proximal communications between the buccal branches (BN) of the facial nerve and the infraorbital nerve (ION).The superficial musculoaponeurotic system protects any communication sites from conventional dissections. Based on this limitation, the soft tissues of each face were peeled off the facial skull and the facial turn-down flap specimens were dissected from the periosteal view. Dissection was performed in 40 hemifaces to classify the communications in the sublevator space. Communication site was measured from the ala of nose.A double communication was the most common type found in 62.5% of hemifaces. Triple and single communications existed in 25% and 10% of 40 hemiface specimens, respectively. One hemiface had no communication. The most common type of communication occurred between the lower trunk of the BN of the facial nerve and the lateral labial (fourth) branch of the ION (70% in 40 hemifaces). Communication site was deep to the levator labii superioris muscle at 16.2?mm from the nasal ala. Communications between the motor and the sensory nerves in the midface may be important to increase nerve endurance and to compensate functional loss from injury.Proximal communications between the main trunks of the facial nerve and the ION in the midface exist in every face. This implies some specific functions in normal individuals. Awareness of these nerves is essential in surgical procedure in the midface. PMID:26674887

  20. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  1. Effect of surfactants and pH on naltrexone (NTX) permeation across buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vishwas; Tan, Hock S.; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this pre-formulation study was to systematically investigate the effects of two surfactants (Brij 58 and Tween 80) and change in solution pH on in vitro permeation of naltrexone HCl (NTX-HCl) across tissue engineered human buccal mucosa. For the study, 10 mg/mL solutions of Tween 80 (0.1 and 1 % w/v) and Brij 58 (1 % w/v) were prepared in standard artificial saliva buffer solution (pH 6.8). For studying pH effects, solution pH was adjusted to either 7.5 or 8.2. As controls, three concentrations of NTX-HCl (2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL) were prepared. Using NTX standard solution (10mg/ml; pH 6.8), the permeation was observed between in vitro human and ex vivo porcine mucosa. It was observed that Brij 58 increased the permeation rates of NTX significantly. The flux of 10mg/ml solution (pH 6.8) increased from 1.9 0.6 (102) to 13.9 2.2 (102) ?g/cm2/h (approximately 6 fold) in presence of 1% Brij 58. Increasing pH of NTX-HCl solution was found to increase the drug flux from 1.9 0.6 (102) (pH 6.8) to 3.0 0.6 (102) (pH 7.4) and 8.0 3.5 (102) (pH 8.2) ?g/cm2/h respectively. Histological analyses exhibited no tissue damage due to exposure of buccal tissue to Brij 58. The mean permeability coefficients (Kp) for 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL solutions of NTX-HCl (pH 6.8) were 5.0 (10?2), 1.8 (10?2) and 3.2 (10?2) cm/h respectively, consistent with data from published literature sources. Increase of NTX flux observed with 1% Brij 58 solution may be due to the effects of ATP. Increase in flux and the shortening of lag time observed by increasing in solution pH confirmed earlier finding that distribution coefficient (log D) of NTX is significantly affected by small increments in pH value and therefore plays an important role in NTX permeation by allowing faster diffusion across tissue engineered human buccal membranes. PMID:21443939

  2. Collection of genomic DNA by buccal swabs for polymerase chain reaction-based biomarker assays.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A H; Najarian, D; White, D L; Jaffe, J F; Kanetsky, P A; Rebbeck, T R

    1999-01-01

    Studies in molecular and genetic epidemiology require a high-throughput, low cost, and reliable means of genomic DNA collection. Buccal (cheek) swabs have been proposed as a means of achieving these goals, but there is little information about the practical application of this approach. From January 1995 to December 1997, we processed 995 buccal swabs for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotype assays in the context of ongoing molecular epidemiologic studies. Six hundred forty-seven of these swabs were processed immediately after collection and 348 were received by mail. We were able to obtain at least one genotype from 99.7% (645 of 647) of fresh-processed and 97.4% (330 of 339) of mailed biosamples. A PCR success rate of 90.3% (2,546 genotypes from 2,819 assays) was achieved. Genotypes were obtained from 96.1% (1, 865 genotypes from 1,941 assays) of fresh-processed biosamples and 77.6% (681 genotypes from 878 assays) of mailed biosamples. PCR success rates at any single locus ranged from 92.6 to 98.8% (fresh-processed) and 75.5 to 79.6% (mailed). The PCR success rate among fresh-processed biosamples was significantly higher than among mailed biosamples (Fisher's exact test p < 0.0001), and more attempts were required to obtain a successful PCR result for mailed biosamples as compared to fresh-processed biosamples. For one locus (CYP3A4), a subset of mailed biosamples was purified if two or more PCR failures occurred. Additional genotypes were obtained in 58.3% of these previously failed biosamples. Time from biosample receipt to DNA extraction had no effect on PCR success. After storage of processed biosamples for as long as 3 years, there was no appreciable decrease in the rate of PCR success. These results suggest that adequate DNA for PCR-based applications can be obtained from buccal swabs, but sampling or processing considerations may be important in obtaining optimal results. PMID:10378997

  3. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75NGFR, a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75NGFR, BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA ()/p75NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75NGFR ()/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium. PMID:25392568

  4. Buccal permeation of [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin from liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    The ex vivo buccal permeability of a [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was examined from the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and aqueous phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4, PBS) solution across excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in a Franz cell. GMO was released in vitro from the liquid crystalline phases indicating the erosion of the liquid crystal matrices. GMO released from the liquid crystalline matrices permeated the porcine buccal mucosa with fluxes of 0.10+/-0.03 and 0.07+/-0.00%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively. The flux of DADLE (1.21+/-0.32 and 1. 15+/-0.11%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively) from the liquid crystalline phases was significantly enhanced by the GMO compared with PBS solution (0.43+/-0.08%/cm(2) per h) during the initial permeation phase (t<3 h). Our results suggest that the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases can be considered as promising buccal drug carriers for peptide drugs as well as acting as permeation enhancers. PMID:10675680

  5. Differences in molar relationships and occlusal contact areas evaluated from the buccal and lingual aspects using 3-dimensional digital models

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sook-Yoon; Kim, Minji

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to use a 3-dimensional (3D) system to compare molar relationship assessments performed from the buccal and lingual aspects, and to measure differences in occlusal contact areas between Class II and Class I molar relationships. Methods Study casts (232 pairs from 232 subjects, yielding a total of 380 sides) were evaluated from both the buccal and lingual aspects, so that molar relationships could be classified according to the scheme devised by Liu and Melsen. Occlusal contact areas were quantified using 3D digital models, which were generated through surface scanning of the study casts. Results A cusp-to-central fossa relationship was observed from the lingual aspect in the majority of cases classified from the buccal aspect as Class I (89.6%) or mild Class II (86.7%). However, severe Class II cases had lingual cusp-to-mesial triangular fossa or marginal ridge relationships. Mean occlusal contact areas were similar in the Class I and mild Class II groups, while the severe Class II group had significantly lower values than either of the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Buccal and lingual assessments of molar relationships were not always consistent. Occlusal contact areas were lowest for the Class II-severe group, which seems to have the worst molar relationships - especially as seen from the lingual aspect. PMID:23112949

