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Sample records for bud dormancy entrance

  1. Bud Dormancy and Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all land plants produce ancillary meristems in the form of axillary or adventitious buds in addition to the shoot apical meristem. Outgrowth of these buds has a significant impact on plant architecture and the ability of plants to compete with neighboring plants, as well as to respond to and ...

  2. Current review on signals regulating dormancy in vegetative buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy has been described as a temporary suspension of visible growth of plant structure containing a meristem (Lang et al. 1987). Many vegetative propagules, particularly axillary and adventitious buds require dormancy for over-wintering survival and adequate development. Dormancy regulation is a...

  3. Interaction of chill and heat in peach flower bud dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach bud dormancy requirement is a critical factor in selecting adapted cultivars, but the dormancy process is not well-understood. The Utah model proposes bloom occurs after a cultivar-specific amount of chilling followed by 5000 heat units above 4 °C. This model works well in colder climates, but...

  4. Bud dormancy in perennial plants: a mechanism for survival. In:Dormancy of Cells and Organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants evolved the ability to reproduce asexually through vegetative buds as a survival mechanism. Identifying the genetic and physiological mechanisms regulating dormancy in these reproductive structures will allow manipulation of plant growth and development in both desirable and undesirable ...

  5. Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Gabino; Leida, Carmen; Conejero, Ana; Badenes, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases, a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM)-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species, such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot, and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants. PMID:24917873

  6. Differential expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during bud dormancy changes in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  7. Dormancy regulation in reproductive structures of weedy plants; a comparison between seeds and vegetative buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy in seeds and vegetative buds is one of the key characteristics which allow weedy plants to escape conventional chemical, cultural, mechanical, and bio-control measures currently available to weed managers. Identifying genetic and physiological targets that regulate dormancy induction and re...

  8. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8’OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. PMID:25560179

  9. Changes in the Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes during Three Phases of Bud Dormancy in Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. In this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by d...

  10. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium)

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies ‘Regina’ × ‘Garnet’ and ‘Regina’ × ‘Lapins’, and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  11. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKCC-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy. PMID:26466664

  12. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy. PMID:26466664

  13. Chilling-Dependent Release of Seed and Bud Dormancy in Peach Associates to Common Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive meristems and embryos display dormancy mechanisms in specialized structures named respectively buds and seeds that arrest the growth of perennial plants until environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Dormancy shows common physiological features in buds and seeds. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy by molecular mechanisms that are still poorly understood. In order to find common transcriptional pathways associated to dormancy release, we analyzed the chilling-dependent expression in embryos of certain genes that were previously found related to dormancy in flower buds of peach. We propose the presence of short and long-term dormancy events affecting respectively the germination rate and seedling development by independent mechanisms. Short periods of chilling seem to improve germination in an abscisic acid-dependent manner, whereas the positive effect of longer cold treatments on physiological dwarfing coincides with the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the seed. PMID:22590512

  14. Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy may involve shifts in carbohydrate metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds (located on the crown and roots) of leafy spurge are 1) maintained in a quiescent state through correlative inhibition (paradormancy) during the normal growing season, 2) inhibited from initiating post-senescence shoot growth in the fall by innate dormancy (endodormancy...

  15. Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy associated with shifts in carbohydrate metabolism may involve beta-amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) are 1) maintained in a quie...

  16. Extensive Transcriptome Changes During Natural Onset and Release of Vegetative Bud Dormancy in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Glenn T.; Horvath, David P.; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Priest, Henry D.; Mockler, Todd C.; Strauss, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    To survive winter, many perennial plants become endodormant, a state of suspended growth maintained even in favorable growing environments. To understand vegetative bud endodormancy, we collected paradormant, endodormant, and ecodormant axillary buds from Populus trees growing under natural conditions. Of 44,441 Populus gene models analyzed using NimbleGen microarrays, we found that 1,362 (3.1%) were differentially expressed among the three dormancy states, and 429 (1.0%) were differentially expressed during only one of the two dormancy transitions (FDR p-value < 0.05). Of all differentially expressed genes, 69% were down-regulated from paradormancy to endodormancy, which was expected given the lower metabolic activity associated with endodormancy. Dormancy transitions were accompanied by changes in genes associated with DNA methylation (via RNA-directed DNA methylation) and histone modifications (via Polycomb Repressive Complex 2), confirming and extending knowledge of chromatin modifications as major features of dormancy transitions. Among the chromatin-associated genes, two genes similar to SPT (SUPPRESSOR OF TY) were strongly up-regulated during endodormancy. Transcription factor genes and gene sets that were atypically up-regulated during endodormancy include a gene that seems to encode a trihelix transcription factor and genes associated with proteins involved in responses to ethylene, cold, and other abiotic stresses. These latter transcription factors include ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3), ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (EBP), ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF), ZINC FINGER PROTEIN 10 (ZAT10), ZAT12, and WRKY DNA-binding domain proteins. Analyses of phytohormone-associated genes suggest important changes in responses to ethylene, auxin, and brassinosteroids occur during endodormancy. We found weaker evidence for changes in genes associated with salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and little evidence for important changes in genes associated with gibberellins, abscisic acid, and cytokinin. We identified 315 upstream sequence motifs associated with eight patterns of gene expression, including novel motifs and motifs associated with the circadian clock and responses to photoperiod, cold, dehydration, and ABA. Analogies between flowering and endodormancy suggest important roles for genes similar to SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL), DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM), and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1).

  17. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation–reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds. PMID:24014872

  18. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Wang, Liangju; Zhong, Wenjun; Ni, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation-reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation-reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds. PMID:24014872

  19. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.) CROWN BUDS DURING SHIFTS IN WELL-DEFINED PHASES OF DORMANCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray analysis was used to follow changes in gene expression coinciding with seasonal changes in the dormancy status of crown buds of field-grown leafy spurge. Known cold-regulated genes were induced and numerous GA-responsive genes were down-regulated during the transition from paradormancy to...

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Underground Renewal Buds during Dormancy Transition and Release in ‘Hangbaishao’ Peony (Paeonia lactiflora)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaping; Wang, Guanqun; Li, Xin; Xia, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Paeonia lactiflora is one of the most famous species of herbaceous peonies with gorgeous flowers. Bud dormancy is a crucial developmental process that allows P. lactiflora to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanism of the bud dormancy in P. lactiflora. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing using the Illumina RNA sequencing platform for the underground renewal buds of P. lactiflora ‘Hangbaishao’ to study the molecular mechanism underlying its bud dormancy transition (the period from endodormancy to ecodormancy) and release (the period from ecodormancy to bud elongation and sprouting). Approximately 300 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled into 207,827 (mean length = 828 bp) and 51,481 (mean length = 1250 bp) unigenes using two assembly methods named “Trinity” and “Trinity+PRICE”, respectively. Based on the data obtained by the latter method, 32,316 unigenes were annotated by BLAST against various databases. Approximately 1,251 putative transcription factors were obtained, of which the largest number of unique transcripts belonged to the basic helix-loop-helix protein (bHLH) transcription factor family, and five of the top ten highly expressed transcripts were annotated as dehydrin (DHN). A total of 17,705 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs distributed in 13,797 sequences were obtained. The budbreak morphology, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were observed. The expression of 20 interested unigenes, which annotated as DHN, heat shock protein (HSP), histone, late elongated hypocotyl (LHY), and phytochrome (PHY), and so on, were also analyzed. These studies were based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels and provide comprehensive insight into the mechanism of dormancy transition and release in P. lactiflora. Transcriptome dataset can be highly valuable for future investigation on gene expression networks in P. lactiflora as well as research on dormancy in other non-model perennial horticultural crops of commercial significance. PMID:25790307

  1. The Gentio-Oligosaccharide Gentiobiose Functions in the Modulation of Bud Dormancy in the Herbaceous Perennial Gentiana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Konno, Naotake; Takeda, Takumi; Fujita, Kohei; Konishi, Teruko; Nishihara, Masahiro; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bud dormancy is an adaptive strategy that perennials use to survive unfavorable conditions. Gentians (Gentiana), popular alpine flowers and ornamentals, produce overwintering buds (OWBs) that can persist through the winter, but the mechanisms regulating dormancy are currently unclear. In this study, we conducted targeted metabolome analysis to obtain clues about the metabolic mechanisms involved in regulating OWB dormancy. Multivariate analysis of metabolite profiles revealed metabolite patterns characteristic of dormant states. The concentrations of gentiobiose [?-d-Glcp-(1?6)-d-Glc] and gentianose [?-d-Glcp-(1?6)-d-Glc-(1?2)-d-Fru] significantly varied depending on the stage of OWB dormancy, and the gentiobiose concentration increased prior to budbreak. Both activation of invertase and inactivation of ?-glucosidase resulted in gentiobiose accumulation in ecodormant OWBs, suggesting that gentiobiose is seldom used as an energy source but is involved in signaling pathways. Furthermore, treatment with exogenous gentiobiose induced budbreak in OWBs cultured in vitro, with increased concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids, GSH, and ascorbate (AsA), as well as increased expression levels of the corresponding genes. Inhibition of GSH synthesis suppressed gentiobiose-induced budbreak accompanied by decreases in GSH and AsA concentrations and redox status. These results indicate that gentiobiose, a rare disaccharide, acts as a signal for dormancy release of gentian OWBs through the AsA-GSH cycle. PMID:25326293

  2. ptr-MIR169 is a posttranscriptional repressor of PtrHAP2 during vegetative bud dormancy period of aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees

    SciTech Connect

    Potkar, Rewati; Recla, Jill; Busov, Victor

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? We show a novel microRNA-mediated mechanism for control of bud dormancy in trees. ? ptr-MIR169a and PtrHAP2–5 gene showed inverse expression during dormancy period. ? The PtrHAP2–5 decline in abundance correlated with high ptr-MIR169a levels. ? PtrHAP2–5 cleavage occurred at the miR169 site during PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline. ? Our results show that miR169 attenuates PtrHAP2–5 transcript during dormancy. -- Abstract: Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2–5 showed inverse expression patterns during the dormancy period. ptr-MIR169a transcript steadily increased through the first half of the dormancy period and gradually declined with the approach of active growing season. PtrHAP2–5 abundance was higher in the beginning of the dormancy period but rapidly declined thereafter. The decline of PtrHAP2–5 correlated with the high levels of ptr-MIR169a accumulation, suggesting miR169-mediated attenuation of the target PtrHAP2–5 transcript. We experimentally verified the cleavage of PtrHAP2–5 at the predicted miR169a site at the time when PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline was observed. HAP2 is a subunit of a nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) complex consisting of two other units, HAP3 and HAP5. Using digital expression profiling we show that poplar HAP2 and HAP5 are preferentially detected in dormant tissues. Our study shows that microRNAs play a significant and as of yet unknown and unstudied role in regulating the timing of bud dormancy in trees.

  3. DNA methylation/demethylation programming during peach flower bud dormancy release, development and blooming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach flower bud development undergoes a long, complex and temperature-dependent regulation process with cessation of growth in response to cool temperatures in late fall, a slow but gradual development during the chilling period in winter, and eventually blooming in early spring. It has been demon...

  4. Extended Low Temperature Impacts Dormancy Status, Flowering Competence, and Transcript Profiles in Crown Buds of Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study we report the effects of different growth conditions on vegetative reproduction and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms a...

  5. Short day transcriptomic programming during induction of dormancy in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Anne Y.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Khadka, Vedbar; Sreekantan, Lekha; Grimplet, Jerome; Cramer, Grant R.; Mathiason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Bud dormancy in grapevine is an adaptive strategy for the survival of drought, high and low temperatures and freeze dehydration stress that limit the range of cultivar adaptation. Therefore, development of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in bud dormancy is needed to promote advances in selection and breeding, and to develop improved cultural practices for existing grape cultivars. The seasonally indeterminate grapevine, which continuously develops compound axillary buds during the growing season, provides an excellent system for dissecting dormancy, because the grapevine does not transition through terminal bud development prior to dormancy. This study used gene expression patterns and targeted metabolite analysis of two grapevine genotypes that are short photoperiod responsive (Vitis riparia) and non-responsive (V. hybrid, Seyval) for dormancy development to determine differences between bud maturation and dormancy commitment. Grapevine gene expression and metabolites were monitored at seven time points under long (LD, 15 h) and short (SD, 13 h) day treatments. The use of age-matched buds and a small (2 h) photoperiod difference minimized developmental differences and allowed us to separate general photoperiod from dormancy specific gene responses. Gene expression profiles indicated three distinct phases (perception, induction and dormancy) in SD-induced dormancy development in V. riparia. Different genes from the NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 and WRKY families of transcription factors were differentially expressed in each phase of dormancy. Metabolite and transcriptome analyses indicated ABA, trehalose, raffinose and resveratrol compounds have a potential role in dormancy commitment. Finally, a comparison between V. riparia compound axillary bud dormancy and dormancy responses in other species emphasized the relationship between dormancy and the expression of RESVERATROL SYNTHASE and genes associated with C3HC4-TYPE RING FINGER and NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 transcription factors. PMID:26582400

  6. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy transitions in crown buds of leafy spurge were investigated using 23K element cDNA microarrays. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, ov...

  7. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  8. Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Basler, David; Körner, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here. PMID:24713858

  9. Genomics approach to investigate seasonal dormancy transitions in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. The leafy spurge EST-database contains 45,314 high-quality sequences which assembled into 2...

  10. The resemblance and disparity of gene expression in dormant and non-dormant seeds and crown buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overlaps in transcriptome profiles between different phases of bud and seed dormancy have not been determined. Thus, we compared various phases of dormancy between seeds and buds to identify common genes and molecular processes. Cluster analysis of expression profiles for 201 selected genes indicate...

  11. Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy

    PubMed Central

    Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars ‘Sampion’ and ‘Spartan’, collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation. PMID:26442012

  12. Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars 'Sampion' and 'Spartan', collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation. PMID:26442012

  13. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  14. Functional diversification of the dehydrin gene family in apple and its contribution to cold acclimation during dormancy.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Vítor da Silveira; Miotto, Yohanna Evelyn; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Anzanello, Rafael; Santos, Henrique Pessoa Dos; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Dehydrins (DHN) are proteins involved in plant adaptive responses to abiotic stresses, mainly dehydration. Several studies in perennial crops have linked bud dormancy progression, a process characterized by the inability to initiate growth from meristems under favorable conditions, with DHN gene expression. However, an in-depth characterization of DHNs during bud dormancy progression is still missing. An extensive in silico characterization of the apple DHN gene family was performed. Additionally, we used five different experiments that generated samples with different dormancy status, including genotypes with contrasting dormancy traits, to analyze how DHN genes are being regulated during bud dormancy progression in apple by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Duplication events took place in the diversification of apple DHN family. Additionally, MdDHN genes presented tissue- and bud dormant-specific expression patterns. Our results indicate that MdDHN genes are highly divergent in function, with overlapping levels, and that their expressions are fine-tuned by the environment during the dormancy process in apple. PMID:25809953

  15. Dormancy of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ossowski, Liliana; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Metastatic dormancy of melanoma has not received sufficient attention, most likely because once detectable, metastasis is almost invariably fatal and, understandably, the focus has been on finding ways to prolong life of patients with overt recurrences. Nevertheless, analysis of the published clinical and experimental data on melanoma indicates that some aspect of melanoma biology imitate traits recently associated with dormancy in other solid cancers. Among them the ability of some melanomas to disseminate early during primary tumor progression and once disseminated, to remain undetected (dormant) for years. Comparison of cutaneous and uveal melanoma indicates that, in spite of being of the same origin, they differ profoundly in their clinical progression. Importantly for this discussion, between 40 and 50% of uveal melanoma remain undetected for longer than a decade, while less than 5% of cutaneous melanoma show this behavior. Both types of melanoma have activating oncogene mutations that provide autonomous pro-proliferative signals, yet the consensus is that those are not sufficient for tumor progression. If that is the case, it is possible to envision that signals from outside the tumor cell, (microenvironment) shape the fate of an individual disseminated cell, regardless of an oncogene mutation, to progress or to pause in a state of dormancy. To stimulate further debate and inquiry we describe here a few examples of potential signals that might modify the fate of disseminated cell and provide brief description of the current knowledge on dormancy in other cancers. Our hope is to convince the reader that disseminated melanoma cells do enter periods of prolonged dormancy and that finding ways to induce it, or to prolong it, might mean an extension of symptoms-free life for melanoma patients. Ultimately, understanding the biology of dormancy and the mechanisms of dormant cell survival, might allow for their specific targeting and elimination. PMID:19843243

  16. Preformation in vegetative buds of Prunus persica: factors influencing number of leaf primordia in overwintering buds.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Damiano, C; DeJong, T M

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date, drought and light exposure on the number of leaf primordia formed in dormant vegetative peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected and the number of leaf primordia recorded. Between leaf drop and bud break, the number of leaf primordia doubled from about five to about 10. Parent shoot length, number of nodes on the parent shoot, cross-sectional area of the parent shoot, bud position along the parent shoot and bud cross-sectional area were correlated with the number of leaf primordia. Previous season light exposure, drought and tree carbohydrate status did not affect the number of leaf primordia present. The number of leaf primordia differed significantly among peach varieties and tree ages at leaf drop, but not at bud break. Our results indicate that neoformation accounted for all shoot growth beyond about 10 nodes. The predominance of neoformed shoot growth in peach allows this species great plasticity in its response to current-season conditions. PMID:16414932

  17. Dormant buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormant vegetative buds from diverse species can be preserved using cryopreservation. Sakai (1960) provided one of the first studies showing that winter twigs of poplar (Populus sieboldi) and willow (Salix koriyanagi) could survive low temperatures if slowly cooled prior to immersion in liquid nitr...

  18. SEED DORMANCY, GENETICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Seed dormancy is defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artifical conditions. Seed dor...

  19. SEED DORMANCY, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Seed dormancy has been defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artificial conditions. S...

  20. Characterization, Expression and Function of DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are related to AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE genes of arabidopsis and are differentially regulated coordinately with endodormancy induction and release in buds of several perennial plant species. DAM genes were first shown to directly impact endo...

  1. Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Dormancy Status in Seeds of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively through buds and sexually through seeds. Since knowledge about seed dormancy/germination of this species is limited, objectives of this study were to examine effects of constant (21 d at 20°C), alternating (21 d at 20:30°C,16:...

  2. Identifying genetic networks associated with dormancy transitions in the perennial weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed currently being used as a model to investigate weedy traits. Dormancy-imposed inhibition of vegetative reproduction from underground adventitious buds, located on the crown and lateral roots, is one of the key characteristics leading to the persistence of t...

  3. Early wound reactions of Japanese maple during winter dormancy: the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Decuyper, Mathieu; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Loomans, Antoon J M; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2014-01-01

    During winter dormancy, temperate trees are capable of only a restricted response to wounding. Depending on the ambient temperature during winter dormancy, wounded trees may start compartmentalization, e.g. by producing inhibitory compounds, but it is thought that processes involving cell proliferation, such as the formation of callus and wound xylem, are delayed until the next growing season. We investigated the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes on early reactions of Acer palmatum trees to wounding during winter bud dormancy. Stems of A. palmatum trees were wounded and stored under an ambient temperature of 4 or 15 °C for 3 weeks during winter bud dormancy. We then studied wound reactions in the living bark, cambial region and xylem. In the 4 °C treatment, wound reactions were virtually absent. In the 15 °C treatment, however, trees reacted to wounding by dieback of the cortex and phloem and by the formation of ligno-suberized layers. In the cambial zone, cambial dieback occurred and callus tissue and wound xylem were formed locally, close to the wound margins. In the xylem, compartmentalization took place by deposition of inhibitory compounds in fibre cells and vessel elements. We conclude that temperature is an important factor in wound reactions during winter dormancy, and may even induce proliferation of callus and wound xylem within a 3-week period. It therefore seems likely that trees that have been wounded during dormancy in areas with mild or warm winters might cope better with wounding, as unlike trees in cold environments, they may compartmentalize wounds even during winter dormancy. PMID:25275087

  4. BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT AND ENTRANCE FACING

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    1ST FLOOR ENTRANCE ELEVATOR WASHROOMS BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT AND 7TH FLOOR CONNECT WITH MCINTYRE MEDICAL BUILDING LIFE SCIENCES COMPLEX 3649 PROMENADE SIR WASHROOM #12;ENTRANCE ELEVATOR WASHROOMS BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT

  5. Effect of alternating day and night temperature on short day-induced bud set and subsequent bud burst in long days in Norway spruce

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jorunn E.; Lee, YeonKyeong; Junttila, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    Young seedlings of the conifer Norway spruce exhibit short day (SD)-induced cessation of apical growth and bud set. Although different, constant temperatures under SD are known to modulate timing of bud set and depth of dormancy with development of deeper dormancy under higher compared to lower temperature, systematic studies of effects of alternating day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) are limited. To shed light on this, seedlings of different provenances of Norway spruce were exposed to a wide range of DT-NT combinations during bud development, followed by transfer to forcing conditions of long days (LD) and 18°C, directly or after different periods of chilling. Although no specific effect of alternating DT/NT was found, the results demonstrate that the effects of DT under SD on bud set and subsequent bud break are significantly modified by NT in a complex way. The effects on bud break persisted after chilling. Since time to bud set correlated with the daily mean temperature under SD at DTs of 18 and 21°C, but not a DT of 15°C, time to bud set apparently also depend on the specific DT, implying that the effect of NT depends on the actual DT. Although higher temperature under SD generally results in later bud break after transfer to forcing conditions, the fastest bud flush was observed at intermediate NTs. This might be due to a bud break-hastening chilling effect of intermediate compared to higher temperatures, and delayed bud development to a stage where bud burst can occur, under lower temperatures. Also, time to bud burst in un-chilled seedlings decreased with increasing SD-duration, suggesting that bud development must reach a certain stage before the processes leading to bud burst are initiated. The present results also indicate that low temperature during bud development had a larger effect on the most southern compared to the most northern provenance studied. Decreasing time to bud burst was observed with increasing northern latitude of origin in un-chilled as well as chilled plants. In conclusion, being a highly temperature-dependent process, bud development is strongly delayed by low temperature, and the effects of DT is significantly modified by NT in a complex manner. PMID:25538722

  6. Localization, characterization and candidate gene discovery for genes controlling dormancy, chilling requirement, bloom time, and heat requirement in Prunus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial fruiting trees require sustained exposure to low, near freezing, temperatures before vigorous floral and vegetative bud break is possible after the resumption of warm temperatures in the spring. The depth of dormancy, duration of chilling required (the chilling requirement, CR) blooming da...

  7. E St Entrance & Exit Main Entrance

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Mike

    student space B-142-B B-142 -C B-144C Security Security Stairs to 1st Floor Restrooms #12;100 ArmandE St Entrance & Exit Main Entrance B-163 studio 15-A B-162 studio 15-B B-158 studio 15-C B-157 studio 15-D B-156 photography suite B-155 vestibule B-153 A B B-152 photography suiteB-154 photography

  8. The Normalcy of Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Rittershaus, Emily S. C.; Baek, Seung-hun; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    All microorganisms are exposed to periodic stresses that inhibit growth. Many bacteria and fungi weather these periods by entering a hardy, non-replicating state, often termed quiescence or dormancy. When this occurs during an infection, the resulting slowly-growing pathogen is able to tolerate both immune insults and prolonged antibiotic exposure. While the stresses encountered in a free-living environment may differ from those imposed by host immunity, these growth-limiting conditions impose common pressures and many of the corresponding microbial responses appear to be universal. In this review, we discuss the common features of these growth-limited states, which suggest new approaches for treating chronic infections such as tuberculosis. PMID:23768489

  9. Transcriptomic changes during tuber dormancy release process revealed by RNA sequencing in potato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Yikai; Jin, Xin; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-03-20

    Potato tuber dormancy release is a critical development process that allows potato to produce new plant. The first Illumina RNA sequencing to generate the expressed mRNAs at dormancy tuber (DT), dormancy release tuber (DRT) and sprouting tuber (ST) was performed. We identified 26,639 genes including 5,912 (3,450 up-regulated while 2,462 down-regulated) and 3,885 (2,141 up-regulated while 1,744 down-regulated) genes were differentially expressed from DT vs DRT and DRT vs ST. The RNA-Seq results were further verified using qRT-PCR. We found reserve mobilization events were activated before the bud emergence (DT vs DRT) and highlighted after dormancy release (DRT vs ST). Overexpressed genes related to metabolism of auxin, gibberellic acid, cytokinin and barssinosteriod were dominated in DT vs DRT, whereas overexpressed genes involved in metabolism of ethylene, jasmonate and salicylate were prominent in DRT vs ST. Various histone and cyclin isoforms associated genes involved in cell division/cycle were mainly up-regulated in DT vs DRT. Dormancy release process was also companied by stress response and redox regulation, those genes related to biotic stress, cell wall and second metabolism was preferentially overexpressed in DRT vs ST, which might accelerate dormancy breaking and sprout outgrowth. The metabolic processes activated during tuber dormancy release were also supported by plant seed models. These results represented the first comprehensive picture of a large number of genes involved in tuber dormancy release process. PMID:25661840

  10. A molecular framework for seasonal growth-dormancy regulation in perennial plants

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Donghwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Wang, Qijun; Keathley, Daniel E; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The timing of the onset and release of dormancy impacts the survival, productivity and spatial distribution of temperate horticultural and forestry perennials and is mediated by at least three main regulatory programs involving signal perception and processing by phytochromes (PHYs) and PHY-interacting transcription factors (PIFs). PIF4 functions as a key regulator of plant growth in response to both external and internal signals. In poplar, the expression of PIF4 and PIF3-LIKE1 is upregulated in response to short days, while PHYA and PHYB are not regulated at the transcriptional level. Integration of light and environmental signals is achieved by gating the expression and transcriptional activity of PIF4. During this annual cycle, auxin promotes the degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors through the SKP–Cullin-F–boxTIR1 complex, relieving the repression of auxin-responsive genes by allowing auxin response factors (ARFs) to activate the transcription of auxin-responsive genes involved in growth responses. Analyses of transcriptome changes during dormancy transitions have identified MADS-box transcription factors associated with endodormancy induction. Previous studies show that poplar dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes PtMADS7 and PtMADS21 are differentially regulated during the growth-dormancy cycle. Endodormancy may be regulated by internal factors, which are specifically localized in buds. PtMADS7/PtMADS21 may function as an internal regulator in poplar. The control of flowering time shares certain regulatory hierarchies with control of the dormancy/growth cycle. However, the particularities of different stages of the dormancy/growth cycle warrant comprehensive approaches to identify the causative genes for the entire cycle. A growing body of knowledge also indicates epigenetic regulation plays a role in these processes in perennial horticultural and forestry plants. The increased knowledge contributes to better understanding of the dormancy process and consequently to precise manipulation of dormancy-related horticultural traits, such as flowering time. PMID:26504555

  11. Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

    1995-07-01

    Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

  12. Bud development and shoot morphology in relation to crown location.

    PubMed

    Kukk, Maarja; Sõber, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Plant architecture is shaped by endogenous growth processes interacting with the local environment. The current study investigated crown development in young black alder trees, assessing the effects of local light conditions and branch height on individual bud mass and contents. In addition, we examined the characteristics of parent shoots [the cross-sectional area (CSA) of stem and total leaf area, shoot length, the number of nodes, the number and total mass of buds per shoot] and leaf-stem as well as bud-stem allometry, as several recent studies link bud development to hydraulic architecture. We sampled shoots from top branches and two lower-crown locations: one subjected to deep shade and the other resembling the upper branches in light availability. Sampling was carried out three times between mid-July and late October, spanning from the early stages of bud growth to dormancy. Individual bud mass and shoot characteristics varied in response to light conditions, whereas leaf-stem allometry depended on branch height, most likely compensating for the increasing length of hydraulic pathways. Despite the differences in individual bud mass, the number of preformed leaves varied little across the crown, indicating that the plasticity in shoot characteristics was mainly achieved by neoformation. The relationship between total bud mass and stem CSA scaled similarly across crown locations. However, scaling slopes gradually decreased throughout the sampling period, driven by bud rather than by stem growth. This suggests that the allometry of total bud mass and CSA of stem is regulated locally, instead of resulting from crown-level processes. PMID:26187607

  13. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information. PMID:25447903

  14. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  15. Overexpression of a peach CBF gene in apple: a model for understanding the integration of growth, dormancy, and cold hardiness in woody plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing of cold acclimation and de-acclimation, dormancy, and bud break play an integral role in the life cycle of woody plants. The molecular events that regulate these parameters have been the subject of much study, however, in most studies these events have been investigated independently of ...