  6. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  7. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar

    2010-01-01

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients. PMID:21301590

  8. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of

  10. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  11. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  12. The treatment of lymphangioma in the buccal mucosa by radiofrequency ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Süleyman; Uğar, Dilek; Karaca, Inci; Ceylan, Alper; Uslu, Sabri; Bariş, Emre; Tokman, Benay

    2006-11-01

    Lymphangioma is a benign, hamartomatous tumor of the lymphatic system. It is usually found in the head and neck region and is widely regarded as a developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasia. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60%), and by the age of 2 years 80% to 90% are present. In the head and neck area, the most common location is the submandibular region, followed by the parotid gland. When lymphangioma occurs in the mouth, the anterior two thirds of the tongue is the most commonly affected region. Various methods have been tried for treatment of lymphangioma including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Recently, a new and more conservative surgical approach to this lesion using radiofrequency ablation has been described. In this report, a case of lymphangioma in the right buccal mucosa of the mental foramen area that has been treated by radiofrequency ablation is presented. PMID:17052620

  13. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    PubMed

    Kalaev, V N; Artiukhov, V G; Nechaeva, M S

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted. PMID:25536824

  14. Radiotherapy-Induced Vitiligo in a Patient with Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo significantly affects self-esteem and deteriorates the quality of life of affected persons. Radiotherapy has several early and late effects but it is not known to induce vitiligo. This is a case report of a patient suffering from carcinoma buccal mucosa that had developed vitiligo in the radiotherapy portal. To the best of my knowledge this is a one of the first case reports of its kind as this patient had no history of vitiligo but developed it soon after radiotherapy. Since radiotherapy is an essential component of cancer management, the radiation oncologist must be aware of this toxicity of radiotherapy. Choosing the high energy of photon beam may reduce the risk of such toxicities. PMID:26436032

  15. Radiotherapy-Induced Vitiligo in a Patient with Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sunil

    2015-08-01

    Vitiligo significantly affects self-esteem and deteriorates the quality of life of affected persons. Radiotherapy has several early and late effects but it is not known to induce vitiligo. This is a case report of a patient suffering from carcinoma buccal mucosa that had developed vitiligo in the radiotherapy portal. To the best of my knowledge this is a one of the first case reports of its kind as this patient had no history of vitiligo but developed it soon after radiotherapy. Since radiotherapy is an essential component of cancer management, the radiation oncologist must be aware of this toxicity of radiotherapy. Choosing the high energy of photon beam may reduce the risk of such toxicities. PMID:26436032

  16. [Cytologic study of buccal epithelium in various lengths of service in chrysotile-asbestos production].

    PubMed

    Kurkin, A V; Dauletkalieva, Zh A; Rybalkina, D H

    2015-01-01

    Buccal epithelium cytograms were analyzed in workers of chrysotile-asbestos production "Kostanaiskiye mineraly" JSC. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are associated with increased number of 4th differentiation grade cells and correspondingly decreased number of 5th differentiation grade cells. Later, with 20 years of service, numbers of 4th and 5th grade epitheliocytes reach initial values. With 10-20 years of service, integral parameters of differentiation index, cornification index and intracellular relations decrease. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are connected with domination of proliferation over differentiation processes. Length of service over 20 years is with adaptive processess in the workers. These data are important in evaluation of mucosal system in variable length of occupational service. PMID:26036017

  17. Adult human buccal epithelial stem cells: identification, ex-vivo expansion, and transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Priya, C G; Arpitha, P; Vaishali, S; Prajna, N V; Usha, K; Sheetal, K; Muthukkaruppan, V

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To identify adult human buccal epithelial stem cells (SCs) on the basis of two parameters (high p63 expression and greater nucleus/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio) and to evaluate clinical efficacy of ex-vivoexpanded autologous epithelium in bilateral limbal SC-deficient (LSCD) patients. Methods The epithelial cells were isolated from buccal biopsy and cultured on human amnion in culture inserts with 3T3 feeder layer. The SCs were identified on the basis of two-parameter analysis using confocal microscopy, surface markers, and colony-forming efficiency (CFE). The cultured epithelium was transplanted in 10 LSCD patients followed by penetrating keratoplasty in 4 patients. The clinical outcome was followed up to 3 years. Results A distinct population (3.01.7%) of small cells expressing high levels of p63 with greater N/C ratio was observed in buccal epithelium. The N/C ratio was found to be more appropriate than cell diameter for two-parameter analysis. These cells located in the basal layer were negative for connexin-43 and positive for melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, containing holoclones with 0.2% CFE, thus representing the SC population. After transplantation of cultured epithelium with increased (sixfold) SC content, anatomical and visual improvement was observed at 1334 months in 3/10 LSCD patients. Conclusions The two-parameter SC marker is useful to identify and quantify buccal epithelial SCs. The transplantation of bioengineered SC-rich buccal epithelium is a strategy for corneal surface reconstruction in bilateral LSCD. However, further studies are required to optimize the culture conditions and to look for other sources of adult SCs for better visual outcome. PMID:21941360

  18. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarn, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutirrez, Anglica Guadalupe; Vzquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, Mara Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.20.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.41.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.12.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  19. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    PubMed

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Ren Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vincius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia. PMID:26590633

  20. Brazil's alcohol motor fuel program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This is a status report on the production and use of ethanol as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol, called in Portuguese Proalcool, will supply at least one-third of Brazil's expected fuel demand for transportation in the year 2000. In total energy terms, it should contribute on the same level as coal and twice the combined level of nuclear, solar and geothermal energies. 2 refs.

  1. The US motor systems market assessment: Overview and preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of the US Motor Systems Market Assessment. This component of the US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program will provide a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities and a baseline characterization current practice in regard to motor system component selection, system design, maintenance, and management. This equipment and behavioral baseline will be used to target Motor Challenge program activities and to evaluate the program's impact on the motor systems markets. This paper presents an overview and selected findings from the project's principal research activities: a review of secondary sources on motor systems markets and inventory; compilation and reanalysis of existing primary information on the motor systems inventory; and an on-site survey of 300 industrial facilities.

  2. Gross motor control

    MedlinePLUS

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  3. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  4. Starting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

  5. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts.

  6. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three

  7. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  10. Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Stewart D.

    2001-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

  11. A Study of the Effects of an Intensive Training Program on the Motor Skills of Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sheila A.

    In a study on improvement of basic motor skills by educable mentally retarded (EMR) children with special training in a sport and game situation, 21 EMR boys and 19 EMR girls (aged 4-1 to 10-1) were divided into an experimental and a control group, matched by chronological age, IQ, sex, and pretest scores on the Basic Skills Test (reliability .97)

  12. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  13. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  14. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  15. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244 Section 52.244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor...

  17. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  18. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers means that we can only postulate why we were unable to obtain m-SKPs from the lion and red panda cultures. However the giant panda observations point to the value of archiving cells from rare species, and the possibilities for later progenitor cell derivation. PMID:26398672

  19. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  20. Relationship between the buccal bone plate thickness and the healing of postextraction sockets with/without ridge preservation.