  16. SUBTRACTIVE CDNA LIBRARIES IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY-EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subtracted cDNA libraries (growing and paradormant) were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy and initiation of shoot growth in leafy spurge. Initial analysis revealed that both libraries contained many redundant clones. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, ...

  17. Coordinated Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX-Like Genes in Leafy Spurge

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xinyuan; Chao, Wun; Yang, Yajun; Horvath, David

    2015-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious perennial weed that produces underground adventitious buds, which are crucial for generating new vegetative shoots following periods of freezing temperatures or exposure to various control measures. It is also capable of flowering and producing seeds, but requires vernalization in some cases. DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes have been proposed to play a direct role in the transition to winter-induced dormancy and maintenance through regulation of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which also is likely involved in the vernalization process. To explore the regulation of FT and DAM during dormancy transitions in leafy spurge, the transcript accumulation of two previously cloned DAM splice variants and two different previously cloned FT genes was characterized. Under long-photoperiods (16 h light), both DAM and FT transcripts accumulate in a diurnal manner. Tissue specific expression patterns indicated the tissues with high DAM expression had low FT expression and vice versa. DAM expression is detected in leaves, stems, shoot tips, and crown buds. FT transcripts were detected mainly in leaves and flowers. Under dormancy inducing conditions, DAM and FT genes had an inverse expression pattern. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed using DAM-like protein specific antibodies to demonstrate that DAM or related proteins likely bind to cryptic and/or conserved CArG boxes in the promoter regions of FT genes isolated from endodormant crown buds. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DAM proteins play a crucial role in leafy spurge dormancy transition and maintenance, potentially by negatively regulating the expression of FT. PMID:25961298

  18. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into floral bud development of summer-flowering Camellia azalea

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Jiyuan; Li, Xinlei; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Zhongchi; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in woody perennials involves pathways controlling flowering timing, bud dormancy and outgrowth in responses to seasonal cues. However little is known about the mechanism governing the adaptation of signaling pathways to environmental conditions in trees. Camellia azalea is a rare species in this genus flowering during summer, which provides a unique resource for floral timing breeding. Here we reported a comprehensive transcriptomics study to capture the global gene profiles during floral bud development in C. azalea. We examined the genome-wide gene expression between three developmental stages including floral bud initiation, floral organ differentiation and bud outgrowth, and identified nine co-expression clusters with distinctive patterns. Further, we identified the differential expressed genes (DEGs) during development and characterized the functional properties of DEGs by Gene Ontology analysis. We showed that transition from floral bud initiation to floral organ differentiation required changes of genes in flowering timing regulation, while transition to floral bud outgrowth was regulated by various pathways such as cold and light signaling, phytohormone pathways and plant metabolisms. Further analyses of dormancy associated MADS-box genes revealed that SVP- and AGL24- like genes displayed distinct expression patterns suggesting divergent roles during floral bud development. PMID:25978548

  19. Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  1. RNAi in Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Drinnenberg, Ines A.

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

  2. Budding dynamics of multicomponent membranes.

    PubMed

    Sunil Kumar, P B; Gompper, G; Lipowsky, R

    2001-04-23

    The budding of multicomponent membranes is studied by computer simulations and scaling arguments. The simulation algorithm combines dynamic triangulation with Kawasaki exchange dynamics. The budding process exhibits three distinct time regimes: (i) formation and growth of intramembrane domains; (ii) formation of many buds; and (iii) coalescence of small buds into larger ones. The coalescence regime (iii) is characterized by scaling laws which describe the long-time behavior. Thus, the number of buds, N(bud), decays as N(bud) approximately 1/t(theta) for large time t with theta = 1/2 and theta = 2/3 in the absence and the presence of hydrodynamic interactions, respectively. PMID:11329355

  3. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  4. Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Wen, Luhua; Huo, Ximei; Cai, Binhua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy. PMID:26504583

  5. Overexpression of a peach CBF gene in apple: a model for understanding the integration of growth, dormancy, and cold hardiness in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Artlip, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The timing of cold acclimation and deacclimation, dormancy, and budbreak play an integral role in the life cycle of woody plants. The molecular events that regulate these parameters have been the subject of much study, however, in most studies these events have been investigated independently of each other. Ectopic expression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) in apple increases the level of both non-acclimated and acclimated freezing tolerance relative to the non-transformed control, and also inhibits growth, induces early bud set and leaf senescence, and delays bud break in the spring. The current study examined differences in the seasonal expression of genes (CBF, DAM, RGL, and EBB) that have been reported to be associated with freezing tolerance, dormancy, growth, and bud break, respectively, in the PpCBF1 T166 transgenic apple line and the non-transformed M.26 control. Results indicated that expression of several of these key genes, including MdDAM, MdRGL, and MdEBB was altered in transgenic T166 trees relative to non-transformed M.26 trees. In particular, several putative MdDAM genes, associated with the dormancy-cycle in other species of woody plants in the Rosaceae, exhibited different patterns of expression in the T166 vs. M.26 trees. Additionally, for the first time a putative APETALA2/Ethylene-responsive transcription factor, originally described in poplar and shown to regulate the timing of bud break, was shown to be associated with the timing of bud break in apple. Since the overexpression of PpCBF1 in apple results in a dramatic alteration in cold acclimation, dormancy, and growth, this transgenic line (T166) may represent a useful model for studying the integration of these seasonal life-cycle parameters. PMID:25774159

  6. Overexpression of a peach CBF gene in apple: a model for understanding the integration of growth, dormancy, and cold hardiness in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Artlip, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The timing of cold acclimation and deacclimation, dormancy, and budbreak play an integral role in the life cycle of woody plants. The molecular events that regulate these parameters have been the subject of much study, however, in most studies these events have been investigated independently of each other. Ectopic expression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) in apple increases the level of both non-acclimated and acclimated freezing tolerance relative to the non-transformed control, and also inhibits growth, induces early bud set and leaf senescence, and delays bud break in the spring. The current study examined differences in the seasonal expression of genes (CBF, DAM, RGL, and EBB) that have been reported to be associated with freezing tolerance, dormancy, growth, and bud break, respectively, in the PpCBF1 T166 transgenic apple line and the non-transformed M.26 control. Results indicated that expression of several of these key genes, including MdDAM, MdRGL, and MdEBB was altered in transgenic T166 trees relative to non-transformed M.26 trees. In particular, several putative MdDAM genes, associated with the dormancy-cycle in other species of woody plants in the Rosaceae, exhibited different patterns of expression in the T166 vs. M.26 trees. Additionally, for the first time a putative APETALA2/Ethylene-responsive transcription factor, originally described in poplar and shown to regulate the timing of bud break, was shown to be associated with the timing of bud break in apple. Since the overexpression of PpCBF1 in apple results in a dramatic alteration in cold acclimation, dormancy, and growth, this transgenic line (T166) may represent a useful model for studying the integration of these seasonal life-cycle parameters. PMID:25774159

  7. Seed dormancy distribution: explanatory ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Meunier, Cécile; Schmitt, S. Eric; Van Dijk, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Knowledge of those traits that vary with latitude should be helpful in predicting how they may evolve locally under climate change. In the sea beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, seed dormancy largely controls the timing of germination, is highly heritable and varies geographically; it is therefore thought to be selected by climate. The aim here was to characterize the variation in seed dormancy among sea beet populations across the French distribution area, as well as the ecological factors in situ that are correlated with and that could therefore select for seed dormancy. The relative importance of genetic inheritance vs. non-genetic variation is also evaluated. Methods The proportions of dormant seeds from 85 natural populations encompassing different climates over the whole French distribution area were measured under controlled conditions. Germination phenology was observed in a common garden experiment. Dormancy variation of seeds collected in situ was compared with that of seeds collected on plants grown in the greenhouse. Key Results The proportions of dormant seeds in the greenhouse were highly variable, covering almost the entire range from 0 to 1, and followed a geographical pattern from lower dormancy at high latitudes to high dormancy at low latitudes. The distribution of dormancy was positively correlated with yearly temperatures, especially summer temperatures. Minimum temperatures in winter did not significantly explain the trait variation. The genetic component of the total variation was significant and is probably completed by an important adjustment to the local conditions brought about by maternal adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions Dormancy in sea beet could be interpreted as a way to limit summer germination and spread germination over the first autumn and spring or following autumns. This highly heritable trait has the potential to evolve in the relatively near future because of climate change. PMID:22952378

  8. Genetic analysis of embryo dormancy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galau, G.

    1998-09-01

    Primary dormancy is the inability of mature seed to immediately germinate until specific environmental stimuli are perceived that predict that future conditions will support plant growth and seed set. The analysis of abscisic acid deficient and insensitive mutants, in particular in Arabidopsis, suggests that embryo abscisic acid may be directly involved in the development of primary dormancy. Other studies implicate the continued accumulation of LEA proteins as inhibiting germination in dormant embryos. The results of these physiological, molecular and genetic approaches are complex and equivocal. There is a real need for approaches that test the separate nature of vivipary inhibition and primary dormancy and deliberately seed to decouple and dissect them. These approaches should be of help in understanding both late embryo development and primary dormancy. The approach taken here is to directly isolate mutants of Arabidopsis that appear to be deficient only in primary dormancy, that is fresh seed that germinate rapidly without the normally-required cold-stratification. The authors have isolated at least 8 independent, rapidly germinating RGM mutants of Arabidopsis. All others aspects of plant growth and development appear normal in these lines, suggesting that the rgm mutants are defective only in the establishment or maintenance of primary dormancy. At least one of these may be tagged with T-DNA. In addition, about 50 RGM isolates have been recovered from EMS-treated seed.

  9. Models, mechanisms and clinical evidence for cancer dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer can develop recurrent metastatic disease with latency periods that range from years even to decades. This pause can be explained by cancer dormancy, a stage in cancer progression in which residual disease is present but remains asymptomatic. Cancer dormancy is poorly understood, resulting in major shortcomings in our understanding of the full complexity of the disease. Here, I review experimental and clinical evidence that supports the existence of various mechanisms of cancer dormancy including angiogenic dormancy, cellular dormancy (G0–G1 arrest) and immunosurveillance. The advances in this field provide an emerging picture of how cancer dormancy can ensue and how it could be therapeutically targeted. PMID:17957189

  10. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  11. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rol?ík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  12. Identification and analysis of phosphorylation status of proteins in dormant terminal buds of poplar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there has been considerable progress made towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of bud dormancy, the roles of protein phosphorylation in the process of dormancy regulation in woody plants remain unclear. Results We used mass spectrometry combined with TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment strategies to investigate the phosphoproteome of dormant terminal buds (DTBs) in poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra). There were 161 unique phosphorylated sites in 161 phosphopeptides from 151 proteins; 141 proteins have orthologs in Arabidopsis, and 10 proteins are unique to poplar. Only 34 sites in proteins in poplar did not match well with the equivalent phosphorylation sites of their orthologs in Arabidopsis, indicating that regulatory mechanisms are well conserved between poplar and Arabidopsis. Further functional classifications showed that most of these phosphoproteins were involved in binding and catalytic activity. Extraction of the phosphorylation motif using Motif-X indicated that proline-directed kinases are a major kinase group involved in protein phosphorylation in dormant poplar tissues. Conclusions This study provides evidence about the significance of protein phosphorylation during dormancy, and will be useful for similar studies on other woody plants. PMID:22074553

  13. Hormonal and molecular events during seed dormancy release and germination

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Hormonal and molecular events during seed dormancy release and germination Gerhard Leubner on Seeds, Salamanca, Spain, 12-16 May 2002 Symposium Seed Dormancy and Germination #12;Leubner-Metzger (2003) - page 2 Introduction Seed germination of species with 'coat-imposed' dormancy is determined

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Lalit S. Shah; William K. Davis

    2000-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal or coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Test Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of Coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  16. On dormancy strategies in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    In this review we analyze the dormancy strategies of metazoans inhabiting "hostile to life" habitats, which have a strong impact on their ecology and in particular on the traits of their life history. Tardigrades are here considered a model animal, being aquatic organisms colonizing terrestrial habitats. Tardigrades evolved a large variety of dormant stages that can be ascribed to diapause (encystment, cyclomorphosis, resting eggs) and cryptobiosis (anhydrobiosis, cryobiosis, anoxibiosis). In tardigrades, diapause and cryptobiosis can occur separately or simultaneously, consequently the adoption of one adaptive strategy is not necessarily an alternative to the adoption of the other. Encystment and cyclomorphosis are characterized by seasonal cyclic changes in morphology and physiology of the animals. They share several common features and their evolution is strictly linked to the molting process. A bet-hedging strategy with different patterns of egg hatching time has been observed in a tardigrade species. Four categories of eggs have been identified: subitaneous, delayed-hatching, abortive and diapause resting eggs, which needs a stimulus to hatch (rehydration after a period of desiccation). Cryptobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand desiccation (anhydrobiosis) and freezing (cryobiosis) at any stage of their life-cycle. This ability involves a complex array of factors working at molecular (bioprotectans), physiological and structural levels. Animal survival and the accumulation of molecular damage are related to the time spent in the cryptobiotic state, to the abiotic parameters during the cryptobiotic state, and to the conditions during initial and final phases of the process. Cryptobiosis evolved independently at least two times in tardigrades, in eutardigrades and in echiniscoids. Within each evolutionary line, the absence of cryptobiotic abilities is more related to selective pressures to local habitat adaptation than to phylogenetic relationships. The selective advantages of cryptobiosis (e.g. persistency in "hostile to life" habitats, reduction of competitors, parasites and predators, escaping in time from stressful conditions) could explain the high tardigrade species diversity and number of specimens found in habitats that dry out compared to freshwater habitats. PMID:21402076

  17. Cold acclimation and floral development in almond bud break: insights into the regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro M; Gonçalves, Nuno; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2012-07-01

    In temperate fruit trees, seasonal dormancy and cold acclimation have a major impact on blooming time and, consequently, fruit production. To gain insight into the still unclear molecular processes underlying blooming, expression of genes putatively involved in the cold response was studied in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), which is the earliest fruit tree in the family Rosaceae to bloom. The transcript levels of two C-repeat binding factor (PdCBF) genes and one of their putative targets, PdDehydrin1 (PdDHN1), were analysed in flower buds and shoot internodes during seasonal dormancy up to bud break. In parallel, expression of candidate genes related to flower development was also followed. In a 2-year study, PdCBF2 showed a progressive increase in transcript abundance during the autumn in close correlation with cold acclimation, while high transcript levels of PdCBF1 and PdDHN1 were already found by summer. After bud break, with temperatures still within the chilling range, both PdCBF genes and PdDHN1 were found to sharply reduce transcription in flower buds and internodes, suggesting damping of CBF-mediated cold signalling during growth resumption, in correlation with cold hardiness decline. Flower bud break was also followed by a decrease in the expression of PdGA20OX, a candidate gene involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, and an increase in the expression of two homeotic genes related to floral organ development, PdMADS1 and -3. These genes may also be relevant players in the regulation of anthesis in this model Rosaceae species. PMID:22685307

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the manufacture of ethylene and propylene chemicals from F-T naphtha, for the generation of hydrogen from F-T naphtha to power fuel cells, for direct blending of F-T diesels into transportation fuels, for the conversion of F-T heavy product wax to transportation fuels, and the conversion of F-T Heavy product wax to a valuable high melting point food-grade specialty wax product. Product evaluations conducted under Task 2.5 of Phase II successfully mitigated the above technical and economic risks to the EECP with the development of product yields and product qualities for the production of chemicals, transportation fuels, and specialty food-grade waxes from the F-T synthesis products.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several important issues were addressed in this phase of the project. They included Rejuvenation/Regeneration of the Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst, online Catalyst Withdrawal and Addition from the synthesis reactor, and the Fischer-Tropsch Design Basis Confirmation. In Phase III the results from these RD&T work will be incorporated in developing the engineering design package. This Topical Report documents the Phase II RD&T work that was completed for this task.

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The decision to proceed with Phase III centers on locating a new site and favorable commercial and economic factors.

  1. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  2. The Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure. PMID:20554704

  3. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa and fixed across a species' range. Such interspecific and regional differences in life history traits need to be incorporated in models simulating Eastern Boundary Current pelagic ecosystem dynamics.

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making assumptions for the basis of design for various technologies that are part of the EECP concept. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was approved by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified technical and economic risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of the technical and economic success of the EECP. The Project Management Plan (Task 1) for Phase II was approved by the DOE in 2001. The results of RD&T efforts for Phase II are expected to improve the quality of assumptions made in Phase I for basis of design for the EECP concept. The RD&T work plan (Task 2 and 3) for Phase II has been completed. As the RD&T work conducted during Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Basic Engineering Design. Also due to the merger of Chevron and Texaco, the proposed refinery site for the EECP was not available. It became apparent that some additional technical development work would be needed to correctly apply the technology at a specific site. The objective of Task 4 of Phase II is to update the concept basis of design produced during Phase I. As part of this task, items that will require design basis changes and are not site dependent have been identified. The team has qualitatively identified the efforts to incorporate the impacts of changes on EECP concept. The design basis has been modified to incorporate those changes. The design basis changes for those components of EECP that are site and feedstock dependent will be done as part of Phase III, once the site has been selected.

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla H. Ali; Raj Kamarthi; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards to the water, can be high. The economic costs include the costs of treating the water to meet the locally applicable environmental standards. This option may require expensive chemicals and treatment facilities. EECP Phase II included tests conducted to confirm the viability of integrating F-T water in the slurry feed for the gasifier. Testing conducted at ChevronTexaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) included preparing slurries made using petroleum coke with F-T water collected at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The work included bench scale tests to determine the slurry ability of the petroleum coke and F-T water. The results of the tests show that F-T water does not adversely affect slurries for the gasifier. There are a few cases where in fact the addition of F-T water caused favorable changes in viscosity of the slurries. This RD&T task was executed in Phase II and results are reported herein.

  6. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; O.O. Omatete; T.D. Burchell

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified several potential methods to reduce or minimize the environmental impact of the proposed EECP. The EECP Project Team identified F-T catalyst disposal, beneficial gasifier slag usage (other than landfill), and carbon dioxide recovery for the gas turbine exhaust for study under this task. Successfully completing the Task 2.10 RD&T provides additional opportunities for the EECP to meet the goals of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The gasification section offers several opportunities to maximize the environmental benefits of an EECP. The spent F-T catalyst can be sent to landfills or to the gasification section. Testing in Phase II shows that the spent F-T catalyst with a small wax coating can safely meet federal landfill requirements. As an alternative to landfilling, it has been proposed to mix the spent F-T catalyst with the petroleum coke and feed this mixture to the gasification unit. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience with gasification and the characteristics of the spent F-T catalyst this appears to be an excellent opportunity to reduce one potential waste stream. The slag from the gasification unit can be commercially marketed for construction or fuel (such as cement kiln fuel) uses. The technical and economic benefits of these options must be reviewed for the final EECP before incorporating a specific alternative into the design basis. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, is an important goal of the EECP. The Texaco gasification process provides opportunities to capture high purity streams of carbon dioxide. For Phase II, a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) was tested to determine its potential to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust of a gas turbine. Testing on with a simulated gas turbine exhaust shows that the CFCMS is able to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust. However, more development is required to optimize the system.

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Donald Todd; Robert Schavey

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to its detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES) (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR). The work was under cooperative agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing the gasification technology and the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech Inc., GE is providing the combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing the air separation technology, and KBR is providing overall engineering. Each of the EECP's subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers in Phase I. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP concept, Phase II RD&T included tests for secondary catalyst/wax separation systems as part of Task 2.3--Catalyst/Wax Separation. The LCI Scepter{reg_sign} Microfiltration system was determined to be best suited for producing a filtrate that met the EECP secondary catalyst/wax separation standards of producing F-T wax containing less than10 ppmw solids. As part of task 2.3, micro-filtration removal efficiencies and production rates for two FT feeds, Rentech Inc. bubble column reactor (BCR) product and LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) product, were evaluated. Based on comparisons between the performances of these two materials, the more readily available LaPorte AFDU material was judged an acceptable analog to the BCR material that would be produced in a larger-scale F-T synthesis. The present test was initiated to obtain data in an extended range of concentration for use in the scale-up design of the secondary catalyst/wax separation system that would be operating at the EECP capacity.

  8. Dormancy in solid Tumors: Implications for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ruppender, Nazanin S.; Morrissey, Colm; Lange, Paul H.; Vessella, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer dormancy, residual tumor cells persist in a patient with no apparent clinical symptoms, only to potentially become clinically relevant at a later date. In prostate cancer (PCa), the primary tumor is often removed and many patients experience a prolonged period (>5 years) with no evidence of disease before recurrence. These characteristics make PCa an excellent candidate for the study of tumor cell dormancy. However, the mechanisms that constitute PCa dormancy have not been clearly defined. Additionally, the definition of tumor cell dormancy varies in the literature. Therefore, we have separated tumor cell dormancy in this review into three categories: (A) Micrometastatic dormancy - A group of tumor cells that cannot increase in number due to a restrictive proliferation/apoptosis equilibrium. (B) Angiogenic dormancy- A Group of tumor cells that cannot expand beyond the formation of a micrometastasis due to a lack of angiogenic potential. (C) Conditional dormancy- An individual cell or a very small number of cells that cannot proliferate without the appropriate cues from the microenvironment, but do not require angiogenesis to do so. This review aims to identify currently known markers, mechanisms and models of tumor dormancy, in particular as they relate to PCa, and highlight current opportunities for advancement in our understanding of clinical cancer dormancy. PMID:23612741

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids levels and alleviates corrosion and fuel stability concerns. Future coproduction plants can maximize valuable transportation diesel by hydrocracking the F-T Synthesis wax product to diesel and naphtha. The upgraded neat F-T diesel, hydrotreater F-T diesel, and hydrocracker F-T diesel products would be final blending components in transportation diesel fuel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully carried out fuel lubricity property testing, fuel response to lubricity additives, and hot-start transient emission tests on a neat F-T diesel product, a hydrocracker F-T diesel product, a blend of hydrotreater and hydrocracker F-T diesel products, and a Tier II California Air Resources Board (CARB)-like diesel reference fuel. Only the neat F-T diesel passed lubricity inspection without additive while the remaining three fuel candidates passed with conventional additive treatment. Hot-start transient emission tests were conducted on the four fuels in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Test Procedure (FTP) specified in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, and Subpart N on a rebuilt 1991 Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 heavy-duty diesel engine. Neat F-T diesel fuel reduced oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), total particulate (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) by 4.5%, 31%, 50%, 29%, and 35%, respectively, compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The hydrocracker F-T diesel product and a blend of hydrocracker and hydrotreater F-T diesel products also reduced NO{sub x}, PM, HC, CO and SOF by 13%, 16% to 17%, 38% to 63%, 17% to 21% and 21% to 39% compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The fuel/engine performance and emissions of the three F-T diesel fuels exceed the performance of a Tier II CARB-like diesel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully met the lubricity property testing and F-T diesel fuel hot-start transient emissions test objectives. The results of the testing help mitigate potential economic risks on obtaining a premium price for the F-T diesel fuel

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla H. Ali; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker operating parameters. The specific petroleum coke characteristics at a refinery affect the design of the Gasification and Acid Gas Removal (AGR) subsystems. Knowing the petroleum coke composition provides the necessary data to proceed to the EECP Phase III engineering design of the gasification process. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience, the EECP team ranked the technical, economic, and overall risks of the petroleum coke composition related to the gasification subsystem as low. In Phase I of the EECP Project, the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery had been identified as the potential EECP site. As a result of the merger between Texaco and Chevron in October 2001, Texaco was required to sell its interest in the Motiva Enterprises LLC joint venture to Shell Oil Company and Saudi Refining Inc. To assess the possible impact of moving the proposed EECP host site to a ChevronTexaco refinery, samples of petroleum coke from two ChevronTexaco refineries were sent to MTC for bench-scale testing. The results of the analysis of these samples were compared to the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis developed for Motiva's Port Arthur Refinery. The analysis confirms that if the proposed EECP is moved to a new refinery site, the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis would have to be updated. The lower sulfur content of the two samples from the ChevronTexaco refineries indicates that if one of these sites were selected, the Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) might be sized smaller than the current EECP design. This would reduce the capital expense of the SRU. Additionally, both ChevronTexaco samples have a higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio than the Motiva Port Arthur petroleum coke. The higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio could give a slightly higher F-T products yield from the F-T Synthesis Reactor. However, the EECP Gasification Design Basis can not be updated until the site for the proposed EECP site is finalized. Until the site is finalized, the feedstock (petroleum coke) characteristics are a low risk to the EECP project.