    PubMed

    Cardaropoli, Daniele; Tamagnone, Lorenzo; Roffredo, Alessandro; Gaveglio, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    In 48 postextraction sites, sockets were grafted with bovine bone mineral plus collagen membrane (test) or had spontaneous healing (control). After 4 months, horizontal ridge width reduction was 0.71 mm in the test group and 4.04 mm in the control group, while vertical ridge loss was 0.58 mm and 1.67 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between the thickness of the buccal bone wall and the alveolar bone loss in the test group, while an inverse correlation was found in the control group. Ridge preservation compensated for postextraction alveolar ridge resorption irrespective of the buccal plate thickness, whereas leaving the extraction socket undisturbed may result in alveolar bone loss. PMID:24600657

  1. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear. PMID:23112505

  2. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear. PMID:23112505

  3. Experimental reconstruction of the airway with buccal mucosa and cortical bone in a single-stage procedure.

    PubMed

    Lfgren, L; Lindholm, C E; Jansson, B

    1984-01-01

    Autogenous buccal mucosa and cortical bone were transplanted in a one-stage procedure to an anterior tracheal defect in 5 beagles. The result was studied by endoscopy, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bone graft was shaped as an oval disc and perforated with large holes for vascular nutrition of the mucosal graft. Small holes were made along the periphery for suturing the buccal mucosa to the bone disc and for suturing the composite graft to the tracheal defect. The mucosa sloughed off from the framework during the first 2 weeks and the bone graft was subsequently expelled through the airway. The mucosal graft was replaced by ciliated columnar epithelium supported by firm connective tissue. Various surface structures were found in the regenerating epithelium. Although the animals did not suffocate or develop a stenosis, this procedure cannot in its present form be recommended for use in clinical practice. PMID:6395622

  4. Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  5. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  6. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  7. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH with optimum swelling approaching zero order release. PMID:23351403

  8. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  9. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  10. Specific Noninvasive Detection of Leishmania donovani in Desquamated Buccal Cell Swab Samples from Human Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Halder, Avishek; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Mandal, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection is challenging. Specific diagnosis of VL in HIV-coinfected patients was evaluated by molecular methods in desquamated buccal swab samples, demonstrating 86.3% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity in controls. This test holds significant potential for development as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for VL in HIV-coinfected patients. PMID:24478413

  11. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  12. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel mucoadhesive buccal discs of an antifungal drug: relationship between swelling, erosion, and drug release.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Basalious, Emad B

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of fluconazole mucoadhesive buccal discs were prepared: (a) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by direct compression containing bioadhesive polymers, namely, Carbopol 974p (Cp), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), or sodium alginate (SALG) in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). (b) Fluconazole buccal discs prepared by freeze drying containing different polymer combinations (SCMC/HPMC, Cp/HPMC, SALG/HPMC, and chitosan/SALG). The prepared discs were evaluated by investigating their release pattern, swelling capacity, mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro adhesion time. In vivo evaluation of the buccal disc and in vivo residence times were also performed. Fluconazole salivary concentration after application of fluconazole buccal systems to four healthy volunteers was determined using microbiological assay and high-performance liquid chromatography. SCMC/HPMC buccal disc prepared by direct compression could be considered comparatively superior mucoadhesive disc regarding its in vitro adhesion time, in vivo residence time, and in vitro/in vivo release rates of the drug. Determination of the amount of drug released in saliva after application of the selected fluconazole disc confirmed the ability of the disc to deliver the drug over a period of approximately 5 h and to reduce side effects and possibility of drug interaction encountered during systemic therapy of fluconazole, which would be beneficial in the case of oral candidiasis. PMID:19082739

  13. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. PMID:26802493

  14. Effect of the color of intraradicular posts on the color of buccal gingiva: a clinical spectophotometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Wolleb, Karin; Hmmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test whether intraradicular posts of different colors induce different amounts of color change of the buccal gingiva. Twentythree patients in need of a post-and-core buildup at one endodontically treated incisor, canine, or premolar were included. Titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zi), and glass fiber (Gf) posts were consecutively inserted in each test tooth. Spectrophotometric color measurement of the buccal gingiva was performed prior to post bed preparation and after insertion of Ti, Zi, and Gf posts. For control purposes, the gingival color at the contralateral vital tooth was assessed. The differences of color components ?L, ?a, and ?b and the total color difference (?E) between different experimental conditions were obtained. ?E value of 3.7 was considered the threshold value for intraoral color distinction. The gingival thickness at test teeth was measured. No difference occurred with regard to the amount of gingival discoloration induced by different posts. In the majority of cases, posts did not exhibit a visible influence on the color of buccal gingiva. The gingiva at endodontically treated teeth presented a visible discoloration compared to the gingiva at vital teeth. The degree of gingival discoloration at endodontically treated teeth was correlated with the gingival thickness, with more pronounced discolorations in cases of thinner soft tissue. PMID:24116358

  15. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  16. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  17. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  18. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

  19. Genetic relatedness of subgingival and buccal Candida dubliniensis isolates in immunocompetent subjects assessed by RAPD-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jewtuchowicz, Virginia Marta; Mujica, Maria Teresa; Malzone, Maria celina; Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Maria lorena; Iovannitti, Cristina Adela; Rosa, Alcira Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Background It is recognized that Candida dubliniensis commonly colonizes oral and subgingival sites in immunocompetent subjects with periodontal disease. Objective Since there are few data available on genetic characterization of C. dubliniensis in periodontal pockets and other oral sites, the aim of this study was to characterize subgingival and mucosal C. dubliniensis isolates recovered from immunocompetent subjects and to assay the genetic similarity of such isolates from both niches in the same patient by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Design C. dubliniensis recovered from subgingival plaque and from buccal cavity samples were studied in 240 immunocompetent non-smoking individuals. Arbitrary amplification was carried out by RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes of C. dubliniensis in different sampling sites (buccal cavity and subgingival areas) in eight of 10 patients except for those derived from two participants who presented presumably unrelated isolates. Conclusions On the basis of the findings presented, the origin of the colonization of C. dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm seems to be the buccal cavity in a single patient. Consequently, it may be assumed that most of C. dubliniensis in these sites arise from the endogenous commensal strains. PMID:21523209

  20. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Throff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size invivo (10-30?m). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This invitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material. PMID:26606446

  1. The Efficacy of a Repeated Buccal Infiltration of Articaine in Prolonging Duration of Pulpal Anesthesia in the Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Lindsay; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown declining rates of pulpal anesthesia over 60 minutes when a cartridge of 4% articaine is used with 1∶100,000 epinephrine for buccal infiltration in the mandibular first molar. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, crossover study comparing the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with 2 sets of mandibular first molar buccal infiltrations, given in 2 separate appointments, to 86 adult subjects: an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a repeated infiltration of the same anesthetic and dose given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration versus an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a mock repeated infiltration given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration. The authors used an electric pulp tester to test the first molar for anesthesia in 3-minute cycles for 112 minutes after the injections. The repeated infiltration significantly improved pulpal anesthesia from 28 minutes through 109 minutes in the mandibular first molar. A repeated infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine given 25 minutes after an initial infiltration of the same type and dose of anesthetic significantly improved the duration of pulpal anesthesia, when compared with only an initial buccal infiltration, in the mandibular first molar. PMID:20020793

  2. Dental Occlusal Changes Induce Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, L; Lee, J-C; Sessle, B J

    2015-12-01

    Modification to the dental occlusion may alter oral sensorimotor functions. Restorative treatments aim to restore sensorimotor functions; however, it is unclear why some patients fail to adapt to the restoration and remain with sensorimotor complaints. The face primary motor cortex (face-M1) is involved in the generation and control of orofacial movements. Altered sensory inputs or motor function can induce face-M1 neuroplasticity. We took advantage of the continuous eruption of the incisors in Sprague-Dawley rats and used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to map the jaw and tongue motor representations in face-M1. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that multiple trimming of the right mandibular incisor, to keep it out of occlusal contacts for 7 d, and subsequent incisor eruption and restoration of occlusal contacts, can alter the ICMS-defined features of jaw and tongue motor representations (i.e., neuroplasticity). On days 1, 3, 5, and 7, the trim and trim-recovered groups had 1 to 2 mm of incisal trimming of the incisor; a sham trim group had buccal surface trimming with no occlusal changes; and a naive group had no treatment. Systematic mapping was performed on day 8 in the naive, trim, and sham trim groups and on day 14 in the trim-recovered group. In the trim group, the tongue onset latency was shorter in the left face-M1 than in the right face-M1 (P < .001). In the trim-recovered group, the number of tongue sites and jaw/tongue overlapping sites was greater in the left face-M1 than in the right face-M1 (P = 0.0032, 0.0016, respectively), and the center of gravity was deeper in the left than in the right face-M1 (P = 0.026). Therefore, incisor trimming and subsequent restoration of occlusal contacts induced face-M1 neuroplasticity, reflected in significant disparities between the left and right face-M1 in some ICMS-defined features of the tongue motor representations. Such neuroplasticity may reflect or contribute to subjects' ability to adapt their oral sensorimotor functions to an altered dental occlusion. PMID:26310722

  3. A keratocyst in the buccal mucosa with the features of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  4. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

  5. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective ?-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.210.71 to 97.020.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  6. Dissolution Rate Enhancement, Design and Development of Buccal Drug Delivery of Darifenacin Hydroxypropyl ?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Mohanty, Prachyasuman; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2013-01-01

    Darifenacin is a urinary antispasmodic. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability (1519%). Darifenacin was complexed with hydroxylropyl beta-cyclodextrin (Hp?-CD). The best results were obtained with the coevaporation that interacts in a 1?:?1 drug?:?cyclodextrin molar ratio. The solid inclusion complexes were found to be amorphous in the characterization. The dissolution rate of darifenacin from the Hp?-CD solid inclusion complex was increased compared to the powdered drug. The controlled release buccoadhesive patches for the delivery of darifenacin were prepared using HPMC K100M CR and HPMC K15. The coevaporation complex of the drug was used in the formulation due to its increased saturation solubility and increased ease of dissolution. The patches were evaluated for their surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in vitro residence time, vapour transmission test, and in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Formulations Hb2 (2%) and Pb4 (4%) were found to be optimized. These two formulations can be used for buccal delivery of darifenacin which avoids first pass effect and leads to increased bioavailability of darifenacin. PMID:26556003

  7. Spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures as buccal bioadhesive carriers.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Mus, D; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2005-09-14

    In the present study, spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures were evaluated as potential buccal bioadhesive tablets. Carbopol (C 974P) concentrations from 5 to 75% were tested. All spray-dried mixtures showed a comparable or better bioadhesive capacity compared to a reference formulation (DDWM/C 974P 95/5). The bioadhesive capacities of Amioca/Carbopol 974P mixtures were improved by spray-drying. All spray-dried mixtures showed significantly higher work of adhesion values compared to their equivalent physical mixtures. The influence of Carbopol concentration on the in vivo adhesion time of placebo tablets and in vitro miconazole nitrate release was tested. The ratio Amioca/C 974P 70/30 showed the longest in vivo adhesion time (24.5+/-8.5 h). Lower and higher C 974P concentrations had a shorter in vivo adhesion time. The mixtures containing between 15 and 30% C 974P could all sustain the in vitro miconazole nitrate release over 20 h. Again, lower and higher C 974P concentrations showed a faster in vitro miconazole release. The drug loading capacity of a spray-dried mixture containing 20% C 974P was investigated in vivo in dogs using testosterone as model drug. The spray-dried mixture could be loaded with 60% drug without loosing its in vivo bioadhesive and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:16019172

  8. Articaine buccal infiltration vs lidocaine inferior dental block - a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, G; Mansoor, J

    2016-02-12

    Aim This paper aims to compare the effectiveness of articaine buccal infiltrations (BIs) and lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) for inducing pulpal anaesthesia in mandibular molars.Method Studies which compared articaine BIs with lidocaine IANBs were identified by completing a full literature search using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Only studies that used permanent mandibular molars were included. Two papers were accepted for appraisal.Results It was found that 55.6-69.2% and 65.4-70.4% of lidocaine IANBs and articaine BIs were successful, respectively. Neither study was able to determine a significant difference between the two techniques.Conclusions Articaine BIs are no more effective than lidocaine IANBs and the decision of which method to practice should be based on patient selection, cost and time efficiency. The studies present a number of weaknesses in their design, hence, the level of evidence they provide is inconclusive. Further investigation in this field is warranted. PMID:26868800

  9. The flavonoid quercetin modulates the hallmark capabilities of hamster buccal pouch tumors.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Manikandan, Palrasu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer risk. Quercetin, a ubiquitous dietary flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive as well as the therapeutic ability of quercetin to modulate the key hallmark capabilities of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival (PCNA, p21, p53, cyclin D1, GST-P), apoptosis (Fas, Fas-L, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome-C, Apaf-1, caspases, PARP, survivin, cFLIP, API1), invasion (MMPs, TIMP-2, RECK), angiogenesis (PlGF, VEGF, VEGF receptors, HIF-1α), as well as the epigenetic markers (HDAC-1, DNMT1) by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. Simultaneous administration of quercetin to DMBA-painted hamsters reduced tumor incidence and tumor burden, while posttreatment of quercetin resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. In addition, quercetin administration induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and blocked invasion and angiogenesis. We found a positive correlation between the inhibition of HDAC-1 and DNMT1 by quercetin and its anticancer properties. A dietary phytochemical such as quercetin that modulates a plethora of molecules offers promise as an ideal candidate for multitargeted cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:21294050

  10. Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D; McMackin, Marissa Z; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L; Pook, Mark A; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2014-12-20

    Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the iron-sulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

  11. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    PubMed Central

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, local relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  12. A Keratocyst in the Buccal Mucosa with the Features of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuka; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old male patient consulted us for an elastic firm mass in the right buccal mucosa. CT examination revealed a well-circumscribed oval cystic lesion in the anterior region of the masseter muscle. On MRI, the lesion showed a low signal on T1-weighted image and a high signal on T2-weighted image. Aspiration biopsy demonstrated the presence of squamous cells in whitish liquid. Under the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, the lesion was intraorally extirpated under general anesthesia. The lesion was cystic at the size of 30 25mm. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined with parakeratinized squamous epithelium corrugated on its surface, the basal layer of which consisted of cuboidal cells showing palisading of the nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the lining epithelium was positive for CK17 and negative for CK10. The basal and suprabasal cells were labeled for Ki-67 at a relatively high rate. These features are compatible with those of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:24285986