  11. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpI?TIP1A and PpI?TIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement. PMID:26063707

  12. Long and short photoperiod buds in hybrid aspen share structural development and expression patterns of marker genes.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Päivi L H; Paul, Laju K; Vahala, Jorma; Ruonala, Raili; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

    2015-11-01

    Tree architecture develops over time through the collective activity of apical and axillary meristems. Although the capacity of both meristems to form buds is crucial for perennial life, a comparative analysis is lacking. As shown here for hybrid aspen, axillary meristems engage in an elaborate process of axillary bud (AXB) formation, while apical dominance prevents outgrowth of branches. Development ceased when AXBs had formed an embryonic shoot (ES) with a predictable number of embryonic leaves at the bud maturation point (BMP). Under short days, terminal buds (TBs) formed an ES similar to that of AXBs, and both the TB and young AXBs above the BMP established dormancy. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridizations showed that this shared ability and structural similarity was reflected at the molecular level. TBs and AXBs similarly regulated expression of meristem-specific and bud/branching-related genes, including CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 (CENL1), BRANCHED1 (BRC1), BRC2, and the strigolactone biosynthesis gene MORE AXILLARY BRANCHES1 (MAX1). Below the BMP, AXBs maintained high CENL1 expression at the rib meristem, suggesting that it serves to maintain poise for growth. In support of this, decapitation initiated outgrowth of CENL1-expressing AXBs, but not of dormant AXBs that had switched CENL1 off. This singles out CENL1 as a rib meristem marker for para-dormancy. BRC1 and MAX1 genes, which may counterbalance CENL1, were down-regulated in decapitation-activated AXBs. The results showed that removal of apical dominance shifted AXB gene expression toward that of apices, while developing TBs adopted the expression pattern of para-dormant AXBs. Bud development thus follows a shared developmental pattern at terminal and axillary positions, despite being triggered by short days and apical dominance, respectively. PMID:26248666

  13. Long and short photoperiod buds in hybrid aspen share structural development and expression patterns of marker genes

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Päivi L.H.; Paul, Laju K.; Vahala, Jorma; Ruonala, Raili; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Tree architecture develops over time through the collective activity of apical and axillary meristems. Although the capacity of both meristems to form buds is crucial for perennial life, a comparative analysis is lacking. As shown here for hybrid aspen, axillary meristems engage in an elaborate process of axillary bud (AXB) formation, while apical dominance prevents outgrowth of branches. Development ceased when AXBs had formed an embryonic shoot (ES) with a predictable number of embryonic leaves at the bud maturation point (BMP). Under short days, terminal buds (TBs) formed an ES similar to that of AXBs, and both the TB and young AXBs above the BMP established dormancy. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridizations showed that this shared ability and structural similarity was reflected at the molecular level. TBs and AXBs similarly regulated expression of meristem-specific and bud/branching-related genes, including CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 (CENL1), BRANCHED1 (BRC1), BRC2, and the strigolactone biosynthesis gene MORE AXILLARY BRANCHES1 (MAX1). Below the BMP, AXBs maintained high CENL1 expression at the rib meristem, suggesting that it serves to maintain poise for growth. In support of this, decapitation initiated outgrowth of CENL1-expressing AXBs, but not of dormant AXBs that had switched CENL1 off. This singles out CENL1 as a rib meristem marker for para-dormancy. BRC1 and MAX1 genes, which may counterbalance CENL1, were down-regulated in decapitation-activated AXBs. The results showed that removal of apical dominance shifted AXB gene expression toward that of apices, while developing TBs adopted the expression pattern of para-dormant AXBs. Bud development thus follows a shared developmental pattern at terminal and axillary positions, despite being triggered by short days and apical dominance, respectively. PMID:26248666

  14. [Effects of low temperature on dormancy breaking and growth after planting in bulbs of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Miao, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Hong-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of low temperature storage on dormancy breaking, sprouting and growth after planting of Tulipa edulis was studied. The results showed that starch content and activity of amylases significantly decreased during 10 weeks of cold storage, soluble protein content raised at first then decreased, and the peak appeared at the 6th week. However, total soluble sugar content which in- creased slowly at first than rose sharply and reducing sugar content increased during the storage duration. The bulbs with cold storage treatment rooted in the 6th week, which was about 2 weeks earlier than room temperature storage, but there were less new roots in the late period of storage. After stored at a low temperature, bud lengths were longer than that with room temperature treatment. Cold storage treatment could promote earlier emergence, shorten germination time, prolong growth period and improve the yield of bulb, but rarely affect the emergence rate. It was not beneficial to flowering and fruiting. The results indicated that 6-8 weeks of cold storage was deemed to be the key period of dormancy breaking preliminary. PMID:25993786

  15. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES GENES INVOLVED IN CROWN BUD DORMANCY IN LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a perennial rangeland weed that has become a model for weed genomics and cross-species research. Microarray analysis allows the simultaneous characterization of the expression from thousands of different genes from any given sampled tissue. We have used microarray analysis to follow ...

  16. LEAFY SPURGE: DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF A MODEL PLANT FOR GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF BUD DORMANCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the greatest advances in plant science has been the designation and study of model plants. Although model systems have benefited the weed science community by providing a greater understanding of plant physiology and genetics, the scientific gains have often precluded the analysis of traits t...

  17. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    PubMed Central

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 °C in the air, +1.35 °C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October–April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost. Warming delayed dormancy release more in the cultivar ‘Narve Viking’ than in the cultivar ‘Titania’, but advanced budburst and flowering predominantly in ‘Titania’. Since ‘Narve Viking’ has a higher chilling requirement than ‘Titania’, this indicates that, in high-chilling-requiring genotypes, dormancy responses may temper the effect of warming on spring phenology. Winter warming significantly reduced fruit yield the following summer in both cultivars, corroborating the hypothesis that a decline in winter chill may decrease reproductive effort in blackcurrant. Elevated winter temperatures tended to decrease stem freezing tolerance during cold acclimation and deacclimation, but it did not increase the risk of freeze-induced damage mid-winter. Plants at elevated temperature showed decreased levels of sucrose in stems of both cultivars and flower buds of ‘Narve Viking’, which, in buds, was associated with increased concentrations of glucose and fructose. Hence, winter warming influences carbohydrate metabolism, but it remains to be elucidated whether decreased sucrose levels account for any changes in freezing tolerance. Our results demonstrate that even a slight increase in winter temperature may alter phenological traits in blackcurrant, but to various extents depending on genotype-specific differences in chilling requirement. PMID:25802249

  18. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species. PMID:26096967

  19. Apical dominance in saffron and the involvement of the branching enzymes CCD7 and CCD8 in the control of bud sprouting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In saffron (Crocus sativus), new corms develop at the base of every shoot developed from the maternal corm, a globular underground storage stem. Since the degree of bud sprouts influences the number and size of new corms, and strigolactones (SLs) suppress growth of pre-formed axillary bud, it was considered appropriate to investigate SL involvement in physiology and molecular biology in saffron. We focused on two of the genes within the SL pathway, CCD7 and CCD8, encoding carotenoid cleavage enzymes required for the production of SLs. Results The CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 genes are the first ones isolated and characterized from a non-grass monocotyledonous plant. CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 expression showed some overlapping, although they were not identical. CsCCD8 was highly expressed in quiescent axillary buds and decapitation dramatically reduced its expression levels, suggesting its involvement in the suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed also the involvement of auxin, cytokinin and jasmonic acid on the sprouting of axillary buds from corms in which the apical bud was removed. In addition, CsCCD8 expression, but not CsCCD7, was higher in the newly developed vascular tissue of axillary buds compared to the vascular tissue of the apical bud. Conclusions We showed that production and transport of auxin in saffron corms could act synergistically with SLs to arrest the outgrowth of the axillary buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching. In addition, jasmonic acid seems to play a prominent role in bud dormancy in saffron. While cytokinins from roots promote bud outgrowth. In addition the expression results of CsCCD8 suggest that SLs could positively regulate procambial activity and the development of new vascular tissues connecting leaves with the mother corm. PMID:24947472

  20. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead entrances. 18.37 Section 18.37 Mineral... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of an explosion-proof enclosure, shall pass through a stuffing-box lead entrance. All sharp edges that...

  1. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead entrances. 18.37 Section 18.37 Mineral... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of an explosion-proof enclosure, shall pass through a stuffing-box lead entrance. All sharp edges that...

  2. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead entrances. 18.37 Section 18.37 Mineral... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of an explosion-proof enclosure, shall pass through a stuffing-box lead entrance. All sharp edges that...

  3. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead entrances. 18.37 Section 18.37 Mineral... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of an explosion-proof enclosure, shall pass through a stuffing-box lead entrance. All sharp edges that...

  4. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead entrances. 18.37 Section 18.37 Mineral... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of an explosion-proof enclosure, shall pass through a stuffing-box lead entrance. All sharp edges that...

  5. Role of metabolism in ABA homeostasis during potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous hormones play a essential role in the regulation of potato tuber dormancy. Abscisic acid has been shown to be critically involved in tuber dormancy induction and maintenance. Genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the terminal steps of ABA synthesis and metabolism have been cloned from tuber...

  6. Tansley review Seed dormancy and the control of germination

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Tansley review Seed dormancy and the control of germination William E. Finch-Savage1 and Gerhard-761-203-2612 Email: gerhard.leubner@biologie.uni-freiburg.de Web: "The Seed Biology Place", http This section on applied aspects of the control of seed germination by dormancy is an additional part

  7. INVITED REVIEW Plant hormone interactions during seed dormancy release

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    INVITED REVIEW Plant hormone interactions during seed dormancy release and germination Birgit- nation. Signal transduction pathways, mediated by environmental and hormonal signals, regulate gene systems, tomato and tobacco, which are altered in hormone biology. ABA is a positive regulator of dormancy

  8. Chemical Manipulation of Meristem Dormancy Alters Transcript Profiles in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dormancy status of potato tuber meristems can be manipulated by a variety of chemical treatments. The application of bromoethane (BE) results in dormancy cessation, while chlorpropham (CIPC), and 1,4-dimethyl naphthalene (DMN) are used commercially to prolong the dormant state. Transcript analys...

  9. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    PubMed

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  10. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha

    2015-03-01

    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the subfamily Faboideae. Lignin and callose were found around all palisade layers and the water impermeability and ecological role of these substances are discussed in the work. PMID:26299132

  11. LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) SEED DORMANCY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces asexually through adventitious vegetative buds and sexually by seed. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 yr. The objectives of this research were to identify seed components which restrict germination and to determine if afterri...

  12. Dormancy and germination: How does the crop seed decide?

    PubMed

    Shu, K; Meng, Y J; Shuai, H W; Liu, W G; Du, J B; Liu, J; Yang, W Y

    2015-11-01

    Whether seeds germinate or maintain dormancy is decided upon through very intricate physiological processes. Correct timing of these processes is most important for the plants life cycle. If moist conditions are encountered, a low dormancy level causes pre-harvest sprouting in various crop species, such as wheat, corn and rice, this decreases crop yield and negatively impacts downstream industrial processing. In contrast, a deep level of seed dormancy prevents normal germination even under favourable conditions, resulting in a low emergence rate during agricultural production. Therefore, an optimal seed dormancy level is valuable for modern mechanised agricultural systems. Over the past several years, numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse endogenous and environmental factors regulate the balance between dormancy and germination, such as light, temperature, water status and bacteria in soil, and phytohormones such as ABA (abscisic acid) and GA (gibberellic acid). In this updated review, we highlight recent advances regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy and germination processes, including the external environmental and internal hormonal cues, and primarily focusing on the staple crop species. Furthermore, future challenges and research directions for developing a full understanding of crop seed dormancy and germination are also discussed. PMID:26095078

  13. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Steinweg, Jessica M; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here, we enhanced the Microbial-Enzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, i.e., MEND with dormancy and MEND without dormancy, against long-term (270 d) lab incubations of four soils with isotopically-labeled substrates. MEND without dormancy adequately fitted multiple observations (total and 14C respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. The MEND with dormancy improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20 71% over the MEND without dormancy. We observed large differences for two fitted model parameters, the specific maintenance and growth rates for active microbes, depending on whether dormancy was considered. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with observations in multiple carbon pools are necessary to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  14. Functional genomics of seed dormancy in wheat: advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Ayele, Belay T.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy is a mechanism underlying the inability of viable seeds to germinate under optimal environmental conditions. To achieve rapid and uniform germination, wheat and other cereal crops have been selected against dormancy. As a result, most of the modern commercial cultivars have low level of seed dormancy and are susceptible to preharvest sprouting when wet and moist conditions occur prior to harvest. As it causes substantial loss in grain yield and quality, preharvest sprouting is an ever-present major constraint to the production of wheat. The significance of the problem emphasizes the need to incorporate an intermediate level of dormancy into elite wheat cultivars, and this requires detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of seed dormancy and preharvest sprouting. Seed dormancy research in wheat often involves after-ripening, a period of dry storage during which seeds lose dormancy, or comparative analysis of seeds derived from dormant and non-dormant cultivars. The increasing development in wheat genomic resources along with the application of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics approaches in studying wheat seed dormancy have extended our knowledge of the mechanisms acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Recent progresses indicate that some of the molecular mechanisms are associated with hormonal pathways, epigenetic regulations, targeted oxidative modifications of seed mRNAs and proteins, redox regulation of seed protein thiols, and modulation of translational activities. Given that preharvest sprouting is closely associated with seed dormancy, these findings will significantly contribute to the designing of efficient strategies for breeding preharvest sprouting tolerant wheat. PMID:25309557

  15. GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY IN SEED DORMANCY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) GENOTYPES AND THE EFFECTS OF PRIMING IN BREAKING DORMANCY AND IMPROVING SEEDLING VIGOUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a draw back that causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower for which great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes show a large variability in dormancy. A few nearly n...

  16. The epigenetic/noncoding origin of tumor dormancy.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Nur Saidy, Nur Ridzwan; Collins, Colin C; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2015-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of treatment resistance and metastasis, which are the most deadly features of a neoplasm. However, an unequivocal definition of the CSC phenotype is still missing. A common feature of normal and aberrant stem cells is their ability to enter a prolonged dormant state. Cancer dormancy is a key mechanism for treatment resistance and metastasis. Here we propose a unified definition of dormancy-competent CSCs (DCCs) as the neoplastic subpopulation that can plastically alternate periods of dormancy and rapid growth. Irreversible DNA mutations can hardly account for this versatile behavior, and based on emerging evidence we propose that cancer dormancy is a nongenetic disease driven by the flexible nature of the epigenetic/noncoding interactome. PMID:25771096

  17. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy

    PubMed Central

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

  18. Using Generic Data to Establish Dormancy Failure Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reistle, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Many hardware items are dormant prior to being operated. The dormant period might be especially long, for example during missions to the moon or Mars. In missions with long dormant periods the risk incurred during dormancy can exceed the active risk contribution. Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) need to account for the dormant risk contribution as well as the active contribution. A typical method for calculating a dormant failure rate is to multiply the active failure rate by a constant, the dormancy factor. For example, some practitioners use a heuristic and divide the active failure rate by 30 to obtain an estimate of the dormant failure rate. To obtain a more empirical estimate of the dormancy factor, this paper uses the recently updated database NPRD-2011 [1] to arrive at a set of distributions for the dormancy factor. The resulting dormancy factor distributions are significantly different depending on whether the item is electrical, mechanical, or electro-mechanical. Additionally, this paper will show that using a heuristic constant fails to capture the uncertainty of the possible dormancy factors.

  19. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  20. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  1. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  2. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  3. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  4. Abscisic Acid Levels and Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Tzou, D. S.; Galson, Eva C.

    1968-01-01

    Dormant seeds from Fraxinus species require cold-temperature after-ripening prior to germination. Earlier, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) will inhibit germination of excised nondormant embryos and that this can be reversed with a combination of gibberellic acid and kinetin. Using Milborrow's quantitative “racemate dilution” method the ABA concentration in 3 types of Fraxinus seed and pericarp were determined. While ABA was present in all tissues, the highest concentration was found in the seed and pericarp of dormant F. americana. During the chilling treatment of F. americana the ABA levels decreased 37% in the pericarp and 68% in the seed. The ABA concentration of the seed of the nondormant species, F. ornus, is as low as that found in F. americana seeds after cold treatment. Experiments with exogenously added ABA solutions indicate that it is unlikely that the ABA in the pericarp functions in the regulation of seed dormancy. However, the ABA in the seed does seem to have a regulatory role in germination. Images PMID:16656935

  5. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  6. Limb bud and flank mesoderm have distinct "physical phenotypes" that may contribute to limb budding

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    2008 Available online 20 June 2008 Keywords: Limb bud Surface tension Active response -smooth muscle actin Limb bud outgrowth in chicken embryos is initiated during the third day of development, of 4-day embryonic chicken wing and leg bud mesenchymal tissue, and adjacent flank mesoderm

  7. Breaking seed dormancy of three orthodox Mediterranean Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Iakovoglou, Valasia; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2015-03-01

    Biodiversity levels could be enhanced when regenerating a site by seed-derived seedlings. However, seed dormancy poses limitations for many species. As a result, nurseries either produce seedlings from species where dormancy is not an obstacle, or they propagate through cuttings with the risk of decreasing the genetic diversity within and among species at the regenerated sites. In the present study, breaking of seed dormancy was investigated in valuable Mediterranean species of Prunus avium, Prunus spinosa and Rosa canina Specifically, in order to break dormancy, seeds of those species were warm-, cold-stratified and chemically treated. Based on the results, maximum germination for P. avium was 12% when seeds were warm stratified for four weeks altered with eight weeks of cold stratification. For P. spinosa, maximum percent germination was 26% when seeds were warm stratified for two weeks and continuously altered for eight weeks of cold stratification. Finally, for R. canina maximum percent germination was 40% under four weeks of warm stratification altered with twenty weeks of cold stratification, when seeds were pretreated with H2SO4 for 15 min. A maximum of twelve weeks of cold stratification for P. avium, P. spinosa and 20 weeks for R. canina provided almost zero percent germination. The results indicated that all three species experienced intense dormancy levels suggesting that those species need to be treated properly prior to sowing. Nonetheless, additional experiments are needed to achieve greater germination percentage of highly valuable species in orderto encourage seed derived seedling production. PMID:25895254

  8. Studies on genotypic variability and seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a great drawback and causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower for which great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes showed a large variability in dormancy. Few near...

  9. The evolution of seed dormancy: environmental cues, evolutionary hubs, and diversification of the seed plants

    E-print Network

    Venable, Lawrence

    The evolution of seed dormancy: environmental cues, evolutionary hubs, and diversification of the seed plants Charles G. Willis1,2 *, Carol C. Baskin3,4 *, Jerry M. Baskin3 , Josh R. Auld5 , D, physiological dormancy, speciation. Summary Seed dormancy, by controlling the timing of germination, can

  10. 46 CFR 310.6 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.6 Entrance..., satisfactory for admission as an undergraduate, to colleges or universities under control of the State in...

  11. 46 CFR 310.6 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.6 Entrance..., satisfactory for admission as an undergraduate, to colleges or universities under control of the State in...

  12. 46 CFR 310.6 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.6 Entrance..., satisfactory for admission as an undergraduate, to colleges or universities under control of the State in...

  13. Entrance to Yosemite Valley in Fog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, the entrance to Yosemite Valley may be seen shrouded in fog. Yosemite Valley is a glacially carved valley located within Yosemite National Park. It is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith and is largely composed of granite....

  14. 47 CFR 69.110 - Entrance facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...as airline kilometers between the point of demarcation and the serving wire...transmission circuit equipment between the end points of the entrance facilities; and...use of the circuit equipment at the ends of the transmission links....

  15. 47 CFR 69.110 - Entrance facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...as airline kilometers between the point of demarcation and the serving wire...transmission circuit equipment between the end points of the entrance facilities; and...use of the circuit equipment at the ends of the transmission links....

  16. 46 CFR 310.6 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.6 Entrance requirements. (a) Enrollment prior...equivalent, satisfactory for admission as an undergraduate, to colleges or universities under control of the State in which the...

  17. New entrance shade design for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A new design for the entrance shade for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is presented. The evolution of the entrance shade began with a simple frustum, symmetrical about the telescope axis, when SIRTF was expected to be Shuttle-attached. With the change to a free-flying SIRTF this frustum was cut off at an angle. The telescope will be operated so that whenever not in the earth's shadow the high side is kept toward the sun. However, the entrance shade interior itself will be so warm that the optics, including the secondary mirror and its mechanisms and support structure, will be restricted to the rear part of the barrel, termed the aftbaffle, which is shaded from the interior of the entrance shade by the forebaffle. This is best accomplished by the most recent design in which the axis of the entrance shade is offset from the telescope axis. This results in a shorter entrance shade, shorter forebaffle, and a shaded region within the barrel which is symmetrical about the telescope axis. All of these are advantageous.

  18. Coordination of seed dormancy and germination processes by MYB96.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-09-01

    The transition between seed dormancy and germination is an important stage that initiates plant life cycle. Hormonal balances of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) contribute to determining the proper timing to germinate. Here, we demonstrate that the R2R3-type MYB96 transcription factor, a key ABA signaling mediator, coordinates seed dormancy and germination processes through distinct downstream events. This transcription factor controls ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) expression to inhibit seed germination by suppressing breakdown of lipid reserves in embryo. In addition, it also induces seed dormancy by stimulating ABA biosynthesis in an ABI4-independent manner. We propose that MYB96 integrates a multitude of environmental stress signals and acts as a master regulator in the determination of timing for seed germination. PMID:26313409

  19. Cross-species approaches to seed dormancy and germination: conservation and biodiversity of ABA-regulated mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Cross-species approaches to seed dormancy and germination: conservation and biodiversity of ABA online: 15 December 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Seed dormancy in regulating seed dormancy, but the role of ABI3/VP1 goes beyond seeds and dormancy. In contrast, DOG1 (DELAY

  20. Inhibition of Tiller Bud Outgrowth in the tin Mutant of Wheat Is Associated with Precocious Internode Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H.; Chandler, Peter M.; Swain, Steve M.; King, Rod W.; Richards, Richard A.; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Tillering (branching) is a major yield component and, therefore, a target for improving the yield of crops. However, tillering is regulated by complex interactions of endogenous and environmental signals, and the knowledge required to achieve optimal tiller number through genetic and agronomic means is still lacking. Regulatory mechanisms may be revealed through physiological and molecular characterization of naturally occurring and induced tillering mutants in the major crops. Here we characterize a reduced tillering (tin, for tiller inhibition) mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The reduced tillering in tin is due to early cessation of tiller bud outgrowth during the transition of the shoot apex from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. There was no observed difference in the development of the main stem shoot apex between tin and the wild type. However, tin initiated internode development earlier and, unlike the wild type, the basal internodes in tin were solid rather than hollow. We hypothesize that tin represents a novel type of reduced tillering mutant associated with precocious internode elongation that diverts sucrose (Suc) away from developing tillers. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have observed upregulation of a gene induced by Suc starvation, downregulation of a Suc-inducible gene, and a reduced Suc content in dormant tin buds. The increased expression of the wheat Dormancy-associated (DRM1-like) and Teosinte Branched1 (TB1-like) genes and the reduced expression of cell cycle genes also indicate bud dormancy in tin. These results highlight the significance of Suc in shoot branching and the possibility of optimizing tillering by manipulating the timing of internode elongation. PMID:22791303

  1. Observed limit of Solanum jamesii tuber dormancy at 14 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. We previously reported (AJPR 87:226-228) that tubers of greenhouse-grown Solanum jamesii from 1999 sprouted after 8+ years of storage in a continuous 40F (5C) cooler. One populat...

  2. New insights into tumor dormancy: Targeting DNA repair pathways

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth B; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major strides have advanced the techniques for early detection and treatment of cancer. However, metastatic tumor growth still accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In fact, breast cancers are notorious for relapsing years or decades after the initial clinical treatment, and this relapse can vary according to the type of breast cancer. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, late tumor relapses frequently occur whereas relapses in estrogen receptor-negative cancers or triple negative tumors arise early resulting in a higher mortality risk. One of the main causes of metastasis is tumor dormancy in which cancer cells remain concealed, asymptomatic, and untraceable over a prolonged period of time. Under certain conditions, dormant cells can re-enter into the cell cycle and resume proliferation leading to recurrence. However, the molecular and cellular regulators underlying this transition remain poorly understood. To date, three mechanisms have been identified to trigger tumor dormancy including cellular, angiogenic, and immunologic dormancies. In addition, recent studies have suggested that DNA repair mechanisms may contribute to the survival of dormant cancer cells. In this article, we summarize the recent experimental and clinical evidence governing cancer dormancy. In addition, we will discuss the role of DNA repair mechanisms in promoting the survival of dormant cells. This information provides mechanistic insight to explain why recurrence occurs, and strategies that may enhance therapeutic approaches to prevent disease recurrence. PMID:26468441

  3. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 ?L L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  4. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 ?L L(-1). Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Environmental control of ovarian dormancy in natural

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, William E.

    and Gilbert 1990; Williams and Sokolowski 1993; Tatar et al. 2001; Williams et al. 2006). However melanogaster Kevin J. Emerson Æ Alison M. Uyemura Æ Keely L. McDaniel Æ Paul S. Schmidt Æ William E. Bradshaw Æ tempera- tures promote ovarian dormancy in Canton-S females (Saunders and Gilbert 1990). To date

  6. Breaking seed dormancy of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season grass identified as a model species for bioenergy feedstock. Established switchgrass stand are very resilient to environmental fluctuations, however, seed dormancy and weak seedling vigor make establishment difficult. Seeds with high leve...

  7. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  8. Seed Dormancy in Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy has been associated with grain color in wheat and rice, with the red colored genotypes being more dormant than the white colored ones. However, it remains uncertain if the association arises from pleiotropy or linkage. We introduced a segment of chromosome harboring a cluster of quanti...

  9. Summer dormancy in edible dormice ( Glis glis) without energetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Average longevity in free-living edible dormice ( Glis glis) can reach 9 years, which is extremely high for a small rodent. This remarkable life span has been related to a peculiar life history strategy and the rarity of reproductive bouts in these seed eaters. Most females (96%) reproduce only once or twice in their lifetime, predominantly during years of mast seeding of, e.g., beech, but entire populations can skip reproduction in years of low seed availability. Surprisingly, in non-reproductive years, large fractions of populations apparently vanished and were never captured above ground. Therefore, we determined the duration of above-ground activity, and body temperature profiles in a subset of animals, of dormice under semi-natural conditions in outdoor enclosures. We found that non-reproductive dormice returned to dormancy in underground burrows throughout summer after active seasons as short as <2 weeks. Thus, animals spent up to >10 months per year in dormancy. This exceeds dormancy duration of any other mammal under natural conditions. Summer dormancy was not caused by energy constraints, as it occurred in animals in good condition, fed ad libitum and without climatic stress. We suggest that almost year-round torpor has evolved as a strategy to escape birds of prey, the major predators of this arboreal mammal. This unique predator-avoidance strategy clearly helps in explaining the unusually high longevity of dormice.

  10. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  11. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S.; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A.; Vessella, Robert L.; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis. PMID:26090669

  12. Heavy episodic drinking and college entrance.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Fromme, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The college environment appears to encourage heavy drinking. Consequently, correlates of student drinking were assessed at college entrance. First-semester freshmen (N = 520, 54 percent women) completed self-report measures of social affiliation and self/peer drinking for high school and college. Analyses indicated that: 1) increased drinking at college entrance mirrored perceived increases by peers, 2) perceptions of peer drinking were robustly overestimated with women displaying the larger overestimation bias; and 3) social affiliation was associated with men's drinking and moderated its relation to perceived peer drinking at college entrance. These results advance understanding of the manner in which heavy drinking patterns emerge as men and women enter college, and campus programs that consider these factors may better promote health and reduce the harms associated with heavy drinking among college students. PMID:15022860

  13. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities. PMID:1149105

  14. Reconstitution of membrane budding with unilamellar vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Shnyrova, Anna V.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Enveloped virus particles select their lipid-protein components and egress by budding from the host cell membranes. The matrix protein of many enveloped viruses has been proposed as a crucial element for viral budding; however, molecular mechanisms behind membrane budding by the matrix protein are yet to be unraveled. Here we describe a set of in vitro functional reconstitution assays that allows quantitative evaluation of both, membrane binding and creation of membrane curvature by the matrix protein isolated from Newcastle Disease Virus. Individual budding events orchestrated by the matrix protein can be resolved in real time. The assays may be applied for direct reconstitution of the on-membrane action of cellular proteins involved in membrane curvature induction upon binding in vivo. PMID:19903550

  15. Texas Tech University Undergraduate Entrance Policies

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    background in music. Leveling work in piano, theory, pedagogy, or music literature at the undergraduate in music is based upon a combination of auditions, entrance examinations, and/or interviews, depending upon into another major in music must proceed through a formal acceptance process for performance in the appropriate

  16. PennAccess: Penn Park Entrance Information

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    PennAccess: Penn Park Entrance Information: 3000 Walnut Street . Philadelphia . PA . 19104 #12 the north side of Franklin Field. 2. At 3000 Walnut Street; a bridge provides a ramped, pedestrian and wheelchair accessible entry into Penn Park from the Walnut Street Bridge. 3. At 3100 Lower Walnut Street

  17. Heavy Episodic Drinking and College Entrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzler, Bryan; Fromme, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The college environment appears to encourage heavy drinking. Consequently, correlates of student drinking were assessed at college entrance. First-semester freshmen (N = 520, 54 percent women) completed self-report measures of social affiliation and self/peer drinking for high school and college. Analyses indicated that: 1) increased drinking at…

  18. 32 CFR 575.5 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ARMY PERSONNEL ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.5 Entrance requirements. This section describes...a) Age. On 1 July of the year admitted to the Military Academy a candidate must be at least 17 years of age and must...

  19. A local dormancy cline is related to the seed maturation environment, population genetic composition and climate

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Díaz, Tomás Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed dormancy varies within species in response to climate, both in the long term (through ecotypes or clines) and in the short term (through the influence of the seed maturation environment). Disentangling both processes is crucial to understand plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, the local patterns of seed dormancy were investigated in a narrow endemic species, Centaurium somedanum, in order to determine the influence of the seed maturation environment, population genetic composition and climate. Methods Laboratory germination experiments were performed to measure dormancy in (1) seeds collected from different wild populations along a local altitudinal gradient and (2) seeds of a subsequent generation produced in a common garden. The genetic composition of the original populations was characterized using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) PCR and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA), and its correlation with the dormancy patterns of both generations was analysed. The effect of the local climate on dormancy was also modelled. Key Results An altitudinal dormancy cline was found in the wild populations, which was maintained by the plants grown in the common garden. However, seeds from the common garden responded better to stratification, and their release from dormancy was more intense. The patterns of dormancy variation were correlated with genetic composition, whereas lower temperature and summer precipitation at the population sites predicted higher dormancy in the seeds of both generations. Conclusions The dormancy cline in C. somedanum is related to a local climatic gradient and also corresponds to genetic differentiation among populations. This cline is further affected by the weather conditions during seed maturation, which influence the receptiveness to dormancy-breaking factors. These results show that dormancy is influenced by both long-and short-term climatic variation. Such processes at such a reduced spatial scale highlight the potential of plants to adapt to fast environmental changes. PMID:23864001

  20. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  1. www.usask.ca Best and Brightest Entrance Scholarships

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    www.usask.ca Best and Brightest Entrance Scholarships Application Form for 2015-2016 Awards application form for: · Five highest valued, renewable scholarships · President's First and Best Scholarships (95%+) · Chancellors' Scholarships · U of S Entrance Scholarships (95%+) · Edwards Undergraduate

  2. Mechanisms of disseminated cancer cell dormancy: an awakening field

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, María Soledad; Bragado, Paloma; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases arise from residual disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). This can happen years after primary tumour treatment because residual tumour cells can enter dormancy and evade therapies. As the biology of minimal residual disease seems to diverge from that of proliferative lesions, understanding the underpinnings of this new cancer biology is key to prevent metastasis. Analysis of approximately 7 years of literature reveals a growing focus on tumour and normal stem cell quiescence, extracellular and stromal microenvironments, autophagy and epigenetics as mechanisms that dictate tumour cell dormancy. In this Review, we attempt to integrate this information and highlight both the weaknesses and the strengths in the field to provide a framework to understand and target this crucial step in cancer progression. PMID:25118602

  3. Maternal environment affects the genetic basis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2015-02-01

    The genetic basis of seed dormancy, a key life history trait important for adaptive evolution in plant populations, has yet been studied only using seeds produced under controlled conditions in greenhouse environments. However, dormancy is strongly affected by maternal environmental conditions, and interactions between seed genotype and maternal environment have been reported. Consequently, the genetic basis of dormancy of seeds produced under natural field conditions remains unclear. We examined the effect of maternal environment on the genetic architecture of seed dormancy using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Italy and Sweden. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for dormancy of seeds produced in the greenhouse and at the native field sites of the parental genotypes. The Italian genotype produced seeds with stronger dormancy at fruit maturation than did the Swedish genotype in all three environments, and the maternal field environments induced higher dormancy levels compared to the greenhouse environment in both genotypes. Across the three maternal environments, a total of nine dormancy QTL were detected, three of which were only detected among seeds matured in the field, and six of which showed significant QTL × maternal environment interactions. One QTL had a large effect on dormancy across all three environments and colocalized with the candidate gene DOG1. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the genetic basis of putatively adaptive traits under relevant conditions. PMID:25640699

  4. Human Granuloma In Vitro Model, for TB Dormancy and Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Nidhi; Pawar, Santosh; Sirakova, Tatiana D.; Deb, Chirajyoti; Warren, William L.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for death of nearly two million people in the world annually. Upon infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes formation of granuloma where the pathogen goes into dormant state and can live for decades before resuscitation to develop active disease when the immune system of the host is weakened and/or suppressed. In an attempt to better understand host-pathogen interactions, several groups have been developing in vitro models of human tuberculosis granuloma. However, to date, an in vitro granuloma model in which Mtb goes into dormancy and can subsequently resuscitate under conditions that mimic weakening of the immune system has not been reported. We describe the development of a biomimetic in vitro model of human tuberculosis granuloma using human primary leukocytes, in which the Mtb exhibited characteristics of dormant mycobacteria as demonstrated by (1) loss of acid-fastness, (2) accumulation of lipid bodies (3) development of rifampicin-tolerance and (4) gene expression changes. Further, when these micro granulomas were treated with immunosuppressant anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibodies (anti-TNF? mAbs), resuscitation of Mtb was observed as has been found in humans. In this human in vitro granuloma model triacylglycerol synthase 1deletion mutant (?tgs1) with impaired ability to accumulate triacylglycerides (TG), but not the complemented mutant, could not go into dormancy. Deletion mutant of lipY, with compromised ability to mobilize the stored TG, but not the complemented mutant, was unable to come out of dormancy upon treatment with anti-TNF? mAbs. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro human tuberculosis granuloma model that largely exhibits functional features of dormancy and resuscitation observed in human tuberculosis. PMID:23308269

  5. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary E.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors, such as the aerated hollow fiber membrane type, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration. Several challenges remain to be resolved before these types of bioreactors can be used in space settings, including transporting the bioreactors with intact and active biofilms, whether that be to the International Space Station or beyond, or procedures for safing the systems and placing them into a dormant state for later start-up. Little information is available on such operations as it is not common practice for terrestrial systems. This study explored several dormancy processes for established bioreactors to determine optimal storage and recovery conditions. Procedures focused on complete isolation of the microbial communities from an operational standpoint and observing the effects of: 1) storage temperature, and 2) storage with or without the reactor bulk fluid. The first consideration was tested from a microbial integrity and power consumption standpoint; both ambient temperature (25 C) and cold (4 C) storage conditions were studied. The second consideration was explored; again, for microbial integrity as well as plausible real-world scenarios of how terrestrially established bioreactors would be transported to microgravity and stored for periods of time between operations. Biofilms were stored without the reactor bulk fluid to simulate transport of established biofilms into microgravity, while biofilms stored with the reactor bulk fluid simulated the most simplistic storage condition to implement operations for extended periods of nonuse. Dormancy condition did not have an influence on recovery in initial studies with immature biofilms (48 days old), however a lengthy recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy period to steady state operation within 4 days (approx. 1 residence cycle). Results indicate a need for future testing on biofilm age and health and further exploration of dormancy length.

  6. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds.

    PubMed

    Do?ramac?, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Christoffers, Michael J; Anderson, James V

    2011-12-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo-, and ecodormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration stress on vegetative growth and flowering potential from endodormant UABs of leafy spurge was monitored. Further, microarray analysis was used to identify critical signaling pathways of transcriptome profiles associated with endodormancy maintenance in UABs. Surprisingly, only 3-day of dehydration stress is required to break the endodormant phase in UABs; however, the dehydration-stress treatment did not induce flowering. Previous studies have shown that prolonged cold treatment of UABs breaks endodormancy and induces a vernalization response leading to flowering. Thus, in this study, comparing transcriptome data from UABs exposed to short-term dehydration and vernalization provided a unique approach to identify overlapping molecular mechanisms involved in endodormancy maintenance and floral competence. Analysis of transcriptome data associated with breaking endodormancy by both environmental treatments identified LEC1, PHOTOSYSTEM I RC, and brassinosteroids as common central hubs of upregulated genes, while DREB1A, CBF2, GPA1, MYC2, bHLH, BZIP, and flavonoids were identified as common central hubs of downregulated genes. The majority of over-represented gene sets common to breaking endodormancy by dehydration stress and vernalization were downregulated and included pathways involved in hormone signaling, chromatin modification, and circadian rhythm. Additionally, the over-represented gene sets highlighted pathways involved in starch and sugar degradation and biogenesis of carbon skeletons, suggesting a high metabolic activity is necessary during the endodormant phase. The data presented in this study helped to refine our previous model for dormancy regulation. PMID:21789635

  7. Axillary bud outgrowth potential is determined by parent apical bud activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R G; Hay, M J M

    2009-01-01

    Axillary buds within a plant shoot system are known to differ in their ability to respond to treatments favouring their development. This ability is referred to as their outgrowth potential. Using two species of prostrate nodally-rooting herbs, dicotyledonous Trifolium repens and monocotyledonous Tradescantia fluminensis, grown throughout in a strictly vegetative state, this study tested two hypotheses. Hypothesis 1: that each axillary bud exhibits an outgrowth potential that is directly related to the growth rate of its parent apical bud, and Hypothesis 2: that the growth rate attained by an axillary bud depends upon both its outgrowth potential and the local supply of stimulatory root-derived signal (NRS) available to it. Activation levels (growth rates) of apical buds were varied by differential exposure to nodal roots and the outgrowth responses of axillary buds recently emerged from them were then measured under standardized conditions of NRS supply. Hypothesis 1 was shown to be correct for both species. Hypothesis 2, tested only in T. repens, was supported by results showing that an axillary bud's outgrowth potential and the NRS supply to it each independently influenced its growth rate, there being no significant interaction between the two. These results emphasize the significant role the physiological state/activity of apical buds has on the outgrowth potential of axillary buds formed within them. The fact that similar relationships were observed on axillary buds on stems of differing developmental maturity and branching hierarchy, and in two taxonomically diverse species, suggests they might be widespread among morphologically similar species. PMID:19717528

  8. 81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ON LEFT, ENTRANCE TO STABLES AT CENTER, AND ENTRANCE TO ENGINE ROOM ON RIGHT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. The Martin Entrance Boundary of the Galton-Watson Process

    E-print Network

    Alsmeyer, Gerold

    and its minimal elements for a Galton-Watson process (Zn)n0. Since this is easily done and known. The Martin entrance boundary consists of all quasi-invariant Radon measures. The minimal Martin entrance boundary is isomorphic to [0, 1) as a torus. Every element of the minimal Martin entrance bound- ary

  10. Physical Dormancy in Seeds of the Holoparasitic Angiosperm Cuscuta australis (Convolvulaceae, Cuscuteae): Dormancy-breaking Requirements, Anatomy of the Water Gap and Sensitivity Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, K. M. G. Gehan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Geneve, Robert L.; Baskin, Carol C.; Chien, Ching-Te

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Dormancy in seeds of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae, tribe Cuscuteae) is due to a water-impermeable seed coat (physical dormancy). In nondormant seeds of several species of this family, bulges adjacent to the micropyle have been identified as the initial route of water entry into seeds (water gap). However, there are claims that water enters seeds of Cuscuta spp. via the entire seed coat. Although several studies have been done on seed coat anatomy of Cuscuta, none has identified and/or characterized the morphology/anatomy of a water gap. Thus, the primary aim of this research was to identify and describe the morphology and anatomy of the water gap in seeds of Cuscuta australis. It was also determined if sensitivity cycling to dormancy-breaking treatments occurs in seeds of this species. Methods Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tissue-sectioning and dye-tracking and blocking experiments were used to investigate the morphology and anatomy of the water gap. Treatments simulating natural conditions were used to break seed dormancy. Storage of seeds at different temperatures was tested for their effect on sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatment. Key Results Dormancy-breaking treatments caused the tightly closed hilar fissure to open. Staining was observed in cells below the hilum area but not in those below the seed coat away from the hilum. Sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatment was induced by storing seeds dry and reduced by storing them wet. Conclusions Whereas bulges adjacent to the micropyle act as the water gap in other species of Convolvulaceae with physical dormancy, the hilar fissure serves this function in Cuscuta. Cuscuta australis can cycle between insensitivity ? sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatments. PMID:18453546

  11. Virus Budding and the ESCRT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Jörg; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    Enveloped viruses escape infected cells by budding through limiting membranes. In the decade since the discovery that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) recruits cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery to facilitate viral budding, this pathway has emerged as the major escape route for enveloped viruses. In cells, the ESCRT pathway catalyzes the analogous membrane fission events required for the abscission stage of cytokinesis and for a series of “reverse topology” vesiculation events. Studies of enveloped virus budding are therefore providing insights into the complex cellular mechanisms of cell division and membrane protein trafficking (and vice versa). Here, we review how viruses mimic cellular recruiting signals to usurp the ESCRT pathway, discuss mechanistic models for ESCRT pathway functions, and highlight important research frontiers. PMID:24034610

  12. Regulation of Summer Dormancy by Water Deficit and ABA in Poa bulbosa Ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ofir, Micha; Kigel, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Survival of many herbaceous species in Mediterranean habitats during the dry, hot summer depends on the induction of summer dormancy by changes in environmental conditions during the transition between the winter (growth) season to the summer (resting) season, i.e. longer days, increasing temperature and drought. In Poa bulbosa, a perennial geophytic grass, summer dormancy is induced by long days, and the induction is enhanced by high temperature. Here the induction of summer dormancy in a Mediterranean perennial grass by water deficit under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions is reported for the first time. Methods Plants grown under 22/16 °C and non-inductive short-day (9 h, SD) were subjected to water deficit (WD), applied as cycles of reduced irrigation, or sprayed with ABA solutions. They were compared with plants in which dormancy was induced by transfer from SD to inductive long-day (16 h, LD). Responses of two contrasting ecotypes, from arid and mesic habitats were compared. Dormancy relaxation in bulbs from these ecotypes and treatments was studied by comparing sprouting capacity in a wet substrate at 10 °C of freshly harvested bulbs to that of dry-stored bulbs at 40 °C. Endogenous ABA in the bulbs was determined by monoclonal immunoassay analysis. Key Results Dormancy was induced by WD and by ABA application in plants growing under non-inductive SD. Dormancy induction by WD was associated with increased levels of ABA. Bulbs were initially deeply dormant and their sprouting capacity was very low, as in plants in which dormancy was induced by LD. Dormancy was released after 2 months dry storage at 40 °C in all treatments. ABA levels were not affected by dormancy relaxation. Conclusions Summer dormancy in P. bulbosa can be induced by two alternative and probably additive pathways: (1) photoperiodic induction by long-days, and (2) water deficit. Increased levels of endogenous ABA are involved in both pathways. PMID:17202183

  13. New Seed Dormancy Loci Detected from Weedy Rice-Derived Advanced Populations with Major QTL Alleles Removed from the Background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of cereal crops from wild relatives tended to eliminate seed dormancy. Our objective was to identify all the detectable seed dormancy loci that differentiated between a weedy and a cultivated line of rice to understand the impact of domestication on distribution of dormancy genes. Thre...

  14. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control. PMID:26064777

  15. Seed dormancy variability in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a naturally important biological process which can affect planting, germinating, and harvesting in agricultural production. Variability in seed dormancy within the U.S. peanut mini-core collection had not been determined. Freshly harvested seeds in the same field from 103 accessions...

  16. qSD7-1 is the first dormancy QTL cloned from weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We answered a long-standing question about if the same or linked genes control the association between seed dormancy and grain color in grasses by map-based cloning a cluster of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for dormancy (qSD7-1) and pericarp color (qPC7 or Rc) from rice. A 2-cM region encompassing ...

  17. One phase of the dormancy developmental pathway is critical for the evolution of insect seasonality

    E-print Network

    Dopman, Erik B.

    One phase of the dormancy developmental pathway is critical for the evolution of insect seasonality Evolutionary change in the timing of dormancy enables animals and plants to adapt to changing seasonal in animal seasonality can result from simple developmental and genetic changes. Although characterizing

  18. Positional cloning of a seed dormancy QTL from weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed weedy rice (SS-18-2) as a genetic system to investigate mechanisms regulating natural variation in seed dormancy. This included introduction of a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) enhancing seed dormancy into the non-dormant genetic background of cultivated rice (EM93-1) to clone and...

  19. Hydrothermal time analysis of seed dormancy in true (botanical) potato seeds

    E-print Network

    Bradford, Kent

    , CA 95616, USA Abstract As seed dormancy is released within a seed population, both the rateHydrothermal time analysis of seed dormancy in true (botanical) potato seeds Veria Alvarado to water potential (C) and temperature (T) can describe these features of seed behaviour. We used

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLS) FOR DORMANCY IN WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild oat is a wide spread weed causing substantial yield losses in small grain crops. Variable germination of seeds due to dormancy makes the control of wild oat difficult. Dormancy is a complex polygenic character with large influences of the environment on its expression. We are investigating gene...

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI CONTROLLING SEED DORMANCY IN WEEDY RICE (ORYZA SATIVA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy contributes to adaptability of wild species, arrests development of the plant, and is a key factor in crop domestication. Our research has determined that seed dormancy is much stronger and heritability for the trait is higher in most weedy rice strains as compared with that in dormant...

  2. Identification of seed dormancy for four populations derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a key adaptive trait for wild species and is also a major domestication-related trait for crop species. Cereal cultivars have been selected for rapid, uniform germination during domestication and breeding and consequently, they generally have an insufficient degree of seed dormancy ...

  3. A transgenic approach to controlling wheat seed dormancy level by using Triticeae DOG1-like genes.

    PubMed

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Mori, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka

    2014-08-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait: low levels can cause premature germination, while too much can inhibit uniform germination. As an approach to controlling the seed dormancy level in crops, we used Triticeae DOG1-like genes as transgenes. DOG1 is an Arabidopsis gene that underlies natural variation in seed dormancy. We previously showed that although their sequence similarities to DOG1 were low, some cereal DOG1-like genes enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, we introduced two DOG1-like genes, TaDOG1L4 from wheat and HvDOG1L1 from barley, individually into the wheat cultivar Fielder. Their overexpression under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter enhanced the seed dormancy level while leaving other traits unchanged. TaDOG1L4 was more effective than HvDOG1L1, which accords with the previously revealed difference in the effectiveness of these two genes in Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Knockdown of endogenous TaDOG1L4 in Fielder using double-strand RNA interference decreased the seed dormancy level by several tens of percent. This result indicates that some degree of seed dormancy inherent in wheat is imparted by DOG1-like genes. PMID:24752830

  4. Comparison of gene expression changes in potato meristems during dormancy cessation and treatment with bromoethane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meristem dormancy in perennial plants is a developmental process that results in repression of metabolism and growth. The cessation of dormancy results in rapid growth and should be associated the production of nascent transcripts that encode for gene products controlling for cell division and growt...

  5. Ethylene Is Not Involved in Hormone- and Bromoethane-Induced Dormancy Break in Russet Burbank Minitubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of ethylene in the dormancy breaking actions of cytokinins, GA, and BE was investigated using Russet Burbank minitubers. Injection of 10µg tuber-1 BA, CP, GA, NG, or ZEA or 24 hour exposure to BE effectively broke dormancy and stimulated sprout growth over a two-week period. Althou...

  6. Grain dormancy and light quality effects on germination in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of seed dormancy in cereal crops such as barley and wheat is a common problem affecting farming areas around the world, causing losses in yield and quality due to pre-harvest sprouting. Control of seed dormancy has been investigated extensively using various approaches in different species incl...