  13. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of amlexanox in bioadhesive buccal tablets: application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Tolba, M M; Halawa, M I

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of Amlexanox (AMX) in its bioadhesive buccal tablets. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of the methanolic solution of AMX at 400 nm after excitation at 242 nm in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 10) and 0.5% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The interaction of AMX with SDS was studied, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity was exploited to develop an assay method for the determination of AMX. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 5.0-80.0 ng/mL, with a lower detection limit of 0.57 ng/mL and a lower quantification limit of 1.74 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AMX in its commercial tablets. Moreover, content uniformity testing was conducted by applying official USP guidelines. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the data obtained using the proposed and comparison methods revealed good accuracy and precision for the proposed method. PMID:25611457

  14. Amidated pectin-based wafers for econazole buccal delivery: formulation optimization and antimicrobial efficacy estimation.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Mennini, Natascia; Kosalec, Ivan; Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Jug, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Combinations of low-methoxy amidated pectin (LMAP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to develop a lyophilized wafer formulation, aimed to obtain prolonged residence and controlled release of econazole nitrate (ECN) in the oral cavity. Ternary ECN/sulphobutylether--cyclodextrin/citric acid complex, resulted as the most efficient system against selected Candida strains, was loaded into this formulation. The final product with the desired and predicted quality was developed by an experimental design strategy. The experimental values of mucoadhesion strength (28.37 0.04 mg/cm(2)) and residence time (88.1 0.1 min) obtained for the optimized wafer formulation were very close to the predicted ones, thus demonstrating the actual reliability and usefulness of the assumed model in the preparation of buccal wafers. The optimized formulation provided a constant ECN in situ release of 5mg/h and was efficacious against selected Candida strains in vitro. This clearly proved its potential as a novel effective delivery system for the therapy of oral candidiasis. PMID:25659694

  15. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Len-Meja, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Prez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, Joo Antnio Pgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage. PMID:24927390

  16. Metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma in the upper buccal gingiva misdiagnosed as an epulis.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, "local" relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  17. Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L.; Pook, Mark A.; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the ironsulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

  18. Combination of the buccal mucosa and amniotic membrane: a novel approach for graft augmentation urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gne?, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Gne?, Alime; Altok, Muammer

    2014-12-01

    Today, complicated and long-segment stricture is usually treated by augmentation urethroplasty with buccal mucosa (BM) as the grafted tissue. Augmentation urethroplasty is applied in different parts of the urethra with varying success. Success rate is quite low in one-step penile ventral urethra rehabilitations due to weak subcutaneous tissue in the penile urethra tissue. The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biologically compatible tissue with growth factors, antimicrobial qualities, and immunoregulatory activity that minimizes tissue rejection and scarring. Due to these characteristics, it has been used in various surgical areas, particularly in ophthalmology, with success for more than 50 years. According to our hypothesis, when AM is combined with BM, the success rates in penile ventral augmentation urethroplasty would be increased by decreasing postoperative complications. New evidence could be added to the literature by using AM and BM in combination on an animal model. The positive results of this combined method would give a new point of view to reconstructive urethral surgery practice. PMID:25468786

  19. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  20. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a braincomputer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual ?-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to ?-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling braincomputer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  1. Transposed firing activation of motor units

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Joshua C.; Contessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Muscles are composed of groups of muscle fibers, called motor units, each innervated by a single motoneuron originating in the spinal cord. During constant or linearly varying voluntary force contractions, motor units are activated in a hierarchical order, with the earlier-recruited motor units having greater firing rates than the later-recruited ones. We found that this normal pattern of firing activation can be altered during oscillatory contractions where the force oscillates at frequencies ≥2 Hz. During these high-frequency oscillations, the activation of the lower-threshold motor units effectively decreases and that of the higher-threshold motor units effectively increases. This transposition of firing activation provides means to activate higher-threshold motor units preferentially. Our results demonstrate that the hierarchical regulation of motor unit activation can be manipulated to activate specific motoneuron populations preferentially. This finding can be exploited to develop new forms of physical therapies and exercise programs that enhance muscle performance or that target the preferential atrophy of high-threshold motor units as a result of aging or motor disorders such as stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24899671

  2. Motor imagery influences the execution of repetitive finger opposition movements.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Giannini, Alessandro; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2009-11-27

    Motor imagery (MI) is the ability to imagine performing a movement without executing it. In literature, there have been numerous reports on the influence of MI on motor practice and the beneficial effects of "mental practice" on the physical performance has been suggested to rely to the close temporal association between motor rehearsal and actual performance. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether the addition of a period of motor imagery between two motor practice trials could modify movement execution in a repetitive finger opposition motor task performed at maximal speed and whether the effect of motor imagery on motor practice is dependant on the complexity of movement. We observed that the addition of motor imagery to the sole motor practice was able to influence the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements inducing an increase of the velocity of movement greater than that observed with the motor practice alone. Further the addition of motor imagery was able to induce a modification in the motor strategy in terms of duration of the main phases of movements. This was more evident when subjects executed a finger sequential task with respect to a simple finger tapping task. We assume that mental rehearsal facilitates the brain network involved in sensorimotor control, particularly acting on those neural structures involved in the motor program. PMID:19770024

  3. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  4. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies. PMID:24873758

  5. The sensitivity of biomarkers for genotoxicity and acute cytotoxicity in nasal and buccal cells of welders.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Jakse, Robert; Beham, Alfred; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Welders are inhalatively exposed to fumes which contain genotoxic carcinogens and it was found in epidemiological studies that they have increased cancer rates which may be causally related to DNA damage. In order to assess their health risks and to find out which chemicals cause the adverse effects, bioassays can be performed which enable the detection of genetic damage. The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation with exfoliated buccal and nasal cells in regard to induction of chromosomal alterations and acute cytotoxicity in welders and unexposed controls (n=22 per group). To elucidate the factors which account for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, additional biochemical parameters were monitored reflecting the redox status as well as concentrations of different metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in body fluids. We found in the nasal cells significant induction of alterations which are indicative for DNA damage, i.e. of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds, while elevated rates of nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, karyolylsis) were detected in cells from both organs. The levels of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni), but not markers of oxidative damage were significantly higher in the body fluids of the welders. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses indicate that exposure to Mo (15% MNi increase by one standard deviation increase of Mo in serum), Ni (9% increase) and Mn (14% increase) are positively associated with the induction of MNi in nasal cells while Ni was associated with cytotoxic effects in both types of cells (12 and 16% increase). Taken together, our findings indicate that epithelial cells from the respiratory tract are suitable for the detection of DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects in welders and can be used to assess health risks associated with genomic instability. PMID:24698449

  6. The influence of recrystallized caffeine on water-swellable polymethacrylate mucoadhesive buccal films.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Su, Rong; McConville, Jason T