  7. Two Faces of One Seed: Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy and Germination.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Qi; He, Zu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Seed plants have evolved to maintain the dormancy of freshly matured seeds until the appropriate time for germination. Seed dormancy and germination are distinct physiological processes, and the transition from dormancy to germination is not only a critical developmental step in the life cycle of plants but is also important for agricultural production. These processes are precisely regulated by diverse endogenous hormones and environmental cues. Although ABA (abscisic acid) and GAs (gibberellins) are known to be the primary phytohormones that antagonistically regulate seed dormancy, recent findings demonstrate that another phytohormone, auxin, is also critical for inducing and maintaining seed dormancy, and therefore might act as a key protector of seed dormancy. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the sophisticated molecular networks involving the critical roles of phytohormones in regulating seed dormancy and germination, in which AP2-domain-containing transcription factors play key roles. We also discuss the interactions (crosstalk) of diverse hormonal signals in seed dormancy and germination, focusing on the ABA/GA balance that constitutes the central node. PMID:26343970

  8. Spatiotemporal Seed Development Analysis Provides Insight into Primary Dormancy Induction and Evolution

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Spatiotemporal Seed Development Analysis Provides Insight into Primary Dormancy Induction.L.-M.); and Department of Biology, Botany, University of Osnabrueck, D­49069 Osnabrueck, Germany (K.S., K.M.) Seed dormancy is a block to the completion of germination of an intact viable seed under favorable conditions

  9. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  10. APICAL BUD STRENGTH TESTS AND TREE SWAY

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    ://www.treescapes.co.uk/services/crown_thinning.htm #12;10/27/2010 3 Apical Buds: Preformed growth All new leaf primordia are formed by or shortly after Sustained growth Not all leaf primordia develop before spring Development of new leaf primordia and shoot off by tougher limbs of another species " knocked off by tougher limbs of another species. (Oliver

  11. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLC?2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLC?2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. PMID:26400924

  13. Immunogenic, cellular, and angiogenic drivers of tumor dormancy-a melanoma view.

    PubMed

    Senft, Daniela; Ronai, Ze Ev A

    2016-01-01

    In tumor cells, the ability to maintain viability over long time periods without proliferation is referred to as a state of dormancy. Maintenance of dormancy is controlled by numerous cellular and environmental factors, from immune surveillance and tumor-stroma interaction to intracellular signaling. Interference of dormancy (to an 'awaken' state) is associated with reduced response to therapy, resulting in relapse or in metastatic burst. Thus, maintaining a dormant state should prolong therapeutic responses and delay metastasis. Technical obstacles in studying tumor dormancy have limited our understanding of underlying mechanisms and hampered our ability to target dormant cells. In this review, we summarize the progress of research in the field of immunogenic, angiogenic, and cellular dormancy in diverse malignancies with particular attention to our current understanding in melanoma. PMID:26514653

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of American Ginseng Seeds during the Dormancy Release Process by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Liao, Dengqun; Sun, Tongyu; Zhu, Juan; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an important herb that is cultivated in China, North American, and South Korea. It is propagated from seed, but the seed has deep dormancy characteristics described as morphophysiological dormancy. Two-stage temperature stratification, a warm (15–20°C) and cold (2°C) stratification period of 6 months, has been used successfully for seed dormancy release. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of seed dormancy release in the stratification process. In this study, seed development after pollination and seed development in the dormancy release process were investigated in American ginseng. The transcriptome during seed dormancy release was analyzed using RNA-Seq technology and 78,207 unigenes (mean length 531 bp) were generated. Based on similarity searches of public databases, 54,292 of the unigenes (69.4%) were functionally annotated. Further, three digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were sequenced and differences in gene expression at three stages during seed cold stratification were examined. The greatest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 90DCS versus 180DCS libraries, while the lowest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 135DCS verus 180DCS libraries. GO enrichment analysis revealed that 59, 29, and 39 GO terms were significantly enriched in the biological process, molecular function, and cell component GO categories, respectively. There were 25,190 genes with KEGG pathway annotation in the three DGE libraries and their enrichment pathways were compared. The gene expressions of 30 selected unigenes were validated using quantitative PCR. This study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequences for seed dormancy release in American ginseng, and demonstrates the successful use of DGE profiling data for analyzing transcriptomic variation during dormancy release. These data provide a basis for future researches of seed dormancy in morphophysiological dormancy seeds in non-model plants. PMID:25790114

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of American ginseng seeds during the dormancy release process by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Liao, Dengqun; Sun, Tongyu; Zhu, Juan; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an important herb that is cultivated in China, North American, and South Korea. It is propagated from seed, but the seed has deep dormancy characteristics described as morphophysiological dormancy. Two-stage temperature stratification, a warm (15-20°C) and cold (2°C) stratification period of 6 months, has been used successfully for seed dormancy release. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of seed dormancy release in the stratification process. In this study, seed development after pollination and seed development in the dormancy release process were investigated in American ginseng. The transcriptome during seed dormancy release was analyzed using RNA-Seq technology and 78,207 unigenes (mean length 531 bp) were generated. Based on similarity searches of public databases, 54,292 of the unigenes (69.4%) were functionally annotated. Further, three digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were sequenced and differences in gene expression at three stages during seed cold stratification were examined. The greatest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 90DCS versus 180DCS libraries, while the lowest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 135DCS verus 180DCS libraries. GO enrichment analysis revealed that 59, 29, and 39 GO terms were significantly enriched in the biological process, molecular function, and cell component GO categories, respectively. There were 25,190 genes with KEGG pathway annotation in the three DGE libraries and their enrichment pathways were compared. The gene expressions of 30 selected unigenes were validated using quantitative PCR. This study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequences for seed dormancy release in American ginseng, and demonstrates the successful use of DGE profiling data for analyzing transcriptomic variation during dormancy release. These data provide a basis for future researches of seed dormancy in morphophysiological dormancy seeds in non-model plants. PMID:25790114

  16. Photo 1. A `Jersey' shoot at the beginning of bud burst. Note the large plump flower

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Photo 1. A `Jersey' shoot at the beginning of bud burst. Note the large plump flower buds located at the ends of last year's growth. The smaller leaf buds, located below the flower buds, are also growing to see flower buds die. At colder temperatures, we will see winter injury to leaf buds and shoots. Woody

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans Host Adaptation: Toward Biological Evidence of Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Vernel-Pauillac, Frédérique; Sturny-Leclère, Aude; Dromer, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection due to the ubiquitous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. This yeast interacts closely with innate immune cells, leading to various fates, including fungal persistence within cells, making possible the dissemination of the yeast cells with monocytes via a Trojan horse strategy. In humans, the natural history of the infection begins with primoinfection during childhood, which is followed by dormancy and, in some individuals, reactivation upon immunosuppression. To address the question of dormancy, we studied C. neoformans infection at the macrophage level (in vitro H99-macrophage interaction) and at the organ level in a murine model of cryptococcosis. We analyzed the diversity of yeast adaptation to the host by characterizing several C. neoformans populations with new assays based on flow cytometry (quantitative flow cytometry, multispectral imaging flow cytometry, sorting), microscopy (dynamic imaging), and gene expression analysis. On the basis of parameters of multiplication and stress response, various populations of yeast cells were observed over time in vivo and in vitro. Cell sorting allowed the identification of a subpopulation that was less prone to grow under standard conditions than the other populations, with growth enhanced by the addition of serum. Gene expression analysis revealed that this population had specific metabolic characteristics that could reflect dormancy. Our data suggest that dormant yeast cells could exist in vitro and in vivo. C. neoformans exhibits a huge plasticity and adaptation to hosts that deserves further study. In vitro generation of dormant cells is now the main challenge to overcome the limited number of yeast cells recovered in our models. PMID:25827423

  18. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Megan Steinweg, J; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C–CO2 and 14C–CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20–71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling. PMID:25012899

  19. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Steinweg, J Megan; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C-CO2 and (14)C-CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20-71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling. PMID:25012899

  20. The Storage and Seasoning of Pecan Bud Wood. 

    E-print Network

    Brison, Fred R. (Fred Robert)

    1933-01-01

    STATION A. B. CONNOR, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS - - - LETIN NO. 478 AUGUST, 1933 DIVISION OF :H,ORTI~&T~PU~ -? L' .-. - The Storage and Seasoning of Pecan Bud Wood LGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE vr I nnAS T. 0. WALTON... of the pecan by graftage. Buds of the current season may be used, but the work can begin much earlier if buds of the previous season are used. Such bud wood may be taken from the trees as needed, but it has been found to be more economical to cut the bud...

  1. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. PMID:24948678

  2. View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, covered decking (covered by debris) protects the flume below it (not visible). The extreme top of the tunnel entrance is visible in the middle of the picture, just beyond the covered decking. This is typical of gravity tunnel entrances and the only photograph representing these features in the system. Looking south - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Tunnel No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. Perspective view of east entrance from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east entrance from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE PEDIMENTED DOORWAYS, CHINESE WALLPAPER, DENTICULATED CORNICE, PANELED DADO - Mt. Harmon Plantation at World's End, Earleville, Cecil County, MD

  5. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Detail view of dual entrances to Protestant and Catholic chapels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of dual entrances to Protestant and Catholic chapels - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Chapel, Wilshire & Sawtelle Boulevards, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 6. NORTH FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. ?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ROAD, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  11. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  12. SOUTH ELEVATION, VIEW CONCENTRATING ON INDEPENDENCE AVENUE ENTRANCE, TAKEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION, VIEW CONCENTRATING ON INDEPENDENCE AVENUE ENTRANCE, TAKEN FROM STREET LEVEL - Smithsonian Institution, Arts & Industries Building, 900 Jefferson Drive Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Temperature rather than photoperiod controls growth cessation and dormancy in Sorbus species

    PubMed Central

    Heide, Ola M.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental regulation of growth and dormancy of four Sorbus genotypes was studied in controlled environments. Emphasis was placed on assessment of the presence and nature of the deficient photoperiodic dormancy regulation system that has previously been reported for some woody Rosaceae species. Two genotypes of Sorbus aucuparia L. maintained indeterminate growth for 8 weeks and 9 weeks at temperatures of 15 °C and 21 °C in both 20 h and 10 h photoperiods, while at 9 °C, in the same photoperiodic conditions, they immediately ceased growing. At the higher temperatures, initiation of new leaves (nodes) was unaffected by photoperiod, while internode elongation was significantly enhanced by long days (LD). However, even after prolonged exposure to 9 °C, most plants resumed growth when moved to high temperature and LD, indicating a shallow state of dormancy. Seedlings of Sorbus intermedia (J. F. Ehrh.) Pers. and micro-propagated plantlets of S. commixta Hedl. ‘Dodong’ were also unaffected by photoperiod during primary growth, but failed to elongate and gradually became dormant regardless of temperature and day-length conditions. However, after chilling and breaking of dormancy, the plants elongated vigorously but changed to a determinate mode of growth. Furthermore, a temperature of 9 °C was found to be fully effective for breaking dormancy in S. intermedia plants. It is concluded that deficient photoperiodic dormancy control seems widespread in the Rosaceae and that, in such plants, both dormancy induction and release is brought about by low temperature. The potential impacts of climate change on such trees are discussed. PMID:21862485

  14. An immunoproteomic approach for characterization of dormancy within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Cerveira, Frederico; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis is mainly attributed to surface colonization and biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices. Physiological heterogeneity of biofilms may influence host immune response and sensitivity to antibiotics. Dormant cells, among others, contribute to biofilm heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins of S. epidermidis biofilms associated with dormancy mechanism, by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 19 bacterial proteins, recognized by human serum samples, were identified. These proteins were mainly involved in small molecule metabolic biological processes. Catalytic activity and ion binding were the most representative molecular functions. CodY and GpmA proteins were more reactive to sera when biofilm dormancy was induced, while FtnA and ClpP were more reactive when dormancy was prevented. This is the first work that identifies differences in immunoreactive proteins within bacterial biofilms with induced or prevented dormancy. Considering the importance of dormancy within biofilms, further evaluation of these proteins can provide insights into the mechanisms related to dormancy and help to improve current understanding on how dormancy affects the host immune response. PMID:25749707

  15. Dependency of seed dormancy types on embryo traits and environmental conditions in Ribes species.

    PubMed

    Mattana, E; Stuppy, W H; Fraser, R; Waller, J; Pritchard, H W

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that seed dormancy may be dependent on environmental conditions and seed morphological traits was tested for six Ribes species, across an altitudinal gradient of 1300 m and a longitudinal separation of 120°. Embryo measurements and seed germination experiments were conducted for R. alpinum L., R. hudsonianum Richardson var. petiolare (Douglas) Jancz., R. nevadaense Kellogg, R. roezlii Regel var. cruentum (Greene) Rehder and R. speciosum Pursh, and data taken from the literature for R. multiflorum Kit. ex Schult. ssp. sandalioticum Arrigoni. Germination was compared with seed viability to reveal proportional seed dormancy, which was then correlated to seed/embryo morphological traits and these traits related to the seed provenance environment. The embryos of all the investigated species are linear underdeveloped and all had a morphological component of seed dormancy (MD). Seeds of R. roezlii, R. hudsonianum and R. nevadaense required a temperature and/or hormone pre-treatment in order to germinate, highlighting morphophysiological seed dormancy (MPD). Seed dormancy was found to be strongly negatively correlated with embryo length, but not with embryo to seed (E:S) ratio or seed mass. Initial embryo length was positively related to mean annual temperature. Seed dormancy in the investigated Ribes species could be quantified and predicted by the interaction of embryo traits and environmental conditions. This approach may be helpful in assessing and predicting seed dormancy in the Ribes genus and in other genera and families with underdeveloped embryos. PMID:24138146

  16. Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jean; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding behavior of domains in lipid bilayers, where each of the bilayer leaflets has a coupling between its local curvature and the local lipid composition. The compositional asymmetry between the two monolayers leads to an overall spontaneous curvature. The membrane free energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams which contain fully budded, dimpled, and flat states. In particular, for some range of membrane parameters, the phase diagrams exhibit a tricritical behavior as well as a three-phase coexistence region. The global phase diagrams can be divided into three types and are analyzed in terms of the curvature-composition coupling parameter and domain size. PMID:25679643

  17. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle. PMID:26519319

  18. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  19. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species. PMID:25598169

  20. Tumor budding in colorectal cancer-ready for diagnostic practice?

    PubMed

    Koelzer, Viktor H; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is an important additional prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small clusters of up to 5 cells in the tumor stroma, tumor budding has been likened to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Based on well-designed retrospective studies, tumor budding is linked to adverse outcome of CRC patients in 3 clinical scenarios: (1) in malignant polyps, detection of tumor buds is a risk factor for lymph node metastasis indicating the need for colorectal surgery; (2) tumor budding in stage II CRC is a highly adverse prognostic indicator and may aid patient selection for adjuvant therapy; (3) in the preoperative setting, presence of tumor budding in biopsy material may help to identify high-risk rectal cancer patients for neoadjuvant therapy. However, lack of consensus guidelines for standardized assessment still limits reporting in daily diagnostic practice. This article provides a practical and comprehensive overview on tumor budding aimed at the practicing pathologist. First, we review the prognostic value of tumor budding for the management of colon and rectal cancer patients. Second, we outline a practical, evidence-based proposal for the assessment of tumor budding in the daily sign-out. Last, we summarize the current knowledge of the molecular characteristics of high-grade budding tumors in the context of personalized treatment approaches and biomarker discovery. PMID:26476568

  1. 75 FR 8489 - Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX in the Federal Register (33 FR 19923). We received... rule as it was proposed in the notice of proposed rulemaking (33 FR 19923). Regulatory Analyses We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport,...

  2. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to...

  3. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn from....6? W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  4. 33 CFR 110.194 - Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. 110.194 Section 110.194 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.194 Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. (a) The...

  5. Does Delaying Kindergarten Entrance Give Children a Head Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha

    2006-01-01

    The rising trend in the minimum entrance age for kindergarten in the US has been motivated by findings from cross-sectional studies that older entrants have more favorable school outcomes compared to younger entrants. However, these studies fail to account for endogeneity in entrance age resulting from parental choice, leading to biased estimates…

  6. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 33 FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 33 FACING EAST. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE PLANTING BOXES ON EACH SIDE OF ENTRANCE AND CONCRETE CANOPY OVERHANG ABOVE. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Barracks, West Loch, B Avenue near Arizona Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Temperature-mediated changes in seed dormancy and light requirement for Penstemon palmeri (Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, S.G.; Meyer, S.E. )

    1992-03-01

    Penstemon palmeri is a short-lived perennial herb colonizing disturbed sites in semiarid habitats in the western US. In this study seed was harvested from six native and four seeded populations during two consecutive years. In laboratory germination trials at constant 15C, considerable between-lot variation in primary dormancy and light requirement was observed. Four weeks of moist chilling (1C) induced secondary dormancy at 15C. Cold-induced secondary dormancy was reversed by one week of dark incubation at 30C. This warm incubation treatment also reduced the light requirement of unchilled, after-ripened seed. Fluctuations in dormancy and light requirement of buried seeds have been linked to seasonal changes in soil temperature. Penstemon palmeri germination responses to temperature appear to be similar to those of facultative winter annuals.

  8. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of Spirodela dormancy without reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher plants exhibit a remarkable phenotypic plasticity to adapt to adverse environmental changes. The Greater Duckweed Spirodela, as an aquatic plant, presents exceptional tolerance to cold winters through its dormant structure of turions in place of seeds. Abundant starch in turions permits them to sink and escape the freezing surface of waters. Due to their clonal propagation, they are the fastest growing biomass on earth, providing yet an untapped source for industrial applications. Results We used next generation sequencing technology to examine the transcriptome of turion development triggered by exogenous ABA. A total of 208 genes showed more than a 4-fold increase compared with 154 down-regulated genes in developing turions. The analysis of up-regulated differential expressed genes in response to dormancy exposed an enriched interplay among various pathways: signal transduction, seed dehydration, carbohydrate and secondary metabolism, and senescence. On the other side, the genes responsible for rapid growth and biomass accumulation through DNA assembly, protein synthesis and carbon fixation are repressed. Noticeably, three members of late embryogenesis abundant protein family are exclusively expressed during turion formation. High expression level of key genes in starch synthesis are APS1, APL3 and GBSSI, which could artificially be reduced for re-directing carbon flow from photosynthesis to create a higher energy biomass. Conclusions The identification and functional annotation of differentially expressed genes open a major step towards understanding the molecular network underlying vegetative frond dormancy. Moreover, genes have been identified that could be engineered in duckweeds for practical applications easing agricultural production of food crops. PMID:24456086

  9. Map-Based Cloning of Seed Dormancy1-2 Identified a Gibberellin Synthesis Gene Regulating the Development of Endosperm-Imposed Dormancy in Rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Heng; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Jinfeng; Mispan, Muhamad S; Cao, Zhuanqin; Beighley, Donn H; Yang, Jianchang; Gu, Xing-You

    2015-11-01

    Natural variation in seed dormancy is controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci in major crop or model plants. This research aimed to clone and characterize the Seed Dormancy1-2 (qSD1-2) locus associated with endosperm-imposed dormancy and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa). qSD1-2 was delimited to a 20-kb region, which contains OsGA20ox2 and had an additive effect on germination. Naturally occurring or induced loss-of-function mutations of the gibberellin (GA) synthesis gene enhanced seed dormancy and also reduced plant height. Expression of this gene in seeds (including endospermic cells) during early development increased GA accumulation to promote tissue morphogenesis and maturation programs. The mutant allele prevalent in semidwarf cultivars reduced the seed GA content by up to 2-fold at the early stage, which decelerated tissue morphogenesis including endosperm cell differentiation, delayed abscisic acid accumulation by a shift in the temporal distribution pattern, and postponed dehydration, physiological maturity, and germinability development. As the endosperm of developing seeds dominates the moisture equilibrium and desiccation status of the embryo in cereal crops, qSD1-2 is proposed to control primary dormancy by a GA-regulated dehydration mechanism. Allelic distribution of OsGA20ox2, the rice Green Revolution gene, was associated with the indica and japonica subspeciation. However, this research provided no evidence that the primitive indica- and common japonica-specific alleles at the presumably domestication-related locus functionally differentiate in plant height and seed dormancy. Thus, the evolutionary mechanism of this agriculturally important gene remains open for discussion. PMID:26373662

  10. Crystal structures of the Gon7/Pcc1 and Bud32/Cgi121 complexes provide a model for the complete yeast KEOPS complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Collinet, Bruno; Graille, Marc; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Lazar, Noureddine; Libri, Domenico; Durand, Dominique; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2015-01-01

    The yeast KEOPS protein complex comprising Kae1, Bud32, Cgi121, Pcc1 and Gon7 is responsible for the essential tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) modification. Deletion of genes coding for the KEOPS subunits also affects telomere elongation and transcriptional regulation. In the present work, the crystal structure of Bud32/Cgi121 in complex with ADP revealed that ADP is bound in the catalytic site of Bud32 in a canonical manner characteristic of Protein Kinase A (PKA) family proteins. We found that Gon7 forms a stable heterodimer with Pcc1 and report the crystal structure of the Pcc1-Gon7 heterodimer. Gon7 interacts with the same Pcc1 region engaged in the archaeal Pcc1 homodimer. We further show that yeast KEOPS, unlike its archaeal counterpart, exists as a heteropentamer in which Gon7, Pcc1, Kae1, Bud32 and Cgi121 also adopt a linear arrangement. We constructed a model of yeast KEOPS that provides structural insight into the role of Gon7. The model also revealed the presence of a highly positively charged crater surrounding the entrance of Kae1 that likely binds tRNA. PMID:25735745

  11. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  12. Desiccation tolerance of dormant buds from selected Prunus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormant buds of woody plant species present a convenient material for backing-up of germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Routinely, this type of material is used in long-term preservation of only a few species (e.g. apple and sour cherry). Cryopreservation procedures of dormant buds are species dependent, ...

  13. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Barkai, Naama

    Article Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast Ilya Soifer & Naama yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants control mechanisms in budding yeast. Keywords cell growth; size control; START; yeast genetics Subject

  14. 9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  15. 2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  16. 10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM BUILDING; STAIRS IN FOREGROUND LEAD TO BASKETBALL COURT/STAGE AREA. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. Detail of main entrance at west end of north front, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entrance at west end of north front, with original air force emblems on doors - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. 6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING NORTH, August 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING SOUTH, summer 1985 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Detail view of the west elevation entrance door, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the west elevation entrance door, showing the door knocker & house numbers (Duplicate view of HABS DC-832-3) - Clements-de Sibour House, 1539 Twenty-ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 1. BUILDING 324, SOUTH SIDE, FROM F STREET OPPOSITE ENTRANCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 324, SOUTH SIDE, FROM F STREET OPPOSITE ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall on east side of building, facing southeast. Ticket booth center foreground, stairway to auditorium right foreground. - Community Hall, Rainier Avenue & View Drive, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  7. DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. 39. DINING ROOM, LOOKING (NORTH) BACK TOWARD ENTRANCE. BEFORE 1907, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DINING ROOM, LOOKING (NORTH) BACK TOWARD ENTRANCE. BEFORE 1907, GUESTS AT THE INN ATE FAMILY-STYLE AT LONG RECTANGULAR TABLES. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  9. 42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, AND HISTORIC PARKING AREA WITH STORAGE SHED IN CENTER BACKGROUND. (NOTE: NEW CONCRETE SIDEWALK ALONG DUDLEY STREET IN RIGHT FOREGROUND). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM OUTSIDE. OFFICE SAFE AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING 7 SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING 7 SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE TO OFFICES; MANAGEMENT AND FINANCE OFFICES WERE LOCATED HERE; BUILDING 23 IS AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH - Bryant Electric Company, 1421 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS APPROXIMATELY 30 YARDS BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING 23, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. VIEW OF TYPICAL SIDE DOOR ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 23, (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TYPICAL SIDE DOOR ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 23, (AT SOUTHWEST CORNER), FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL BUILDING, WEST FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Firing Control Building, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) OF BUILDING 23, FROM MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) OF BUILDING 23, FROM MIDDLE OF COURTYARD, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest Pumpkin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, WITH NEW CHURCH ON RIGHT - Valley Grove Churches, Old Church, County Road 29, 1/4 mile from Minnesota Highway 246, Nerstrand, Rice County, MN

  2. 1. General view of guard house and entrance to Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of guard house and entrance to Coast Guard Base from La Putilla Street, looking southwest - U.S. Coast Guard Base, San Juan, Guard House, La Puntilla Finalle, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  3. 42. VIEW OF WALL AT EAST ENTRANCE TO WALKWAY. 'FRANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF WALL AT EAST ENTRANCE TO WALKWAY. 'FRANK AUZA, FLAGSTAFF SHEEP CO.' SCRATCHED INTO FRESH MORTAR CAP ON STONE WALL. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Main branch looking west from lake. Chicago River entrance locks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main branch looking west from lake. Chicago River entrance locks, Outer Drive Bridgge in foreground. - Chicago River Bascule Bridges, Spanning Chicago River & its north & south branches, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28), FACING WEST. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Hatch Adit, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  7. South side (red cross office entrance). Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side (red cross office entrance). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Red Cross Building, South Eighth Street Bounded by West McAfee Avenue on South & West Harlow Avenue on North, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR INTO SITTING ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR INTO SITTING ROOM AND DOOR TO PASSAGEWAY AND FERRY BUILDING IN DISTANCE - Ellis Island, New Immigration Building, New York Harbor, New York, New York County, NY

  9. 3. View of entrance to cellar and heavy timber framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of entrance to cellar and heavy timber framing of the wine press building, looking southeast. - Merkel Farmstead, Wine Press Building, 8570 Louella Lane, south side of U.S. Route 64, Shiloh, St. Clair County, IL

  10. 14. Main entrance to Gwing from Apollo Drive, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Main entrance to G-wing from Apollo Drive, looking north - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note Boardman Roberts's painting, Great Codifers of Law) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. View of south grounds, from west entrance, looking south towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south grounds, from west entrance, looking south towards Wilshire Blvd. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN PASADENA AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND WALLIS ST. LOOKING 130° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG EAST HILL DRIVE. BUILDING 1 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 2 ON LEFT, FACING EAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  17. 21. FOLDING DOORS AT RAIL SPUR ENTRANCE TO NORTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FOLDING DOORS AT RAIL SPUR ENTRANCE TO NORTH END OF PLANT. VIEW TO EAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 17. DETAILED VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE OF THE COTTON WOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAILED VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE OF THE COTTON WOOD PRESSURE PIPE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, March 9, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. Detail of stairway and main entrance on west front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stairway and main entrance on west front of center block, showing steps and frame canopy. View to southeast. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  20. North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; detail of pilaster base and capital - National Zoological Park, Elephant House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL WEST OF KITCHEN ENTRANCE, SHOWING ADOBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL WEST OF KITCHEN ENTRANCE, SHOWING ADOBE CONSTRUCTION AND EXTERIOR FINISH; CAMERA FACING EAST - Harry Carey Ranch, Ranch House, 28515 San Francisquito Canyon Road, Saugus, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 72. Detail of keystone emblem over the main entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Detail of keystone emblem over the main entrance to the Carpenter's Union Hall. The inscription translates 'Labor conquers all.' - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 ENTRANCE HALLWAY AND MAIN STAIRCASE OF HOUSE, LOOKING FROM WEST TO EAST - Governor John Hubbard House, 52 Winthrop Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  5. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ALONG THE OLD BANKHEAD HIGHWAY (NOW 20TH STREET) AND ELLIOTT BOULEVARD - G. W. Posey Store, Twentieth Street & Elliot Boulevard, Jasper, Walker County, AL

  6. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER, ENTRANCE TO ENGINE TEST ROOM Kodiak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER, ENTRANCE TO ENGINE TEST ROOM - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Aircraft Engine Test Building, Fifth Street & Tom Styles Road, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  7. 2. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY. S. Lucas, Photographer, 1934 ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY. S. Lucas, Photographer, 1934 ENTRANCE DETAIL, SS. PETER & PAUL'S JESUIT CHURCH, DETROIT MICHIGAN - Sts. Peter & Paul's Jesuit Church, East Jefferson Avenue & Saint Antoine Street, Detroit, Wayne County, MI

  8. 31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. '1944 JOE LANDETA' SCRATCHED INTO FRESH CONCRETE. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 1. NORTHWEST CORNER ENTRANCE OF BUILDING, WITH VIADUCT PIER FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST CORNER ENTRANCE OF BUILDING, WITH VIADUCT PIER FOR JULIEN DUBUQUE BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 5. Keeper's house, detail of entrance porch, southeast corner, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Keeper's house, detail of entrance porch, southeast corner, looking northwest - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  11. 70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the snake or worm fences used to reinforce the roadway alignment. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. 15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ROOM 47. THE OAK CABINETS ARE USED TO STORE ROCK CORE SAMPLES. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  13. FEATURE D, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENTRANCE MOSTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE D, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENTRANCE MOSTLY BURIED IN SAND, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  15. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM WITH ENTRANCE DOORS ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM WITH ENTRANCE DOORS ON THE EAST WALL - Penn School Historic District, Butler Building, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  16. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. 22. CLOSEUP OF BUNKER ENTRANCE WITH WORK CREW PREPARING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CLOSEUP OF BUNKER ENTRANCE WITH WORK CREW PREPARING TO MOVE DUMPSTER. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 79-7187. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME AS SEEN THROUGH SIDE ARCHED OPENING - U.S. Soldiers Home, Scott Building, Rock Creek Church Road & Upshur Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST (with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN OF BLACK TCI-US STEEL RED ORE MINE WORKERS - Company School for Blacks, 413 Morgan Road, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  4. Interior view, close view of stairwell and entrance to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of stairwell and entrance to the great hall - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. View looking from the Tenth Street vehicular entrance to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the Tenth Street vehicular entrance to the Justice Department Building to show the great court and fountain - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH OF MAIN ENTRANCE WITH MEASURING STICK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH OF MAIN ENTRANCE WITH MEASURING STICK - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 78, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  7. ELEVATION OF ENTRANCE AND PORCH WITH MEASURING STICK New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION OF ENTRANCE AND PORCH WITH MEASURING STICK - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 52, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  8. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ELEVATION. THE WINDOWS ARE HINGED AT THE BOTTOM AND OPEN INWARD - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  9. Seed dormancy and germination in Jeffersonia dubia (Berberidaceae) as affected by temperature and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Y H; Lee, S Y; Kim, K S

    2015-03-01

    The genus Jeffersonia, which contains only two species, has a trans-Atlantic disjunct distribution. The aims of this study were to determine the requirements for breaking dormancy and germination of J. dubia seeds and to compare its dormancy characteristics with those of the congener in eastern North America. Ripe seeds of J. dubia contain an underdeveloped embryo and were permeable to water. In nature, seeds were dispersed in May, while embryos began to grow in September, and were fully elongated by late November. Germination started in March of the next year, and seeds emerged as seedlings soon after germination. In laboratory experiments, incubation at high temperatures (25 °C, 25/15 °C) for at least 8 weeks was required to initiate embryo growth, while a transfer to moderate temperatures (20/10 °C, 15/6 °C) was needed for the completion of embryo growth. At least 8 weeks at 5 °C was effective in overcoming physiological dormancy and for germination in seeds after the embryos had fully elongated. Thus, both high and low temperatures were essential to break dormancy. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) treatment could substitute for the high temperature requirement, but not for the low temperature requirement. Based on the dormancy-breaking requirements, it is confirmed that the seeds have deep simple morphophysiological dormancy. This dormancy type is similar to that of seeds of the eastern North American species J. diphylla. Although seeds require 10-11 months from seed dispersal to germination in nature, under controlled conditions they required only 3 months after treatment with 1000 mg·l(-1) GA3 , followed by incubation at 15/6 °C. This represents practical knowledge for propagation of these plants from seed. PMID:25319374

  10. Fluctuation of Arabidopsis seed dormancy with relative humidity and temperature during dry storage.

    PubMed

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Leymarie, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The changes in germination potential of freshly harvested seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana stored in various combinations of temperature and relative humidity were investigated over 63 weeks of storage. Seeds of the wild type Col-0 and of two mutants displaying low and high levels of dormancy, cat2-1 and mtr4-1, respectively, were stored at harvest in 24 different environments including a combination of eight relative humidities, from 1 to 85%, and four temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25 °C). These mutations did not influence behaviour of seeds during storage. Primary dormant seeds did not germinate in darkness at 25 °C but acquired the potential to germinate at this temperature within 7 weeks when stored in relative humidities close to 50% across all temperatures. Sorption isotherms and Arrhenius plots demonstrated that the seed moisture content of 0.06g H2O/g dry weight was a critical value below which dormancy release was associated with reactions of negative activation energy and above which dormancy release increased with temperature. Longer storage times when relative humidity did not exceed 75-85% led to decreased germination at 25 °C, corresponding to the induction of secondary dormancy. Dormancy release and induction of secondary dormancy in the dry state were associated with induction or repression of key genes related to abscisic acid and gibberellins biosynthesis and signalling pathways. In high relative humidity, prolonged storage of seeds induced ageing and progressive loss of viability, but this was not related to the initial level of dormancy. PMID:26428064

  11. Fluctuation of Arabidopsis seed dormancy with relative humidity and temperature during dry storage

    PubMed Central

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Leymarie, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The changes in germination potential of freshly harvested seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana stored in various combinations of temperature and relative humidity were investigated over 63 weeks of storage. Seeds of the wild type Col-0 and of two mutants displaying low and high levels of dormancy, cat2-1 and mtr4-1, respectively, were stored at harvest in 24 different environments including a combination of eight relative humidities, from 1 to 85%, and four temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25 °C). These mutations did not influence behaviour of seeds during storage. Primary dormant seeds did not germinate in darkness at 25 °C but acquired the potential to germinate at this temperature within 7 weeks when stored in relative humidities close to 50% across all temperatures. Sorption isotherms and Arrhenius plots demonstrated that the seed moisture content of 0.06g H2O/g dry weight was a critical value below which dormancy release was associated with reactions of negative activation energy and above which dormancy release increased with temperature. Longer storage times when relative humidity did not exceed 75–85% led to decreased germination at 25 °C, corresponding to the induction of secondary dormancy. Dormancy release and induction of secondary dormancy in the dry state were associated with induction or repression of key genes related to abscisic acid and gibberellins biosynthesis and signalling pathways. In high relative humidity, prolonged storage of seeds induced ageing and progressive loss of viability, but this was not related to the initial level of dormancy. PMID:26428064

  12. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation as case studies

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation: somitogenesis and feather bud formation. We outline mathematical models to describe each patterning mechanism

  14. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  15. Budding and Fission of a multiphase vesicle

    E-print Network

    Jean-Marc Allain; Martine Ben Amar

    2005-04-08

    We present a model of bi-phasic vesicle in the limit of large surface tension. In this regime, the vesicle is completely stretched and well described by two spherical caps with a fold which concentrates the membrane stress. The conservation laws and geometric constraints restrict the space of possible shapes to a pair of solutions labeled by a parameter $\\tau$ given by {\\it line tension/pressure}. For a given $\\tau$ value, the two solutions differ by the length of the interface between domains. For a critical value $\\tau\\_c$, the two vesicle shapes become identical and no solution exists above this critical value. This model sheds new light on two proposed mechanisms (osmotic shocks and molecule absorption) to explain the budding and the fission in recent experiments.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Budding?

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Benjamin G.; Shehu-Xhilaga, Miranda; Demirov, Dimiter G.; Adamson, Catherine S.; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Stephen, Andrew G.; Fisher, Robert J.; Freed, Eric O.

    2008-01-01

    Infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important model system for studying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection due to numerous similarities in pathogenesis induced by these two lentiviruses. However, many molecular aspects of FIV replication remain poorly understood. It is well established that retroviruses use short peptide motifs in Gag, known as late domains, to usurp cellular endosomal sorting machinery and promote virus release from infected cells. For example, the Pro-Thr/Ser-Ala-Pro [P(T/S)AP] motif of HIV-1 Gag interacts directly with Tsg101, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I). A Tyr-Pro-Asp-Leu (YPDL) motif in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and a related sequence in HIV-1, bind the endosomal sorting factor Alix. In this study we sought to identify and characterize FIV late domain(s) and elucidate cellular machinery involved in FIV release. We determined that mutagenesis of a PSAP motif in FIV Gag, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Tsg101 expression, and overexpression of a P(T/S)AP-binding fragment of Tsg101 (TSG-5?) each inhibited FIV release. We also observed direct binding of FIV Gag peptides to Tsg101. In contrast, mutagenesis of a potential Alix-binding motif in FIV Gag did not affect FIV release. Similarly, expression of the HIV-1/EIAV Gag-binding domain of Alix (Alix-V) did not disrupt FIV budding, and FIV Gag peptides showed no affinity for Alix-V. Our data demonstrate that FIV relies predominantly on a Tsg101-binding PSAP motif in the C terminus of Gag to promote virus release in HeLa cells, and this budding mechanism is highly conserved in feline cells. PMID:18094166

  17. Virus-Induced Dormancy in the Archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Maria A.; Zhang, Changyi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the interaction between Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus (SSV9) and its native archaeal host Sulfolobus islandicus. We show that upon exposure to SSV9, S. islandicus strain RJW002 has a significant growth delay where the majority of cells are dormant (viable but not growing) for 24 to 48 hours postinfection (hpi) compared to the growth of controls without virus. We demonstrate that in this system, dormancy (i) is induced by both active and inactive virus particles at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), (ii) is reversible in strains with active CRISPR-Cas immunity that prevents the establishment of productive infections, and (iii) results in dramatic and rapid host death if virus persists in the culture even at low levels. Our results add a new dimension to evolutionary models of virus-host interactions, showing that the mere presence of a virus induces host cell stasis and death independent of infection. This novel, highly sensitive, and risky bet-hedging antiviral response must be integrated into models of virus-host interactions in this system so that the true ecological impact of viruses can be predicted and understood. PMID:25827422

  18. Epoxyeicosanoids stimulate multiorgan metastasis and tumor dormancy escape in mice

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Dipak; Edin, Matthew L.; Lee, Craig R.; Huang, Sui; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Butterfield, Catherine E.; Barnés, Carmen M.; Mammoto, Akiko; Mammoto, Tadanori; Luria, Ayala; Benny, Ofra; Chaponis, Deviney M.; Dudley, Andrew C.; Greene, Emily R.; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer-Pietramaggiori, Sandra S.; Short, Sarah M.; Seth, Meetu; Lih, Fred B.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Yang, Jun; Schwendener, Reto A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Falck, John R.; Manthati, Vijaya L.; Ingber, Donald E.; Kaipainen, Arja; D’Amore, Patricia A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are small molecules produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. They are lipid mediators that act as autocrine or paracrine factors to regulate inflammation and vascular tone. As a result, drugs that raise EET levels are in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension and many other diseases. However, despite their pleiotropic effects on cells, little is known about the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in cancer. Here, using genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endogenous EET levels, we demonstrate that EETs are critical for primary tumor growth and metastasis in a variety of mouse models of cancer. Remarkably, we found that EETs stimulated extensive multiorgan metastasis and escape from tumor dormancy in several tumor models. This systemic metastasis was not caused by excessive primary tumor growth but depended on endothelium-derived EETs at the site of metastasis. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, while EET antagonists suppressed tumor growth and metastasis, demonstrating in vivo that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect cancer growth. Furthermore, inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme that metabolizes EETs, elevated endogenous EET levels and promoted primary tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, our data indicate a central role for EETs in tumorigenesis, offering a mechanistic link between lipid signaling and cancer and emphasizing the critical importance of considering possible effects of EET-modulating drugs on cancer. PMID:22182838

  19. Enhanced vadose zone nitrogen removal by poplar during dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ausland, Hayden; Ward, Adam; Licht, Louis; Just, Craig

    2015-01-01

    A pilot-scale, engineered poplar tree vadose zone system was utilized to determine effluent nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium concentrations resulting from intermittent dosing of a synthetic wastewater onto sandy soils at 4.5°C. The synthetic wastewater replicated that of an industrial food processor that irrigates onto sandy soils even during dormancy which can leave groundwater vulnerable to NO3(-) contamination. Data from a 21-day experiment was used to assess various Hydrus model parameterizations that simulated the impact of dormant roots. Bromide tracer data indicated that roots impacted the hydraulic properties of the packed sand by increasing effective dispersion, water content and residence time. The simulated effluent NO3(-) concentration on day 21 was 1.2 mg-N L(-1) in the rooted treatments compared to a measured value of 1.0 ± 0.72 mg-N L(-1). For the non-rooted treatment, the simulated NO3(-) concentration was 4.7 mg-N L(-1) compared to 5.1 ± 3.5 mg-N L(-1) measured on day 21. The model predicted a substantial "root benefit" toward protecting groundwater through increased denitrification in rooted treatments during a 21-day simulation with 8% of dosed nitrogen converted to N2 compared to 3.3% converted in the non-rooted test cells. Simulations at the 90-day timescale provided similar results, indicating increased denitrification in rooted treatments. PMID:26030360

  20. [Effects of photoperiod on photosynthesis and PSII performance in peach during dormancy induction].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Mei; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Gao, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Xiu-De; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    Long-day and short-day photoperiods were set artificially, with natural condition as the control, to examine photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence transient kinetics of 6-year-old 'Chunjie' peach cultivar (Prunus persica cv. Chunjie), and to investigate the effects of photoperiod on photosynthesis of the northern deciduous fruit trees. The tree advanced into the dormancy induction period under the short-day condition, and delayed under the long-day condition. In the dormancy induction period, the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased, and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, suggesting that the Pn decreased because of non-stomatal limitation. Maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (PhiPo, or Fv/Fm), potential activity (Fv/Fo), probability that a trapped exciton moved an electron into the electron transport chain beyond Q(A)-(Psi(o)) and performance index on absorption basis (Pl(ABS)) decreased in the dormancy induction period, suggesting that the electron transport capacity of photosynthetic electron transport chain was inhibited, possibly due to the damage to downstream electron transport chain (after Q(A)- acceptor) of PS II reaction center. Long-day photoperiod improved Pn in the dormancy induction period, and reduced the range of decline in PI(ABS) and the injured degree of photosystem. Short-day photoperiod deepened and accelerated the damage to photosynthetic apparatus significantly. The induced effect of photoperiod was associated with the dormancy processes. PMID:25345042

  1. Are fungi important for breaking seed dormancy in desert species? Experimental evidence in Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sánchez, P; Ortega-Amaro, M A; Jiménez-Bremont, J F; Flores, J

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of Opuntia spp. have physiological dormancy; they need a period of after-ripening to break dormancy, and the embryos have low growth potential. We evaluated the combined effects of seed age and presence of fungi on the testa on germination of Opuntia streptacantha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico), assuming that older seeds have broken seed dormancy and fungi can reduce mechanical resistance to germination. In a preliminary experiment, we found no germination of 9-year-old (1998) and freshly collected (2007) seeds. However, we obtained 67% and 27% germination from 9-year-old and fresh non-sterilized seeds, respectively, and found fungi growing on the testa of all germinated seeds. Two fungal strains were isolated and identified using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis: Penicillium chrysogenum and Phoma sp. In a second experiment, we inoculated seeds with strains of P. chrysogenum and Phoma sp., as well as Trichoderma koningii and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Gto17S2), to evaluate their ability to break seed dormancy. Seeds inoculated with P. chrysogenum, Phoma sp. and T. koningii had higher germination than controls for both seed ages, but germination was higher in older seeds. Scanning electron microscopy showed that these fungi eroded the funiculus, reducing its resistance. Binucleate Rhizoctonia did not lead to germination and controls had almost no germination. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. PMID:21143736

  2. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy. PMID:25616734

  3. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  4. The qSD12 Underlying Gene Promotes Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Early Developing Seeds to Induce Primary Dormancy in Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds acquire primary dormancy during their development and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is considered to play a role in inducing the dormancy. qSD12 is a major seed dormancy QTL identified from weedy rice. This research was conducted to identify qSD12 candidate genes, isolate the candidat...

  5. Breaking tuber dormancy in Helianthus tuberosus L. and interspecific hybrids of Helianthus annuus L. x Helianthus tuberosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers are dormant from the late fall to the following spring. In the wild, tuber dormancy is broken after exposure to winter cold, resulting in sprouting and shoot development in the spring when environmental conditions are favorable. The dormancy period typically limits H. ...

  6. Reduction of seed dormancy in Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. by in-dark seed selection and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strong seed dormancy has been an obstacle for field production of Echinacea species. Previous research on overcoming Echinacea seed dormancy has been extensive and focused on treatment methods, which involve time and expense, and are incompatible with organic production if synthetic chemicals are us...

  7. Positional Cloning of qSD7-1, a Dormancy Locus Associated with Red Pericarp Color in Weedy Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy has been associated with red pericarp color in cereal crops for about a century. However, it remains unknown if the association arises from pleiotropy or linkage. We identified a dormancy locus (i.e., qSD7-1) in the genomic region containing the red pericarp color gene Rc in weedy rice...

  8. qSD7-1 is the first dormancy QTL cloned from weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed weedy rice (SS-18-2) as a genetic system to investigate mechanisms regulating natural variation in seed dormancy. This included introduction of a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) enhancing seed dormancy into the non-dormant genetic background of cultivated rice (EM93-1) to clone and...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower. Attempts have been made to develop simple techniques for breaking seed dormancy. In the first experiment, different techniques were evaluated using treatments such as a growth regulator, Ethrel, priming (water soaking fo...

  10. BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA MAIN ENTRANCE ON PEEL (5TH AND 6TH FLOOR) AND

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    1ST FLOOR ENTRANCE ELEVATOR WASHROOMS BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA MAIN ENTRANCE ON PEEL (5TH MCINTYRE MEDICAL SCIENCES BUILDING 3655 SIR WILLIAM OSLER PINE AVENUE PROMENADESIRWILLIAMOSLER ACCESSIBLE BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA MAIN ENTRANCE ON PEEL (5TH AND 6TH FLOOR) AND SOUTH ENTRANCE (1ST FLOOR) ALL

  11. Molecular and Pathogenetic Aspects of Tumor Budding in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Heather; Lugli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, tumor budding in colorectal cancer has gained much attention as an indicator of lymph node metastasis, distant metastatic disease, local recurrence, worse overall and disease-free survival, and as an independent prognostic factor. Tumor buds, defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small clusters of up to five tumor cells at the peritumoral invasive front (peritumoral buds) or within the main tumor body (intratumoral buds), are thought to represent the morphological correlate of cancer cells having undergone epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important mechanism for the progression of epithelial cancers. In contrast to their undisputed prognostic power and potential to influence clinical management, our current understanding of the biological background of tumor buds is less established. Most studies examining tumor buds have attempted to recapitulate findings of mechanistic EMT studies using immunohistochemical markers. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of studies examining protein expression profiles of tumor buds and to illustrate the molecular pathways and crosstalk involved in their formation and maintenance. PMID:25806371

  12. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  13. Seed dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis: chromatin remodelling and regulation of DOG1 in response to seasonal environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Footitt, Steven; Müller, Kerstin; Kermode, Allison R; Finch-Savage, William E

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of chromatin remodelling in dormancy cycling in the soil seed bank (SSB) is poorly understood. Natural variation between the winter and summer annual Arabidopsis ecotypes Cvi and Bur was exploited to investigate the expression of genes involved in chromatin remodelling via histone 2B (H2B) ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination and histone acetylation/deacetylation, the repressive histone methyl transferases CURLY LEAF (CLF) and SWINGER (SWN), and the gene silencing repressor ROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1) and promoter of silencing KYP/SUVH4 (KRYPTONITE), during dormancy cycling in the SSB. ROS1 expression was positively correlated with dormancy while the reverse was observed for CLF and KYP/SUVH4. We propose ROS1 dependent repression of silencing and a sequential requirement of CLF and KYP/SUVH4 dependent gene repression and silencing for the maintenance and suppression of dormancy during dormancy cycling. Seasonal expression of H2B modifying genes was correlated negatively with temperature and positively with DOG1 expression, as were histone acetyltransferase genes, with histone deacetylases positively correlated with temperature. Changes in the histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were seen on DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION1) in Cvi during dormancy cycling. H3K4me3 activating marks remained stable along DOG1. During relief of dormancy, H3K27me3 repressive marks slowly accumulated and accelerated on exposure to light completing dormancy loss. We propose that these marks on DOG1 serve as a thermal sensing mechanism during dormancy cycling in preparation for light repression of dormancy. Overall, chromatin remodelling plays a vital role in temporal sensing through regulation of gene expression. PMID:25439058

  14. Seed dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis: chromatin remodelling and regulation of DOG1 in response to seasonal environmental signals

    PubMed Central

    Footitt, Steven; Müller, Kerstin; Kermode, Allison R; Finch-Savage, William E

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of chromatin remodelling in dormancy cycling in the soil seed bank (SSB) is poorly understood. Natural variation between the winter and summer annual Arabidopsis ecotypes Cvi and Bur was exploited to investigate the expression of genes involved in chromatin remodelling via histone 2B (H2B) ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination and histone acetylation/deacetylation, the repressive histone methyl transferases CURLY LEAF (CLF) and SWINGER (SWN), and the gene silencing repressor ROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1) and promoter of silencing KYP/SUVH4 (KRYPTONITE), during dormancy cycling in the SSB. ROS1 expression was positively correlated with dormancy while the reverse was observed for CLF and KYP/SUVH4. We propose ROS1 dependent repression of silencing and a sequential requirement of CLF and KYP/SUVH4 dependent gene repression and silencing for the maintenance and suppression of dormancy during dormancy cycling. Seasonal expression of H2B modifying genes was correlated negatively with temperature and positively with DOG1 expression, as were histone acetyltransferase genes, with histone deacetylases positively correlated with temperature. Changes in the histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were seen on DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION1) in Cvi during dormancy cycling. H3K4me3 activating marks remained stable along DOG1. During relief of dormancy, H3K27me3 repressive marks slowly accumulated and accelerated on exposure to light completing dormancy loss. We propose that these marks on DOG1 serve as a thermal sensing mechanism during dormancy cycling in preparation for light repression of dormancy. Overall, chromatin remodelling plays a vital role in temporal sensing through regulation of gene expression. PMID:25439058

  15. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    PubMed Central

    Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8?-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8?-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. PMID:23531630

  16. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with <45% germination and 20% seedling emergence in freshly harvested seed. Hence, 3 months of after-ripening could be considered a suitable treatment period for rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA1 /ABA, GA7 /ABA, GA12 /ABA, GA20 /ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA3 /ABA, GA4 /ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering ?-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak ?-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. PMID:26205956

  17. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    PubMed Central

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on structural and chemical aspects. PMID:25101104

  18. Dissecting the spatial structure of overlapping transcription in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Danford, Timothy W. (Timothy William), 1979-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational and algorithmic method for the analysis of high-resolution transcription data in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We begin by describing a computational system for storing ...

  19. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  20. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  1. Ubiquitin is part of the retrovirus budding machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Akash; Chau, Vincent; Wills, John W.

    2000-11-01

    Retroviruses contain relatively large amounts of ubiquitin, but the significance of this finding has been unknown. Here, we show that drugs that are known to reduce the level of free ubiquitin in the cell dramatically reduced the release of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus. This effect was suppressed by overexpressing ubiquitin and also by directly fusing ubiquitin to the C terminus of Gag, the viral protein that directs budding and particle release. The block to budding was found to be at the plasma membrane, and electron microscopy revealed that the reduced level of ubiquitin results in a failure of mature virus particles to separate from each other and from the plasma membrane during budding. These data indicate that ubiquitin is actually part of the budding machinery.

  2. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    SciTech Connect

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C. Univ. of California, San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA )

    1988-07-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-({sup 14}C)deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state.

  3. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L ?-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 ?mol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants. PMID:23179705

  4. Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section through foyer showing ticket window; detail front entrance with tiling; rear of ticket window. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 13, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are transcription factors that have been linked to endodormancy induction. The evergrowing mutation in peach, which renders it incapable of entering endodormancy, resulted from a deletion in a series of DAM genes (Bielenberg et al. 2008). Likewise, DAM genes ...

  6. Cyclic dormancy, temperature and water availability control germination of Carrichtera annua, an invasive

    E-print Network

    Chesson, Peter L.

    Cyclic dormancy, temperature and water availability control germination of Carrichtera annua of Arizona,Tucson, Arizona, USA Abstract We studied the germination of seeds of Carrichtera annua L. from to different combinations of temperature and water availability. Germination was affected by season

  7. Developing a Genetic System to Clone Seed Dormancy Genes from Red Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that is critical to the persistence and survival of weedy plants in agroecosystems. Fundamental information on physiological, biochemical, and molecular regulatory mechanisms is lacking. Thus, the goal of our research is to identify mechanisms that regulate the qua...

  8. Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation-induced dormancy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    REPORT Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation- induced dormancy Patrice A. Morrow1 stresses such as herbivory. We monitored 140 putative Solidago missouriensis clones (hereafter Ôclones canadensis. Eight of the clones produced no above-ground growth in the season following defoliation. Though

  9. Tuber Dormancy Lasting Eight Years in the Wild Potato Solanum Jamesii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. Solanum jamesii plants were collected by the author from the wild in New Mexico and Arizona, USA in 1998 and grown in the greenhouse. Tubers harvested in 1999 were placed in pape...

  10. Cloning, characterization, regulation, and function of dormancy-associated MADS-BOX genes from leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are transcription factors that have been linked to endodormancy induction. The evergrowing mutation in peach, which renders it incapable of entering endodormancy, resulted from a deletion in a series of DAM genes (Bielenberg et al. 2008). Likewise, DAM genes ...

  11. Tuber Dormancy Lasting Eight Years in the Wild Potato Solanum Jamesii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology of tuber dormancy is of practical interest for commercial potato as it is related to efficient storage of the crop, and vigorous and uniform sprouting of planted seed tubers. It is also of interest for germplasm preservation at the genebank. Since research is often advanced by study...

  12. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: Biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in meristems isolated from field-g...

  13. TEMPERATURE AND TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL EFFECTS ON BERMUDAGRASS GROWTH, DORMANCY AND FREEZING TOLERANCE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the transition zone in the southeastern U.S., growth regulators are being applied to bermudagrass in summer months and, recently, also in the fall. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of temperature and trinexapac-ethyl (TE) interactions in bermudagrass growth responses, dormanc...

  14. Seed production temperature regulation of primary dormancy occurs through control of seed coat phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Dana R; Kendall, Sarah L; Florance, Hannah; Fedi, Fabio; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Penfield, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes during seed production are important drivers of lot-to-lot variation in seed behaviour and enable wild species to time their life history with seasonal cues. Temperature during seed set is the dominant environmental signal determining the depth of primary dormancy, although the mechanisms though which temperature changes impart changes in dormancy state are still only partly understood. We used molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques to examine the mechanism through which temperature variation affects Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, low temperatures during seed maturation result in an increase in phenylpropanoid gene expression in seeds and that this correlates with higher concentrations of seed coat procyanidins. Lower maturation temperatures cause differences in coat permeability to tetrazolium, and mutants with increased seed coat permeability and/or low procyanidin concentrations are less able to enter strongly dormant states after exposure to low temperatures during seed maturation. Our data show that maternal temperature signalling regulates seed coat properties, and this is an important pathway through which the environmental signals control primary dormancy depth. PMID:25412428

  15. The qSD12 locus controls offspring tissue-imposed seed dormancy in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed component structures were grouped into maternal and offspring (embryo and endosperm) tissues to characterize a dormancy quantitative trait locus (QTL) for tissue-specific function using a marker-assisted genetic approach. The approach is devised to test if genotypic/allelic frequencies of a mar...

  16. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE–Like MADS box transcription factors linked to endodormancy induction. We have cloned and characterized several cDNA and genomic clones of DAM genes from the model perennial weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). We present evidence fo...