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of particles on the properties of polymethacrylate films intended for buccal delivery. A solvent casting method was used with Eudragit RS and RL (ERS and ERL, respectively) as film-forming rate-controlling polymers, with caffeine as a water-soluble model drug. The physicochemical properties of the model films for a series of formulations with increasing concentrations of caffeine were determined in terms of morphology, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug content uniformity, and drug release and associated kinetics. Typically regarded as non-mucoadhesive polymers, ERS and mainly ERL, were found to be good mucoadhesives, with ERL01 exhibiting a work of mucoadhesion (WoA) of 118.9 μJ, which was about five to six times higher than that observed for commonly used mucoadhesives such as Carbopol(®) 974P (C974P, 23.9 μJ) and polycarbophil (PCP, 17.4 μJ). The mucoadhesive force for ERL01 was found to be significantly lower yet comparable to C974P and PCP films (211.1 vs. 329.7 and 301.1 mN, respectively). Inspection of cross-sections of the films indicated that increasing the concentration of caffeine was correlated with the appearance of recrystallized agglomerates. In conclusion, caffeine agglomerates had detrimental effects in terms of mucoadhesion, mechanical properties, uniformity, and drug release at large particle sizes. ERL series of films exhibited very rapid release of caffeine while ERS series showed controlled release. Analysis of release profiles revealed that kinetics changed from a diffusion controlled to a first-order release mechanism. PMID:23456475

  7. Impact of exposure to wood dust on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in exfoliated buccal and nasal cells.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Ferk, Franziska; Jakse, Robert; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    Wood dust was classified by the IARC as a human carcinogen which causes sinonasal tumours. However, the exposure in different industries varies strongly and the risks of workers depend on the specific situation which can be assessed by the use of biomonitoring methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers who are exposed to low dust levels (below the permitted concentrations) with cytogenetic and biochemical methods. Micronuclei (MNi) which are indicative for genomic damage, nuclear buds which reflect gene amplification, binucleated cells which are caused by mitotic disturbances and acute cytotoxicity parameters (pyknosis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin, karyolysis) were monitored in buccal and nasal cells of workers of a veneer factory (n = 51) who are exposed to volatile wood-derived compounds, in carpenters of a furniture factory which use no synthetic chemicals (n=38) and in a control group (n = 65). Additionally, markers were measured in blood plasma which reflect inflammations (C-reactive protein, CRP) and the redox status, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidised low density proteins (oxLDL). No induction of micronucleated cells was observed in both epithelia in the two exposure groups while all other nuclear anomalies except pyknosis were increased; also one health-related biochemical marker (MDA) was significantly elevated in the workers. Taken together, the results of our study show that exposure to low levels of wood dust does not cause formation of MNi indicating that the cancer risks of the workers are not increased as a consequence of genetic damage while positive results were obtained in earlier studies with workers who are exposed to high dust levels. However, our findings indicate that wood dust causes cytotoxic effects which may lead to inflammations. PMID:25958389

  8. Formulation, characterisation and stabilisation of buccal films for paediatric drug delivery of omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Boateng, Joshua S; Mitchell, John; Trivedi, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop films for potential delivery of omeprazole (OME) via the buccal mucosa of paediatric patients. Films were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), sodium alginate (SA), carrageenan (CA) and metolose (MET) with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) as plasticiser, OME (model drug) and L-arg (stabiliser). Gels (1% w/w) were prepared at 40C using water and ethanol with PEG 400 (0-1% w/w) and dried in an oven (40C). Optimised formulations containing OME and L-arg (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) were prepared to investigate the stabilisation of the drug. Tensile properties (Texture analysis, TA), physical form (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; X-ray diffraction, XRD; thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) and surface topography (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) were investigated. Based on the TA results, SA and MET films were chosen for OME loading and stabilisation studies as they showed a good balance between flexibility and toughness. Plasticised MET films were uniform and smooth whilst unplasticised films demonstrated rough lumpy surfaces. SA films prepared from aqueous gels showed some lumps on the surface, whereas SA films prepared from ethanolic gels were smooth and uniform. Drug-loaded gels showed that OME was unstable and therefore required addition of L-arg. The DSC and XRD suggested molecular dispersion of drug within the polymeric matrix. Plasticised (0.5% w/w PEG 400) MET films prepared from ethanolic (20% v/v) gels and containing OME: L-arg 1:2 showed the most ideal characteristics (transparency, ease of peeling and flexibility) and was selected for further investigation. PMID:25559373

  9. Fine motor control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...

  10. Teamwork in microtubule motors.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2013-11-01

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. When there are disruptions in these signals, the ...

  13. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  14. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaschek, J.

    1994-12-31

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. Recently various types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been developed for industrial applications. This paper describes several types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors.

  15. IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

  16. Motor Examinations in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity for voluntary motor activity underpins all behavior. Although psychiatrists are acutely aware of behavior, we tend to think of its abstract motives more than its concrete mechanisms. This article reviews the basic brain mechanisms of voluntary motor activity, the most useful pyramidal tract or upper motor neuron signs, and their relevance to specific patient groups of interest to psychiatrists. PMID:21191532

  17. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  18. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-?B and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  19. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  20. Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  1. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  2. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    PubMed

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology. PMID:26551593

  3. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  4. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramrez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaqun; Prez-Prez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  5. Accuracy of CBCT images in the assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects: effect of field of view

    PubMed Central

    Murat, S; K?l?, C; Yksel, S; Avsever, H; Farman, A; Scarfe, W C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the reliability and accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained at different fields of view in detecting and quantifying simulated buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects. Methods: Simulated buccal defects were prepared in 69 implants inserted into cadaver mandibles. CBCT images at three different fields of view were acquired: 40??40, 60??60 and 100??100?mm. The presence or absence of defects was assessed on three sets of images using a five-point scale by three observers. Observers also measured the depth, width and volume of defects on CBCT images, which were compared with physical measurements. The kappa value was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. Six-way repeated analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment effects on the diagnosis. Pairwise comparisons of median true-positive and true-negative rates were calculated by the ?2 test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between measurements. Significance level was set as p??0.05). Significant correlations were found between physical and CBCT measurements (p?buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects. Depth, width and volume measurements of the defects from various CBCT images correlated highly with physical measurements. PMID:24645965

  6. Mucoadhesive buccal films containing phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles as an effective carrier for Cucurbitacin B delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingyuan; Shen, Chengying; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Yu, Chao; Xu, Pinghua; Xu, He; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-05-01