  17. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  18. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 ?m entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 ?m. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  19. 6. Interior view of main entrance vestibule looking towards lobby; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior view of main entrance vestibule looking towards lobby; showing wall mounted information stations and drinking fountain; near southeast corner of building on main floor; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  20. 21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS 881 AND 883. THE TUNNEL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1957 TO TRANSPORT ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance to the southern edge of the mansion grounds. The view illustrates significant grade change and includes rustic stone retaining walls, recently re-planted hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis), and canopy of mature Norway spruces (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  2. View looking to the arched entrances that divide the Departmental ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking to the arched entrances that divide the Departmental Auditorium from the Interstate Commerce Commission (east) and U.S. Customs Agency (originally Labor Department to the west) - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 26. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE FROM SECOND FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE FROM SECOND FLOOR. LOCAL LODGEPOLE PINE WHICH WAS VALUED FOR ITS INVARIABLE DIAMETER WAS USED TO CONSTRUCT THE COLUMNS AND BEAMS OF THE INN WHILE GNARLED OR DISEASED LOGS WERE SELECTED FOR THE BRACES AND BALUSTERS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE ROAD FROM FRONT OF HOUSE. NOTE STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ENTRANCE ROAD FROM FRONT OF HOUSE. NOTE STAIRS TO GARDEN ON LEFT, ROAD TO RIGHT, AND POMEGRANATE HEDGE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING SE. - Olompali State Historic Park, Mary Burdell Garden, U.S. Highway 101, Novato, Marin County, CA

  5. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. 34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  7. 42. ELEVATION EAST FACE BLDG. 4, 3, AND ENTRANCE BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. ELEVATION EAST FACE BLDG. 4, 3, AND ENTRANCE BLDG. 8. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  8. 1. Credit PSR. This view captures the main entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Credit PSR. This view captures the main entrance to the Administration/Shops Building, constructed in 1963, looking north northeast (30°). The plaque at the base of the flagpole commemorates the first firing of a liquid-fueled rocket engine at Test Stand "A" in 1945. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Administration & Shops Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Detail view of portal and storefront entrance at First Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of portal and storefront entrance at First Street facade. Note flush recessed panels above transom lights; a historic photograph portrays elaborate detail in these exterior panels. Beginning on inscription "Post Office Arcade" appears at right; this panel is covered by a sign reading "Collier Arcade" on the Broadway facade - Post Office Arcade, 2118 First Street, Fort Myers, Lee County, FL

  11. View of Arcade interior at entrance to Snack House Restaurant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arcade interior at entrance to Snack House Restaurant. Note scored plaster detail replicating stone construction joints on brick rearing walls, and detailed plaster relief panels. Various color schemed from panels and cornice details are visible throughout the building and in historic photographs - Post Office Arcade, 2118 First Street, Fort Myers, Lee County, FL

  12. 8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance and inner blast door. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW SHELTER AND THE TAPERING SHAPE OF THE SOUTHEAST END WALL OF AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. "Dog House" or vestibule at the secondstory entrance located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Dog House" or vestibule at the second-story entrance located at the intersection of the west Verandah of the south wing and the south Verandah of the rotunda extension. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 2. General view of guard house and entrance to Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of guard house and entrance to Coast Guard Base from La Putilla Street, with view of Motor Pool (Building 122) on right side looking west - U.S. Coast Guard Base, San Juan, Guard House, La Puntilla Finalle, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. 15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end of Building E-1, facing west towards Luckie Street. Replicates historic view at GA-2309-5. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. 2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC N. HAGAN (WHO CONTRACTED WITH FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT FOR THE DESIGN OF THIS HOUSE) - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  18. 3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. Chemicals related to Edison's experiments on the extraction of latex for rubber from the goldenrod plant. Room is set up based on reconstruction research done in 1972. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  19. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST WITH FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST WITH FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO FORMER TCI-US STEEL COMPANY BATHHOUSE FOR WHITE ORE MINERS. - Tennessee Coal & Iron-U.S. Steel Surface Plant, Company Bathhouse for White Ore Miners, East of State Route 150 on South slope of Red Mountain, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH SIDE FACADE AND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH SIDE FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO THE FORMER TCI-US STEEL COMPANY BATHHOUSE FOR COLORED ORE MINERS. - Tennessee Coal & Iron-U.S. Steel Surface Plant, Company Bathhouse for Black Ore Miners, East of State Route 150 on South slope of Red Mountain, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. HABS drawing field team at east entrance to Cyclorama Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS drawing field team at east entrance to Cyclorama Building. Front, left to right: Robyn Chrabascz (Roger Williams University), Brian Carnahan (University of Arkansas), Noelle McManus (Edinburgh College of Art, ICOMOS/Great Britian), Amanda Loughlin (Kansas State University). Standing: Steven Utz, Field Supervisor. - Cyclorama Building, 125 Taneytown Road, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  2. 69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO RESERVOIR ON THE RIGHT OF FOREBAY IN THE BACKGROUND (SHOWN BY THE WHITE X ON THE PHOTOGRAPHS), Print No. 191, December 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  3. West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to service yard and access ramp (added ca. 1985) along the south façade of the west wing. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Year of Manufacture, Name of Cable Manufacturer, Length of Cable, Reel Number, REA 7 CFR 1755.903... CFR 1755.903. (11) When pre-connectorized cable is shipped, the splicing modules must be protected to... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiber optic service entrance cables. 1755.903...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Year of Manufacture, Name of Cable Manufacturer, Length of Cable, Reel Number, REA 7 CFR 1755.903... CFR 1755.903. (11) When pre-connectorized cable is shipped, the splicing modules must be protected to... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiber optic service entrance cables. 1755.903...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Year of Manufacture, Name of Cable Manufacturer, Length of Cable, Reel Number, REA 7 CFR 1755.903... CFR 1755.903. (11) When pre-connectorized cable is shipped, the splicing modules must be protected to... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiber optic service entrance cables. 1755.903...

  7. 7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Year of Manufacture, Name of Cable Manufacturer, Length of Cable, Reel Number, REA 7 CFR 1755.903... CFR 1755.903. (11) When pre-connectorized cable is shipped, the splicing modules must be protected to... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiber optic service entrance cables. 1755.903...

  8. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  9. 2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH LOBBY AND ALUMINUM VESTIBULE ADDED IN RECENT YEARS. ELEVATOR WILL BE CONSTRUCTED TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOORWAY IN THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE LOBBY. - Tillamook County Courthouse, 201 Laurel Avenue, Tillamook, Tillamook County, OR

  10. View of the main entrance with basrelief limestone panel designed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main entrance with bas-relief limestone panel designed by C. Paul Jennwein upon which is inscribed "Lege Atque Ordine Omnia Fiunt" (translated as by law and order all is accomplished) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 34. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTERROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTER-ROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE BUTLER'S PANTRY ON THE WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE SOUTH, WITH SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  12. 35. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTERROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTER-ROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE BUTLER'S PANTRY ON THE WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE SOUTH, WITHOUT SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  13. DETAIL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING A WINGED HOURGLASS MOTIF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING A WINGED HOURGLASS MOTIF, WHICH REFERS TO THE QUICK PASSAGE OF TIME AND THE SHORTNESS OF HUMAN LIFE. USE OF THIS MOTIF WAS A CARRYOVER FROM THE MCARTHUR GATES. - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. ENTRANCE TO GOLD AREA SECURITY ROOM IN BASEMENT, LOCATED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTRANCE TO GOLD AREA SECURITY ROOM IN BASEMENT, LOCATED IN BOTTOM OF ORIGINAL WET-BUCKET ELEVATOR SHAFT, ADJACENT TO DIESTER TABLE ROOM. NOTE BOARD WITH INDIVIDUAL TAGS FOR GOLD AREA EMPLOYEES. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE WAY TO WILLIAM R. THORSEN HOUSE BY CHARLES & HENRY GREENE, 1909. EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE LOOKING SE. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  16. View of main entrance of the Church of God. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main entrance of the Church of God. This structure was originally a lodge hall for the Woodmen of the World from the adjacent mill neighborhoods such as Lincoln and Dallas Mill - 601 Humes Avenue (House), 601 Humes Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Proteomic changes during tuber dormancy release process revealed by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics in potato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Shuo; Chang, Jing; Wang, Zemin; Zhang, Guodong; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Given that limited information is available with regard to tuber dormancy release related proteome, we conducted proteome analysis of tuber dormancy release process at dormant tuber (DT), dormancy release tuber (DRT) and sprouting tuber (ST) using the iTRAQ technology. A total of 1,752 proteins were identified. Among them, a subset of 316 proteins was screened as significant up- (137) and down regulated (179) between DT vs DRT. A subset of 120 proteins experienced significant up- (40) or down-regulation (80) between DRT vs ST. The differentially expressed proteins were grouped into 11 functional categories. Proteins enriched in functional categories of major carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism, glycolysis, fermentation, amino acid metabolism, protein and transport were highly up-regulated, while functional categories of photosynthesis and RNA were down-regulated between DT vs DRT. Proteins enriched in functional groups of protein, cell wall, lipid metabolism, miscellaneous, and signaling were strongly up-regulated, while functional categories of photosynthesis, hormone metabolism and protein were down-regulated between DRT vs ST. Consistent with previous documented differentially expressed genes, most of differentially expressed proteins were also identified between DT and DRT, indicating the metabolism shift from growth suspension to growth activation as tubers dormancy breaking. The changes in protein profiles showed lower concordance with corresponding alterations in transcript levels, indicating possible transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of tuber dormancy release was discussed in relation to what was known in transcripts change and other plant models from carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, stress response, redox regulation, transcription regulation, DNA metabolism, amino acid metabolism, development, signaling as well as hormone metabolism. PMID:25514565

  18. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  19. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A G

    2010-04-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  20. Phase Transition and dissipation driven budding in lipid vesicles

    E-print Network

    Thomas Franke; Christian T. Leirer; Achim Wixforth; Nily Dan; Matthias F. Schneider

    2013-03-26

    Membrane budding has been extensively studied as an equilibrium process attributed to the formation of coexisting domains or changes in the vesicle area to volume ratio (reduced volume). In contrast, non-equilibrium budding remains experimentally widely unexplored especially when time scales fall well below the characteristic diffusion time of lipids{\\tau} . We show that localized mechanical perturbations, initiated by driving giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) through their lipid phase transition, leads to the immediate formation of rapidly growing, multiply localized, non-equilibrium buds, when the transition takes place at short timescales (<{\\tau}). We show that these buds arise from small fluid-like perturbations and grow as spherical caps in the third dimension, since in plane spreading is obstructed by the continuous rigid gel-like matrix. Accounting for both three and two dimensional viscosity, we demonstrate that dissipation decreases the size scale of the system and therefore favours the formation of multiple buds as long as the perturbation takes place above a certain critical rate. This rate depends on membrane and media viscosity and is qualitatively and quantitatively correctly predicted by our theoretical description.

  1. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range....

  2. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range....

  3. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range....

  4. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range....

  5. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. 334.320 Section 334... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area....

  6. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing...

  7. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

  8. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165.1195...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165.1195...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165.1195...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165.1195...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in...

  12. First Results From The BOSS Ultracool Dwarf (BUD) Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Hawley, S. L.; Davenport, J. R.; West, A. A.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the BOSS Ultracool Dwarf (BUD) sample of 12,085 M7-L8 dwarfs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry and spectroscopy. The BUD sample includes ultracool dwarfs selected from the SDSS seventh data release in addition to new dwarfs from the Baryon Oscillation Sky Survey (BOSS). We present the izJHKW1W2W3 color locus from a cross-match between the BUD sample and the 2MASS and WISE catalogs. In addition to colors, we also examine chromospheric activity based on the presence and strength of H? emission. When we restrict our activity search to spectra with S/N > 3 in the region surrounding H?, we find that over 80% of nearby early-L dwarfs are active. The fraction of active ultracool dwarfs is larger closer to the galactic plane, indicating that ultracool dwarfs follow an age activity relationship similar to more massive M dwarfs.

  13. Transcriptional programs regulating seed dormancy and its release by after-ripening in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2012-05-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait in wheat (Trticum aestivum). Seeds can be released from a physiologically dormant state by after-ripening. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening in conferring developmental switches from dormancy to germination in wheat seeds, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses between dormant (D) and after-ripened (AR) seeds in both dry and imbibed states. Transcriptional activation of genes represented by a core of 22 and 435 probesets was evident in the dry and imbibed states of D seeds, respectively. Furthermore, two-way ANOVA analysis identified 36 probesets as specifically regulated by dormancy. These data suggest that biological functions associated with these genes are involved in the maintenance of seed dormancy. Expression of genes encoding protein synthesis/activity inhibitors was significantly repressed during after-ripening, leading to dormancy decay. Imbibing AR seeds led to transcriptional activation of distinct biological processes, including those related to DNA replication, nitrogen metabolism, cytoplasmic membrane-bound vesicle, jasmonate biosynthesis and cell wall modification. These after-ripening-mediated transcriptional programs appear to be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Clustering of our microarray data produced 16 gene clusters; dormancy-specific probesets and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements were significantly overrepresented in two clusters, indicating the linkage of dormancy in wheat with that of seed sensitivity to ABA. The role of ABA signalling in regulating wheat seed dormancy was further supported by the down-regulation of ABA response-related probesets in AR seeds and absence of differential expression of ABA metabolic genes between D and AR seeds. PMID:22292455

  14. 78 FR 64523 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or... the Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement (CBP Form 1300). This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Vessel Entrance...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  17. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lead-entrance holes. 18.29 Section 18.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... unused lead-entrance holes. (a) Access openings in explosion-proof enclosures will be permitted only... Figure 1 in Appendix II.) (c) Holes in enclosures that are provided for lead entrances but which are...

  18. Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

    2010-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago botanic Garden. Financial support has been received from the National Science Foundation, UCLA Center for Embedded network Sensors U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey , National Geographic Education Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and NASA.

  19. Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes full size detail of mullion for iron gates. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Entrance channel effects on sub-barrier capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakin, R. A.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Within the quantum diffusion approach, the capture process of a projectile nucleus by a target nucleus is studied at bombarding energies above and below the Coulomb barrier. The entrance channel effects on the partial and total capture cross sections and the mean angular momentum of the captured system are studied in the reactions leading to 160,156Er, 170Hf, 200Pb, 216Ra, and 220Th compound nuclei.

  1. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  2. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  3. 19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIERFREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIER-FREE ACCESS FROM THE DRIVEWAY TO THE ELEVATOR. Wrought iron railings, extended upper step of stoop (indicated by the darker concrete between the two vertical posts), and wooden ramp added by the National Trust to meet modern barrier-free access codes, circa 1980. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. IN 1933, A CITY OF PHILADELPHIA LAND CONDEMNATION REQUIRED THE DEMOLITION OF AN EXISTING GATEWAY COMPLETED IN 1857 ON PLANS BY JOHN MCARTHUR, JR. PAUL CRET DESIGNED THE NEW GATES IN 1936. THEY WERE COMPLETED THE FOLLOWING YEAR AND MOVED TO THEIR PRESENT LOCATION IN 1948 AFTER ANOTHER CITY LAND CONDEMNATION. - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plans and sections of boys' and girls' toilets. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 311. Scales 1/4 inch to the foot (section AA) and 1/2 inch to the foot (toilet rooms). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 3. OVERALL VIEW FROM WEST From left to right: Entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW FROM WEST From left to right: Entrance Sign Blacksmith Shop No. 2 (HAER No. PA-232-B) Power Plant (HAER No. PA-232-I) Blacksmith Shop No. 1 (HAER No. PA-232-A) Paint Stores (HAER No. PA-232-H) Flue Shed (HAER No. PA-232-E) Boiler Shop - Juniata Shops, East side of Chestnut Avenue, South of Sixth Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  7. Ambulant disabled persons using buses: experiments with entrances and seats.

    PubMed

    Petzäll, J

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes research work carried out in Sweden to adapt buses to the requirements of ambulant disabled people. It contains an experimental study where subjects tried different entrances and seats. For the experiments a bus was rebuilt and equipped with new entrance and seating arrangements. Three categories of subjects participated: seriously ambulant disabled, representing people having severe ambulatory difficulties in their daily life; less seriously ambulant disabled, representing people that normally travel with the special transportation service; and slightly ambulant disabled, representing ordinary elderly people. The evaluation was based on observations, photographs, interviews and in some cases timing with a stopwatch. The results show that low similar steps and well-designed handrails in the bus entrance made boarding and alighting easier. The seat trials showed the importance of having suitable grab rails to allow people to pull or heave themselves up. Design requirements are presented in the paper. The Swedish Board of Transport have used the results when working out regulations to adapt public transport vehicles for use by disabled people. PMID:15676928

  8. Nitric oxide implication in the control of seed dormancy and germination

    PubMed Central

    Arc, Erwann; Galland, Marc; Godin, Béatrice; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependent protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signaling during early seed germination. PMID:24065970

  9. Microbial dormancy in batch cultures as a function of substrate-dependent mortality.

    PubMed

    Ayati, Bruce P

    2012-01-21

    We present models and computational studies of dormancy in batch cultures to try to understand the relationship between reculturing time and death penalty for low substrate and the relative advantage of fast versus slow reawakening on the part of the bacteria. We find that the advantage goes to the faster waker for shorter reculturing times and lower mortality under low substrate, and moves to the slower waker as reculturing times and death penalty increase. The advantage returns again to the fast waker for very high death penalties. We use an explicit, continuous structure variable to represent dormancy so as to allow for flexibility in substrate usage on the part of dormant cells, and for a more mechanistic representation of the reawakening process. PMID:22004996

  10. Further evidence from the effect of fungi on breaking Opuntia seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Ortega-Amaro, María Azucena; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Flores, Joel

    2010-10-01

    Recently, we found that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of Opuntia streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. However, the effect of fungi on seed germination from other Opuntia spp has not been evaluated. Thus, we evaluated the effect of four fungal species (Penicillium chrysogenum, Phoma sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii) on the germination of Opuntia leucotricha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that seeds inoculated with the four fungal species had higher germination than control seeds. Trichoderma spp. were the most effective. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. leucotricha. Thus, we suggest that these fungi could promote seed germination from other Opuntia species. PMID:20861689

  11. Further evidence from the effect of fungi on breaking Opuntia seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Ortega-Amaro, María Azucena; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of Opuntia streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. However, the effect of fungi on seed germination from other Opuntia spp. has not been evaluated. Thus, we evaluated the effect of four fungal species (Penicillium chrysogenum, Phoma sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii) on the germination of Opuntia leucotricha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that seeds inoculated with the four fungal species had higher germination than control seeds. Trichoderma spp. were the most effective. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. leucotricha. Thus, we suggest that these fungi could promote seed germination from other Opuntia species. PMID:20861689

  12. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42?d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  13. Tissue-specific hormonal profiling during dormancy release in macaw palm seeds.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Garcia, Queila S; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the control exerted by hormones in specific tissues during germination and post-germinative development in monocot seeds, whose embryos have complex structures and can remain dormant for long periods of time. Here the tissue-specific hormonal profile of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) seeds overcoming dormancy and seedling during initial development was examined. Endogenous hormonal concentrations were determined in the cotyledonary petiole, haustorium, operculum, endosperm adjacent to the embryo and peripheral endosperm of dry dormant seeds, imbibed seeds trapped in phase I of germination, and germinating (phase 2 and phase 3) seeds 2, 5, 10 and 15 days after sowing. Evaluations were performed on seeds treated for overcoming dormancy by removal of the operculum and by immersion in a gibberellic acid (GA3 ) solution. Removal of the operculum effectively helped in overcoming dormancy, which was associated with the synthesis of active gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs), as well as reductions of abscisic acid (ABA) in the cotyledonary petiole. In imbibed seeds trapped in phase I of germination, exogenous GA3 caused an increase in active GAs in the cotyledonary petiole and operculum and reduction in ABA in the operculum. Initial seedling development was associated with increases in the CK/auxin ratio in the haustorium and GA levels in the endosperm which is possibly related to the mobilization of metabolic reserves. Increases in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were associated with the development of the vegetative axis. Hormones play a crucial tissue-specific role in the control of dormancy, germination and initial development of seedlings in macaw palm, including a central role not only for GAs and ABA, but also for CKs and other hormones. PMID:25174374

  14. Mechanisms of budding of nanoscale particles through lipid bilayers

    E-print Network

    Teresa Ruiz-Herrero; Enrique Velasco; Michael F. Hagan

    2012-02-21

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport.

  15. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  16. Control of bud activation by an auxin transport switch

    E-print Network

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    buds. This process is termed apical dominance and is dependent on the plant hormone auxin moving downUmeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University, IN , and approved August 18, 2009 (received for review June 16, 2009) In many plant species only a small proportion

  17. Early Replication of Short Telomeres in Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    Early Replication of Short Telomeres in Budding Yeast Alessandro Bianchi1, * and David Shore1 1.bianchi@molbio.unige.ch DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.041 SUMMARY The maintenance of an appropriate number of telomere repeats by telomerase is essential for proper chromosome protection. The action of telomerase at the telomere terminus

  18. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  19. Mechanisms of Budding of Nanoscale Particles through Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Velasco, Enrique; Hagan, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport. PMID:22803595

  20. Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast Chris describe how simple models of communication, consistent with known yeast phys- iological mechanisms relevant variables during yeast growth and division have been reported and studied for over 40 years [8, 12

  1. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  2. Sequential Feedback Induction Stabilizes the Phosphate Starvation Response in Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Barkai, Naama

    Article Sequential Feedback Induction Stabilizes the Phosphate Starvation Response in Budding Yeast could destabilize the overall response. Vardi et al. show that, in budding yeast, the stability Starvation Response in Budding Yeast Noam Vardi,1 Sagi Levy,1,3 Yonat Gurvich,1 Tamar Polacheck,1 Miri Carmi

  3. What Prolongs a Butterfly's Life?: Trade-Offs between Dormancy, Fecundity and Body Size

    PubMed Central

    Haeler, Elena; Fiedler, Konrad; Grill, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies’ life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h), thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13). Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels. PMID:25390334

  4. An Acyl-CoA Synthetase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Involved in Triacylglycerol Accumulation during Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Jaiyanth; Sirakova, Tatiana; Kolattukudy, Pappachan

    2014-01-01

    Latent infection with dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the major reasons behind the emergence of drug-resistant strains of the pathogen worldwide. In its dormant state, the pathogen accumulates lipid droplets containing triacylglycerol synthesized from fatty acids derived from host lipids. In this study, we show that Rv1206 (FACL6), which is annotated as an acyl-CoA synthetase and resembles eukaryotic fatty acid transport proteins, is able to stimulate fatty acid uptake in E. coli cells. We show that purified FACL6 displays acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity with a preference towards oleic acid, which is one of the predominant fatty acids in host lipids. Our results indicate that the expression of FACL6 protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly increased during in vitro dormancy. The facl6-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant displayed a diminished ability to synthesize acyl-coenzyme A in cell-free extracts. Furthermore, during in vitro dormancy, the mutant synthesized lower levels of intracellular triacylglycerol from exogenous fatty acids. Complementation partially restored the lost function. Our results suggest that FACL6 modulates triacylglycerol accumulation as the pathogen enters dormancy by activating fatty acids. PMID:25490545

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Embryogenesis and the Acquisition of Seed Dormancy in Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Paw?owski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association. PMID:24941250

  6. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; Panchasara, H; Parmar, N; Patel, A B; Shah, T M; Bhatt, V D; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abundance of bacteria at the domain level and presence of Dormancy and Sporulation genes which were predominantly associated with the Clostridia and Bacilli taxa belonging to the phyla Firmicutes. Genes associated with Sporulation cluster and Sporulation orphans were increased from 50% to 100% roughage treatment, thereby promoting sporulation all along the treatments. The spore germination is observed to be the highest in the 75% roughage treatment both in the liquid and solid rumen fraction samples with respect to the decrease in the values of the genes associated with spore core dehydration, thereby facilitating spore core hydration which is necessary for spore germination. PMID:25606408

  7. In silico discovery of the dormancy regulons in a number of Actinobacteria genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimova, Anna; Dubchak, Inna; Arkin, Adam; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2010-11-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dangerous Actinobacteria infecting nearly one third of the human population. It becomes dormant and phenotypically drug resistant in response to stresses. An important feature of the M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is the prevalence of latent infection without disease, making understanding of the mechanisms used by the bacteria to exist in this state and to switch to metabolically active infectious form a vital problem to consider. M. tuberculosis dormancy is regulated by the three-component regulatory system of two kinases (DosT and DevS) and transcriprional regulator (DevR). DevR activates transcription of a set of genes, which allow the bacteria to survive long periods of anaerobiosis, and may be important for long-term survival within the host during latent infection. The DevR-regulon is studied experimentally in M. tuberculosis and few other phylogenetically close Mycobacteria spp. As many other two-component systems, the devRS operon is autoregulated. However, the mechanism of the dormancy is not completely clear even for these bacteria and there is no data describing the dormancy regulons in other species.

  8. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

    2008-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, University of Montana in collaboration with the USA -National Phenology Network and with financial support from U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey, NEON, and the Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  9. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Dormancy is Associated with Increased Accumulation of the GID1 GA Hormone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauvermale, Amber L; Tuttle, Keiko M; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Seo, Mitsunori; Steber, Camille M

    2015-09-01

    Dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under favorable conditions until they have experienced dormancy-breaking conditions, such as after-ripening through a period of dry storage or cold imbibition. Abscisic acid (ABA) hormone signaling establishes and maintains seed dormancy, whereas gibberellin (GA) signaling stimulates germination. ABA levels decrease and GA levels increase with after-ripening and cold stratification. However, increasing GA sensitivity may also be critical to dormancy loss since increasing seed GA levels are detectable only with long periods of after-ripening and imbibition. After-ripening and cold stratification act additively to enhance GA hormone sensitivity in ga1-3 seeds that cannot synthesize GA. Since the overexpression of the GA receptor GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) enhanced this dormancy loss, and because gid1a gid1b gid1c triple mutants show decreased germination, the effects of dormancy-breaking treatments on GID1 mRNA and protein accumulation were examined. Partial after-ripening resulted in increased GID1b, but not GID1a or GID1c mRNA levels. Cold imbibition stimulated the accumulation of all three GID1 transcripts, but resulted in no increase in GA sensitivity during ga1-3 seed germination unless seeds were also partially after-ripened. This is probably because after-ripening was needed to enhance GID1 protein accumulation, independently of transcript abundance. The rise in GID1b transcript with after-ripening was not associated with decreased ABA levels, suggesting there is ABA-independent GID1b regulation by after-ripening and the 26S proteasome. GA and the DELLA RGL2 repressor of GA responses differentially regulated the three GID1 transcripts. Moreover, DELLA RGL2 appeared to switch between positive and negative regulation of GID1 expression in response to dormancy-breaking treatments. PMID:26136598

  10. 13. Detail of vestibule, or main entrance, showing lamp and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of vestibule, or main entrance, showing lamp and eastern set of doors. (Sept. 1991) The other sides of these doors are seen from the inside in WA-197-14. The 'ghosts' of ornamental wooden griffins can be seen above the doors. These griffins were stolen shortly after protective plywood doors were removed on Sept. 6, 1991 in preparation for the public auction on Sept. 10. At the time of the theft, the griffins had not yet been photographed. - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. Experimental evidence that ptarmigan regulate willow bud production to their own advantage.

    PubMed

    Christie, Katie S; Ruess, R W

    2015-07-01

    In some ecosystems, vertebrate herbivores increase the nutritional quality and biomass of their food source through repeated grazing, thereby manipulating their environment to support higher densities of animals. We tested whether ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and L. muta) are capable of regulating the nutritional quality, abundance, and availability of feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis) buds using a simulated browsing experiment and a feeding preference study with wild birds. Simulated ptarmigan browsing resulted in smaller buds, but greater numbers of buds per shoot. Furthermore, browsing altered the morphology of willow branches such that buds were at higher densities and closer to snow level compared to unbrowsed controls. Browsing increased the number of willows with accessible buds (buds within 50 cm of snow level) from 55 to 89%, and increased total accessible bud biomass from 113 ± 30 to 129 ± 50 mg/ramet. Browsing did not affect bud nitrogen or carbon concentration and slightly reduced protein precipitation capacity (tannins) in buds the following winter, indicating that ptarmigan browsing does not induce a defensive response in this species. When branches of broomed (previously browsed) and unbroomed willows were placed in the snow at equal heights, ptarmigan showed no preference for either type; however, they obtained more buds from broomed willows. Increased accessibility and density of willow buds caused by browsing has the potential to increase habitat carrying capacity, thereby supporting higher densities of ptarmigan. PMID:25698142

  12. Proteomic profile of dormancy within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using iTRAQ and label-free strategies.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Cerca, Nuno; Vilanova, Manuel; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important nosocomial bacterium among carriers of indwelling medical devices, since it has a strong ability to form biofilms. The presence of dormant bacteria within a biofilm is one of the factors that contribute to biofilm antibiotic tolerance and immune evasion. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the quantitative proteomic profile of S. epidermidis biofilms with different proportions of dormant bacteria. A total of 427 and 409 proteins were identified by label-free and label-based quantitative methodologies, respectively. From these, 29 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between S. epidermidis biofilms with prevented and induced dormancy. Proteins overexpressed in S. epidermidis with prevented dormancy were associated with ribosome synthesis pathway, which reflects the metabolic state of dormant bacteria. In the opposite, underexpressed proteins were related to catalytic activity and ion binding, with involvement in purine, arginine, and proline metabolism. Additionally, GTPase activity seems to be enhanced in S. epidermidis biofilm with induced dormancy. The role of magnesium in dormancy modulation was further investigated with bioinformatics tool based in predicted interactions. The main molecular function of proteins, which strongly interact with magnesium, was nucleic acid binding. Different proteomic strategies allowed to obtain similar results and evidenced that prevented dormancy led to an expression of a markedly different repertoire of proteins in comparison to the one of dormant biofilms. PMID:25672847

  13. Association Between Seed Dormancy and Pericarp Color Is Controlled by a Pleiotropic Gene That Regulates Abscisic Acid and Flavonoid Synthesis in Weedy Red Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Foley, Michael E.; Horvath, David P.; Anderson, James V.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Mowry, Chase R.; Ye, Heng; Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Chen, Zongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been associated with red grain color in cereal crops for a century. The association was linked to qSD7-1/qPC7, a cluster of quantitative trait loci for seed dormancy/pericarp color in weedy red rice. This research delimited qSD7-1/qPC7 to the Os07g11020 or Rc locus encoding a basic helix-loop-helix family transcription factor by intragenic recombinants and provided unambiguous evidence that the association arises from pleiotropy. The pleiotropic gene expressed in early developing seeds promoted expression of key genes for biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), resulting in an increase in accumulation of the dormancy-inducing hormone; activated a conserved network of eight genes for flavonoid biosynthesis to produce the pigments in the lower epidermal cells of the pericarp tissue; and enhanced seed weight. Thus, the pleiotropic locus most likely controls the dormancy and pigment traits by regulating ABA and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, respectively. The dormancy effect could be eliminated by a heat treatment, but could not be completely overcome by gibberellic acid or physical removal of the seed maternal tissues. The dormancy-enhancing alleles differentiated into two groups basically associated with tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice. Of the pleiotropic effects, seed dormancy could contribute most to the weed adaptation. Pleiotropy prevents the use of the dormancy gene to improve resistance of white pericarp cultivars against pre-harvest sprouting through conventional breeding approaches. PMID:21954164

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana aleurone layer responds to nitric oxide, gibberellin, and abscisic acid and is sufficient and necessary for seed dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle and several parts of the seed can contribute to dormancy. Whole seeds, seeds lacking the testa, embryos, and isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis thaliana were used in experiments designed to identify components of the arabidopsis seed that ...

  15. Ecotopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of growth and dormancy in temperate perennials such as fruit trees is essential, as is the ability to acclimate to freezing temperatures. Depending on the species, the onset of either dormancy and or cold acclimation can be triggered to varying degrees by either or both low, non-freezing...

  16. Time-Lapse Fluorescence Microscopy of Budding Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Mendoza, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed visualization of a wide variety of processes within living cells. Thanks to the development of differently colored fluorophores, it is now possible to simultaneously follow distinct subcellular events at the single cell level. Here, we describe a basic method to visualize multiple events during cytokinesis by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this organism, contraction of an actomyosin-based ring drives ingression of the plasma membrane at the mother-bud division site to partition the cytoplasm of the dividing cell. Simultaneous visualization of distinct cytokinesis steps in living cells, such as ring contraction and membrane ingression, will facilitate a complete understanding of the mechanisms of eukaryotic cell division. PMID:26519301

  17. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  18. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  19. Cell biology of yeast zygotes, from genesis to budding.

    PubMed

    Tartakoff, Alan M

    2015-07-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  20. Wetting, budding, and fusion—morphological transitions of soft surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Brinkmann, Martin; Dimova, Rumiana; Haluska, Chris; Kierfeld, Jan; Shillcock, Julian

    2005-08-01

    Biomimetic systems typically contain soft surfaces such as fluid interfaces or bilayer membranes that attain a large variety of different shapes and undergo morphological transitions between those shapes. This article briefly reviews several different examples from a unified perspective: liquids at chemically patterned and/or topographically structured surfaces; the formation of membrane buds from membrane domains; and the fusion of bilayer membranes and vesicles.

  1. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles, and rings (Bertin et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(24):8274-8279, 2008; Garcia et al. J Cell Biol, 195(6):993-1004, 2011; Bertin et al. J Mol Biol, 404(4):711-731, 2010). Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted sections and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three-dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution (Bertin et al. Mol Biol Cell, 23(3):423-432, 2012; Bertin and Nogales. Commun Integr Biol 5(5):503-505, 2012). Here, we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  2. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, David E.; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bartel, David P.

    2011-09-20

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  3. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    D Weinberg; K Nakanishi; D Patel; D Bartel

    2011-12-31

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  4. Use of burrow entrances to indicate densities of Townsend's ground squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Schooley, R.L.; Knick, Steven T.; Olson, G.S.; Burnham, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Counts of burrow entrances have been positively correlated with densities of semi-fossorial rodents and used as an index of densities. We evaluated their effectiveness in indexing densities of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (SRBOPNCA), Idaho, by comparing burrow entrance densities to densities of ground squirrels estimated from livetrapping in 2 consecutive years over which squirrel populations declined by >75%. We did not detect a consistent relation between burrow entrance counts and ground squirrel density estimates within or among habitat types. Scatter plots indicated that burrow entrances had little predictive power at intermediate densities. Burrow entrance counts did not reflect the magnitude of a between-year density decline. Repeated counts of entrances late in the squirrels' active season varied in a manner that would be difficult to use for calibration of transects sampled only once during this period. Annual persistence of burrow entrances varied between habitats. Trained observers were inconsistent in assigning active-inactive status to entrances. We recommend that burrow entrance counts not be used as measures or indices of ground squirrel densities in shrubsteppe habitats, and that the method be verified thoroughly before being used in other habitats.

  5. Representing Microbial Dormancy in Soil Decomposition Models Improves Model Performance and Reveals Key Ecosystem Controls on Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Yang, J.; Zhuang, Q.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change and subsequent responses of plant and microbial communities and nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and strategy may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to microbial physiology and community changes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. In this study, we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition model and examined model performance with and without representation of dormancy at six temperate forest sites with observed soil efflux ranged from 4 to 10 years across different forest types. We then extrapolated the model to all temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere (25-50°N) to investigate spatial controls on microbial and soil C dynamics. Both models captured the observed soil heterotrophic respiration (RH), yet no-dormancy model consistently exhibited large seasonal amplitude and overestimation in microbial biomass. Spatially, the total RH from temperate forests based on dormancy model amounts to 6.88PgC/yr, and 7.99PgC/yr based on no-dormancy model. However, no-dormancy model notably overestimated the ratio of microbial biomass to SOC. Spatial correlation analysis revealed key controls of soil C:N ratio on the active proportion of microbial biomass, whereas local dormancy is primarily controlled by soil moisture and temperature, indicating scale-dependent environmental and biotic controls on microbial and SOC dynamics. These developments should provide essential support to modeling future soil carbon dynamics and enhance the avenue for collaboration between empirical soil experiment and modeling in the sense that more microbial physiological measurements are needed to better constrain and evaluate the models.

  6. Belowground bud bank response to grazing under severe, short-term drought.

    PubMed

    VanderWeide, Benjamin L; Hartnett, David C

    2015-07-01

    While the effects of drought and grazing are often studied separately, these disturbances co-occur in grasslands worldwide and interactively influence population, community, and ecosystem processes. The effects of drought and grazing on the belowground bud bank may dictate the trajectory of community recovery because new shoots arise from belowground buds after disturbance in perennial grasslands. We therefore investigated the separate and interactive effects of severe drought and grazing on the belowground bud bank and aboveground vegetation in the tallgrass prairie of northeast Kansas, USA. Contrary to our expectations, we observed changes in community structure and declines in species richness both above and below ground in response to drought and grazing. We also hypothesized that drought would reduce bud bank density of all taxonomic groups, but found that grass bud and shoot densities remained constant across all drought and grazing treatment combinations. While sedge and forb bud and shoot densities were reduced by drought, only sedge bud density declined to a greater extent when grazed under drought conditions. Live rhizome biomass did not vary by treatment and was highly correlated with bud bank density, suggesting that bud demography is tightly linked to the production and senescence of rhizomes. Despite the effects of drought and grazing on aboveground net primary productivity and community structure, our work suggests that grasses stabilize tallgrass prairie plant communities because their rhizomes and associated buds persist through co-occurring disturbances. PMID:25676105

  7. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  8. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121?C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  9. Genome-Wide Identification of Different Dormant Medicago sativa L. MicroRNAs in Response to Fall Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongqi; Sun, Xiaoge; Shi, Yinghua; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene post-transcriptional expression in plants and animals. High-throughput sequencing technology is capable of identifying small RNAs in plant species. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage legumes worldwide, and fall dormancy is an adaptive characteristic related to the biomass production and winter survival in alfalfa. Here, we applied high-throughput sRNA sequencing to identify some miRNAs that were responsive to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101) of alfalfa. Results Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from alfalfa leaves in two typical varieties at distinct seasons. Through integrative analysis, we identified 51 novel miRNA candidates of 206 families. Additionally, we identified 28 miRNAs associated with fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101), including 20 known miRNAs and eight novel miRNAs. Both high-throughput sequencing and RT-qPCR confirmed that eight known miRNA members were up-regulated and six known miRNA members were down-regulated in response to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101). Among the 51 novel miRNA candidates, five miRNAs were up-regulated and three miRNAs were down-regulated in response to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101), and five of them were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Conclusion We identified 20 known miRNAs and eight new miRNA candidates that were responsive to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101) by high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from Medicago sativa. Our data provide a useful resource for investigating miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms of fall dormancy in alfalfa, and these findings are important for our understanding of the roles played by miRNAs in the response of plants to abiotic stress in general and fall dormancy in alfalfa. PMID:25473944

  10. Breast and other cancer dormancy as a therapeutic endpoint: speculative recombinant T cell receptor ligand (RTL) adjuvant therapy worth considering?

    E-print Network

    Bakacs, Tibor; Mehrishi, Jitendra N

    2010-06-02

    of this cancer is associated with dormancy. Melanoma cells persisted in a dormant state in the kidney of a donor for 16 years and upon transplantation to two different but immune-suppressed hosts, they emerged from dormancy [30]. In fact, clinical... are plastic will go a long way toward determining if blocking CCL21 and/ or LTi cell function can disrupt immune tolerance of the tumor-induced struc- tures, thereby releasing host immunity to aid in eliminating the malignant cells." (Zindl CL, Chaplin DD...

  11. Investigation B: Laminar confined coaxial entrance flow with heat generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobba, G. K. M.; Weinstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a parametric study on the entrance flow region in a gas core nuclear reactor are presented. The physical system is modeled as laminar confined, coaxial flow with heat generation in the inner fluid. The governing equations include the boundary layer approximations and the assumptions of only radial radiative transport of energy represented as an energy diffusion term. The Von Mises transformation and a zeta transformation are used to transform the equations into nonlinear nonhomogeneous convective-diffusion equations. A unique combination of forward and backward difference equations which yields accurate results at moderate computational times, is used in the numerical method. Results show that the rapidly accelerating, heat generating inner stream actually shrinks in radius as it expands axially.

  12. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies. Forecast changes in climate have the potential to alter the seed bank dynamics of species with physical dormancy regulated by this mechanism, with implications for their capacity to delay germination and exploit windows for recruitment. PMID:25015069

  13. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings. PMID:21708553

  14. Fgf16 is essential for pectoral fin bud formation in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Ryohei; Kamei, Eriko; Hotta, Yuuhei; Konishi, Morichika; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki . E-mail: itohnobu@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-18

    Zebrafish pectoral fin bud formation is an excellent model for studying morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and sonic hedgehog (shh) are essential for pectoral fin bud formation. We found that Fgf16 was expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of fin buds. A knockdown of Fgf16 function resulted in no fin bud outgrowth. Fgf16 is required for cell proliferation and differentiation in the mesenchyme and the AER of the fin buds, respectively. Fgf16 functions downstream of Fgf10, a mesenchymal factor, signaling to induce the expression of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in the AER. Fgf16 in the AER and shh in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) interact to induce and/or maintain each other's expression. These findings have revealed that Fgf16, a newly identified AER factor, plays a crucial role in pectoral fin bud outgrowth by mediating the interactions of AER-mesenchyme and AER-ZPA.

  15. Disentangling dormancy and cold-hardiness in wine grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold-hardiness of bud and cane tissue was monitored throughout para, endo and ecodormancy in field-grown vines using differential thermal analysis to generate lethal temperature exotherms (LTE). Deacclimation and re-acclimation rates were measured during ecodormancy to determine the depth of dorm...

  16. A model of HIV budding and self-assembly, role of cell membrane

    E-print Network

    Rui Zhang; Toan T. Nguyen

    2008-03-19

    Budding from the plasma membrane of the host cell is an indispensable step in the life cycle of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which belongs to a large family of enveloped RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike regular enveloped viruses, retrovirus budding happens {\\em concurrently} with the self-assembly of retrovirus protein subunits (Gags) into spherical virus capsids on the cell membrane. Led by this unique budding and assembly mechanism, we study the free energy profile of retrovirus budding, taking into account of the Gag-Gag attraction energy and the membrane elastic energy. We find that if the Gag-Gag attraction is strong, budding always proceeds to completion. During early stage of budding, the zenith angle of partial budded capsids, $\\alpha$, increases with time as $\\alpha \\propto t^{1/3}$. However, when Gag-Gag attraction is weak, a metastable state of partial budding appears. The zenith angle of these partially spherical capsids is given by $\\alpha_0\\simeq(\\tau^2/\\kappa\\sigma)^{1/4}$ in a linear approximation, where $\\kappa$ and $\\sigma$ are the bending modulus and the surface tension of the membrane, and $\\tau$ is a line tension of the capsid proportional to the strength of Gag-Gag attraction. Numerically, we find $\\alpha_0<0.3\\pi$ without any approximations. Using experimental parameters, we show that HIV budding and assembly always proceed to completion in normal biological conditions. On the other hand, by changing Gag-Gag interaction strength or membrane rigidity, it is relatively easy to tune it back and forth between complete budding and partial budding. Our model agrees reasonably well with experiments observing partial budding of retroviruses including HIV.

  17. 76 FR 59711 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 39114) on July 5, 2011... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Vessel Entrance or... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Vessel Entrance or...

  18. 76 FR 39114 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or... concerning the Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement (CBP Form 1300). This request for comment is being made... document CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Vessel...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56.19105 Section 56.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57.19105 Section 57.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57.19105 Section 57.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56.19105 Section 56.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  3. Social Predictors of Unsuccessful Entrance into the Labour Market--A Socialization Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Ellen; Sovio, Ulla; Remes, Jouko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    Social determinants over the life course, including childhood family characteristics, were studied in predicting unsuccessful entrance into the labour market at the age of 31 years. Among men, unsuccessful entrance into the labour market was predicted prospectively by the mother's receptive attitude towards receiving social aid and contentment…

  4. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  5. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  6. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  7. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  8. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  9. Tissue factor expression provokes escape from tumor dormancy and leads to genomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Nathalie; Garnier, Delphine; Meehan, Brian; McGraw, Serge; Lee, Tae Hoon; Caron, Maxime; Bourque, Guillaume; Milsom, Chloe; Jabado, Nada; Trasler, Jacquetta; Pawlinski, Rafal; Mackman, Nigel; Rak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system links immediate (hemostatic) and late (inflammatory, angiogenic) tissue responses to injury, a continuum that often is subverted in cancer. Here we provide evidence that tumor dormancy is influenced by tissue factor (TF), the cancer cell-associated initiator of the coagulation system and a signaling receptor. Thus, indolent human glioma cells deficient for TF remain viable but permanently dormant at the injection site for nearly a year, whereas the expression of TF leads to a step-wise transition to latent and overt tumor growth phases, a process that is preceded by recruitment of vascular (CD105+) and myeloid (CD11b+ and F4/80+) cells. Importantly, the microenvironment orchestrated by TF expression drives permanent changes in the phenotype, gene-expression profile, DNA copy number, and DNA methylation state of the tumor cells that escape from dormancy. We postulate that procoagulant events in the tissue microenvironment (niche) may affect the fate of occult tumor cells, including their biological and genetic progression to initiate a full-blown malignancy. PMID:24520174

  10. The isolation and characterization of CTC subsets related to breast cancer dormancy.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, Monika; Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Yin, Wei; T Scamardo, Antonio; George, Goldy C; Hong, David S; Marchetti, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering CTCs phenotypes offer the promise to dissect their heterogeneity related to metastatic competence. CTC survival rates are highly variable and this can lead to many questions as yet unexplored properties of CTCs responsible for invasion and metastasis vs dormancy. We isolated CTC subsets from peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with or without breast cancer brain metastasis. CTC subsets were selected for EpCAM negativity but positivity for CD44(+)/CD24(-) stem cell signature; along with combinatorial expression of uPAR and int ?1, two markers directly implicated in breast cancer dormancy mechanisms. CTC subsets were cultured in vitro generating 3D CTC tumorspheres which were interrogated for biomarker profiling and biological characteristics. We identified proliferative and invasive properties of 3D CTC tumorspheres distinctive upon uPAR/int ?1 combinatorial expression. The molecular characterization of uPAR/int ?1 CTC subsets may enhance abilities to prospectively identify patients who may be at high risk of developing BCBM. PMID:26631983

  11. Benzoate degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after dormancy: Characterization of dioxygenases involved in the process.

    PubMed

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Emelyanova, Elena V; Borzova, Oksana V; Golovleva, Ludmila A

    2016-03-01

    The process of benzoate degradation by strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after a five-year dormancy was investigated and its peculiarities were revealed. The strain was shown to be capable of growth on benzoate at a concentration of up to 10 g L(-1). The substrate specificity of benzoate dioxygenase (BDO) during the culture growth on a medium with a low (200-250 mg L(-1)) and high (4 g L(-1)) concentration of benzoate was assessed. BDO of R. opacus 1CP was shown to be an extremely narrow specificity enzyme. Out of 31 substituted benzoates, only with one, 3-chlorobenzoate, its activity was higher than 9% of that of benzoate. Two dioxygenases, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (Cat 1,2-DO) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCA 3,4-DO), were identified in a cell-free extract, purified and characterized. The substrate specificity of Cat 1,2-DO isolated from cells of strain 1CP after the dormancy was found to differ significantly from that of Cat 1,2-DO isolated earlier from cells of this strain grown on benzoate. By its substrate specificity, the described Cat 1,2-DO was close to the Cat 1,2-DO from strain 1CP grown on 4-methylbenzoate. Neither activity nor inhibition by protocatechuate was observed during the reaction of Cat 1,2-DO with catechol, and catechol had no inhibitory effect on the reaction of PCA 3,4-DO with protocatechuate. PMID:26669259

  12. The isolation and characterization of CTC subsets related to breast cancer dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Vishnoi, Monika; Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Yin, Wei; T. Scamardo, Antonio; George, Goldy C.; Hong, David S.; Marchetti, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering CTCs phenotypes offer the promise to dissect their heterogeneity related to metastatic competence. CTC survival rates are highly variable and this can lead to many questions as yet unexplored properties of CTCs responsible for invasion and metastasis vs dormancy. We isolated CTC subsets from peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with or without breast cancer brain metastasis. CTC subsets were selected for EpCAM negativity but positivity for CD44+/CD24? stem cell signature; along with combinatorial expression of uPAR and int ?1, two markers directly implicated in breast cancer dormancy mechanisms. CTC subsets were cultured in vitro generating 3D CTC tumorspheres which were interrogated for biomarker profiling and biological characteristics. We identified proliferative and invasive properties of 3D CTC tumorspheres distinctive upon uPAR/int ?1 combinatorial expression. The molecular characterization of uPAR/int ?1 CTC subsets may enhance abilities to prospectively identify patients who may be at high risk of developing BCBM. PMID:26631983

  13. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25317731

  14. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25590742

  15. Targeted mRNA oxidation regulates sunflower seed dormancy alleviation during dry after-ripening.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Vincourt, Patrick; Arribat, Sandrine; Balzergue, Sandrine; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    After-ripening is the mechanism by which dormant seeds become nondormant during their dry storage after harvest. The absence of free water in mature seeds does not allow detectable metabolism; thus, the processes associated with dormancy release under these conditions are largely unknown. We show here that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed alleviation of dormancy during after-ripening is associated with mRNA oxidation and that this oxidation is prevented when seeds are maintained dormant. In vitro approaches demonstrate that mRNA oxidation results in artifacts in cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphim analysis and alters protein translation. The oxidation of transcripts is not random but selective, and, using microarrays, we identified 24 stored mRNAs that became highly oxidized during after-ripening. Oxidized transcripts mainly correspond to genes involved in responses to stress and in cell signaling. Among them, protein phosphatase 2C PPH1, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1, and phenyl ammonia lyase 1 were identified. We propose that targeted mRNA oxidation during dry after-ripening of dormant seeds could be a process that governs cell signaling toward germination in the early steps of seed imbibition. PMID:21642546

  16. Trancriptional landscape of Aspergillus niger at breaking of conidial dormancy revealed by RNA-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide analysis was performed to assess the transcriptional landscape of germinating A. niger conidia using both next generation RNA-sequencing and GeneChips. The metabolism of storage compounds during conidial germination was also examined and compared to the transcript levels from associated genes. Results The transcriptome of dormant conidia was shown to be highly differentiated from that of germinating conidia and major changes in response to environmental shift occurred within the first hour of germination. The breaking of dormancy was associated with increased transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of proteins, RNA turnover and respiratory metabolism. Increased transcript levels of genes involved in metabolism of nitrate at the onset of germination implies its use as a source of nitrogen. The transcriptome of dormant conidia contained a significant component of antisense transcripts that changed during germination. Conclusion Dormant conidia contained transcripts of genes involved in fermentation, gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle. The presence of such transcripts in dormant conidia may indicate the generation of energy from non-carbohydrate substrates during starvation-induced conidiation or for maintenance purposes during dormancy. The immediate onset of metabolism of internal storage compounds after the onset of germination, and the presence of transcripts of relevant genes, suggest that conidia are primed for the onset of germination. For some genes, antisense transcription is regulated in the transition from resting conidia to fully active germinants. PMID:23577966

  17. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  18. Structural basis of membrane budding by the nuclear egress complex of herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Janna M; Heldwein, Ekaterina E

    2015-12-01

    During nuclear egress, herpesvirus capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane forming perinuclear viral particles that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytoplasm. This unusual budding process is mediated by the nuclear egress complex (NEC) composed of two conserved viral proteins, UL31 and UL34. Earlier, we discovered that the herpesvirus nuclear egress complex (NEC) could bud synthetic membranes in vitro without the help of other proteins by forming a coat-like hexagonal scaffold inside the budding membrane. To understand the structural basis of NEC-mediated membrane budding, we determined the crystal structures of the NEC from two herpesviruses. The hexagonal lattice observed in the NEC crystals recapitulates the honeycomb coats within the budded vesicles. Perturbation of the oligomeric interfaces through mutagenesis blocks budding in vitro confirming that NEC oligomerization into a honeycomb lattice drives budding. The structure represents the first atomic-level view of an oligomeric array formed by a membrane-deforming protein, making possible the dissection of its unique budding mechanism and the design of inhibitors to block it. PMID:26511020

  19. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID:25784922

  20. Spaceflight Enhances Cell Aggregation and Random Budding in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Christine M.; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O.; Searles, Stephen C.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Pierson, Duane L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M.; Hyman, Linda E.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans–induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid-shear environment of microgravity is relevant to physical forces encountered by pathogens during the infection process, insights gained from this study could identify novel infectious disease mechanisms, with downstream benefits for the general public. PMID:24324620