    Cucurbitacin B (Cu B), a potent anti-cancer agent, suffers with the problems of water-insoluble, gastrointestinal side effects and non-specific toxicity via oral administration and drawbacks in patient's compliance and acceptance through injections. An integration of nanoscale carriers with mucoadhesive buccal films drug delivery system would resolve these issues effectively with greater therapeutic benefits and clinical significance. Thus, the drug loaded mucoadhesive buccal film was developed and characterized in this study and the carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) was chosen as a bioadhesive polymer, glycerol was chosen as a plasticizer and phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles (PL-BS-MMs) was selected as the nanoscale carriers. The CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was evaluated for the mechanical properties, mucoadhesion properties, in vitro water-uptake, in vitro release and morphological properties, respectively. The optimal CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was easily reconstituted in a transparent and clear solution with spherical micelles in the submicron range. The in vivo study revealed a greater and more extended release of Cu B from nanoscale CCS-films compared to that from a conventional CCS films (C-CCS-films) and oral marketed tablet (Hulusupian). The absorption of Cu B from CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs resulted in 2.69-fold increased in bioavailability as compared to conventional tablet formulation and 10.46 times with reference to the C-CCS-films formulation. Thus, this kind of mucoadhesive buccal film might be an alternative safe route for delivery of Cu B with better patient compliance and higher bioavailability for the treatments. PMID:24467528

  7. [Preliminary study of the frequency of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells sampled from patients with laryngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Belowska, Jadwiga; Fraczek, Agnieszka; Ra?, Ma?gorzata; Schmager, Jan; Sk?adzien, Jacek; Strek, Pawe?; Scig, Anna; Tryba?a, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The examination of frequency of micronuclei was carried out on two groups of patients with tumors of upper respiratory tract: cancer of larynx (36 individuals) and polyps of larynx (13 persons). Groups of habitants from Katowice, Czestochowa and Nowy Sacz (cities with the different level of air pollution) and separately group of smokers, were considered as the control. It was observed that high frequency of micronuclei in cell of buccal mucosa from individuals exposed on mutagenic substances from the air and cigarette smoke could be a marker of higher risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:15521576

  8. Advanced solid rocket motor project status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Keith

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of the project are the following: (1) to improve system safety and reliability; (2) to improve Space Shuttle Payload performance - 12,000 lb; (3) to optimize program cost; and (4) to promote a competitive solid rocket motor industry. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) project team, ASRM design, design schedules, and technical issues.

  9. Advanced solid rocket motor project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the project are the following: (1) to improve system safety and reliability; (2) to improve Space Shuttle Payload performance - 12,000 lb; (3) to optimize program cost; and (4) to promote a competitive solid rocket motor industry. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) project team, ASRM design, design schedules, and technical issues.

  10. Motor Development: A Lifelong Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberton, Mary Ann; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A collection of articles on the lifelong process of motor development focuses on: (1) neural changes in lifespan motor development; (2) the effects of developmental memory differences on learning motor skills; (3) physical growth and motor performance; (4) motor development in children with learning disabilities; (5) a motor development program…

  11. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  12. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  13. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  14. Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2013-07-01

    To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

  15. Imitating chemical motors with optimal information motors.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M R

    2013-07-01

    To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. PMID:23862988

  16. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  17. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  18. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  19. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its oral bioavailability is ?40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.230.008 and 0.590.007mm and mass varied between 65.233.3 and 117.924.2mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5mL Eudragit L-100, 15mL HPMC K4M, 7.5mL PVA and 2mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5mL PVA, 15mL Carbopol and 2mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5mL Eudragit L-100, 15mL HPMC K4M, 7.5mL PVA and 2mL PG), and F12 (7.5mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5mL PVA, 15mL Carbopol and 2mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and KorsmeyerPeppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

  20. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromotagraphy analysis of the drug absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa via a circulating device

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIN; LI, YUBO; XU, DAOQING; ZHOU, HONG; WANG, JINLEI; GUO, XUEJUN; ZHANG, YANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of Su Xiao Jiu Xin dripping pill absorption in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers. This pill is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used as an emergency treatment for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is sublingually administered and can be absorbed in the buccal mucosa. In the present study, a method was developed to investigate the absorption characteristics in the buccal mucosa of healthy volunteers via a circulating device by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The five main efficacy components associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are borneol, isoborneol, ligustilide, n-butylphthalide and ferulic acid, were detected and rapidly absorbed. Among these components, four exhibited good absorption, thus confirming that the method developed is efficient for analysis of the absoption characteristics. PMID:25469246

  2. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

  3. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air. Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to continue research efforts in order to improve future HTS motor first cost, reliability, and performance. The lessons learned from the development and testing of the 1000 hp motor were the basis for the tasks proposed for the project that is being described in this final report. These eight tasks and the technology and commercial issues they address are listed in Table 1-1.

  4. Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development

    PubMed Central

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurological deficits in auditory and motor processes using computational modeling with the DIVA model. Method In a series of computer simulations, we investigated the effect of a motor processing deficit alone (MPD), and the effect of a motor processing deficit in combination with an auditory processing deficit (MPD+APD) on the trajectory and endpoint of speech motor development in the DIVA model. Results Simulation results showed that a motor programming deficit predominantly leads to deterioration on the phonological level (phonemic mappings) when auditory self-monitoring is intact, and on the systemic level (systemic mapping) if auditory self-monitoring is impaired. Conclusions These findings suggest a close relation between quality of auditory self-monitoring and the involvement of phonological vs. motor processes in children with pediatric motor speech disorders. It is suggested that MPD+APD might be involved in typically apraxic speech output disorders and MPD in pediatric motor speech disorders that also have a phonological component. Possibilities to verify these hypotheses using empirical data collected from human subjects are discussed. PMID:24491630

  5. Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode

    PubMed Central

    Kamburo?lu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yksel, S; Paksoy, C S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n?=?22) and buccal periodontal defects (n?=?22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as ??=?0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p?Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

  6. In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elsabé; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Drug delivery via the buccal route has emerged as a promising alternative to oral drug delivery. Didanosine (DDI) undergoes rapid degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, has a short half-life and low oral bioavailability, making DDI a suitable candidate for buccal delivery. Recent developments in buccal drug delivery show an increased interest toward nano-enabled delivery systems. The advantages of buccal drug delivery can be combined with that of nanoparticulate delivery systems to provide a superior delivery system. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the preparation of novel nano-enabled films for buccal delivery of DDI. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared via hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication and were characterized before being incorporated into nano-enabled monolayered multipolymeric films (MMFs). Glyceryl tripalmitate with Poloxamer 188 was identified as most suitable for the preparation of DDI-loaded SLNs. SLNs with desired particle size (PS) (201 nm), polydispersity index (PDI) (0.168) and zeta potential (-18.8 mV) were incorporated into MMFs and characterized. Conventional and nano-enabled MMFs were prepared via solvent casting/evaporation using Eudragit RS100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Drug release from the nano-enabled films was found to be faster (56% versus 20% in first hour). Conventional MMFs exhibited higher mucoadhesion and mechanical strength than nano-enabled MMFs. SLNs did not adversely affect the steady state flux (71.63 ± 13.54 µg/cm(2) h versus 74.39 ± 15.95 µg/cm(2) h) thereby confirming the potential transbuccal delivery of DDI using nano-enabled MMFs. Nano-enabled buccal films for delivery of DDI can be successfully prepared, and these physico-mechanical studies serve as a platform for future formulation optimization work in this emerging field. PMID:24576267

  7. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  8. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA)

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  9. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  10. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G

    2015-11-06

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  11. DNA damage in leukocytes, buccal cells and nasal epithelial cells of individuals exposed to air pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.

    1997-10-01

    There is an increased interest in using biological markers to monitor populations for the identification of exposure to environmental toxicants. Test systems which permit the sensitive detection of DNA damage and DNA repair are critically important. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay is a rapid and a sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damage at the single cell level ant it provides information on the occurrence of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites using alkaline conditions. In this work, the differences in the basal level of DNA single strand breaks using alkaline single strand breaks using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, between young adults from the south (exposed principally to high levels of ozone) and north (exposed principally to hydrocarbons and particles) of Mexico City was investigated using three different cell types (leukocytes, nasal and buccal epithelial cells). We found an increased DNA tail length in blood and nasal cells from individuals who live in the south part of the city compared to the northern part. However, no differences were observed in buccal epithelial cells. These results show the feasibility of using SCGE in different tissues and its great potential for the monitoring of humans exposed to xenobiotics.

  12. Do you mind if I vape? Immediate effects of electronic cigarettes on perfusion in buccal mucosal tissue - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuther, William J; Hale, Beverley; Matharu, Jas; Blythe, John N; Brennan, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoking and postoperative complications is compounded in patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations by an additional local effect, and patients often continue to smoke after operation despite advice to stop. Recent studies have suggested that nicotine may reduce inflammation and improve angiogenesis, so topical application may be beneficial for smokers. The electronic cigarette is increasing in popularity and more patients ask whether they can vape after operation. We investigated the effect of electronic cigarettes (of which half contained nicotine and half did not) on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers immediately after vaping. Smokers were excluded as this was considered an additional variable in a small pilot study and our Trust has a no-smoking policy. After vaping for 5minutes, capillary blood flow was measured in the buccal mucosa at 5-minute intervals using a laser Doppler probe, and the results were expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. There was a wide variation in results and a small but significant rise (p=0.008) as a result of nicotine vaping, but these fell to the same levels as before within 30minutes. Electronic cigarettes may have an effect on blood flow to the oral mucosa, although further studies are needed to show whether they improve healing time after operation. Additional work is also needed to compare them with cigarettes. PMID:26809237

  13. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  14. Beckwith Wiedemann imprinting defect found in leucocyte but not buccal DNA in a child born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of methylation (LOM) at imprinting control region (ICR) 1 or LOM at ICR 2 on chromosome 11p15 in leucocyte DNA is commonly used to diagnose the imprinting disorders Silver Russell syndrome (SRS) characterized by growth restriction or Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) characterized by overgrowth, respectively. Case presentation A child was normally conceived and born by caesarian section to a healthy 19 year old smoking mother (G2P1) at 38 weeks gestation, with SGA (birthweight SDS ?2.44), placenta weight 250g (normal histology), with an umbilical hernia and transient neonatal hypoglycemia but no other features of BWS. The methylation status at 11p15 region was initially investigated by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Subsequently, methylation-specific (ms) PCR was performed to screen for this and other imprinted loci abnormalities at PLAG1 (6q24), IGF2R (6q27), GRB10 (7p12), PEG1/MEST (7q32), DLK1 (14q32), SNRPN (15q11); PEG3 (19q32), NESPAS/GNAS (20q13). Leucocyte DNA methylation was normal at ICR1 but markedly reduced at ICR2 using both MLPA and ms-PCR, and no other anomalies of imprinting were detected. Buccal DNA methylation was normal at all imprinted sites tested. Conclusion This is the first report of an isolated LOM at ICR2 in leucocyte but not buccal DNA in a normally conceived singleton SGA child without overt SRS or BWS. PMID:23116464

  15. Comparison of transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system

    PubMed Central

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Unver, Fatih; Tortop, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system (KIDS). Methods We evaluated the pre- and post distalization orthodontic models of 39 patients, including 19 treated using the Frog appliance, which is palatally positioned (Frog group), and 20 treated using KIDS, which is buccally positioned (KIDS group). Changes in intermolar and interpremolar distances and the amount of maxillary premolar and molar rotation were evaluated on model photocopies. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluations. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Significant distopalatal rotation of premolars and distobuccal rotation of molars were observed in Frog group (p < 0.05), while significant distopalatal rotation of molars (p < 0.05), with no significant changes in premolars, was observed in KIDS group. The amount of second premolar and first molar rotation was significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, expansion in the region of the first molars and second premolars was significantly greater in KIDS group than in Frog group (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions Our results suggest that the type and amount of first molar rotation and expansion vary with the design of the distalization appliance used.

  16. [mRNA expression of metastasis-suppressor gene nm23 in carcinoma of buccal mucosa I. Northern blotting study].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Li, C; Zhou, Z

    1997-05-01

    In this study the authors detected both nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA levels in 52 tissues samples of patients with carcinoma of buccal mucosa (CBM) by Northern blotting method. The expression levels of both nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA in CBM were higher than those in normal buccal mucosa, leukoplakia, adjacent nontumorous mucosa, and lymph nodes with or without metastasis. The nm23-H1 mRNA expression levels in CBM with lymph nodes metastases were lower than those in CBM without metastasis, and were lower in metastatic lympho nodes (P < 0.05). Of the 11 cases with metastases, 9 cases (81.8%) showed low expression of nm23-H1 mRNA, of 19 cases without metastasis, 15 cases (78.9%) were high expression. No significance of nm23-H2 mRNA expression levels were found between CBM with and CBM without metastasis (P > 0.05). The expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA showed no significant correlation with each clinical-pathological parameter examed. The result suggested that the expression of nm23-H1 mRNA significantly correlated inversely with lymph node metastasis in CBM, while the expression of nm23-H2 mRNA not. nm23 mRNA expression levels can provide a valuable predictor of lymph node metastases in CBM. PMID:11480034

  17. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication. PMID:25963705

  18. An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-12-01

    Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1?g/cm(2)/h and 410(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

  19. Motor cortex inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, K.M.; Augusta, M.; MacNeil, L.K.; Mostofsky, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset behavioral diagnosis in which children often fail to meet age norms in development of motor control, particularly timed repetitive and sequential movements, motor overflow, and balance. The neural substrate of this motor delay may include mechanisms of synaptic inhibition in or adjacent to the motor cortex. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–evoked measures, particularly short interval cortical inhibition (SICI), in motor cortex correlate with the presence and severity of ADHD in childhood as well as with commonly observed delays in motor control. Methods: In this case-control study, behavioral ratings, motor skills, and motor cortex physiology were evaluated in 49 children with ADHD (mean age 10.6 years, 30 boys) and 49 typically developing children (mean age 10.5 years, 30 boys), all right-handed, aged 8–12 years. Motor skills were evaluated with the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS) and the Motor Assessment Battery for Children version 2. SICI and other physiologic measures were obtained using TMS in the left motor cortex. Results: In children with ADHD, mean SICI was reduced by 40% (p < 0.0001) and less SICI correlated with higher ADHD severity (r = −0.52; p = 0.002). Mean PANESS motor development scores were 59% worse in children with ADHD (p < 0.0001). Worse PANESS scores correlated modestly with less SICI (r = −.30; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reduced TMS-evoked SICI correlates with ADHD diagnosis and symptom severity and also reflects motor skill development in children. PMID:21321335

  20. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering