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1

Bud Dormancy in Perennial Plants: A Mechanism for Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dormancy in vegetative buds of perennial plants plays an important role for surviving harsh environmental conditions. Identifying\\u000a the genetic and physiological mechanisms regulating dormancy in these vegetative structures will allow manipulation of plant\\u000a growth and development in both crops and weeds. Model plants have been used to study the physiological effects that photoperiod\\u000a and temperature impart on dormancy regulation in

James V. Anderson; David P. Horvath; Wun S. Chao; Michael E. Foley

2

Transcriptome analysis of chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree buds suggests a putative role for epigenetic control of bud dormancy  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Recent papers indicated that epigenetic control is involved in transitions in bud dormancy, purportedly controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and non-dormant Castanea sativa buds. Methods Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed to characterize the transcriptomes of dormant apical buds of C. sativa, and buds in which dormancy was released. Key Results A total of 512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated in a forward and reverse subtractive hybridization experiment. Classification of these ESTs into functional groups demonstrated that dormant buds were predominantly characterized by genes associated with stress response, while non-dormant buds were characterized by genes associated with energy, protein synthesis and cellular components for development and growth. ESTs for a few genes involved in different forms of epigenetic modification were found in both libraries, suggesting a role for epigenetic control in bud dormancy different from that in growth. Genes encoding histone mono-ubiquitinase HUB2 and histone acetyltransferase GCN5L were associated with dormancy, while a gene encoding histone H3 kinase AUR3 was associated with growth. Real-time RT-PCR with a selection of genes involved in epigenetic modification and stress tolerance confirmed the expression of the majority of investigated genes in various stages of bud development, revealing a cyclical expression pattern concurring with the growth seasons for most genes. However, senescing leaves also showed an increased expression of several of the genes associated with dormancy, implying pleiotropy. Furthermore, a comparison between these subtraction cDNA libraries and the poplar bud dormancy transcriptome and arabidopsis transcriptomes for seed dormancy and non-dormancy indicated a common basis for dormancy in all three systems. Conclusions Bud dormancy and non-dormancy in C. sativa were characterized by distinct sets of genes and are likely to be under different epigenetic control.

Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Rodriguez, Roberto; Canal, Maria Jesus; Toorop, Peter E.

2011-01-01

3

KNOWING WHEN TO GROW: SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PROCESSES REGULATING DORMANCY IN VEGETATIVE BUDS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dormancy regulation in vegetative buds is a complex process necessary for plant survival, development, and architecture. In many cases, release of dormancy results in increased cell division and changes in developmental programs, and much can be learned about dormancy regulation by identifying inter...

4

Differential Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes Associated with Bud Dormancy Changes in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

5

Differential expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during bud dormancy changes in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

6

ENVIRONMENTALLY-INDUCED SHIFTS IN SUGAR METABOLISM MAY AFFECT DORMANCY STATUS IN UNDERGROUND ADVENTITIOUS BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract: Dormancy in underground adventitious buds (crown and root buds) is a key characteristic leading to the persistence of perennial weeds like leafy spurge. During the active growing season, these buds are maintained in a state of para-dormancy by both apical meristem- and leaf-derived signal...

7

[Transcriptional levels of AQPs genes in peach floral buds during dormancy].  

PubMed

Taking the floral buds of 10 years old field-cultivated and 3 years old potted nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarine cv. Shuguang) as test materials, and by the method of real-time quantitative PCR, this paper studied the expressions of the AQPs genes deltaTIP1 and PIP1; 1 during dormancy and dormancy-release (September 15, 2009-January 15, 2010) and the transcriptional levels of the genes under low temperature stress. Within the period of dormancy and dormancy-release, the transcriptional level of PIP1; 1 presented a persistent increasing trend, and the high level expression of PIP1; 1 in January could be related to the efflux of water through cytoplasma membrane and vacuolar membrane, which protected the bud cells from ice crystal injuries. The contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and proline in the bud cells all peaked in January, which prevented the excessive water loss from the cells. After 2 weeks of low temperature treatment, the PIP1; 1 had a high level expression, indicating that it was a cold-induced gene. The transcriptional level of deltaTIP1 fluctuated during dormancy, and increased significantly during dormancy-release, which might be induced by the dormancy-release signals in buds and the resumption of plant activity. After 2 weeks of low temperature treatment, the expression level of deltaTIP1 had no increase, indicating that deltaTIP1 was not a cold-induced gene. PMID:22303661

Li, Ling; Tan, Yue; Wang, Hui; Leng, Chuan-Yuan; Li, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

2011-11-01

8

Dose and tissue-specific interaction of monoterpenes with the gibberellin-mediated release of potato tuber bud dormancy, sprout growth and induction of ?-amylases and ?-amylases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins (GA) are involved in bud dormancy release in several species. We show here that GA-treatment released bud dormancy,\\u000a initiated bud sprouting and promoted sprout growth of excised potato tuber bud discs (‘eyes’). Monoterpenes from peppermint\\u000a oil (PMO) and S-(+)-carvone (CAR) interact with the GA-mediated bud dormancy release in a hormesis-type response: low monoterpene concentrations\\u000a enhance dormancy release and the

Sonja RentzschDagmara; Dagmara Podzimska; Antje Voegele; Madeleine Imbeck; Kerstin Müller; Ada Linkies; Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

9

Changes in the Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes during Three Phases of Bud Dormancy in Leafy Spurge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. In this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by d...

10

Chilling-Dependent Release of Seed and Bud Dormancy in Peach Associates to Common Changes in Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Reproductive meristems and embryos display dormancy mechanisms in specialized structures named respectively buds and seeds that arrest the growth of perennial plants until environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Dormancy shows common physiological features in buds and seeds. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy by molecular mechanisms that are still poorly understood. In order to find common transcriptional pathways associated to dormancy release, we analyzed the chilling-dependent expression in embryos of certain genes that were previously found related to dormancy in flower buds of peach. We propose the presence of short and long-term dormancy events affecting respectively the germination rate and seedling development by independent mechanisms. Short periods of chilling seem to improve germination in an abscisic acid-dependent manner, whereas the positive effect of longer cold treatments on physiological dwarfing coincides with the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the seed.

Arbona, Vicent; Gomez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Llacer, Gerardo; Badenes, Maria Luisa; Rios, Gabino

2012-01-01

11

Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy may involve shifts in carbohydrate metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Underground adventitious buds (located on the crown and roots) of leafy spurge are 1) maintained in a quiescent state through correlative inhibition (paradormancy) during the normal growing season, 2) inhibited from initiating post-senescence shoot growth in the fall by innate dormancy (endodormancy...

12

Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.  

PubMed

To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation. PMID:17617825

Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

2007-08-01

13

Differential expression of four members of the H+-ATPase gene family during dormancy of vegetative buds of peach trees.  

PubMed

Vegetative-bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees is known to be correlated, at least partially, with properties of the underlying bud tissues during winter. Variations in the activity and amount of plasma-membrane H -ATPase were observed. A full-length cDNA, PPA2 (Prunus persica H+-ATPase 2) and three partial cDNAs (PPA1, PPA3 and PPA4) for the plasma-membrane H+-ATPase from peach trees were isolated by reverse transcription (RT)-coupled rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The accumulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase transcripts was then studied in vegetative buds during dormancy and breaking of dormancy. Competitive RT-PCR analysis revealed that, during dormancy, the plasma membrane H+-ATPase transcripts were higher in the tissues underlying the buds than in the buds themselves. After dormancy release, the level of PPA1, 2, 3 mRNA increased, whereas the level of PPA4 decreased in the buds. When trees were kept in a greenhouse (i.e. sheltered from chilling), no accumulation of PPA mRNA could be detected. These results suggest that there is a differential accumulation of H+-ATPase mRNA between the bud and the underlying bud tissues during dormancy, and that chilling could act as a decisive factor. PMID:11525520

Gévaudant, F; Pétel, G; Guilliot, A

2001-03-01

14

Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy associated with shifts in carbohydrate metabolism may involve beta-amylases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) are 1) maintained in a quie...

15

SEASONAL SHIFTS IN DORMANCY STATUS, CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM, AND RELATED GENE EXPRESSION IN CROWN BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown buds of field-grown leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, L.) were examined to determine relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and gene expression throughout para-, endo-, and eco-dormancy during the transition from summer, fall, and winter, respectively. Our data indicates that endo-dormancy...

16

Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with bud dormancy release in tree peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa ) by suppression subtractive hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subtractive cDNA library was developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy release in tree peonies. In order to\\u000a identify genes that are highly expressed in buds released from dormancy, 588 clones were examined by differential screening.\\u000a Of these, 185 clones were selected to be sequenced. A total of 37 unique sequences were obtained of which only 31 sequences

Xin Huang; Guo-sheng Zheng; Si-lan Dai; Shu-peng Gai

2008-01-01

17

Low temperatures impact dormancy status, flowering competence, and transcript profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that produces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study,\\u000a we report the effects of different environmental conditions on vegetative production and flowering competence, and determine\\u000a molecular mechanisms associated with dormancy transitions under controlled conditions. Reduction in temperature (27–10°C)\\u000a and photoperiod (16–8 h) over a 3-month period induced a

Münevver Do?ramac?; David P. Horvath; Wun S. Chao; Michael E. Foley; Michael J. Christoffers; James V. Anderson

2010-01-01

18

Photoperiodic control of extension growth, bud dormancy and flowering of Nerium indicum Mill. and Thevetia peruviana Schum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants ofN. indicum andT. peruviana grew taller and produced more leaves underld than undernd condition. WhileT. peruviana plants were taller and had more leaves undernd than undersd, those ofN. indicum did not differ under the two photoperiods. In both caseslds delayed the onset of bud dormancy but hastened the initiation of floral buds. While inT. peruviana floral buds were not

Kushal Singh; Surinder Kumar; K K Nanda

1982-01-01

19

Transcriptional profiling of bud dormancy induction and release in oak by next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background In temperate regions, the time lag between vegetative bud burst and bud set determines the duration of the growing season of trees (i.e. the duration of wood biomass production). Dormancy, the period during which the plant is not growing, allows trees to avoid cold injury resulting from exposure to low temperatures. An understanding of the molecular machinery controlling the shift between these two phenological states is of key importance in the context of climatic change. The objective of this study was to identify genes upregulated during endo- and ecodormancy, the two main stages of bud dormancy. Sessile oak is a widely distributed European white oak species. A forcing test on young trees was first carried out to identify the period most likely to correspond to these two stages. Total RNA was then extracted from apical buds displaying endo- and ecodormancy. This RNA was used for the generation of cDNA libraries, and in-depth transcriptome characterization was performed with 454 FLX pyrosequencing technology. Results Pyrosequencing produced a total of 495,915 reads. The data were cleaned, duplicated reads removed, and sequences were mapped onto the oak UniGene data. Digital gene expression analysis was performed, with both R statistics and the R-Bioconductor packages (edgeR and DESeq), on 6,471 contigs with read numbers ? 5 within any contigs. The number of sequences displaying significant differences in expression level (read abundance) between endo- and ecodormancy conditions ranged from 75 to 161, depending on the algorithm used. 13 genes displaying significant differences between conditions were selected for further analysis, and 11 of these genes, including those for glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and dehydrin xero2 (XERO2) were validated by quantitative PCR. Conclusions The identification and functional annotation of differentially expressed genes involved in the “response to abscisic acid”, “response to cold stress” and “response to oxidative stress” categories constitutes a major step towards characterization of the molecular network underlying vegetative bud dormancy, an important life history trait of long-lived organisms.

2013-01-01

20

The involvement of mitochondrial phosphate transporter in accelerating bud dormancy release during chilling treatment of tree peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone was isolated from tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) subtractive cDNA library of burst buds and characterized with regard to its sequence, expression in response to chilling\\u000a treatment during the release of bud dormancy, and its function in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The clone, designated as PsMPT, contains 1,615 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1,119 nucleotides, and the

Xin Huang; Wei Zhu; Silan Dai; Shupeng Gai; Guosheng Zheng; Chengchao Zheng

2008-01-01

21

TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.) CROWN BUDS DURING SHIFTS IN WELL-DEFINED PHASES OF DORMANCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microarray analysis was used to follow changes in gene expression coinciding with seasonal changes in the dormancy status of crown buds of field-grown leafy spurge. Known cold-regulated genes were induced and numerous GA-responsive genes were down-regulated during the transition from paradormancy to...

22

Conservation and divergence of four kiwifruit SVP-like MADS-box genes suggest distinct roles in kiwifruit bud dormancy and flowering.  

PubMed

MADS-box genes similar to Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) have been implicated in the regulation of flowering in annual species and bud dormancy in perennial species. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) are woody perennial vines where bud dormancy and out-growth affect flower development. To determine the role of SVP-like genes in dormancy and flowering of kiwifruit, four MADS-box genes with homology to Arabidopsis SVP, designated SVP1, SVP2, SVP3, and SVP4, have been identified and analysed in kiwifruit and functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes fall into different sub-clades within the SVP-like gene group, suggesting distinct functions. Expression was generally confined to vegetative tissues, and increased transcript accumulation in shoot buds over the winter period suggests a role for these genes in bud dormancy. Down-regulation before flower differentiation indicate possible roles as floral repressors. Over-expression and complementation studies in Arabidopsis resulted in a range of floral reversion phenotypes arising from interactions with Arabidopsis MADS-box proteins, but only SVP1 and SVP3 were able to complement the svp mutant. These results suggest that the kiwifruit SVP-like genes may have distinct roles during bud dormancy and flowering. PMID:22071267

Wu, Rong-Mei; Walton, Eric F; Richardson, Annette C; Wood, Marion; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

2011-11-09

23

Gene-expression profiling of grape bud response to two alternative dormancy-release stimuli expose possible links between impaired mitochondrial activity, hypoxia, ethylene-ABA interplay and cell enlargement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grape-bud-oriented genomic platform was produced for a large-scale comparative analysis of bud responses to two stimuli\\u000a of grape-bud dormancy release, hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and heat shock (HS). The results suggested considerable similarity\\u000a in bud response to the stimuli, both in the repertoire of responding genes and in the temporary nature of the transcriptome\\u000a reprogramming. Nevertheless, the bud response to

Ron Ophir; Xuequn Pang; Tamar Halaly; Jaganatha Venkateswari; Shimon Lavee; David Galbraith; Etti

2009-01-01

24

A comprehensive overview of the spatial and temporal variability of apple bud dormancy release and blooming phenology in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current context of global warming, an analysis is required of spatially-extensive and long-term blooming data in fruit trees to make up for insufficient information on regional-scale blooming changes and determinisms that are key to the phenological adaptation of these species. We therefore analysed blooming dates over long periods at climate-contrasted sites in Western Europe, focusing mainly on the Golden Delicious apple that is grown worldwide. On average, blooming advances were more pronounced in northern continental (10 days) than in western oceanic (6-7 days) regions, while the shortest advance was found on the Mediterranean coastline. Temporal trends toward blooming phase shortenings were also observed in continental regions. These regional differences in temporal variability across Western Europe resulted in a decrease in spatial variability, i.e. shorter time intervals between blooming dates in contrasted regions (8-10-day decrease for full bloom between Mediterranean and continental regions). Fitted sequential models were used to reproduce phenological changes. Marked trends toward shorter simulated durations of forcing period (bud growth from dormancy release to blooming) and high positive correlations between these durations and observed blooming dates support the notion that blooming advances and shortenings are mainly due to faster satisfaction of the heating requirement. However, trends toward later dormancy releases were also noted in oceanic and Mediterranean regions. This could tend toward blooming delays and explain the shorter advances in these regions despite similar or greater warming. The regional differences in simulated chilling and forcing periods were consistent with the regional differences in temperature increases.

Legave, Jean Michel; Blanke, Michael; Christen, Danilo; Giovannini, Daniela; Mathieu, Vincent; Oger, Robert

2012-05-01

25

A comprehensive overview of the spatial and temporal variability of apple bud dormancy release and blooming phenology in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current context of global warming, an analysis is required of spatially-extensive and long-term blooming data in fruit trees to make up for insufficient information on regional-scale blooming changes and determinisms that are key to the phenological adaptation of these species. We therefore analysed blooming dates over long periods at climate-contrasted sites in Western Europe, focusing mainly on the Golden Delicious apple that is grown worldwide. On average, blooming advances were more pronounced in northern continental (10 days) than in western oceanic (6-7 days) regions, while the shortest advance was found on the Mediterranean coastline. Temporal trends toward blooming phase shortenings were also observed in continental regions. These regional differences in temporal variability across Western Europe resulted in a decrease in spatial variability, i.e. shorter time intervals between blooming dates in contrasted regions (8-10-day decrease for full bloom between Mediterranean and continental regions). Fitted sequential models were used to reproduce phenological changes. Marked trends toward shorter simulated durations of forcing period (bud growth from dormancy release to blooming) and high positive correlations between these durations and observed blooming dates support the notion that blooming advances and shortenings are mainly due to faster satisfaction of the heating requirement. However, trends toward later dormancy releases were also noted in oceanic and Mediterranean regions. This could tend toward blooming delays and explain the shorter advances in these regions despite similar or greater warming. The regional differences in simulated chilling and forcing periods were consistent with the regional differences in temperature increases.

Legave, Jean Michel; Blanke, Michael; Christen, Danilo; Giovannini, Daniela; Mathieu, Vincent; Oger, Robert

2013-03-01

26

Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration from dormancy induction to bud burst among provenances of three European oak species.  

PubMed

Although cold hardiness is known to be a major determinant of tree species distribution, its dynamics and the factors that regulate it remain poorly understood. Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration, from dormancy induction until bud burst, were investigated in populations of two deciduous (Quercus robur L. and Quercus pubescens Willd.) and one evergreen (Quercus ilex L.) European oak. Mean cold hardiness values in January were -56, -45 and -27 degrees C for Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. ilex, respectively. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were closely related to instantaneous cold hardiness, estimated by the electrolyte leakage method, whereas total carbohydrate concentration was related to maximum cold hardiness. Both cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration showed a close linear relationship with temperatures at the location of the sampled population. Our results show that temporal variation in both the inter- and intraspecific cold hardiness in European oaks can be related to variations in the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and that these relationships appear to be driven by temperature. PMID:17331900

Morin, Xavier; Améglio, Thierry; Ahas, Rein; Kurz-Besson, Cathy; Lanta, Vojtech; Lebourgeois, François; Miglietta, Franco; Chuine, Isabelle

2007-06-01

27

ptr-MIR169 is a posttranscriptional repressor of PtrHAP2 during vegetative bud dormancy period of aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees.  

PubMed

Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2-5 showed inverse expression patterns during the dormancy period. ptr-MIR169a transcript steadily increased through the first half of the dormancy period and gradually declined with the approach of active growing season. PtrHAP2-5 abundance was higher in the beginning of the dormancy period but rapidly declined thereafter. The decline of PtrHAP2-5 correlated with the high levels of ptr-MIR169a accumulation, suggesting miR169-mediated attenuation of the target PtrHAP2-5 transcript. We experimentally verified the cleavage of PtrHAP2-5 at the predicted miR169a site at the time when PtrHAP2-5 transcript decline was observed. HAP2 is a subunit of a nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) complex consisting of two other units, HAP3 and HAP5. Using digital expression profiling we show that poplar HAP2 and HAP5 are preferentially detected in dormant tissues. Our study shows that microRNAs play a significant and as of yet unknown and unstudied role in regulating the timing of bud dormancy in trees. PMID:23321309

Potkar, Rewati; Recla, Jill; Busov, Victor

2013-01-12

28

PsRBR1 encodes a pea retinoblastoma-related protein that is phosphorylated in axillary buds during dormancy-to-growth transition  

PubMed Central

In intact plants, cells in axillary buds are arrested at the G1 phase of the cell cycle during dormancy. In mammalian cells, the cell cycle is suppressed at the G1 phase by the activities of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) family proteins, depending on their phosphorylation state. Here, we report the isolation of a pea cDNA clone encoding an RB-related protein (PsRBR1, Accession No. AB012024) with a high degree of amino acid conservation in comparison with RB family proteins. PsRBR1 protein was detected as two polypeptides using an anti-PsRBR1 antibody in dormant axillary buds, whereas it was detected as three polypeptides, which were the same two polypeptides and another larger polypeptide 2 h after terminal decapitation. Both in vitro-synthesized PsPRB1 protein and lambda protein phosphatase-treated PsRBR1 protein corresponded to the smallest polypeptide detected by anti-PsRBR1 antibody, suggesting that the three polypeptides correspond to non-phosphorylated form of PsRBR1 protein, and lower- and higher-molecular mass forms of phosphorylated PsRBR1 protein. Furthermore, in vivo labeling with [32P]-inorganic phosphate indicated that PsRBR1 protein was more phosphorylated before mRNA accumulation of cell cycle regulatory genes such as PCNA. Together these findings suggest that dormancy-to-growth transition in pea axillary buds is regulated by molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control similar to those in mammals, and that the PsRBR1 protein has an important role in suppressing the cell cycle during dormancy in axillary buds.

Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Ike, Yoko

2007-01-01

29

CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF KRP GENES FROM ADVENTITIOUS BUDS OF THE PERENNIAL WEED LEAFY SPURGE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are interested in studying bud dormancy in the perennial weed leafy spurge. Adventitious buds of leafy spurge are capable of exhibiting all three types of dormancy (para-dormancy or apical dominance, endo-dormancy or innate dormancy, and eco-dormancy). Dormancy is defined as the temporary cessa...

30

A rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budbreak in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. Kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) to increase and synchronize budbreak. This treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. A genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak

Eric F. Walton; Rong-Mei Wu; Annette C. Richardson; Marcus Davy; Roger P. Hellens; Kate Thodey; Bart J. Janssen; Andrew P. Gleave; Georgina M. Rae; Marion Wood; Robert J. Schaffer

2009-01-01

31

Extended Low Temperature Impacts Dormancy Status, Flowering Competence, and Transcript Profiles in Crown Buds of Leafy Spurge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study we report the effects of different growth conditions on vegetative reproduction and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms a...

32

H 2 O 2 is involved in the dormancy-breaking effect of hydrogen cyanamide in grapevine buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is widely used to induce the breakage of endodormancy (ED) in grape and other deciduous fruit crop,\\u000a though its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Applications of HC to grapevine buds produce oxidative stress and transient\\u000a respiratory disturbances which are related to the breakage of ED. Moreover, since the expression and activity of catalase\\u000a (Cat) is inhibited

Francisco J. Pérez; Ricardo Vergara; Sebastián Rubio

2008-01-01

33

A rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds  

PubMed Central

Budbreak in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. Kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) to increase and synchronize budbreak. This treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. A genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak in kiwifruit. Most genes identified following HC application appear to be associated with responses to stress, but a number of genes appear to be associated with the reactivation of growth. Three patterns of gene expression were identified: Profile 1, an HC-induced transient activation; Profile 2, an HC-induced transient activation followed by a growth-related activation; and Profile 3, HC- and growth-repressed. One group of genes that was rapidly up-regulated in response to HC was the glutathione S-transferase (GST) class of genes, which have been associated with stress and signalling. Previous budbreak studies, in three other species, also report up-regulated GST expression. Phylogenetic analysis of these GSTs showed that they clustered into two sub-clades, suggesting a strong correlation between their expression and budbreak across species.

Walton, Eric F.; Wu, Rong-Mei; Richardson, Annette C.; Davy, Marcus; Hellens, Roger P.; Thodey, Kate; Janssen, Bart J.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rae, Georgina M.; Wood, Marion; Schaffer, Robert J.

2009-01-01

34

Chilling of Dormant Buds Hyperinduces FLOWERING LOCUS T and Recruits GA-Inducible 1,3-?-Glucanases to Reopen Signal Conduits and Release Dormancy in Populus[W][OA  

PubMed Central

In trees, production of intercellular signals and accessibility of signal conduits jointly govern dormancy cycling at the shoot apex. We identified 10 putative cell wall 1,3-?-glucanase genes (glucan hydrolase family 17 [GH17]) in Populus that could turn over 1,3-?-glucan (callose) at pores and plasmodesmata (PD) and investigated their regulation in relation to FT and CENL1 expression. The 10 genes encode orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana BG_ppap, a PD-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, the Arabidopsis PD callose binding protein PDCB, and a birch (Betula pendula) putative lipid body (LB) protein. We found that these genes were differentially regulated by photoperiod, by chilling (5°C), and by feeding of gibberellins GA3 and GA4. GA3 feeding upregulated all LB-associated GH17s, whereas GA4 upregulated most GH17s with a GPI anchor and/or callose binding motif, but only GA4 induced true bud burst. Chilling upregulated a number of GA biosynthesis and signaling genes as well as FT, but not CENL1, while the reverse was true for both GA3 and GA4. Collectively, the results suggest a model for dormancy release in which chilling induces FT and both GPI lipid-anchored and GA3-inducible GH17s to reopen signaling conduits in the embryonic shoot. When temperatures rise, the reopened conduits enable movement of FT and CENL1 to their targets, where they drive bud burst, shoot elongation, and morphogenesis.

Rinne, Paivi L.H.; Welling, Annikki; Vahala, Jorma; Ripel, Linda; Ruonala, Raili; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

2011-01-01

35

Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial

David P Horvath; Wun S Chao; Jeffrey C Suttle; Jyothi Thimmapuram; James V Anderson

2008-01-01

36

Stamen development and winter dormancy in apricot (Prunus armeniaca)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In temperate woody perennials, flower bud development is halted during the winter, when the buds enter dormancy. This dormant period is a prerequisite for adequate flowering, is genetically regulated, and plays a clear role in possibly adapting species and cultivars to climatic areas. However, information on the biological events underpinning dormancy is lacking. Stamen development, with clear differentiated stages, appears as a good framework to put dormancy in a developmental context. Here, stamen developmental changes are characterized in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and are related to dormancy. Methods Stamen development was characterized cytochemically from the end of August to March, over 4 years. Developmental changes were related to dormancy, using the existing empirical information on chilling requirements. Key Results Stamen development continued during the autumn, and the flower buds entered dormancy with a fully developed sporogenous tissue. Although no anatomical changes were observed during dormancy, breaking of dormancy occurred following a clear sequence of events. Starch accumulated in particular places, pre-empting further development in those areas. Vascular bundles developed and pollen mother cells underwent meiosis followed by microspore development. Conclusions Dormancy appears to mark a boundary between the development of the sporogenous tissue and the occurrence of meiosis for further microspore development. Breaking of dormancy occurs following a clear sequence of events, providing a developmental context in which to study winter dormancy and to evaluate differences in chilling requirements among genotypes.

Julian, C.; Rodrigo, J.; Herrero, M.

2011-01-01

37

Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the

Sergio Jiménez; Amy L Lawton-Rauh; Gregory L Reighard; Albert G Abbott; Douglas G Bielenberg

2009-01-01

38

A cell sizer network involving Cln3 and Far1 controls entrance into S phase in the mitotic cycle of budding yeast.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size, protein content per cell at the onset of DNA replication (Ps), in order to enter S phase. Cells grown in glucose are larger than cells grown in ethanol. Here, we show that an increased level of the cyclin-dependent inhibitor Far1 increases cell size, whereas far1 Delta cells start bud emergence and DNA replication at a smaller size than wild type. Cln3 Delta, far1 Delta, and strains overexpressing Far1 do not delay budding during an ethanol glucose shift-up as wild type does. Together, these findings indicate that Cln3 has to overcome Far1 to trigger Cln-Cdc28 activation, which then turns on SBF- and MBF-dependent transcription. We show that a second threshold is required together with the Cln3/Far1 threshold for carbon source modulation of Ps. A new molecular network accounting for the setting of Ps is proposed. PMID:15520229

Alberghina, Lilia; Rossi, Riccardo L; Querin, Lorenzo; Wanke, Valeria; Vanoni, Marco

2004-11-01

39

De novo synthesis of budding yeast DNA polymerase alpha and POL1 transcription at the G1/S boundary are not required for entrance into S phase.  

PubMed Central

The POL1 gene, encoding DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transiently transcribed during the cell cycle at the G1/S phase boundary. Here we show that yeast pol alpha is present at every stage of the cell cycle, and its level only slightly increases following the peak of POL1 transcription. POL1 mRNA synthesis driven by a GAL1 promoter can be completely abolished without affecting the growth rate of logarithmically growing yeast cultures for several cell divisions, although the amount of the pol alpha polypeptide drops below the physiological level. Moreover, alpha-factor-arrested cells can enter S phase and divide synchronously even if POL1 transcription is abolished. These results indicate that the level of yeast pol alpha is not rate limiting and de novo synthesis of the enzyme is not required for entrance into S phase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Falconi, M M; Piseri, A; Ferrari, M; Lucchini, G; Plevani, P; Foiani, M

1993-01-01

40

Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis of dormant terminal buds of poplar.  

PubMed

Induction and break of bud dormancy are important features for perennial plants surviving extreme seasonal variations in climate. However, the molecular mechanism of the dormancy regulation, still remain poorly understood. To better understand the molecular basis of poplar bud dormancy, we used a label-free quantitative proteomics method based on nanoscale ultra performance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS(E) for investigation of differential protein expression during dormancy induction, dormancy, and dormancy break in apical buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra). Among these identified over 300 proteins during poplar bud dormancy, there are 74 significantly altered proteins, most of which involved in carbohydrate metabolism (22 %), redox regulation (19 %), amino acid transport and metabolism (10 %), and stress response (8 %). Thirty-one of these proteins were up-regulated, five were down-regulated during three phase, and thirty-eight were expressed specifically under different conditions. Pathway analysis suggests that there are still the presence of various physiological activities and a particular influence on photosynthesis and energy metabolism during poplar bud dormancy. Differential expression patterns were identified for key enzymes involved in major metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, thus manifesting the interplay of intricate molecular events in energy generation for new protein synthesis in the dormant buds. Furthermore, there are significant changes present in redox regulation and defense response proteins, for instance in peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. Overall, this study provides a better understanding of the possible regulation mechanisms during poplar bud dormancy. PMID:23677710

Ning, De-Li; Liu, Chang-Cai; Liu, Jin-Wen; Shen, Zhuo; Chen, Su; Liu, Feng; Wang, Bai-Chen; Yang, Chuan-Ping

2013-05-16

41

Ecophysiological Characterization of Dormancy States in Turions of the Aquatic Carnivorous Plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main dormancy states, innate and imposed dormancy, were characterized in turions (winter buds) of the aquatic carnivorous\\u000a plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. (Droseraceae) kept at 3 ± 1 °C in a refrigerator over the winter. As a result of the breaking of imposed dormancy by a temperature increase\\u000a (at 15 – 20 °C), some of the turions rose to the

L. Adamec

2003-01-01

42

IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY-EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that proliferates from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. Dormancy in these buds contributes to persistence of leafy spurge and makes current control methods difficult. To identify genetic mechanisms regulating dormancy status, we developed two ...

43

Standardizing seed dormancy research.  

PubMed

Seeds are very attractive and convenient for molecular genetic studies that challenge principal biological phenomena related to the initiation and suppression of growth (e.g., germination and dormancy, respectively). The number of reports in this field is rapidly expanding. Seed dormancy is a widely misinterpreted biological attribute. One of the main reasons is the general neglect of reliable dormancy assays; often, the sole criterion of current dormancy assays is the total germination of a seed population after a defined period of time. This is a very insensitive and inaccurate method, particularly when comparing dormancy levels of seeds from different genotypes, seeds subjected to different treatments, or seeds originating from different environments. Other seed parameters are far more useful. Furthermore, before undertaking comprehensive molecular and biochemical studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of dormancy of a given species, it is pivotal to determine the general types or categories of dormancy that are imposed and whether these are influenced by the external environment. Research strategies should be adjusted to this. In order to distinguish dead from dormant seeds, a viability test should be developed. This chapter addresses in a very general way these pitfalls in dormancy research with a focus on current plant model systems in molecular genetics, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. PMID:21898248

Hilhorst, Henk W M

2011-01-01

44

Seed dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed

Maarten Koornneef; Leónie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst

2002-01-01

45

Epidemiology and effective control of Altenaria altenata, causal agent of dead (dormant) flower bud disease of pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dead flower buds are a common phenomenon in pear culture in The Netherlands, Belgium and Mediterranean countries. Disease cases are also reported from South America. The disease is characterized by a partial or complete necrosis of flower buds during tree dormancy. The disease progresses during winter and spring, eventually resulting in the death of most flowers and decay of buds

M. Wenneker; N. N. Joosten; R. H. N. Anbergen; P. Vink; Bruggen van A. S

2011-01-01

46

Changes in Cytokinins before and during Early Flower Bud Differentiation in Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) 1  

PubMed Central

Lychee (Litchi chinensis) has been analyzed for cytokinins in buds before and after flower bud differentiation, using reversephase high performance liquid chromatography in combination with Amaranthus bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. Four cytokinins, zeatin, zeatin riboside, N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenine, and N6-(?6-isopentenyl) adenine riboside, were detected in buds. There was an increase of cytokinin activity in the buds during flower bud differentiation. In dormant buds, the endogenous cytokinin content was low, and the buds did not respond to exogenous cytokinin application. Application of kinetin promotes flower bud differentiation significantly after bud dormancy. These results are interpreted as an indication that the increase in endogenous cytokinin levels during flower bud differentiation may be correlative rather than the cause of flower bud initiation.

Chen, Wen-Shaw

1991-01-01

47

Changes in Cytokinins before and during Early Flower Bud Differentiation in Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).  

PubMed

Lychee (Litchi chinensis) has been analyzed for cytokinins in buds before and after flower bud differentiation, using reversephase high performance liquid chromatography in combination with Amaranthus bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. Four cytokinins, zeatin, zeatin riboside, N(6)-(delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine, and N(6)-(delta(6)-isopentenyl) adenine riboside, were detected in buds. There was an increase of cytokinin activity in the buds during flower bud differentiation. In dormant buds, the endogenous cytokinin content was low, and the buds did not respond to exogenous cytokinin application. Application of kinetin promotes flower bud differentiation significantly after bud dormancy. These results are interpreted as an indication that the increase in endogenous cytokinin levels during flower bud differentiation may be correlative rather than the cause of flower bud initiation. PMID:16668321

Chen, W S

1991-08-01

48

Membrane Budding  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Membrane budding is a key step in vesicular transport, multivesicular body and exosome biogenesis, and enveloped virus release. Coated vesicle formation, which is usually involved in budding towards cytosol, represents a protein-driven pathway of membrane budding suited to its function in intracellular protein sorting. Certain instances of cell entry by viruses and toxins, and microdomain-dependent multivesicular body biogenesis in animal cells, are examples of a mainly lipid-driven paradigm. Caveolae biogenesis, HIV-1 budding, and perhaps ESCRT-catalyzed multivesicular body biogenesis involve aspects of both the protein scaffold and membrane microdomain paradigms. Some of these latter events involve budding away from cytosol, and this unusual topology involves novel mechanisms. Progress in the structural and energetic bases of these different paradigms will be discussed.

Hurley, James H.; Boura, Evzen; Carlson, Lars-Anders; Rozycki, Bartosz

2011-01-01

49

Arenavirus Budding  

PubMed Central

Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

50

Dormancy of metastatic melanoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Metastatic dormancy of melanoma has not received sufficient attention, most likely because once detectable, metastasis is almost invariably fatal and, understandably, the focus has been on finding ways to prolong life of patients with overt recurrences. Nevertheless, analysis of the published clinical and experimental data on melanoma indicates that some aspect of melanoma biology imitate traits recently associated with dormancy in other solid cancers. Among them the ability of some melanomas to disseminate early during primary tumor progression and once disseminated, to remain undetected (dormant) for years. Comparison of cutaneous and uveal melanoma indicates that, in spite of being of the same origin, they differ profoundly in their clinical progression. Importantly for this discussion, between 40 and 50% of uveal melanoma remain undetected for longer than a decade, while less than 5% of cutaneous melanoma show this behavior. Both types of melanoma have activating oncogene mutations that provide autonomous pro-proliferative signals, yet the consensus is that those are not sufficient for tumor progression. If that is the case, it is possible to envision that signals from outside the tumor cell, (microenvironment) shape the fate of an individual disseminated cell, regardless of an oncogene mutation, to progress or to pause in a state of dormancy. To stimulate further debate and inquiry we describe here a few examples of potential signals that might modify the fate of disseminated cell and provide brief description of the current knowledge on dormancy in other cancers. Our hope is to convince the reader that disseminated melanoma cells do enter periods of prolonged dormancy and that finding ways to induce it, or to prolong it, might mean an extension of symptoms-free life for melanoma patients. Ultimately, understanding the biology of dormancy and the mechanisms of dormant cell survival, might allow for their specific targeting and elimination.

Ossowski, Liliana; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

2010-01-01

51

Water impermeable seed dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable seeds that do not imbibe water and thus fail to germinate in an apparently favorable environment are commonly termed\\u000a impermeable or hard seed. This physical, exogenous dormancy is especially common in species of the Fabaceae. The ecological\\u000a significance of hard seed includes the ability to rapidly recolonize burnt areas after fire and to withstand ingestion by\\u000a animals and birds.

M. Philip Rolston

1978-01-01

52

Entrance Age Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey sought information regarding the policies of school districts across the nation on entrance requirements to kindergarten and the first grade. The school systems were classified under four strata according to total enrollment size. The most frequently reported minimum entrance age for kindergarten was 5 years of age by December 1. For…

Stemnock, Suzanne K.

1968-01-01

53

Auxin promotes dormancy callose removal from the phloem of Magnolia kobus and callose accumulation and earlywood vessel differentiation in Quercus robur  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter, the phloem of the diffuse-porous tree magnolia (Magnolia kobus DC.) is dormant and is characterized by heavy deposits of dormancy callose. Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)\\u000a to either the top or the lower ends of excised dormant branches before bud break resulted in the removal of the dormancy callose\\u000a from the sieve tubes. In both intact and auxintreated

Roni Aloni; Carol A. Peterson

1997-01-01

54

Early entrance coproduction plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) c...

J. S. Abughazaleh M. Ahmed A. Anand J. H. Anderson C. Benham

2001-01-01

55

Early entrance coproduction plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) c...

L. S. Shah W. K. Davis

2000-01-01

56

Early entrance coproduction plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The...

J. S. Abughazaleh M. Ahmed A. Anand J. H. Anderson C. Benham

2001-01-01

57

Tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with shorter periods of winter dormancy exhibit lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a perennial crop grown throughout the world. During winter, tea undergoes a dormancy period when growth of apical buds almost ceases, severely reducing the commercial yield of tea. Low temperatures prevail during the period of winter dormancy, which alone or in combination with high solar irradiance have the potential to induce oxidative stress in plants. We studied six tea clones under field conditions to test whether a relationship exists between oxidative stress and winter dormancy. Data on the behavior of the enzymatic antioxidative system was collected for all clones during different phases of winter dormancy. There was a strong positive correlation among clones between accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the length of the dormancy period. Clones having shorter dormancy periods exhibited higher induction of antioxidative enzymes. Results suggest that efficient scavenging of ROS is a desirable feature in tea because it leads to lower accumulations of ROS during winter months and is associated with reduced winter dormancy. PMID:17545125

Vyas, Dhiraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

2007-09-01

58

Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

59

Sequencing and annotation of the evergrowing locus in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] reveals a cluster of six MADS-box transcription factors as candidate genes for regulation of terminal bud formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buds are specialized structures that protect fragile meristematic regions during dormancy and are part of the mechanism that\\u000a plants use to survive unfavorable environmental conditions such as low temperature or dessication stress. The evergrowing (evg) mutant of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] does not form terminal vegetative buds in response to dormancy-inducing conditions such as short days and low\\u000a temperatures,

Douglas Gary Bielenberg; Zhigang Li; Tetyana Zhebentyayeva; Shenghua Fan; Gregory Lynn Reighard; Ralph Scorza; Albert Glenn Abbott

2008-01-01

60

Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the fi rst approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud\\/sprout » level. In particular,

Mohammed Bajji; Frédéric Gastiny

2007-01-01

61

Terminal bud failure of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) exposed to salt-laden winter storms.  

PubMed

At coastal sites, trees are exposed to marine aerosols that may cause foliar necrosis and shoot dieback, which can result in deformed crowns and contorted stems. A six-year study of leaf primordia in terminal buds of black cottonwood trees (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) on Heimaey Island off the south coast of Iceland was undertaken to elucidate the physiological events associated with salt-deposition-related bud failure. Leaf and bud lengths, dry mass, water content and chloride concentrations were monitored and related to four phenological stages: (1) bud set; (2) dormancy induction; (3) dormancy release; and (4) bud break. The trees set buds in July and shed their leaves by late September. Leaf primordia generally stopped growing by September 10 +/- 22 days and attained midwinter water content in late September. Leaf growth commenced in the terminal buds by March 2 +/- 16 days, but mean dates of bud swelling and bud break were April 29 +/- 19 and May 10 +/- 12 days. In summer and until November, chloride concentrations in leaf primordia were low, but increasing. Chloride concentrations remained stable from December to February, even though the dormant trees were exposed to large amounts of marine aerosols. In February and March, three events occurred more or less simultaneously: (1) leaf extension growth commenced; (2) chloride concentration surged in the leaf primordia; and (3) the leaf primordia began to hydrate. Following dormancy release, growth and hydration of leaf primordia were negatively related to chloride concentration in the leaf primordia, with inhibition of leaf growth, tissue hydration and chloride acquisition occurring at a chloride concentration threshold estimated at 7.3 mg Cl- g(-1) tissue water. Necrosis of leaf primordia was observed above 14 mg Cl- g(-1) tissue water. Growth and hydration of leaves at bud break in mid-May was explained by a three-parameter logistic model of chloride concentration in leaf primordia at the end of March. By mid-May, 90% of all buds remained non-necrotic, but only 56% the terminal buds had broken. Salt alone explained the observed growth suppression of leaf primordia in the buds and the resultant failure of terminal buds to break by mid-May. PMID:16585036

Jonsson, Thorbergur H

2006-07-01

62

6. ENTRANCE DETAIL AT TECHWOOD DORMITORY, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. ENTRANCE DETAIL AT TECHWOOD DORMITORY, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE FROM CENTRAL COURTYARD INTO CENTER WING. ORIGINAL DOUBLE DOORS HAVE BEEN REPLACED WITH A SINGLE, WIDER DOOR. STONE USED FOR DOOR SURROUND AND WINDOW LINTEL AND AS A DECORATIVE BAND BETWEEN SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. - Techwood Homes, McDaniel Dormitory, 581-587 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

63

Molecular and biochemical mechanisms associated with dormancy and drought tolerance in the desert legume Retama raetam.  

PubMed

Dormancy is an important developmental program allowing plants to withstand extended periods of extreme environmental conditions, such as low temperature or drought. Seed dormancy, bud dormancy and desiccation tolerance have been extensively studied, but little is known about the mechanisms involved in the dormancy of drought-tolerant plants, key to the survival of many plant species in arid and semi-arid environments. Subtractive PCR cloning of cDNAs from Retama raetam, a C3 drought-tolerant legume, revealed that dormancy in this plant is accompanied by the accumulation of transcripts encoding a pathogenesis-related, PR-10-like protein; a low temperature-inducible dehydrin; and a WRKY transcription factor. In contrast, non-dormant plants subjected to stress conditions contained transcripts encoding a cytosolic small heat-shock protein, HSP18; an ethylene-response transcriptional co-activator; and an early light-inducible protein. Physiological and biochemical analysis of Rubisco activity and protein in dormant and non-dormant tissues suggested a novel post-translational mechanism of regulation that may be controlled by the redox status of cells. Ultrastructural analysis of dormant plants revealed that air spaces of photosynthetic tissues contained an extracellular matrix that may function to prevent water loss. The cytosol of dormant cells appeared to be in a glassy state, limiting metabolic activity. A combination of biochemical, molecular and structural mechanisms, in association with metabolic suppression, may be key to the extreme drought tolerance of R. raetam and its acclimation to the desert ecosystem. These may enable plants to withstand long periods of drought, as well as rapidly to exit dormancy upon rainfall. PMID:12164811

Pnueli, Lilach; Hallak-Herr, Elza; Rozenberg, Mira; Cohen, Mira; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Kaplan, Aaron; Mittler, Ron

2002-08-01

64

Seed dormancy and ABA signaling  

PubMed Central

The seed is an important organ in higher plants, it is an important organ for plant survival and species dispersion. The transition between seed dormancy and germination represents a critical stage in the plant life cycle and it is an important ecological and commercial trait. A dynamic balance of synthesis and catabolism of two antagonistic hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and giberellins (GAs), controls the equilibrium between seed dormancy and germination. Embryonic ABA plays a central role in induction and maintenance of seed dormancy and also inhibits the transition from embryonic to germination growth. Therefore, the ABA metabolism must be highly regulated at both temporal and spatial levels during phase of dessication tolerance. On the other hand, the ABA levels do not depend exclusively on the seeds because sometimes it becomes a strong sink and imports it from the roots and rhizosphere through the xylem and/or phloem. These events are discussed in depth here. Likewise, the role of some recently characterized genes belonging to seeds of woody species and related to ABA signaling are also included. Finally, although four possible ABA receptors have been reported, not much is known about how they mediate ABA signaling transduction. However, new publications seem to show that almost all these receptors lack several properties to consider them as such.

del Carmen Rodriguez-Gacio, Maria; Matilla-Vazquez, Miguel A

2009-01-01

65

Bud development and hydraulics  

PubMed Central

The distal zone of one-year-old apple (Malus domestica) shoots was studied on five cultivars for bud size and composition (number of appendages) and hydraulic conductance before bud burst. Our hypothesis was that bud development was related to hydraulic conductance of the sap pathway to the bud independent of an acrotonic (proximal vs. distal) effect. Bud size and composition, and hydraulic conductance, were highly variable for all cultivars. A positive correlation was demonstrated between both the number of cataphylls and green-leaf primordia and hydraulic conductance. Cultivar and bud size affected the intercept of these relationships more than the slope suggesting similar scaling between these variables but different hydraulic efficiencies. A great proportion of small buds were also characterized by null values of hydraulic conductance. Our study suggests that hydraulically mediated competitions exist between adjacent buds within a same branching zone prefiguring the variability of lateral types in the following growing season. It is hypothesized that this developmental patterning is driven by hydraulic characteristics of the whole-metamer, including the subtending leaf, during bud development.

Cochard, Herve

2008-01-01

66

Transcript Profiling of Paoenia ostii during Artificial Chilling Induced Dormancy Release Identifies Activation of GA Pathway and Carbohydrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Endo-dormant flower buds must pass through a period of chilling to reinitiate growth and subsequent flowering, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. Customized cDNA microarray (8×15 K element) was used to investigate gene expression profiling in tree peony ‘Feng Dan Bai’ buds during 24 d chilling treatment at 0–4°C. According to the morphological changes after the whole plants were transferred to green house, endo-dormancy was released after 18 d chilling treatment, and prolonged chilling treatment increased bud break rate. Pearson correlation hierarchical clustering of sample groups was highly consistent with the dormancy transitions revealed by morphological changes. Totally 3,174 significantly differentially-expressed genes (P<0.05) were observed through endo-dormancy release process, of which the number of up-regulated (1,611) and that of down-regulated (1,563) was almost the same. Functional annotation of differentially-expressed genes revealed that cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, regulation of biological process and development process were well-represented. Hierarchical clustering indicated that activation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis, Citrate cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway), energy metabolism and cell growth. Based on the results of GO analysis, totally 51 probes presented in the microarray were associated with GA response and GA signaling pathway, and 22 of them were differently expressed. The expression profiles also revealed that the genes of GA biosynthesis, signaling and response involved in endo-dormancy release. We hypothesized that activation of GA pathway played a central role in the regulation of dormancy release in tree peony.

Liu, Chunying; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Guosheng

2013-01-01

67

Transcript profiling of Paoenia ostii during artificial chilling induced dormancy release identifies activation of GA pathway and carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

Endo-dormant flower buds must pass through a period of chilling to reinitiate growth and subsequent flowering, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. Customized cDNA microarray (8×15 K element) was used to investigate gene expression profiling in tree peony 'Feng Dan Bai' buds during 24 d chilling treatment at 0-4°C. According to the morphological changes after the whole plants were transferred to green house, endo-dormancy was released after 18 d chilling treatment, and prolonged chilling treatment increased bud break rate. Pearson correlation hierarchical clustering of sample groups was highly consistent with the dormancy transitions revealed by morphological changes. Totally 3,174 significantly differentially-expressed genes (P<0.05) were observed through endo-dormancy release process, of which the number of up-regulated (1,611) and that of down-regulated (1,563) was almost the same. Functional annotation of differentially-expressed genes revealed that cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, regulation of biological process and development process were well-represented. Hierarchical clustering indicated that activation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis, Citrate cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway), energy metabolism and cell growth. Based on the results of GO analysis, totally 51 probes presented in the microarray were associated with GA response and GA signaling pathway, and 22 of them were differently expressed. The expression profiles also revealed that the genes of GA biosynthesis, signaling and response involved in endo-dormancy release. We hypothesized that activation of GA pathway played a central role in the regulation of dormancy release in tree peony. PMID:23405132

Gai, Shupeng; Zhang, Yuxi; Liu, Chunying; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Guosheng

2013-02-06

68

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

2001-02-15

69

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

2000-10-26

70

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

2003-06-09

71

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

2003-09-09

72

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

2001-05-17

73

Early Entrance Coproduction Plant  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

2004-01-26

74

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

William K. Davis

2001-03-21

75

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

2003-12-16

76

PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF POTATO TUBER DORMANCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At harvest, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are dormant and will not sprout. As the period of postharvest storage is extended, tuber dormancy is broken and sprout growth commences. The loss of tuber dormancy and onset of sprout growth is accompanied by numerous biochemical changes, many of wh...

77

GENETICS OF SEED DORMANCY IN WEEDY RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have developed weedy rice as an experimental system to investigate genetic and evolutionary mechanisms underlying seed dormancy, a key adaptive or domestication-related trait. Dormancy is very strong for most weedy accessions, strong for some traditional cultivars, and weak for modern cultivars, ...

78

Tumour dormancy in breast cancer: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed recurrences, common in breast cancer, are well explained by the concept of tumour dormancy. Numerous publications describe clinical times to disease recurrence or death, using mathematical approaches to infer mechanisms responsible for delayed recurrences. However, most of the clinical literature discussing tumour dormancy uses data from over a half century ago and much has since changed. This review explores

Muriel Brackstone; Jason L Townson; Ann F Chambers

2007-01-01

79

Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

80

Alpine Russet: A Potato Cultivar Having Long Tuber Dormancy Making it Suitable for Processing from Long-term Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine Russet is a later maturing, oblong-long, lightly russeted potato cultivar, notable for having tuber dormancy comparable\\u000a to Russet Burbank. Processing quality of Alpine Russet from long-term storage is superior to Russet Burbank, with low percent\\u000a reducing sugars and uniform fry color due to a low percentage difference of sugars between the bud and stem ends. Alpine Russet\\u000a yields were

Jonathan L. Whitworth; Richard G. Novy; Jeffrey C. Stark; Joseph J. Pavek; Dennis L. Corsini; Steven L. Love; Nora Olsen; Sanjay K. Gupta; Tina Brandt; M. Isabel Vales; Alvin R. Mosley; Solomon Yilma; Steve R. James; Dan C. Hane; Brian A. Charlton; Clinton C. Shock; N. Richard Knowles; Mark J. Pavek; Jeffrey S. Miller; Charles R. Brown

2011-01-01

81

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery.

John H. Anderson; William K. Davis; Thomas W. Sloop

2001-03-21

82

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the manufacture of ethylene and propylene chemicals from F-T naphtha, for the generation of hydrogen from F-T naphtha to power fuel cells, for direct blending of F-T diesels into transportation fuels, for the conversion of F-T heavy product wax to transportation fuels, and the conversion of F-T Heavy product wax to a valuable high melting point food-grade specialty wax product. Product evaluations conducted under Task 2.5 of Phase II successfully mitigated the above technical and economic risks to the EECP with the development of product yields and product qualities for the production of chemicals, transportation fuels, and specialty food-grade waxes from the F-T synthesis products.

Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

2004-01-27

83

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several important issues were addressed in this phase of the project. They included Rejuvenation/Regeneration of the Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst, online Catalyst Withdrawal and Addition from the synthesis reactor, and the Fischer-Tropsch Design Basis Confirmation. In Phase III the results from these RD&T work will be incorporated in developing the engineering design package. This Topical Report documents the Phase II RD&T work that was completed for this task.

David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

2004-01-12

84

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The decision to proceed with Phase III centers on locating a new site and favorable commercial and economic factors.

John Anderson; Charles Schrader

2004-01-26

85

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making assumptions for the basis of design for various technologies that are part of the EECP concept. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was approved by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified technical and economic risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of the technical and economic success of the EECP. The Project Management Plan (Task 1) for Phase II was approved by the DOE in 2001. The results of RD&T efforts for Phase II are expected to improve the quality of assumptions made in Phase I for basis of design for the EECP concept. The RD&T work plan (Task 2 and 3) for Phase II has been completed. As the RD&T work conducted during Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Basic Engineering Design. Also due to the merger of Chevron and Texaco, the proposed refinery site for the EECP was not available. It became apparent that some additional technical development work would be needed to correctly apply the technology at a specific site. The objective of Task 4 of Phase II is to update the concept basis of design produced during Phase I. As part of this task, items that will require design basis changes and are not site dependent have been identified. The team has qualitatively identified the efforts to incorporate the impacts of changes on EECP concept. The design basis has been modified to incorporate those changes. The design basis changes for those components of EECP that are site and feedstock dependent will be done as part of Phase III, once the site has been selected.

Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

2003-09-15

86

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to its detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES) (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR). The work was under cooperative agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing the gasification technology and the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech Inc., GE is providing the combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing the air separation technology, and KBR is providing overall engineering. Each of the EECP's subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers in Phase I. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP concept, Phase II RD&T included tests for secondary catalyst/wax separation systems as part of Task 2.3--Catalyst/Wax Separation. The LCI Scepter{reg_sign} Microfiltration system was determined to be best suited for producing a filtrate that met the EECP secondary catalyst/wax separation standards of producing F-T wax containing less than10 ppmw solids. As part of task 2.3, micro-filtration removal efficiencies and production rates for two FT feeds, Rentech Inc. bubble column reactor (BCR) product and LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) product, were evaluated. Based on comparisons between the performances of these two materials, the more readily available LaPorte AFDU material was judged an acceptable analog to the BCR material that would be produced in a larger-scale F-T synthesis. The present test was initiated to obtain data in an extended range of concentration for use in the scale-up design of the secondary catalyst/wax separation system that would be operating at the EECP capacity.

John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Donald Todd; Robert Schavey

2004-01-12

87

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst/wax separation device and secondary catalyst/wax separation systems. The team evaluated multiple technologies for both primary and secondary catalyst/wax separation. Based on successful testing at Rentech (outside of DOE funding) and difficulties in finalizing a contract to demonstrate alternative primary catalyst/wax separation technology (using magnetic separation technology), ChevronTexaco has selected the Rentech Dynamic Settler for primary catalyst/wax separation. Testing has shown the Dynamic Settler is capable of producing filtrate exceeding the proposed EECP primary catalyst/wax separation goal of less than 0.1 wt%. The LCI Scepter{reg_sign} Microfiltration system appeared to be best suited for producing a filtrate that met the EECP secondary catalyst/wax separation standards of 10 parts per million (weight) [ppmw]. The other technologies, magnetic separation and electrostatic separation, were promising and able to reduce the solids concentrations in the filtrate. Additional RD&T will be needed for magnetic separation and electrostatic separation technologies to obtain 10 ppmw filtrate required for the proposed EECP. The Phase II testing reduces the technical and economic risks and provides the information necessary to proceed with the development of an engineering design for the EECP Fischer-Tropsch catalyst/wax separation system.

John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

2003-08-21

88

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified several potential methods to reduce or minimize the environmental impact of the proposed EECP. The EECP Project Team identified F-T catalyst disposal, beneficial gasifier slag usage (other than landfill), and carbon dioxide recovery for the gas turbine exhaust for study under this task. Successfully completing the Task 2.10 RD&T provides additional opportunities for the EECP to meet the goals of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The gasification section offers several opportunities to maximize the environmental benefits of an EECP. The spent F-T catalyst can be sent to landfills or to the gasification section. Testing in Phase II shows that the spent F-T catalyst with a small wax coating can safely meet federal landfill requirements. As an alternative to landfilling, it has been proposed to mix the spent F-T catalyst with the petroleum coke and feed this mixture to the gasification unit. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience with gasification and the characteristics of the spent F-T catalyst this appears to be an excellent opportunity to reduce one potential waste stream. The slag from the gasification unit can be commercially marketed for construction or fuel (such as cement kiln fuel) uses. The technical and economic benefits of these options must be reviewed for the final EECP before incorporating a specific alternative into the design basis. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, is an important goal of the EECP. The Texaco gasification process provides opportunities to capture high purity streams of carbon dioxide. For Phase II, a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) was tested to determine its potential to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust of a gas turbine. Testing on with a simulated gas turbine exhaust shows that the CFCMS is able to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust. However, more development is required to optimize the system.

John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; O.O. Omatete; T.D. Burchell

2004-01-12

89

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker operating parameters. The specific petroleum coke characteristics at a refinery affect the design of the Gasification and Acid Gas Removal (AGR) subsystems. Knowing the petroleum coke composition provides the necessary data to proceed to the EECP Phase III engineering design of the gasification process. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience, the EECP team ranked the technical, economic, and overall risks of the petroleum coke composition related to the gasification subsystem as low. In Phase I of the EECP Project, the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery had been identified as the potential EECP site. As a result of the merger between Texaco and Chevron in October 2001, Texaco was required to sell its interest in the Motiva Enterprises LLC joint venture to Shell Oil Company and Saudi Refining Inc. To assess the possible impact of moving the proposed EECP host site to a ChevronTexaco refinery, samples of petroleum coke from two ChevronTexaco refineries were sent to MTC for bench-scale testing. The results of the analysis of these samples were compared to the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis developed for Motiva's Port Arthur Refinery. The analysis confirms that if the proposed EECP is moved to a new refinery site, the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis would have to be updated. The lower sulfur content of the two samples from the ChevronTexaco refineries indicates that if one of these sites were selected, the Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) might be sized smaller than the current EECP design. This would reduce the capital expense of the SRU. Additionally, both ChevronTexaco samples have a higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio than the Motiva Port Arthur petroleum coke. The higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio could give a slightly higher F-T products yield from the F-T Synthesis Reactor. However, the EECP Gasification Design Basis can not be updated until the site for the proposed EECP site is finalized. Until the site is finalized, the feedstock (petroleum coke) characteristics are a low risk to the EECP project.

Abdalla H. Ali; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

2003-04-16

90

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids levels and alleviates corrosion and fuel stability concerns. Future coproduction plants can maximize valuable transportation diesel by hydrocracking the F-T Synthesis wax product to diesel and naphtha. The upgraded neat F-T diesel, hydrotreater F-T diesel, and hydrocracker F-T diesel products would be final blending components in transportation diesel fuel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully carried out fuel lubricity property testing, fuel response to lubricity additives, and hot-start transient emission tests on a neat F-T diesel product, a hydrocracker F-T diesel product, a blend of hydrotreater and hydrocracker F-T diesel products, and a Tier II California Air Resources Board (CARB)-like diesel reference fuel. Only the neat F-T diesel passed lubricity inspection without additive while the remaining three fuel candidates passed with conventional additive treatment. Hot-start transient emission tests were conducted on the four fuels in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Test Procedure (FTP) specified in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, and Subpart N on a rebuilt 1991 Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 heavy-duty diesel engine. Neat F-T diesel fuel reduced oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), total particulate (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) by 4.5%, 31%, 50%, 29%, and 35%, respectively, compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The hydrocracker F-T diesel product and a blend of hydrocracker and hydrotreater F-T diesel products also reduced NO{sub x}, PM, HC, CO and SOF by 13%, 16% to 17%, 38% to 63%, 17% to 21% and 21% to 39% compared to the Tier II CARB-like diesel. The fuel/engine performance and emissions of the three F-T diesel fuels exceed the performance of a Tier II CARB-like diesel. Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 successfully met the lubricity property testing and F-T diesel fuel hot-start transient emissions test objectives. The results of the testing help mitigate potential economic risks on obtaining a premium price for the F-T diesel fuel

Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

2004-01-12

91

Genetic analysis of embryo dormancy. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Primary dormancy is the inability of mature seed to immediately germinate until specific environmental stimuli are perceived that predict that future conditions will support plant growth and seed set. The analysis of abscisic acid deficient and insensitive mutants, in particular in Arabidopsis, suggests that embryo abscisic acid may be directly involved in the development of primary dormancy. Other studies implicate the continued accumulation of LEA proteins as inhibiting germination in dormant embryos. The results of these physiological, molecular and genetic approaches are complex and equivocal. There is a real need for approaches that test the separate nature of vivipary inhibition and primary dormancy and deliberately seed to decouple and dissect them. These approaches should be of help in understanding both late embryo development and primary dormancy. The approach taken here is to directly isolate mutants of Arabidopsis that appear to be deficient only in primary dormancy, that is fresh seed that germinate rapidly without the normally-required cold-stratification. The authors have isolated at least 8 independent, rapidly germinating RGM mutants of Arabidopsis. All others aspects of plant growth and development appear normal in these lines, suggesting that the rgm mutants are defective only in the establishment or maintenance of primary dormancy. At least one of these may be tagged with T-DNA. In addition, about 50 RGM isolates have been recovered from EMS-treated seed.

Galau, G.

1998-09-01

92

Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach  

PubMed Central

Background Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the phylogenetic context of the MADS-box gene family. Results The peach DAM genes grouped with the SVP/StMADS11 lineage of type II MIKCC MADS-box genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the peach SVP/StMADS11-like gene family, which contains significantly more members than annual model plants, expanded through serial tandem gene duplication. We found evidence of strong purifying selection acting to constrain functional divergence among the peach DAM genes and only a single codon, located in the C-terminal region, under significant positive selection. Conclusion Because all DAM genes are expressed in peach and are subjected to strong purifying selection we suggest that the duplicated genes have been maintained by subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization. In addition, this pattern of selection suggests that the DAM genes are important for peach growth and development.

Jimenez, Sergio; Lawton-Rauh, Amy L; Reighard, Gregory L; Abbott, Albert G; Bielenberg, Douglas G

2009-01-01

93

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling timing of bud flush in Salix.  

PubMed

Dormancy release is an important phenological stage, which determines plant growth and survival in northern temperate regions. Spring bud flushing was studied in a Salix pedigree (n=82) derived from a cross between the male hybrid clone "Björn" (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and the female clone "78183" (Salix viminalis). The timing of bud flush was recorded outdoors in two consecutive years (1998, 1999) and indoor in the spring of 1998. Timing of bud flush was found to be under moderately strong genetic control (clonal mean heritabilities ranging from 0.43 to 0.72). Phenotypic correlations between height growth and bud flushing were negative but non-significant (r=0.1-0.3). Using a Salix linkage map composed of 325 AFLP and 38 RFLP markers, six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and three unmapped marker loci associated with timing of bud flush were detected. Four QTLs were detected in the field experiment while two QTLs and three unmapped marker loci were identified in the indoor experiment. One QTL associated with indoor bud flushing coincided with one of the QTL detected from the field data. Individual QTL explained 6-16% of the phenotypic variance [corrected]. None of the bud flush QTLs coincided with QTLs controlling height growth identified previously in the same pedigree. PMID:14641480

Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Gullberg, Urban; Lagercrantz, Ulf

2003-01-01

94

"Bud, Not Buddy."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's Newberry…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2002-01-01

95

A modular systems biology analysis of cell cycle entrance into S-phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular systems biology approach to the study of the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Literature on the structure of yeast population and its relevance to the study of yeast cell cycle is reviewed.\\u000a A model for the control of yeast cell cycle, with emphasis on a threshold mechanism controlling entrance into S-phase is presented.

Lilia Alberghina; Riccardo L. Rossi; Danilo Porro; Marco Vanoni

96

Graceful entrance to braneworld inflation  

SciTech Connect

Positively-curved, oscillatory universes have recently been shown to have important consequences for the preinflationary dynamics of the early universe. In particular, they may allow a self-interacting scalar field to climb up its potential during a very large number of these cycles. The cycles are naturally broken when the potential reaches a critical value and the universe begins to inflate, thereby providing a 'graceful entrance' to early universe inflation. We study the dynamics of this behavior within the context of braneworld scenarios which exhibit a bounce from a collapsing phase to an expanding one. The dynamics can be understood by studying a general class of braneworld models that are sourced by a scalar field with a constant potential. Within this context, we determine the conditions a given model must satisfy for a graceful entrance to be possible in principle. We consider the bouncing braneworld model proposed by Shtanov and Sahni and show that it exhibits the features needed to realise a graceful entrance to inflation for a wide region of parameter space.

Lidsey, James E.; Mulryne, David J. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2006-04-15

97

Identification and analysis of phosphorylation status of proteins in dormant terminal buds of poplar  

PubMed Central

Background Although there has been considerable progress made towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of bud dormancy, the roles of protein phosphorylation in the process of dormancy regulation in woody plants remain unclear. Results We used mass spectrometry combined with TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment strategies to investigate the phosphoproteome of dormant terminal buds (DTBs) in poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra). There were 161 unique phosphorylated sites in 161 phosphopeptides from 151 proteins; 141 proteins have orthologs in Arabidopsis, and 10 proteins are unique to poplar. Only 34 sites in proteins in poplar did not match well with the equivalent phosphorylation sites of their orthologs in Arabidopsis, indicating that regulatory mechanisms are well conserved between poplar and Arabidopsis. Further functional classifications showed that most of these phosphoproteins were involved in binding and catalytic activity. Extraction of the phosphorylation motif using Motif-X indicated that proline-directed kinases are a major kinase group involved in protein phosphorylation in dormant poplar tissues. Conclusions This study provides evidence about the significance of protein phosphorylation during dormancy, and will be useful for similar studies on other woody plants.

2011-01-01

98

Does tumour dormancy offer a therapeutic target?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of cancer survivors is cause for celebration, but this expanding population has highlighted the problem of tumour dormancy, which can lead to relapse. As we start to understand more about the biology of dormant cancer cells, we can begin to address how best to treat this form of disease. Preclinical models and initial clinical trials, as exemplified

Paul E. Goss; Ann F. Chambers

2010-01-01

99

The Budding Yeast Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure.

Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

2010-01-01

100

Ecological mechanisms involved in dormancy breakage in Ulex parviflorus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dormancy in the hard seed coats of Mediterranean species is considered a strategy that enables persistent seed banks to be\\u000a formed in the soil. An important factor related to seed coat fracture and dormancy breakage in Mediterranean ecosystems is\\u000a heat. Nevertheless, the effect of factors other than heat on dormancy breakage in these species has hardly been studied. To\\u000a investigate

M. J. Baeza; V. R. Vallejo

2006-01-01

101

Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Seed Dormancy in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

some 12) are linked with dormancy genes. Recently, molecularmarker-assistedstudieshavebeenperformed Seed dormancy is a key agronomic trait related to the quality of to identify QTLs for dormancy. Lin et al. (1998) found seed and rice production because it imparts resistance to preharvest five regions on the RFLP map of chromosomes 3, 5, 7, sprouting.Apopulationwasconstructedfromathree-waycross,IR50\\/ and 8, which were supposed to harbor

J. M. Wan; Y. J. Cao; C. M. Wang; H. Ikehashi

2005-01-01

102

Taste bud types in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the epithelium of the head gut of the sword-tail (Xiphophorus helleri Heckel) there are three types of taste buds that can be identified with certainty in the scanning electron microscope. The breathing valves, which are situated behind the mouth region, bear relatively high epidermal papillae in which type I taste buds can be found. The middle region of the

Klaus Reutter; Winrich Breipohl; Gerhard J. Bijvank

1974-01-01

103

"PROBATION AT ENTRANCE"--A STUDY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PERSISTENCY AND SUCCESS OF 200 FALL, 1962, "PROBATION AT ENTRANCE" STUDENTS (WITH LESS THAN 2.0 GRADE POINT AVERAGE) WAS STUDIED. PERCENTAGE OF MEN AND WOMEN FROM VARIOUS HIGH SCHOOLS, MEDIAN ENTRANCE TEST SCORES, MAJOR FIELDS CHOSEN, AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES WERE ENUMERATED. THE MAJORITY OF STUDENTS CHOSE GOALS WITHIN THEIR ABILITY LEVELS,…

LUKE, ORRAL S.

104

CARBOHYDRATES AFFECT DORMANCY AND GROWTH IN UNDERGROUND BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term “low-carb diet” is frequently mentioned by a health conscious society interested in reducing carbohydrate intake. What are carbohydrates? In general, carbohydrates are either simple sugars like glucose, fructose, and sucrose (table sugar) or complexes of sugars like starch. Carbohydrates ar...

105

LEAFY SPURGE: A MODEL PLANT FOR GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF BUD DORMANCY AND INSECT/HERBICIDE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Keywords: Model Plant, Perennial, Leafy Spurge, EST database, Microarray One of the greatest advances in plant science has been the designation and study of model plants. Having model plants provides researchers with information from interconnecting lines of study, and human and material resources...

106

Influenza Virus Assembly and Budding  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses.

Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

2011-01-01

107

Chemical Manipulation of Meristem Dormancy Alters Transcript Profiles in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dormancy status of potato tuber meristems can be manipulated by a variety of chemical treatments. The application of bromoethane (BE) results in dormancy cessation, while chlorpropham (CIPC), and 1,4-dimethyl naphthalene (DMN) are used commercially to prolong the dormant state. Transcript analys...

108

Plant hormone interactions during seed dormancy release and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses mainly on eudicot seeds, and on the interactions between abscisic acid (ABA), gibber- ellins (GA), ethylene, brassinosteroids (BR), auxin and cytokinins in regulating the interconnected molecular processes that control dormancy release and germi- nation. Signal transduction pathways, mediated by environmental and hormonal signals, regulate gene expression in seeds. Seed dormancy release and germination of species with coat

Birgit Kucera; Marc Alan Cohn; Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

2005-01-01

109

Role of metabolism in ABA homeostasis during potato tuber dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endogenous hormones play a essential role in the regulation of potato tuber dormancy. Abscisic acid has been shown to be critically involved in tuber dormancy induction and maintenance. Genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the terminal steps of ABA synthesis and metabolism have been cloned from tuber...

110

Evolutionary Ecology of Seed Dormancy and Seed Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical ideas underpinning the evolution of seed dormancy and seed mass are briefly reviewed. Comparative tests of these theoretical ideas are then presented; all tests use modern comparative methods to allow accurate, meaningful comparisons across species. The comparative analyses of seed dormancy demonstrate that species that average the environment across time, by having long-lived adults or space as a

Mark Rees

1996-01-01

111

Bud8p and Bud9p, Proteins That May Mark the Sites for Bipolar Budding in YeastV?  

PubMed Central

The bipolar budding pattern of a/? Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells appears to depend on persistent spatial markers in the cell cortex at the two poles of the cell. Previous analysis of mutants with specific defects in bipolar budding identified BUD8 and BUD9 as potentially encoding components of the markers at the poles distal and proximal to the birth scar, respectively. Further genetic analysis reported here supports this hypothesis. Mutants deleted for BUD8 or BUD9 grow normally but bud exclusively from the proximal and distal poles, respectively, and the double-mutant phenotype suggests that the bipolar budding pathway has been totally disabled. Moreover, overexpression of these genes can cause either an increased bias for budding at the distal (BUD8) or proximal (BUD9) pole or a randomization of bud position, depending on the level of expression. The structures and localizations of Bud8p and Bud9p are also consistent with their postulated roles as cortical markers. Both proteins appear to be integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane, and they have very similar overall structures, with long N-terminal domains that are both N- and O-glycosylated followed by a pair of putative transmembrane domains surrounding a short hydrophilic domain that is presumably cytoplasmic. The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two proteins are very similar in sequence. When Bud8p and Bud9p were localized by immunofluorescence and tagging with GFP, each protein was found predominantly in the expected location, with Bud8p at presumptive bud sites, bud tips, and the distal poles of daughter cells and Bud9p at the necks of large-budded cells and the proximal poles of daughter cells. Bud8p localized approximately normally in several mutants in which daughter cells are competent to form their first buds at the distal pole, but it was not detected in a bni1 mutant, in which such distal-pole budding is lost. Surprisingly, Bud8p localization to the presumptive bud site and bud tip also depends on actin but is independent of the septins.

Harkins, Heidi A.; Page, Nicolas; Schenkman, Laura R.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Shaw, Sidney; Bussey, Howard; Pringle, John R.

2001-01-01

112

Dormancy and Impotency of Cocklebur Seeds  

PubMed Central

Dormant seeds of cocklebur (Xanthium pennsylvanicum Wallr.) were characterized by the lack of ability to form chlorophyll. Such an inability of cotyledons of the dormant seeds was improved by the application of various factors and reagents which were capable of breaking the dormancy and of increasing cotyledon enlargement. Of these, ethylene, benzyladenine, and high temperature treatments were particularly effective, and, in turn, oxygen enrichment, gibberellic acid, thiourea, carbon doxide, and potassium nitrate were also promotive to the greening of the dormant cotyledons. The effects of benzyladenine, oxygen enrichment, and high temperature were reduced in the presence of absorbents for endogenously evolve carbon dioxide and ethylene. ?-Aminolevulinic acid could not restore their greening ability.

Esashi, Yohji; Katoh, Hajime; Hata, Yumiko; Goto, Nobuharu

1977-01-01

113

Stratification Requirements for Seed Dormancy Alleviation in a Wetland Weed  

PubMed Central

Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (?) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base ? and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at ??=?0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that ? contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

Boddy, Louis G.; Bradford, Kent J.; Fischer, Albert J.

2013-01-01

114

Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.  

PubMed

Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (?) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base ? and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at ??=?0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that ? contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence. PMID:24039714

Boddy, Louis G; Bradford, Kent J; Fischer, Albert J

2013-09-05

115

Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trafficking of proteins within eukaryotic cells is achieved by the capture of cargo and targeting molecules into vesicles that bud from a donor membrane and deliver their contents to a receiving compartment. This process is bidirectional and may involve multiple organelles within a cell. Distinct coat proteins mediate each budding event, serving both to shape the transport vesicle and to select by direct or indirect interaction the desired set of cargo molecules. Secretion, which has been viewed as a default pathway, may require sorting and packaging signals on transported molecules to ensure their rapid delivery to the cell surface.

Schekman, Randy; Orci, Lelio

1996-03-01

116

The perivascular niche regulates breast tumour dormancy.  

PubMed

In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what wakes them up, are fundamental problems in tumour biology. To address these questions, we used metastasis assays in mice and showed that dormant DTCs reside on microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-?1 and periostin as tumour-promoting factors derived from endothelial tip cells. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a dormant niche, whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

Ghajar, Cyrus M; Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R; Evason, Kimberley J; Brazier, Hélène; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A; Stainier, Didier Y R; Chen, Emily I; Lyden, David; Bissell, Mina J

2013-06-02

117

Metabolic Dormancy and Responses to Environmental Desiccation in Fish Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metabolic depression is relatively uncommon among the fishes with the greatest number of species exhibiting dormancy as embryos.\\u000a Dormancy in fish embryos is largely associated with deposition of embryos into terrestrial habitats to avoid embryo predation\\u000a or to survive intermittent drying of aquatic habitats. Killifish embryos in general, and especially the embryos of annual\\u000a killifish, are highly adapted for life

Jason E. Podrabsky; Angèle Tingaud-Sequeira; Joan Cerdà

118

An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)|

Youngquist, G. R.

1979-01-01

119

EARLY-AGE ENTRANCE TO FIRST GRADE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE AREAS WERE CONSIDERED IN "EARLY-AGE ENTRANCE TO FIRST GRADE." FIRST, A LIST OF BACKGROUND MATERIALS USED INCLUDED SENATE NUMBER 723, DELORES DURKIN'S "CHILDREN WHO LEARNED TO READ AT HOME," AND "AN EARLIER START IN READING," JAMES R. HOBSON'S "HIGH SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF UNDERAGE PUPILS INITIALLY ADMITTED TO KINDERGARTEN ON THE BASIS OF…

BONSALL, MARCELLA; AND OTHERS

120

College Entrance Examinations and Social Cohesion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The influence of the college entrance examination (CEE) on social cohesion in Japanese society is considered, based on a 1976-1977 study in Nagoya, Japan. Attention is focused on socialization of adolescents and educational practice at the secondary level, and specifically cognitive and motivational orientations that are affected by CEE practice,…

Shimahara, Nobuo Kenneth

121

Morphological changes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) microbulblets during dormancy and sprouting as related to peroxidase activity and gibberellin A3 content.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the physiological mechanisms of dormancy and sprouting during post-harvest of garlic (Allium sativum L.) microbulblets produced by meristem culture of garlic seed cloves. The morphological changes occurring in garlic microbulblets were assessed from harvest till sprouting in relation with peroxidase activity and levels of gibberellins. Also the effect of a cold treatment (30 days at 4 degrees C) given 30 days after harvest was studied. The results showed that during the state of dormancy in garlic microbulblets formation of the leaf primordia and vascular differentiation of the storage leaf occurred, while increases of peroxidase activity and low levels of GA3 (the only active gibberellin identified) were found. At the end of dormancy the sprouting channel was formed, vascular differentiation established, and peaks of soluble peroxidase activity as well as of GA3 were observed. At day 90 post-harvest, garlic microbulblets showed physiologically mature and able to sprout. Further on, bud expansion and decrease of GA3 levels characterized sprouting of the microbulblets. The cold treatment enhanced GA3 levels and anticipated the sprouting process. PMID:11387870

Argüello, J A; Falcón, L R; Seisdedos, L; Milrad, S; Bottini, R

2001-04-01

122

Development and ecological implications of dormant buds in the high-Paleolaltitude Triassic sphenophyte Spaciinodum (Equisetaceae).  

PubMed

Spaciinodum collinsonii, a Triassic sphenophyte from the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, is reinterpreted based on new material in order to clarify discrepancies from previous work and to detail the development and ecology of the Spaciinodum plant. Vegetative stems have alternating nodes and internodes, nodes distinguished by a solid diaphragm of tissue, internodes by the presence of vallecular (cortical) and carinal canals, and a hollow pith. Whorls of branches arise immediately above the nodes, alternating with the leaves of the subjacent nodes. Branches develop in the cortex and are anatomically similar to the stems. While Spaciinodum is similar to extant Equisetum, it is distinctive in that its large vallecular canals form a complete ring within the cortex and are separated only by thin fimbrils of tissue. The majority of specimens of Spaciinodum are now believed to be dormant buds with condensed nodes and internodes, with progressively longer internodal regions more basally. More apical portions of buds have cellular internodes because the areas where the canals will form have not yet ruptured from elongation. The abundance of buds and the absence of elongated stems in the permineralized peat deposit suggest that Spaciinodum underwent dormancy during the dark Antarctic winters. PMID:21628152

Ryberg, Patricia E; Hermsen, Elizabeth J; Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N; Osborn, Jeffrey M

2008-11-01

123

Retinoic Acid Induces Prostatic Bud Formation  

PubMed Central

Formation of prostatic buds from the urogenital sinus (UGS) to initiate prostate development requires localized action of several morphogenetic factors. This report reveals all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) to be a powerful inducer of mouse prostatic budding that is associated with reciprocal changes in expression of two regulators of budding: sonic hedgehog (Shh) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4). Localization of retinoid signaling and expression of RA synthesis, metabolism and receptor genes in the UGS on embryonic days 14.5-17.5 implicate RA in the mechanism of bud initiation. In UGS organ culture, RA increased prostatic budding, increased Shh expression, and decreased Bmp4. Prostatic budding was stimulated in the absence of RA by recombinant SHH, by blocking BMP4 signaling with NOGGIN, or by combined treatment with SHH and NOGGIN in UGS organ culture media. These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation.

Vezina, Chad M.; Allgeier, Sarah H.; Fritz, Wayne A.; Moore, Robert W.; Strerath, Michael; Bushman, Wade; Peterson, Richard E.

2008-01-01

124

Physiology of Dormancy and Germination in Cysts of the Marine Dinoflagellate 'Scrippsiella trochoidea'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study addresses the factors controlling dormancy and germination in Scrippsiella trochoidea cysts, and the physiological characteristics underlying these processes. Cysts experienced a period of dormancy lasting approximately 25 days, during which ger...

B. J. Binder

1986-01-01

125

6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE WORK, AND GATE STOP FROM SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST ELEMENTS. - William Enston Home, Entrance Gate, 900 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

126

Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.  

PubMed

Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. PMID:20971092

Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

2010-11-13

127

Entrance channel cluster folding potentials for knockout reactions  

SciTech Connect

The entrance channel optical potentials for ({alpha},2{alpha}) reactions are calculated using single folding models. These are found to be much different from the conventional entrance channel potentials and use of these folded entrance channel optical potentials significantly change the absolute cross sections. Small reductions in the entrance channel potentials are found to increase the peak to dip cross section ratios drastically for the knockout of {alpha}-clusters bound in the l=1 state.

Jain, Arun K.; Joshi, B. N. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

2008-02-15

128

Does delaying kindergarten entrance give children a head start?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising trend in the minimum entrance age for kindergarten in the US has been motivated by findings from cross-sectional studies that older entrants have more favorable school outcomes compared to younger entrants. However, these studies fail to account for endogeneity in entrance age resulting from parental choice, leading to biased estimates of the entrance age effect. This paper uses

Ashlesha Datar

2006-01-01

129

Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Delaware  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This individual profile provides information on Delaware's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

130

Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

131

Role of Bud3p in producing the axial budding pattern of yeast  

PubMed Central

Yeast cells can select bud sites in either of two distinct spatial patterns. a cells and alpha cells typically bud in an axial pattern, in which both mother and daughter cells form new buds adjacent to the preceding division site. In contrast, a/alpha cells typically bud in a bipolar pattern, in which new buds can form at either pole of the cell. The BUD3 gene is specifically required for the axial pattern of budding: mutations of BUD3 (including a deletion) affect the axial pattern but not the bipolar pattern. The sequence of BUD3 predicts a product (Bud3p) of 1635 amino acids with no strong or instructive similarities to previously known proteins. However, immunofluorescence localization of Bud3p has revealed that it assembles in an apparent double ring encircling the mother-bud neck shortly after the mitotic spindle forms. The Bud3p structure at the neck persists until cytokinesis, when it splits to yield a single ring of Bud3p marking the division site on each of the two progeny cells. These single rings remain for much of the ensuing unbudded phase and then disassemble. The Bud3p rings are indistinguishable from those of the neck filament- associated proteins (Cdc3p, Cdc10p, Cdc11p, and Cdc12p), except that the latter proteins assemble before bud emergence and remain in place for the duration of the cell cycle. Upon shift of a temperature- sensitive cdc12 mutant to restrictive temperature, localization of both Bud3p and the neck filament-associated proteins is rapidly lost. In addition, a haploid cdc11 mutant loses its axial-budding pattern upon shift to restrictive temperature. Taken together, the data suggest that Bud3p and the neck filaments are linked in a cycle in which each controls the position of the other's assembly: Bud3p assembles onto the neck filaments in one cell cycle to mark the site for axial budding (including assembly of the new ring of neck filaments) in the next cell cycle. As the expression and localization of Bud3p are similar in a, alpha, and a/alpha cells, additional regulation must exist such that Bud3p restricts the position of bud formation in a and alpha cells but not in a/alpha cells.

1995-01-01

132

Cycling of Sensitivity to Physical Dormancy-break in Seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) and Ecological Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background and Aims Although a claim has been made that dormancy cycling occurs in seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) with physical dormancy, this would seem to be impossible since the water gap cannot be closed again after it opens (dormancy break). On the other hand, changes in sensitivity (sensitive $ non-sensitive) to dormancy-breaking factors have been reported in seeds of

K. M. G. G. J AYASURIYA; C. C. B ASKIN

133

Do Conditions During Dormancy Influence Germination of Suaeda maritima?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seeds of annual halophytes such as Suaeda maritima experience fluctuating salinity, hydration, hypoxia and temperature during dormancy. Germination then occurs in one flush of 2–3 weeks after about 5 months of winter dormancy during which time the seeds can remain in saline, often waterlogged soil. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated natural conditions during dormancy on germination and to compare this with germination following the usual conditions of storing seeds dry. The effects of hydration, salinity, hypoxia and temperature regimes imposed during dormancy on germination were investigated. Also looked at were the effects of seed size on germination and the interaction between salinity during dormancy and salinity at the time of germination. Methods Various pre-treatments were imposed on samples of seeds that had been stored dry or wet for different periods of time during the 5 months of natural dormancy. Subsequent germination tests were carried out in conditions that simulated those found in the spring when germination occurs naturally. Various salinities were imposed at germination for a test of interaction between storage salinity and salinity at germination. Key Results A temperature of about 15 °C was needed for germination and large seeds germinated earlier and better than small seeds. Cold seawater pre-treatment was necessary for good germination; the longer the saline pre-treatment during the natural dormancy period the better the germination. There appeared to be no effect of any specific ion of the seawater pre-treatment on germination and severe hypoxia did not prevent good germination. A short period of freezing stimulated early germination in dry-stored seed. Storage in cold saline or equivalent osmotic medium appeared to inhibit germination during the natural dormancy period and predispose the seed to germinate when the temperature rose and the salinity fell. Seeds that were stored in cold wet conditions germinated better in saline conditions than those stored dry. Conclusions The conditions under which seeds of S. maritima are stored affect their subsequent germination. Under natural conditions seeds remain dormant in highly saline, anoxic mud and then germinate when the temperature rises above about 15 °C and the salinity is reduced.

Wetson, Anne M.; Cassaniti, Carla; Flowers, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

134

Experimental evolution in budding yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

Murray, Andrew

2012-02-01

135

Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

136

Summer dormancy in edible dormice ( Glis glis) without energetic constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average longevity in free-living edible dormice ( Glis glis) can reach 9 years, which is extremely high for a small rodent. This remarkable life span has been related to a peculiar life history strategy and the rarity of reproductive bouts in these seed eaters. Most females (96%) reproduce only once or twice in their lifetime, predominantly during years of mast seeding of, e.g., beech, but entire populations can skip reproduction in years of low seed availability. Surprisingly, in non-reproductive years, large fractions of populations apparently vanished and were never captured above ground. Therefore, we determined the duration of above-ground activity, and body temperature profiles in a subset of animals, of dormice under semi-natural conditions in outdoor enclosures. We found that non-reproductive dormice returned to dormancy in underground burrows throughout summer after active seasons as short as <2 weeks. Thus, animals spent up to >10 months per year in dormancy. This exceeds dormancy duration of any other mammal under natural conditions. Summer dormancy was not caused by energy constraints, as it occurred in animals in good condition, fed ad libitum and without climatic stress. We suggest that almost year-round torpor has evolved as a strategy to escape birds of prey, the major predators of this arboreal mammal. This unique predator-avoidance strategy clearly helps in explaining the unusually high longevity of dormice.

Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

2009-01-01

137

Epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Lilium polyphyllum (Liliaceae).  

PubMed

Dormancy-breaking and seed germination studies in genus Lilium reveal that the majority of Lilium spp. studied have an underdeveloped embryo at maturity, which grows inside the seed before the radicle emerges. Additionally, the embryo, radicle or cotyledon has a physiological component of dormancy; thus, Lilium seeds have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). A previous study suggested that seeds of Lilium polyphyllum have MPD but the study did not investigate the development of the embryo, which is one of the main criteria to determine MPD in seeds. To test this hypothesis, we investigated embryo growth and emergence of radicles and epicotyls in seeds over a range of temperatures. At maturity, seeds had underdeveloped embryos which developed fully at warm temperature within 6 weeks. Immediately after embryo growth, radicles also emerged at warm temperatures. However, epicotyls failed to emerge soon after radicle emergence. Epicotyls emerged from >90% seeds with an emerged radicle only after they were subjected to 2 weeks of cold moist stratification. The overall temperature requirements for dormancy-breaking and seed germination indicate a non-deep simple epicotyl MPD in L. polyphyllum. PMID:23385808

Dhyani, Anurag; Phartyal, Shyam S; Nautiyal, B P; Nautiyal, M C

2013-03-01

138

Observed limit of Solanum jamesii tuber dormancy at 14 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. We previously reported (AJPR 87:226-228) that tubers of greenhouse-grown Solanum jamesii from 1999 sprouted after 8+ years of storage in a continuous 40F (5C) cooler. One populat...

139

Microbial seed banks: the ecological and evolutionary implications of dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dormancy is a bet-hedging strategy used by a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms. It refers to an organism's ability to enter a reversible state of low metabolic activity when faced with unfavourable environmental conditions. Dormant microorganisms generate a seed bank, which comprises individuals that are capable of being resuscitated following environmental change. In this Review, we highlight mechanisms that

Stuart E. Jones; Jay T. Lennon

2011-01-01

140

Ecology of seed dormancy and germination in sedges ( Carex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Carex, with its wide distribution and large number of species yet with a rather uniform life history, is a very convenient group for comparative studies of germination ecology at the generic level. The combination of a strict or conditional primary dormancy, a light requirement for germination, low germination at constant temperatures, a positive response to diurnal temperature fluctuations

Wolfgang Schütz

2000-01-01

141

Embryonic Origin of Amphibian Taste Buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous descriptive studies, the embryonic origin of vertebrate taste buds has never been experimentally determined. A number of different alternatives have been suggested for taste bud origins, including epibranchial placodes, the neural crest, and the local epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity. The role of a series of epibranchial placodes and the cephalic neural crest, which together give rise to

Linda A. Barlow; R. Glenn Northcutt

1995-01-01

142

The BUD4 protein of yeast, required for axial budding, is localized to the mother\\/BUD neck in a cell cycle-dependent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

a and a cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cere- visiae exhibit an axial budding pattern, whereas aJot dip- loid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. Mutations in BUD3, BUD4, and AXL1 cause a and ~ cells to exhibit the bi- polar pattern, indicating that these genes are necessary to specify the axial budding pattern (Chant, J., and I. Herskowitz. 1991. Cell.

Sylvia L. Sanders; Ira Herskowitz

1996-01-01

143

View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, covered decking (covered by debris) protects the flume below it (not visible). The extreme top of the tunnel entrance is visible in the middle of the picture, just beyond the covered decking. This is typical of gravity tunnel entrances and the only photograph representing these features in the system. Looking south - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Tunnel No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

144

6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE, WINDOWS AND MASONRY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE, WINDOWS AND MASONRY. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Oat Meal Mill Powerhouse, Seventh & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

145

Building, north side (original front), detail of original entrance. Camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building, north side (original front), detail of original entrance. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Administration Storehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

146

?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

?Cat FACE? SCAR ON LONGLEAF PINE TREE, OVERHILLS HISTORIC ENTRANCE ROAD, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

147

16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE PEDIMENTED DOORWAYS, CHINESE WALLPAPER, DENTICULATED CORNICE, PANELED DADO - Mt. Harmon Plantation at World's End, Earleville, Cecil County, MD

148

5. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, ENTRANCE GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, ENTRANCE GATE - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

149

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

150

Parallel processing in mammalian taste buds?  

PubMed Central

There is emerging evidence that two parallel lines of gustatory information are generated in taste buds. One pathway leads to higher cortical centers and is involved in discriminating basic taste qualities (sweet, bitter, sour, salty, umami) and perceiving flavors. The other pathway may conduct information involved in physiological reflexes such as swallowing, salivation, and cephalic phase digestion. If this notion is true, the existence of two populations of taste bud cells that have different functional characteristics may lie at the origins of the two pathways. This speculative concept is explored in this review of taste signal processing in mammalian taste buds.

Roper, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

151

Mitochondrial Network Size Scaling in Budding Yeast**  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria to cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of mother age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance.

Rafelski, Susanne M.; Viana, Matheus P.; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Yee-Hung M.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Yam, Phoebe; Fung, Jennifer C.; Li, Hao; Costa, Luciano da F.; Marshall, Wallace F.

2013-01-01

152

Genetic and environmental control of dormancy in white-grained wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain dormancy in wheat is an important component of resistance to preharvest sprouting and hence an important trait for wheat\\u000a breeders. The significant influence of environment on the dormancy phenotype makes this trait an obvious target for marker-assisted-selection.\\u000a Closely related breeding lines, SUN325B and QT7475, containing a major dormancy QTL derived from AUS1408 located on chromosome\\u000a 4A, but substantially different

Daryl Mares; Judith Rathjen; Kolumbina Mrva; Judy Cheong

2009-01-01

153

A local dormancy cline is related to the seed maturation environment, population genetic composition and climate.  

PubMed

Background and Aims Seed dormancy varies within species in response to climate, both in the long term (through ecotypes or clines) and in the short term (through the influence of the seed maturation environment). Disentangling both processes is crucial to understand plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, the local patterns of seed dormancy were investigated in a narrow endemic species, Centaurium somedanum, in order to determine the influence of the seed maturation environment, population genetic composition and climate. Methods Laboratory germination experiments were performed to measure dormancy in (1) seeds collected from different wild populations along a local altitudinal gradient and (2) seeds of a subsequent generation produced in a common garden. The genetic composition of the original populations was characterized using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) PCR and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA), and its correlation with the dormancy patterns of both generations was analysed. The effect of the local climate on dormancy was also modelled. Key Results An altitudinal dormancy cline was found in the wild populations, which was maintained by the plants grown in the common garden. However, seeds from the common garden responded better to stratification, and their release from dormancy was more intense. The patterns of dormancy variation were correlated with genetic composition, whereas lower temperature and summer precipitation at the population sites predicted higher dormancy in the seeds of both generations. Conclusions The dormancy cline in C. somedanum is related to a local climatic gradient and also corresponds to genetic differentiation among populations. This cline is further affected by the weather conditions during seed maturation, which influence the receptiveness to dormancy-breaking factors. These results show that dormancy is influenced by both long-and short-term climatic variation. Such processes at such a reduced spatial scale highlight the potential of plants to adapt to fast environmental changes. PMID:23864001

Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Díaz, Tomás Emilio

2013-07-16

154

DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON NORTH SIDE; NOTE GOTHIC DETAILING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON NORTH SIDE; NOTE GOTHIC DETAILING ON ENTRANCE PAVILION, PARAPET: ORIGINAL, PORTION OF THIS BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY RATH PLANT ENGINEER J.S. BARTLEY IN 1925 - Rath Packing Company, Administration Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

155

7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 33 FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 33 FACING EAST. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE PLANTING BOXES ON EACH SIDE OF ENTRANCE AND CONCRETE CANOPY OVERHANG ABOVE. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Barracks, West Loch, B Avenue near Arizona Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

156

12. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MAIN ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MAIN ENTRANCE LOOKING AT MAIN ENTRANCE TO TECHNICAL FACILITY, GROUND LEVEL. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

157

15. Front security entrance to the perimeter acquisition radar building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Front security entrance to the perimeter acquisition radar building, showing rotogates 1 and 2 and entrance door to security operations control center (SOCC), room #108 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

158

Love and WorkThe Legacy of Early University Entrance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second follow-up study of the Early Entrance Program at the University of Washington. Ninety-five individuals (45%) participated. Respondents overwhelmingly chose early university entrance because they were excited to learn; many also praised the peer group, intellectual stimulation, and faculty and staff support. Some reported feeling too young to make important academic, career, and social decisions, with more

Kathleen D. Noble; Robert C. Vaughan; Christina Chan; Sarah Childers; Bryan Chow; Ariel Federow; Sean Hughes

2007-01-01

159

Love and Work: The Legacy of Early University Entrance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second follow-up study of the Early Entrance Program at the University of Washington. Ninety-five individuals (45%) participated. Respondents overwhelmingly chose early university entrance because they were excited to learn; many also praised the peer group, intellectual stimulation, and faculty and staff support. Some reported…

Noble, Kathleen D.; Vaughan, Robert C.; Chan, Christina; Childers, Sarah; Chow, Bryan; Federow, Ariel; Hughes, Sean

2007-01-01

160

3. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH HIGHWAY 191 VISIBLE AT RIGHT, PARK MAINTENANCE FACILITY IN FOREGROUND. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

161

VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH HIGHWAY 191 VISIBLE AT RIGHT, PARK MAINTENANCE FACILITY IN FOREGROUND - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

162

Seeking the Role of NO in Breaking Seed Dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of evolution, higher plants developed a special reproductive organ, the seed, which\\u000a ensures their spatio-temporal distribution and perpetuation of the species. The fate of the future plant\\u000a is almost completely determined when the seed “decides” to germinate. A number of dormancy\\u000a mechanisms serve to detect surrounding conditions and define the appropriate point in time for germination.\\u000a To ensure survival

Zlatko Giba; Dragoljub Grubiši?; Radomir Konjevi?

163

Mapping two major effect grain dormancy QTL in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrachromosomal positions of the two grain dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTL) qSdn-1 (chromosome 1) and qSdn-5 (chromosome 5) were obtained from the segregation analysis of the advanced backcross populations derived from the cross between\\u000a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars N22 (indica) and Nanjing35 (japonica). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) was applied to select derivatives carrying one or both of qSdn-1 and

Bingyue Lu; Kun Xie; Chunyan Yang; Songfeng Wang; Xi Liu; Long Zhang; Ling Jiang; Jianmin Wan

164

Expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes during potato tuber dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The expression of antioxidant genes has been analyzed in a potato plant and during tuber dormancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase\\u000a (MnSOD), cytosolic copper and zinc superoide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), catalase class II, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX)\\u000a and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are expressed at the RNA level in all the contexts analyzed. By contrast, the expression\\u000a of the iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and

J. A. Rojas-Beltran; F. Dejaeghere; M. Abd Alla Kotb; P. Du Jardin

2000-01-01

165

A New, Mushroom-shaped Budding Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom-shaped budding bacterium, isolated from fresh pond water, is unlike any previously described aquatic budding bacteria (Whittenbury & McLee, I 967 ; Hirsch & Rheinheimer, 1968 ; Staley, 1968). Its morphological 'life-cycle' and other properties are described. METHODS Media. The organism was grown routinely in glucose-salts medium (pH 6.9) of the follow- ing composition: (NH4)2S04, 0.1 % (w\\/v); NaCI,

R. WHITTENBURY; JUDITH M. NICOLL

1971-01-01

166

The ? Toxin Induces a Set of Protective Responses and Dormancy  

PubMed Central

The ?? module consists of a labile antitoxin protein, ?, which in dimer form (?2) interferes with the action of the long-living monomeric ? phosphotransferase toxin through protein complex formation. Toxin ?, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis and may be bactericide in nature, at or near physiological concentrations induces reversible cessation of Bacillus subtilis proliferation (protective dormancy) by targeting essential metabolic functions followed by propidium iodide (PI) staining in a fraction (20–30%) of the population and selects a subpopulation of cells that exhibit non-inheritable tolerance (1–5×10?5). Early after induction ? toxin alters the expression of ?78 genes, with the up-regulation of relA among them. RelA contributes to enforce toxin-induced dormancy. At later times, free active ? decreases synthesis of macromolecules and releases intracellular K+. We propose that ? toxin induces reversible protective dormancy and permeation to PI, and expression of ?2 antitoxin reverses these effects. At later times, toxin expression is followed by death of a small fraction (?10%) of PI stained cells that exited earlier or did not enter into the dormant state. Recovery from stress leads to de novo synthesis of ?2 antitoxin, which blocks ATP binding by ? toxin, thereby inhibiting its phosphotransferase activity.

Tabone, Mariangela; Gonzalez-Pastor, Jose E.; Daugelavicius, Rimantas; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

2012-01-01

167

Physical dormancy in seeds: a game of hide and seek?  

PubMed

Historically, 'physical dormancy', or 'hard seededness', where seeds are prevented from germinating by a water-impermeable seed coat, is viewed as a dormancy mechanism. However, upon water uptake, resumption of metabolism leads to the unavoidable release of volatile by-products, olfactory cues that are perceived by seed predators. Here, we examine the hypothesis that hard seeds are an anti-predator trait that evolved in response to powerful selection by small mammal seed predators. Seeds of two legume species with dimorphic seeds ('hard' and 'soft'), Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia sativa, were offered to desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) in a series of seed removal studies examining the differences in seed harvest between hard and soft seeds. Volatile compounds emitted by dry and imbibed soft seeds were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen main volatile compounds were identified, and hamsters readily detected both buried imbibed seeds and an artificial 'volatile cocktail' that mimicked the scent of imbibed seeds, but could not detect buried hard or dry soft seeds. We argue that physical dormancy has evolved to hide seeds from mammalian predators. This hypothesis also helps to explain some otherwise puzzling features of hard seeds and has implications for seed dispersal. PMID:23421728

Paulsen, Torbjørn Rage; Colville, Louise; Kranner, Ilse; Daws, Matthew I; Högstedt, Göran; Vandvik, Vigdis; Thompson, Ken

2013-02-20

168

ALTAS TEMPERATURAS DURANTE EL RECESO Y POST-RECESO AFECTAN LA FENOLOGÍA Y FRUCTIFICACION EN CEREZOS HIGH TEMPERATURES DURING DORMANCY AND POST-DORMANCY AFFECT PHENOLOGY AND FRUITING IN SWEET CHERRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Under Chilean conditions, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), and especially the 'Bing' culti- var presents a marked year-to-year variation in fruit production which is strongly influenced by environmental temperatures during dormancy and post-dormancy. Objectives: The main goal of this research was to study the effect of high temperatures during dormancy and post-dormancy on phenology, fruiting and fruit quality, in

Richard M. Bastías; Víctor L. Finot; Alejandro Venegas; Jorge Campos; Ignacio Peña

169

Ecotypic variation of summer dormancy relaxation associated with rainfall gradient in the geophytic grass Poa bulbosa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Summer dormancy is an adaptive trait in geophytes inhabiting regions with a Mediterranean climate, allowing their survival through the hot and dry summers. Summer dormancy in Poa bulbosa is induced by increasing day-length and temperature and decreasing water availability during spring. Populations from arid habitats became dormant earlier than those from mesic habitats. Relaxation of dormancy was promoted by the hot, dry summer conditions. Here we test the hypothesis that dormancy relaxation is also delayed in ecotypes of P. bulbosa inhabiting arid regions, as a cautious strategy related to the greater unpredictability of autumn rains associated with decreasing precipitation. Methods Ecotypes collected across a precipitation gradient (100–1200 mm year?1) in the Mediterranean climate region were grown under similar conditions in a net-house in Israel. Differences among ecotypes in dormancy induction and dormancy relaxation were determined by measuring time to dormancy onset in spring, and time to sprouting after the first effective rain in autumn. Seasonal and ecotype variation in dormancy relaxation were assessed by measuring time to sprouting initiation, rate of sprouting and maximal sprouting of resting dry bulbs sampled in the net-house during late spring, and mid- and late summer, and planted in a wet substrate at temperatures promoting (10 °C) or limiting (20 °C) sprouting. Key Results Earlier dormancy in the spring and delayed sprouting in autumn were correlated with decreasing mean annual rainfall at the site of ecotype origin. Seasonal and ecotype differences in dormancy relaxation were expressed in bulbs planted at 20 °C. During the summer, time to sprouting decreased while rate of sprouting and maximal sprouting increased, indicating dormancy relaxation. Ecotypes from more arid sites across the rainfall gradient showed delayed onset of sprouting and lower maximal sprouting, but did not differ in rate of sprouting. Planting at 10 °C promoted sprouting and cancelled differences among ecotypes in dormancy relaxation. Conclusions Both the induction and the relaxation of summer dormancy in P. bulbosa are correlated with mean annual precipitation at the site of population origin. Ecotypes from arid habitats have earlier dormancy induction and delayed dormancy relaxation, compared with those from mesic habitats.

Ofir, Micha; Kigel, Jaime

2010-01-01

170

Genetic control of dormancy in a Triumph/Morex cross in barley.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important parameters affecting malting. Seed dormancy is quantitatively inherited and variously influenced by the environment. The objectives of the present study were to determine the genome location and effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in the expression of seed dormancy in a barley cross between two varieties derived from different germplasm pools. Using a doubled-haploid population of 107 lines of the cross between the malting types Triumph (two-row, dormant) and Morex (six-row, non-dormant), seed dormancy phenotypic data sets from five environments and a 147-marker linkage map were developed in order to perform QTL analyses with simple interval mapping and simplified composite interval mapping procedures. Two different types of variables were considered for seed dormancy characterization: (1) level of dormancy induced during seed development, which was indirectly measured as germination percentage at 3 days and 7 days, GP3 and GP7 respectively; (2) rate of dormancy release in the course of a period after seed harvest (after-ripening). Different mechanisms of genetic control were detected for these two types of dormancy-related traits. A major and consistent dormancy QTL near the centromere on chromosome 7(5H) was associated with the establishment of dormancy during seed development and accounted for 52% and 33% of the variability for GP3 and GP7, respectively. Two other QTLs located in the vicinity of the vrs1 locus on chromosome 2(2H) and near the long arm telomere on chromosome 7(5H) explained 9% and 19% of variation, respectively, for the rate of dormancy release during after-ripening. Likewise, seed dormancy was assessed in an F(2) population derived from the cross between two dormant types of distinct germplasm groups, Triumph (European, two-row, malt) and Steptoe (North American, six-row, feed), which showed similar but not identical genetic control for dormancy. Interestingly, there is remarkable dormancy QTL conservation in both regions on chromosome 7(5H) identified in this study and among other barley mapping populations. These widely conserved QTLs show potential as targets for selection of a moderate level of seed dormancy in breeding programs. PMID:14991108

Prada, D; Ullrich, S E; Molina-Cano, J L; Cistué, L; Clancy, J A; Romagosa, I

2004-02-27

171

Dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis seeds is controlled by seasonally distinct hormone-signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Seeds respond to environmental signals, tuning their dormancy cycles to the seasons and thereby determining the optimum time for plant establishment. The molecular regulation of dormancy cycling is unknown, but an extensive range of mechanisms have been identified in laboratory experiments. Using a targeted investigation of gene expression over the dormancy cycle of Arabidopsis seeds in the field, we investigated how these mechanisms are seasonally coordinated. Depth of dormancy and gene expression patterns were correlated with seasonal changes in soil temperature. The results were consistent with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling linked to deep dormancy in winter being repressed in spring concurrent with enhanced DELLA repression of germination as depth of dormancy decreased. Dormancy increased during winter as soil temperature declined and expression of ABA synthesis (NCED6) and gibberellic acid (GA) catabolism (GA2ox2) genes increased. This was linked to an increase in endogenous ABA that plateaus, but dormancy and DOG1 and MFT expression continued to increase. The expression of SNF1-related protein kinases, SnrK 2.1 and 2.4, also increased consistent with enhanced ABA signaling and sensitivity being modulated by seasonal soil temperature. Dormancy then declined in spring and summer. Endogenous ABA decreased along with positive ABA signaling as expression of ABI2, ABI4, and ABA catabolism (CYP707A2) and GA synthesis (GA3ox1) genes increased. However, during the low-dormancy phase in the summer, expression of transcripts for the germination repressors RGA and RGL2 increased. Unlike deep winter dormancy, this represson can be removed on exposure to light, enabling the completion of germination at the correct time of year. PMID:22128331

Footitt, Steven; Douterelo-Soler, Isabel; Clay, Heather; Finch-Savage, William E

2011-11-29

172

Dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis seeds is controlled by seasonally distinct hormone-signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Seeds respond to environmental signals, tuning their dormancy cycles to the seasons and thereby determining the optimum time for plant establishment. The molecular regulation of dormancy cycling is unknown, but an extensive range of mechanisms have been identified in laboratory experiments. Using a targeted investigation of gene expression over the dormancy cycle of Arabidopsis seeds in the field, we investigated how these mechanisms are seasonally coordinated. Depth of dormancy and gene expression patterns were correlated with seasonal changes in soil temperature. The results were consistent with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling linked to deep dormancy in winter being repressed in spring concurrent with enhanced DELLA repression of germination as depth of dormancy decreased. Dormancy increased during winter as soil temperature declined and expression of ABA synthesis (NCED6) and gibberellic acid (GA) catabolism (GA2ox2) genes increased. This was linked to an increase in endogenous ABA that plateaus, but dormancy and DOG1 and MFT expression continued to increase. The expression of SNF1-related protein kinases, SnrK 2.1 and 2.4, also increased consistent with enhanced ABA signaling and sensitivity being modulated by seasonal soil temperature. Dormancy then declined in spring and summer. Endogenous ABA decreased along with positive ABA signaling as expression of ABI2, ABI4, and ABA catabolism (CYP707A2) and GA synthesis (GA3ox1) genes increased. However, during the low-dormancy phase in the summer, expression of transcripts for the germination repressors RGA and RGL2 increased. Unlike deep winter dormancy, this represson can be removed on exposure to light, enabling the completion of germination at the correct time of year.

Footitt, Steven; Douterelo-Soler, Isabel; Clay, Heather; Finch-Savage, William E.

2011-01-01

173

The relativistic titls of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tilts of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages have never been considered as if they were the result of relativistic mathematical equations, and never been thought to encode the Earth's obliquity parameters. This paper presents an attempt to retrieve the method of establishing the equations that the pyramids' designer used to quantify the entrance-passages' tilts of these architectonic masterpieces. It proves that the pyramids' designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the great pyramid.

Aboulfotouh, H.

174

Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival strategies of frogs exposed to harsh conditions include various forms of dormancy. Giant bullfrogs Pyxicephalus adspersus subjected to slow desiccation without access to moist substrata over winter in cocoons during dormancy. We found that Pyxicephalus can survive long periods of dormancy in soil without forming cocoons. With virtually no information available on the associated respiratory adaptations, we measured

W. J. van Aardt; Roy E. Weber

2010-01-01

175

Breaking seed dormancy in almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy affects germination and subsequent seedling growth in many plant species. In this work the effect of temperature (cold and heat treatments), flowering time of genotypes, and hardness of endocarp on the break of seed dormancy in four almond cultivars, including a broad range of flowering dates, was studied. Mature seeds, with and without endocarp, were stratified at 7°C

Marta Garc??a-Gusano; Pedro Mart??nez-Gómez; Federico Dicenta

2004-01-01

176

Increased ABA sensitivity results in higher seed dormancy in soft white spring wheat cultivar ‘Zak’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a strategy to increase the seed dormancy of soft white wheat, mutants with increased sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were identified in mutagenized grain of soft white spring wheat ‘Zak”. Lack of seed dormancy is correlated with increased susceptibility to preharvest sprouti...

177

Grain dormancy and light quality effects on germination in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of seed dormancy in cereal crops such as barley and wheat is a common problem affecting farming areas around the world, causing losses in yield and quality due to pre-harvest sprouting. Control of seed dormancy has been investigated extensively using various approaches in different species incl...

178

Dormancy Release, Germination, and Electrolyte Leakage from Apple Embryos during Stratification in the Presence of Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of dormancy release during the stratification of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds was quantitatively described by three characteristics of seeds germination: the percentage of seeds that germinated by the tenth day, mean germination time, and the sum of seeds germinated in each of ten days (Timson's parameter), which allowed the assessment of the viability, the rate of dormancy

A. P. Daskalyuk

2002-01-01

179

Comparison of gene expression changes in potato meristems during dormancy cessation and treatment with bromoethane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meristem dormancy in perennial plants is a developmental process that results in repression of metabolism and growth. The cessation of dormancy results in rapid growth and should be associated the production of nascent transcripts that encode for gene products controlling for cell division and growt...

180

GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH DORMANCY BREAKAGE BY BROMOETHANE IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dormancy in plants is a poorly understood process controlled by endogenous and exogenous factors. In order to elucidate the endogenous processes controlling plant dormancy we have established a procedure to examine global gene expression changes in potato meristems induced to exit the dormant state....

181

Seed dormancy variability in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy is a naturally important biological process which can affect planting, germinating, and harvesting in agricultural production. Variability in seed dormancy within the U.S. peanut mini-core collection had not been determined. Freshly harvested seeds in the same field from 103 accessions...

182

Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 ? C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dor- mancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible

Krystyna Oracz; Hayat El-Maarouf-Bouteau; Renata Bogatek; F. Corbineau; C. Bailly

2008-01-01

183

MULTIPLE LOCI AND EIPSTASIS CONTROL GENETIC VARIATION FOR SEED DORMANCY IN WEEDY RICE (ORYZA SATIVA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weedy rice has much stronger seed dormancy than cultivated rice. A wild-like weedy strain SS18-2 was selected to investigate the genetic architecture underlying seed dormancy, a critical adaptive trait in plants. A framework genetic map covering the whole rice genome was constructed based on 156 BC1...

184

IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLS) FOR DORMANCY IN WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild oat is a wide spread weed causing substantial yield losses in small grain crops. Variable germination of seeds due to dormancy makes the control of wild oat difficult. Dormancy is a complex polygenic character with large influences of the environment on its expression. We are investigating gene...

185

Opposite Effects of Daylength and Temperature on Flowering and Summer Dormancy of Poa bulbosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims The timing of flowering and summer dormancy induction plays a central role in the adaptation of Mediterranean geophytes to changes in the length of the growth season along rainfall gradients. Our aim was to analyse the role of the variation in the responses of flowering and summer dormancy to vernalization, daylength and growth temperature for the

MICHA O FIR; J AIME K IGEL

186

Opposite Effects of Daylength and Temperature on Flowering and Summer Dormancy of Poa bulbosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims The timing of flowering and summer dormancy induction plays a central role in the adaptation of Mediterranean geophytes to changes in the length of the growth season along rainfall gradients. Our aim was to analyse the role of the variation in the responses of flowering and summer dormancy to vernalization, daylength and growth temperature for the

MICHA OFIR; JAIME KIGEL

2006-01-01

187

Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.  

PubMed

Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. PMID:23261954

Roper, Stephen D

2012-12-20

188

Detail of cannon at south entrance to the main wing; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of cannon at south entrance to the main wing; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Administrative Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between Seventh & Eighth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

189

STAIRWAY OFF ENTRANCE LOBBY, PANELING TO LEFT ADDED IN 1995. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

STAIRWAY OFF ENTRANCE LOBBY, PANELING TO LEFT ADDED IN 1995. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

190

4. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE TO FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

191

8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT OF FACTORY, SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT OF FACTORY, SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, James Beach & Sons Company Factory & Warehouse, 57 South Locust Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

192

24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

193

38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

194

37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

195

5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

196

71. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 101, ENTRANCE HALL (SIDE WITH FIRE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 101, ENTRANCE HALL (SIDE WITH FIRE DETECTOR), ARCHWAY TO STAIR HALL 100, LOOKING UP, DETAIL OF ARCHWAY SOFFIT. - Octagon House, 1799 (1741) New York Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

197

55. VIEW OF WEST ENTRANCE BRIDGE CROSSING THE ARIZONA CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. VIEW OF WEST ENTRANCE BRIDGE CROSSING THE ARIZONA CANAL AT THE ARIZONA BILTMORE, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Kevin Kriesel-Coons, May 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

198

12. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE OF STOVE, ENGINE LATHE, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE OF STOVE, ENGINE LATHE, AND GRINDER (L TO R) IN FOREGROUND, SHAFTING ABOVE LOOKING SOUTH. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

199

18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, JIB CRANE ABOVE-LOOKING NORTH. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

200

17. DETAILED VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE OF THE COTTON WOOD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAILED VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE OF THE COTTON WOOD PRESSURE PIPE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, March 9, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

201

1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28), FACING WEST. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Hatch Adit, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

202

Exterior, looking northnorthwest at south elevation with entrance to facility ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior, looking north-northwest at south elevation with entrance to facility - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

203

72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, CONCRETE, BRICK, AND SPRING AIR CONDITIONER BASE, BAY 31-32/4 SOUTH, TO WEST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

204

5. Lighthouse, first floor and stairs, looking south from entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Lighthouse, first floor and stairs, looking south from entrance - Squirrel Point Light Station, Off Highway 127, Steen Road to end of Bald Head Road, .8 mile down footpath, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

205

50. Fourth floor attic, paneled door opening at entrance to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Fourth floor attic, paneled door opening at entrance to surgeon's washroom, view to east - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

206

38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING SOUTH, summer 1985 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

207

Lock 1 View northwest of lock entrance. Notch for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock 1 - View northwest of lock entrance. Notch for flash boards can be seen near center, gate pocket at left. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

208

VIEW OF BUILDING 10, SOUTH SIDE, ENTRANCE, ON RICHARDSON AVENUE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BUILDING 10, SOUTH SIDE, ENTRANCE, ON RICHARDSON AVENUE, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Fleet Landing Building, Bounded by Richardson & Pratt Avenues, Maryland & West Virginia Streets, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

209

125. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ENTRANCE TO THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

210

10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM BUILDING; STAIRS IN FOREGROUND LEAD TO BASKETBALL COURT/STAGE AREA. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

211

Perspective detail view at northwest entrance St. Elizabeths Hospital, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective detail view at northwest entrance - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Hagan Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 578-586 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

212

2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS FORMER ENTRANCE TO HARBISONWALKER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS FORMER ENTRANCE TO HARBISON-WALKER BRICKYARD AT END OF STREET. - T. A. Giacobello Foreign Supplies Store, Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

213

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

214

6. MAIN ENTRANCE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SYCAMORE STREET; CORNER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. MAIN ENTRANCE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SYCAMORE STREET; CORNER OF BUILDING 88 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, BUILDING 93 IS AT CENTER, BUILDING 145 AT LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

215

14. Main entrance to Gwing from Apollo Drive, looking north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Main entrance to G-wing from Apollo Drive, looking north - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

216

Main branch looking west from lake. Chicago River entrance locks, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Main branch looking west from lake. Chicago River entrance locks, Outer Drive Bridgge in foreground. - Chicago River Bascule Bridges, Spanning Chicago River & its north & south branches, Chicago, Cook County, IL

217

31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. '1944 JOE LANDETA' SCRATCHED INTO FRESH CONCRETE. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

218

Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

219

3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

220

2. View of Ford Mansion looking at the front entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of Ford Mansion looking at the front entrance with the fountain in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Ford Mansion, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

221

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, WITH NEW CHURCH ON RIGHT - Valley Grove Churches, Old Church, County Road 29, 1/4 mile from Minnesota Highway 246, Nerstrand, Rice County, MN

222

13. DETAIL SHOWING RETAINING WALL STEPS AND ENTRANCE TO FOUNTAIN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL SHOWING RETAINING WALL STEPS AND ENTRANCE TO FOUNTAIN, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF HALE BATHHOUSE IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND - Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse, Central Avenue, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

223

6. DETAIL OF WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, SHOWING STONE ENTABLATURE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL OF WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, SHOWING STONE ENTABLATURE AND ENGAGED COLUMNS. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Paper Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

224

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

225

DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Education Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

226

31. DETAIL OF CORNICE AND DECORATIVE CAPITALS ON ENTRANCE BAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. DETAIL OF CORNICE AND DECORATIVE CAPITALS ON ENTRANCE BAY OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE NORTHWEST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

227

47. INTERIOR DETAIL OF DECORATIVE GRILLE IN MAIN ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. INTERIOR - DETAIL OF DECORATIVE GRILLE IN MAIN ENTRANCE LOBBY OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE EAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

228

7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest Pumpkin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

229

4. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DOORS FROM ENTRANCE VESTIBULE TO MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DOORS FROM ENTRANCE VESTIBULE TO MAIN HALL, SHOWING TIFFANY GLASS SIDELIGHTS AND FAN LIGHTS - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

230

North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; detail of pilaster base and capital - National Zoological Park, Elephant House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

231

52. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL) DOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

232

38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance facade of Baldwin Filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

233

13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

234

4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

235

21. FOLDING DOORS AT RAIL SPUR ENTRANCE TO NORTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. FOLDING DOORS AT RAIL SPUR ENTRANCE TO NORTH END OF PLANT. VIEW TO EAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

236

95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and building to left of theater - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

237

15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ROOM 47. THE OAK CABINETS ARE USED TO STORE ROCK CORE SAMPLES. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

238

Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance to second story of la casa, view towards the west - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

239

VIEW NEAR ENTRANCE, FROM NORTH, PAST WHEEL PRESS TO ROLLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NEAR ENTRANCE, FROM NORTH, PAST WHEEL PRESS TO ROLLING STOCK - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Machine Shop, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

240

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG EAST HILL DRIVE. BUILDING 1 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 2 ON LEFT, FACING EAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

241

Detail of front entrance stoop, siding, and eaves construction. Oblique ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of front entrance stoop, siding, and eaves construction. Oblique view to the southwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 10 A-B (Duplex), 30691 & 30693 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

242

14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar building security area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

243

1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ENTRANCE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT BUILDING. - Nevada Test Site, Super Kukla Facility, Containment Building, Area 27, Rock Valley, South of Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

244

5. VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 9 FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 9 FACING WEST SHOWING LANAI AND VENTILATING DORMERS ON ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gymnasium, West Loch, Arizona Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

245

3. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR OF UNNUMBERED SCREEN HEADHOUSE, WITH ENTRANCES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR OF UNNUMBERED SCREEN HEADHOUSE, WITH ENTRANCES TO GREENHOUSES #3, #4, #5 (BUILDINGS 7, 8, 9) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Greenhouse Nos. 3-8, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

246

1. Opposition sign posted on private property at the entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Opposition sign posted on private property at the entrance to the road looking NW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Northshore Road, 1 mile spur at Fontana Dam & Bryson City to Noland Creek, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

247

88. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH FOYER, DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH FOYER, DETAIL OF CEILING MEDALLION AND LIGHTING FIXTURE - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

248

Identification of the Arabidopsis REDUCED DORMANCY 2 Gene Uncovers a Role for the Polymerase Associated Factor 1 Complex in Seed Dormancy  

PubMed Central

The life of a plant is characterized by major phase transitions. This includes the agriculturally important transitions from seed to seedling (germination) and from vegetative to generative growth (flowering induction). In many plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, freshly harvested seeds are dormant and incapable of germinating. Germination can occur after the release of dormancy and the occurrence of favourable environmental conditions. Although the hormonal control of seed dormancy is well studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction and release of dormancy are not yet understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the mutant reduced dormancy 2-1 (rdo2-1). We found that RDO2 is allelic to the recently identified dormancy gene TFIIS, which is a transcription elongation factor. HUB1, which was previously called RDO4, was identified in the same mutagenesis screen for reduced dormancy as rdo2-1 and was also shown to be involved in transcription elongation. The human homologues of RDO2 and HUB1 interact with the RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor 1 Complex (PAF1C). Therefore, we investigated the effect of other Arabidopsis PAF1C related factors; VIP4, VIP5, ELF7, ELF8 and ATXR7 on seed dormancy. Mutations in these genes resulted in reduced dormancy, similar to hub1-2 and rdo2-1. Consistent with a role at the end of seed maturation, we found that HUB1, RDO2 and VIP5 are upregulated during this developmental phase. Since mutants in PAF1C related factors are also described to be early flowering, we conclude that these components are involved in the regulation of both major developmental transitions in the plant.

Carles, Annaick; Li, Yong; Horold, Anja; van Nocker, Steven; Soppe, Wim J. J.

2011-01-01

249

Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

250

Nurse entrance test scores: a predictor of success.  

PubMed

A program evaluation was conducted to determine if requiring higher scores on critical thinking components of the Nurse Entrance Test would have a positive effect on the percentage of students that could be retained in a diploma nursing program. The program evaluation revealed that using the Nurse Entrance Test as a tool for admissions screening, specifically portions of the examination that predict critical thinking, was effective in helping to predict success through level I nursing courses. PMID:17108789

Ellis, Sherri Orso

251

Environmental regulation of dormancy loss in seeds of Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant of wide distribution in Western North America. At the time of dispersal, L. dissectum seeds are dormant and have under-developed embryos. The aims of this work were to determine the requirements for dormancy break and germination, to characterize the type of seed dormancy, and to determine the effect of dehydration after embryo growth on seed viability and secondary dormancy. Methods The temperature requirements for embryo growth and germination were investigated under growth chamber and field conditions. The effect of GA3 on embryo growth was also analysed to determine the specific type of seed dormancy. The effect of dehydration on seed viability and induction of secondary dormancy were tested in seeds where embryos had elongated about 4-fold their initial length. Most experiments examining the nature of seed dormancy were conducted with seeds collected at one site in two different years. To characterize the degree of variation in dormancy-breaking requirements among seed populations, the stratification requirements of seeds collected at eight different sites were compared. Key Results Embryo growth prior to and during germination occurred at temperatures between 3 and 6 °C and was negligible at stratification temperatures of 0·5 and 9·1 °C. Seeds buried in the field and exposed to natural winter conditions showed similar trends. Interruption of the cold stratification period by 8 weeks of dehydration decreased seed viability by about 30 % and induced secondary dormancy in the remaining viable seeds. Comparison of the cold stratification requirements of different seed populations indicates that seeds collected from moist habitats have longer cold stratification requirements that those from semiarid environments. Conclusions Seeds of L. dissectum have deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. The requirements for dormancy break and germination reflect an adaptation to trigger germination in late winter.

Scholten, Melissa; Donahue, Jacklyn; Shaw, Nancy L.; Serpe, Marcelo D.

2009-01-01

252

Tanned or Burned: The Role of Fire in Shaping Physical Seed Dormancy  

PubMed Central

Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100°C, 120°C or 150°C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31°C, 4 hours at 43°C, 3 hours at 33°C and 14 hours at 18°C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

Moreira, Bruno; Pausas, Juli G.

2012-01-01

253

Temperature rather than photoperiod controls growth cessation and dormancy in Sorbus species  

PubMed Central

Environmental regulation of growth and dormancy of four Sorbus genotypes was studied in controlled environments. Emphasis was placed on assessment of the presence and nature of the deficient photoperiodic dormancy regulation system that has previously been reported for some woody Rosaceae species. Two genotypes of Sorbus aucuparia L. maintained indeterminate growth for 8 weeks and 9 weeks at temperatures of 15 °C and 21 °C in both 20 h and 10 h photoperiods, while at 9 °C, in the same photoperiodic conditions, they immediately ceased growing. At the higher temperatures, initiation of new leaves (nodes) was unaffected by photoperiod, while internode elongation was significantly enhanced by long days (LD). However, even after prolonged exposure to 9 °C, most plants resumed growth when moved to high temperature and LD, indicating a shallow state of dormancy. Seedlings of Sorbus intermedia (J. F. Ehrh.) Pers. and micro-propagated plantlets of S. commixta Hedl. ‘Dodong’ were also unaffected by photoperiod during primary growth, but failed to elongate and gradually became dormant regardless of temperature and day-length conditions. However, after chilling and breaking of dormancy, the plants elongated vigorously but changed to a determinate mode of growth. Furthermore, a temperature of 9 °C was found to be fully effective for breaking dormancy in S. intermedia plants. It is concluded that deficient photoperiodic dormancy control seems widespread in the Rosaceae and that, in such plants, both dormancy induction and release is brought about by low temperature. The potential impacts of climate change on such trees are discussed.

Heide, Ola M.

2011-01-01

254

Mapping of a major locus controlling seed dormancy using backcrossed progenies in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is an important factor regulating preharvest sprouting (PHS) but is a complex trait for genetic analysis. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling seed dormancy on the long arm of chromosome 4A (4AL) in common wheat. To transfer the QTL from the dormant lines 'OS21-5' and 'Leader' into the Japanese elite variety 'Haruyokoi', which has an insufficient level of seed dormancy, backcrossing was carried out through marker-assisted selection (MAS) using PCR-based codominant markers. Nineteen BC5F2 plants with homozygous alleles of 'OS21-5' or 'Haruyokoi' were developed and evaluated for seed dormancy under greenhouse conditions. The seeds harvested from plants with 'OS21-5' alleles showed a clearly high level of dormancy compared with seeds from plants with 'Haruyokoi' alleles. Additionally, the dormancy phenotype of BC3F3 seeds harvested from 128 BC3F2 plants with homozygous alleles of 'Leader' or 'Haruyokoi' showed a clear difference between these alleles. The QTL on 4AL confers a major gene, Phs1, which was mapped within a 2.6 cM region. The backcrossed lines developed in this study can be important sources for improving PHS resistance in Japanese wheat and for analyzing the mechanism of seed dormancy. MAS was useful for the development of near-isogenic lines in this complex trait, to facilitate the molecular dissection of genetic factors. PMID:18521121

Torada, Atsushi; Koike, Michiya; Ikeguchi, Shojiro; Tsutsui, Ichiro

2008-06-01

255

Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae.

Orozco-Segovia, A.; Marquez-Guzman, J.; Sanchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

2007-01-01

256

Human Taste: Response and Taste Bud Number in Fungiform Papillae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of basic taste qualities registered by single human fungiform papillae is correlated with the number of taste buds borne on these papillae. Multiple sensitivity was demonstrated both in single fungiform papillae and in single taste buds, with response to all four of the basic taste qualities occurring in a single taste bud.

Kristina Arvidson; Ulf Friberg

1980-01-01

257

In situ engineering of NanoBud geometries.  

PubMed

NanoBuds exist in a variety of stable structures. Our studies show that engineering NanoBud geometries is indeed possible and we visualise the transformation of one Nanobud geometry to another using in situ aberration corrected imaging techniques. Such NanoBuds are precursors for generating nanotube junctions which could be used in composite and electronic applications. PMID:24135864

Nicholls, Rebecca J; Britton, Jude; Meysami, Seyyed Shayan; Koós, Antal A; Grobert, Nicole

2013-10-29

258

Vertebrate limb bud development: moving towards integrative analysis of organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limb bud is of paradigmatic value to understanding vertebrate organogenesis. Recent genetic analysis in mice has revealed the existence of a largely self-regulatory limb bud signalling system that involves many of the pathways that are known to regulate morphogenesis. These findings contrast with the prevailing view that the main limb bud axes develop largely independently of one another. In

Javier López-Ríos; Aimée Zuniga; Rolf Zeller

2009-01-01

259

Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed on the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis of the limb bud during outgrowth. Here I also introduce

Lia Panman

2004-01-01

260

Fire hazards and welding action in service entrance conductors  

SciTech Connect

Service-entrance conductors between the customer's service-entrance equipment and the power company pole transformer are not covered by the National Electric Code (NEC) and often have entirely inadequate overcurrent protection. Power companies fuse to protect their transformer and not the individual service laterals which may supply a number of customers. Thus currents in excess of a 1000 A can flow for a considerable time as a result of short circuits in the service-entrance conductors. Often these conductors are enclosed in a steel conduit between where they enter the building and meter box, and/or service equipment, and the welding action of shorts in this conduit melts the steel of the conduit and starts fires long before the pole-transformer fuse blows. Several such fires are documented in this report. Possible solutions to this hazard are proposed.

Sanford, R.S.

1982-09-01

261

Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation  

SciTech Connect

The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-({sup 14}C)deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state.

Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA) Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1988-07-01

262

Budding from Golgi membranes requires the coatomer complex of non-clathrin coat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do the coats on vesicles budded from the Golgi apparatus actually cause the budding, or do they simply coat buds (Fig. 1)? One view (the membrane-mediated budding hypothesis1) is that budding is an intrinsic property of Golgi membranes not requiring extrinsic coat proteins. Assembly of coats from dispersed subunits is superimposed upon the intrinsic budding process and is proposed to

Lelio Orci; David J. Palmer; Mariella Ravazzola; Alain Perrelet; Mylène Amherdt; James E. Rothman

1993-01-01

263

Auxin controls seed dormancy through stimulation of abscisic acid signaling by inducing ARF-mediated ABI3 activation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The transition from dormancy to germination in seeds is a key physiological process during the lifecycle of plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the sole plant hormone known to maintain seed dormancy; it acts through a gene expression network involving the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, whether other phytohormone pathways function in the maintenance of seed dormancy in response to environmental and internal signals remains an important question. Here, we show that the plant growth hormone auxin, which acts as a versatile trigger in many developmental processes, also plays a critical role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. We show that disruptions in auxin signaling in MIR160-overexpressing plants, auxin receptor mutants, or auxin biosynthesis mutants dramatically release seed dormancy, whereas increases in auxin signaling or biosynthesis greatly enhance seed dormancy. Auxin action in seed dormancy requires the ABA signaling pathway (and vice versa), indicating that the roles of auxin and ABA in seed dormancy are interdependent. Furthermore, we show that auxin acts upstream of the major regulator of seed dormancy, ABI3, by recruiting the auxin response factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 to control the expression of ABI3 during seed germination. Our study, thus, uncovers a previously unrecognized regulatory factor of seed dormancy and a coordinating network of auxin and ABA signaling in this important process. PMID:23986496

Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Yang; Feng, Zhengyan; Li, Qun; Yang, Hong-Quan; Luan, Sheng; Li, Jianming; He, Zu-Hua

2013-08-28

264

Auxin controls seed dormancy through stimulation of abscisic acid signaling by inducing ARF-mediated ABI3 activation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The transition from dormancy to germination in seeds is a key physiological process during the lifecycle of plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the sole plant hormone known to maintain seed dormancy; it acts through a gene expression network involving the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, whether other phytohormone pathways function in the maintenance of seed dormancy in response to environmental and internal signals remains an important question. Here, we show that the plant growth hormone auxin, which acts as a versatile trigger in many developmental processes, also plays a critical role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. We show that disruptions in auxin signaling in MIR160-overexpressing plants, auxin receptor mutants, or auxin biosynthesis mutants dramatically release seed dormancy, whereas increases in auxin signaling or biosynthesis greatly enhance seed dormancy. Auxin action in seed dormancy requires the ABA signaling pathway (and vice versa), indicating that the roles of auxin and ABA in seed dormancy are interdependent. Furthermore, we show that auxin acts upstream of the major regulator of seed dormancy, ABI3, by recruiting the auxin response factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 to control the expression of ABI3 during seed germination. Our study, thus, uncovers a previously unrecognized regulatory factor of seed dormancy and a coordinating network of auxin and ABA signaling in this important process.

Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Yang; Feng, Zhengyan; Li, Qun; Yang, Hong-Quan; Luan, Sheng; Li, Jianming; He, Zu-Hua

2013-01-01

265

Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section through foyer showing ticket window; detail front entrance with tiling; rear of ticket window. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 13, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

266

Regional trends for bud burst and flowering of woody plants in Norway as related to climate change.  

PubMed

Data series for bud burst, beginning of flowering and petal fall for 20 species of deciduous trees and conifers at four sites in different regions of southern Norway have been analysed and related to temperature series. On average, the spring phenophases occurred 7 days earlier during the period 1971-2005. The most significant linear trends were observed for the earliest phases. The trends in this period were compared with trends in other periods, the longest one starting in 1927. Those starting in cold decades and ending in 2005 were in most instances statistically significant, whereas hardly any significant trend appeared for series starting in warm decades. This fact showed that the results of trend studies are very sensitive to the choice of starting year. There were significant decadal variations in 40% of the series. The dates of occurrence of the phenophases, varying from the first days of May to the first days of June, correlated with seasonal temperature series, in most cases strongest to mean temperatures for the seasons March-May and April-May. The North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) for January and February appeared to have some predictive power for the date of occurrence of the recorded phases. The basis for this may be that the oscillations described by the index are of importance for the fulfilment of physiological chilling requirements needed to break bud dormancy. The same genotypes of the trees were grown in region West Norway and in Central Norwegian region; during the period 1965-2005 the trends towards earlier bud burst were more pronounced and steeper at the western site. PMID:18418631

Nordli, Ø; Wielgolaski, F E; Bakken, A K; Hjeltnes, S H; Måge, F; Sivle, A; Skre, O

2008-04-17

267

Temperature-mediated changes in seed dormancy and light requirement for Penstemon palmeri (Scrophulariaceae)  

SciTech Connect

Penstemon palmeri is a short-lived perennial herb colonizing disturbed sites in semiarid habitats in the western US. In this study seed was harvested from six native and four seeded populations during two consecutive years. In laboratory germination trials at constant 15C, considerable between-lot variation in primary dormancy and light requirement was observed. Four weeks of moist chilling (1C) induced secondary dormancy at 15C. Cold-induced secondary dormancy was reversed by one week of dark incubation at 30C. This warm incubation treatment also reduced the light requirement of unchilled, after-ripened seed. Fluctuations in dormancy and light requirement of buried seeds have been linked to seasonal changes in soil temperature. Penstemon palmeri germination responses to temperature appear to be similar to those of facultative winter annuals.

Kitchen, S.G.; Meyer, S.E. (Dept of Agriculture, Provo, UT (United States))

1992-03-01

268

Delineation of breast cancer cell hierarchy identifies the subset responsible for dormancy  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow (BM) is a major organ of breast cancer (BC) dormancy and a common source of BC resurgence. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between BC cells (BCCs) and BM stroma facilitates dormancy. This study reports on a hierarchy of BCCs with the most immature subset (Oct4hi/CD44hi/med/CD24?/+) demonstrating chemoresistance, dormancy, and stem cell properties: self-renewal, serial passaging ability, cycling quiescence, long doubling time, asymmetric division, high metastatic and invasive capability. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that this subset was responsible for GJIC with BM stroma. Similar BCCs were detected in the blood of patients despite aggressive treatment and in a patient with a relatively large tumor but no lymph node involvement. In brief, these findings identified a novel BCC subset with stem cell properties, with preference for dormancy and in the circulation of patients. The findings establish a working cellular hierarchy of BCCs based on phenotype and functions.

Patel, Shyam A.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Bryan, Margarette; Pliner, Lillian F.; Dontu, Gabriela; Patel, Prem S.; Amiri, Sohrab; Pine, Sharon R.; Rameshwar, Pranela

2012-01-01

269

Dormancy-release of celery seed by a growth retardant, N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (alar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alar (N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid) was more effective than the cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) in breaking dormancy of light-sensitive celery seed treated with a mixture of gibberellins A4 and A7 (GA4\\/7).

D. PALEVITCtt; T. H. Thomas; R. B. Austin

1971-01-01

270

Modeling Citation Networks Based on Vigorousness and Dormancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In citation networks, the activity of papers usually decreases with age and dormant papers may be discovered and become fashionable again. To model this phenomenon, a competition mechanism is suggested which incorporates two factors: vigorousness and dormancy. Based on this idea, a citation network model is proposed, in which a node has two discrete stage: vigorous and dormant. Vigorous nodes can be deactivated and dormant nodes may be activated and become vigorous. The evolution of the network couples addition of new nodes and state transitions of old ones. Both analytical calculation and numerical simulation show that the degree distribution of nodes in generated networks displays a good right-skewed behavior. Particularly, scale-free networks are obtained as the deactivated vertex is target selected and exponential networks are realized for the random-selected case. Moreover, the measurement of four real-world citation networks achieves a good agreement with the stochastic model.

Wang, Xue-Wen; Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Guo-Hong; Xu, Xin-Jian

2013-08-01

271

Multifaceted kinetics of immuno-evasion from tumor dormancy.  

PubMed

Tumor progression is subject to modulation by the immune system. The immune system can eliminate tumors or keep them at a dormant equilibrium size, while some tumors escape immunomodulation and advance to malignancy. Herein, we discuss some aspects of immune evasion of dormant tumors from a theoretical biophysics point of view that can be modeled mathematically. We go on to analyze the mathematical system on multiple timescales. First, we consider a long timescale where tumor evasion is likely due to adaptive (and somewhat deterministic) immuno-editing. Then, we consider the temporal mesoscale and hypothesize that extrinsic noise could be a major factor in induction of immuno-evasion. Implications of immuno-evasive mechanisms for the outcome of immunotherapies are also discussed. In addition, we discuss the ideas that population level tumor dormancy may not be a quiescence phenomenon and that dormant tumors can, at least if modulated by the immune system, live a very active and noisy life! PMID:23143978

d'Onofrio, Alberto

2013-01-01

272

HIV-1 Assembly, Budding, and Maturation  

PubMed Central

A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and obtains its lipid envelope; and maturation, wherein the virion changes structure and becomes infectious. All of these stages are coordinated by the Gag polyprotein and its proteolytic maturation products, which function as the major structural proteins of the virus. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation, starting with a general overview and then providing detailed descriptions of each of the different stages of virion morphogenesis.

Sundquist, Wesley I.; Krausslich, Hans-Georg

2012-01-01

273

Proteomic Analysis of Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms controlling seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been characterized by proteomics using the dormant (D) accession Cvi originating from the Cape Verde Islands. Comparative studies carried out with freshly harvested dormant and after-ripened non-dormant (ND) seeds revealed a specific differential accumulation of 32 proteins. The data suggested that proteins associated with metabolic functions potentially involved in germination can accumulate during after-ripening in the dry state leading to dormancy release. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) to ND seeds strongly impeded their germination, which physiologically mimicked the behavior of D imbibed seeds. This application resulted in an alteration of the accumulation pattern of 71 proteins. There was a strong down-accumulation of a major part (90%) of these proteins, which were involved mainly in energetic and protein metabolisms. This feature suggested that exogenous ABA triggers proteolytic mechanisms in imbibed seeds. An analysis of de novo protein synthesis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the presence of [35S]-methionine disclosed that exogenous ABA does not impede protein biosynthesis during imbibition. Furthermore, imbibed D seeds proved competent for de novo protein synthesis, demonstrating that impediment of protein translation was not the cause of the observed block of seed germination. However, the two-dimensional protein profiles were markedly different from those obtained with the ND seeds imbibed in ABA. Altogether, the data showed that the mechanisms blocking germination of the ND seeds by ABA application are different from those preventing germination of the D seeds imbibed in basal medium.

Chibani, Kamel; Ali-Rachedi, Sonia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique; Jullien, Marc; Grappin, Philippe

2006-01-01

274

A possible mechanism of high temperature dormancy regulation in seeds of Avena sativa L. (cv. Moyencourt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryos of Avena sativa L. (cv. Moyencourt) show no ‘high temperature dormancy”. The dormancy is induced by the presence of endosperm-aleurone part of the seed. Germination of isolated embryos at 30°C can be prevented by ABA and the inhibition is reversed by GA. Inhibitors of GA synthesis also inhibit embryo germination. The embryos of dormant and non-dormant seeds vary greatly

A. Poljakoff-Mayber; F. Corbineau; D. Côme

1990-01-01

275

Mapping QTLs for seed dormancy and the Vp1 homologue on chromosome 3A in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major component of the observed genetic variation for pre-harvest sprouting in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) appears to be the level of seed dormancy. Group 3 chromosomes have received attention as carrying the R genes for seed-coat color and the taVp1 genes that are orthologous to the maize Vp1 gene which encode a dormancy-related transcription factor. The objectives of the

M. Osa; K. Kato; M. Mori; C. Shindo; A. Torada; H. Miura

2003-01-01

276

One phase of the dormancy developmental pathway is critical for the evolution of insect seasonality.  

PubMed

Evolutionary change in the timing of dormancy enables animals and plants to adapt to changing seasonal environments and can result in ecological speciation. Despite its clear biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of dormancy timing in animals remain poorly understood because of a lack of anatomical landmarks to discern which phase of dormancy an individual is experiencing. Taking advantage of the nearly universal characteristic of metabolic suppression during insect dormancy (diapause), we use patterns of respiratory metabolism to document physiological landmarks of dormancy and test which of the distinct phases of the dormancy developmental pathway contribute to a month-long shift in diapause timing between a pair of incipient moth species. Here, we show that divergence in life cycle between the earlier-emerging E-strain and the later-emerging Z-strain of European corn borer (ECB) is clearly explained by a delay in the timing of the developmental transition from the diapause maintenance phase to the termination phase. Along with recent findings indicating that life-cycle differences between ECB strains stem from allelic variation at a single sex-linked locus, our results demonstrate how dramatic shifts in animal seasonality can result from simple developmental and genetic changes. Although characterizing the multiple phases of the diapause developmental programme in other locally adapted populations and species will undoubtedly yield surprises about the nature of animal dormancy, results in the ECB moth suggest that focusing on genetic variation in the timing of the dormancy termination phase may help explain how (or whether) organisms rapidly respond to global climate change, expand their ranges after accidental or managed introductions, undergo seasonal adaptation, or evolve into distinct species through allochronic isolation. PMID:24016035

Wadsworth, C B; Woods, W A; Hahn, D A; Dopman, E B

2013-09-10

277

Dormancy in white-grained wheat: Progress towards identification of genes and molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preharvest sprouting limits the consistent production of high quality wheat in many regions of the world. Improvements in\\u000a tolerance from the introduction of better grain dormancy at, or near, harvest-ripeness would be expected to have a significant\\u000a impact on the incidence and severity of sprouting. Genetic and molecular investigations have provided new evidence for the\\u000a presence of dormancy genes on

Daryl Mares; Kolumbina Mrva; Mui-Keng Tan; Peter Sharp

2002-01-01

278

Characterization of a novel wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) mutant with reduced seed dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant with reduced seed dormancy, RSD32, was isolated from a NaN3-treated population of a dormant cultivar, Norin61. Results show that RSD32 reduced not only the seed dormancy but also sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) on germination. The segregation ratio in the F2 population of a cross that had been derived from Norin61 and RSD32

Kazuhide Rikiishi; Masahiko Maekawa

2010-01-01

279

Releasing primary dormancy in Avena fatua L. caryopses by smoke-derived butenolide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of smoke and smoke-derived butenolide in releasing dormancy of caryopses (referred to as seeds) of the economically\\u000a important weed Avena fatua L. was studied. Seeds of A. fatua are dormant after harvest. Both smoke-water and butenolide, applied continuously, removed dormancy in darkness at 15, 20\\u000a and 25°C and slightly at 30°C. Butenolide was very active at a concentration

Jan K?pczy?ski; Danuta Cembrowska; Johannes Van Staden

2010-01-01

280

Dormancy patterns, germination ecology, and seed-bank types of twenty temperate fen grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination ecology, including primary and secondary dormancy, mortality of seeds, and seed-bank type, of 20 fen grassland\\u000a species from Northern Germany was investigated using a combination of burial and germination experiments. To analyze primary\\u000a dormancy and effects of after-ripening (dry storage for 28 days) on freshly matured seeds, germination was measured at two\\u000a fluctuating temperature regimes (15\\/25°C and 5\\/15°C)

Kai Jensen

2004-01-01

281

Dormancy removal in apple embryos by nitric oxide or cyanide involves modifications in ethylene biosynthetic pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection between classical phytohormone-ethylene and two signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen cyanide\\u000a (HCN), was investigated in dormancy removal and germination “sensu stricto” of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos. Deep dormancy of apple embryos was removed by short-term (3–6 h) pre-treatment with NO or HCN. NO- or HCN-mediated\\u000a stimulation of germination was associated with enhanced emission of ethylene by

Agnieszka Gniazdowska; Urszula Krasuska; Renata Bogatek

2010-01-01

282

ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 Is involved in Development of Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Mutants in the rice PLASTOCHRON 3 and maize VIVIPAROUS 8 genes have been shown to have reduced dormancy and ABA levels. In this study we used several mutants in the orthologous gene ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 (AMP1) to determine its role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here we report that there are accession-specific effects of mutations in AMP1. In one accession, amp1 mutants produce seeds with higher dormancy, while those in two other accessions produce seeds of lower dormancy. These accession-specific effects of mutating AMP1 were shown to extend to ABA levels. We assayed global gene transcription differences in seeds of wild-type and mutant from two accessions demonstrating opposing phenotypes. The transcript changes observed indicate that the amp1 mutation shifts the seed transcriptome from a dormant into an after-ripened state. Specific changes in gene expression in the mutants give insight into the direct and indirect effects that may be contributing to the opposing dormancy phenotypes observed, and reveal a role for AMP1 in the acquisition and/or maintenance of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

Griffiths, Jayne; Barrero, Jose M.; Taylor, Jennifer; Helliwell, Chris A.; Gubler, Frank

2011-01-01

283

Involvement of Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Onset and Release of Helianthus annuus Embryo Dormancy  

PubMed Central

Mature seeds of Helianthus annuus L. exhibit dormancy that is eliminated during storage in dry conditions. In vitro culture of immature embryos isolated at different times after anthesis showed that the youngest embryos are able to germinate, but within the third week after pollination, dormancy progressively affected most of the embryos. A radioimmunoassay showed that the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level, which increased sharply in the first half of the development period, fell at precisely the moment when embryo dormancy became established. An application of fluridone, before the increase of ABA level, prevented both ABA synthesis and development of embryo dormancy. Applied later, after the rise of the ABA level, fluridone could not prevent embryo dormancy development. Dormancy thus appears to be dependent on ABA synthesis but not concomitant with its accumulation; it must therefore be induced by ABA during maturation. Furthermore, a preincubation in water allowed dormant embryos to germinate. This acquisition of germinability could not be directly related to a leaching of free ABA. Possible effects of this treatment are discussed.

Le Page-Degivry, Marie-Therese; Barthe, Philippe; Garello, Ginette

1990-01-01

284

Involvement of the ethylene response pathway in dormancy induction in chrysanthemum  

PubMed Central

Temperature plays a significant role in the annual cycling between growth and dormancy of the herbaceous perennial chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). After exposure to high summer temperatures, cool temperature triggers dormancy. The cessation of flowering and rosette formation by the cessation of elongation are characteristic of dormant plants, and can be stimulated by exogenous ethylene. Thus, the ethylene response pathway may be involved in temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. Transgenic chrysanthemums expressing a mutated ethylene receptor gene were used to assess this involvement. The transgenic lines showed reduced ethylene sensitivity: ethylene causes leaf yellowing in wild-type chrysanthemums, but leaves remained green in the transgenic lines. Extension growth and flowering of wild-type and transgenic lines varied between temperatures: at 20 °C, the transgenic lines showed the same stem elongation and flowering as the wild type; at cooler temperatures, the wild type formed rosettes with an inability to flower and entered dormancy, but some transgenic lines continued to elongate and flower. This supports the involvement of the ethylene response pathway in the temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. At the highest dosage of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing agent, wild-type plants formed rosettes with an inability to flower and became dormant, but one transgenic line did not. This confirms that dormancy is induced via the ethylene response pathway.

Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2008-01-01

285

1. Credit PSR. This view captures the main entrance to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Credit PSR. This view captures the main entrance to the Administration/Shops Building, constructed in 1963, looking north northeast (30°). The plaque at the base of the flagpole commemorates the first firing of a liquid-fueled rocket engine at Test Stand "A" in 1945. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Administration & Shops Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

286

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW SHELTER AND THE TAPERING SHAPE OF THE SOUTHEAST END WALL OF AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

287

VIEW OF ENTRANCE ROAD FROM FRONT OF HOUSE. NOTE STAIRS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF ENTRANCE ROAD FROM FRONT OF HOUSE. NOTE STAIRS TO GARDEN ON LEFT, ROAD TO RIGHT, AND POMEGRANATE HEDGE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING SE. - Olompali State Historic Park, Mary Burdell Garden, U.S. Highway 101, Novato, Marin County, CA

288

ENTRANCE TO GOLD AREA SECURITY ROOM IN BASEMENT, LOCATED IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ENTRANCE TO GOLD AREA SECURITY ROOM IN BASEMENT, LOCATED IN BOTTOM OF ORIGINAL WET-BUCKET ELEVATOR SHAFT, ADJACENT TO DIESTER TABLE ROOM. NOTE BOARD WITH INDIVIDUAL TAGS FOR GOLD AREA EMPLOYEES. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

289

DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE WAY TO WILLIAM R. THORSEN HOUSE BY CHARLES & HENRY GREENE, 1909. EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE LOOKING SE. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

290

8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance and inner blast door. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

291

1. VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH ELEVATIONS, WITH ENTRANCE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH ELEVATIONS, WITH ENTRANCE OF 1113 IN FOREGROUND, FIRST AND SECOND STORIES OF 1111 IN MIDDLE, AND CAST IRON ELEMENTS FROM 1109 ON SIDEWALK. - 1109-1113 East Main Street (Commercial Buildings), Richmond, Independent City, VA

292

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

293

Marketing as an entrance barrier into the fashion market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I intend to model a firm decision of entrance into a profitable fashion market where fashion results from the existence of positive interdependence between buyers utility functions. I conclude theoretically that i) when incumbent firm has an aggressive strategy it sets a marketing limit strategy that do not permit the other firm to enter the fashion market

Pedro Cosme Costa Vieira

2005-01-01

294

Ocean currents across the entrance to the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of transport and currents in April, May, and December 1992 and January 1993 were made across the entrance to the Gulf of California with an acoustically tracked dropsonde. Flow was into the gulf along Sinaloa and out of the gulf along Baja California. The transports were 5-10 Sv and the currents were deep, with 10 cm s - flow

Curtis A. Collins; Newell Garfield; Affonso S. Mascarenhas Jr; Monty G. Spearman; Thomas A. Rago

1997-01-01

295

Evaporation-residue cross sections: role of the entrance channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the creation of heavy evaporation residues, the interplay between capture, quasifission and true compound-nucleus fission is discussed. An approximate factorisation of the cross section into a compound nucleus term and an entrance-channel term is derived, with each of these terms being clearly defined.

Rowley, Neil; Saffdine Grar, Nabila

2011-10-01

296

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH SIDE FACADE AND ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH SIDE FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO THE FORMER TCI-US STEEL COMPANY BATHHOUSE FOR COLORED ORE MINERS. - Tennessee Coal & Iron-U.S. Steel Surface Plant, Company Bathhouse for Black Ore Miners, East of State Route 150 on South slope of Red Mountain, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

297

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST WITH FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST WITH FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO FORMER TCI-US STEEL COMPANY BATHHOUSE FOR WHITE ORE MINERS. - Tennessee Coal & Iron-U.S. Steel Surface Plant, Company Bathhouse for White Ore Miners, East of State Route 150 on South slope of Red Mountain, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

298

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED PORCH, SOUTH ELEVATION, 1907. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

299

69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. VIEW OF FOREBAY AND RESERVOIR, SHOWING FLUME ENTRANCE TO RESERVOIR ON THE RIGHT OF FOREBAY IN THE BACKGROUND (SHOWN BY THE WHITE X ON THE PHOTOGRAPHS), Print No. 191, December 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

300

2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC N. HAGAN (WHO CONTRACTED WITH FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT FOR THE DESIGN OF THIS HOUSE) - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

301

3. 808 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL OF SHOP ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. 808 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL OF SHOP ENTRANCE - United Nations Vicinity Area Study, Second Avenue, East Forty-first, East Forty-third, East Forty-fourth, East Forty-eighty, & East Forty-ninth Streets, New York, New York County, NY

302

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR MOUNTAIN VIEW, NEW JERSEY. THE POMPTON FEEDER BOATS TO TRAVEL NORTH 4.26 MILES TO TO POMPTON AS WELL AS PROVIDING THE MAIN CANAL WITH WATER FROM GREENWOOD LAKE. A MODIFIED QUEEN POST TRUSS BRIDGE SPANS THE CANAL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

303

39. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DRAWING, ENTRANCE TO COLEMAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DRAWING, ENTRANCE TO COLEMAN MUSEUM (1880) (FROM THE ORIGINAL IN THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL PLANT, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

304

Detail, view, underside of halfthrough girder span over entrance to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, view, underside of half-through girder span over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle. Note that abutment is slightly skewed. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

305

3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. Chemicals related to Edison's experiments on the extraction of latex for rubber from the goldenrod plant. Room is set up based on reconstruction research done in 1972. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

306

22. View of vehicle entrance to passageway link system taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View of vehicle entrance to passageway link system taken from looking west. Note DR 3 antenna in background left. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

307

21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS 881 AND 883. THE TUNNEL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1957 TO TRANSPORT ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

308

Qumran: Water Channel ad Cave Entrance, Dead Sea Scrolls Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This photograph was taken in Qumran, the area where in 1947 (or late 1946) the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered by three Bedouin shepherds. The caves are located about eight miles south of Jericho, in present day Israel. In this picture a sign can be seen that says ‘Water Channel’ and a cave entrance can be seen in the hills.

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

309

VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE DOWNSTREAM ENTRANCE INTO BARGE CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE DOWNSTREAM ENTRANCE INTO BARGE CANAL LOCK 34. THE ERIE CANAL MUSEUM (FORMER POWER PLANT) IS IN THE CENTER OF THE VIEW, NOTE THE TURBINE DISCHARGE PORTS VISIBLE IN THIS LOW WATER VIEW. THE PINE STREET BRIDGE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

310

PRIMARY ENTRANCE INTO THE JENNE FARM, WEST FAÇADE. (The Jenne ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PRIMARY ENTRANCE INTO THE JENNE FARM, WEST FAÇADE. (The Jenne Barn has board and batten exterior cladding and sits above-grade on a poured concrete foundation. The barn is painted red with white trim. This door is painted green.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

311

College Admissions under a Centralized Entrance Exam: A Compromised Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centralized college admissions via a centralized entrance exam are known to be fair. This multi-category serial dictatorship mechanism gives the colleges their optimal student placement but it is far from optimal for the students. This paper discusses a mechanism of submitting students' preferences after receiving the test results. This adjustment transforms the original mechanism into a pref- erence revelation

Chris Y. Tung

312

8. BUILDING 332, INTERIOR, HALLWAY NEAR MAIN ENTRANCE IN NORTHWESTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. BUILDING 332, INTERIOR, HALLWAY NEAR MAIN ENTRANCE IN NORTHWESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH, WITH LOBBY TO LEFT AND CONFERENCE ROOM TO RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Dry Provisions Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, Between G & L Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

313

West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to service yard and access ramp (added ca. 1985) along the south façade of the west wing. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

314

Entrance of hot pyroclastic flows into the sea: experimental observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entrance of hot pyroclastic flows into water has been observed in a series of experiments in which shooting granular flows of hot ignimbrite ash (𙟓 °C), of bulk density near that of water, run down a smooth chute and enter a water-filled tank at an angle of 26°. Flows of relatively cool ash (250 °C. Mixing across the water

Armin Freundt

2003-01-01

315

Wide-angle zoom lens with removed forward entrance pupil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ideas of design zoom lenses with removed forward entrance pupils (pinhole zoom lenses) are presented. The methodology and current status will be discussed in this paper. Number of examples illustrate approaches proposed: optical extension adapter which allows to use together a pinhole lens with fixed focal length and video-camera zoom lens to form a zoom pinhole lens; three positive

Irina L. Livshits-Anitropova; Michael M. Russinov; Igor G. Bronchtein

1998-01-01

316

134. COURTYARD ENTRANCE AS SEEN FROM WEST ACROSS MADISON AVENUE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

134. COURTYARD ENTRANCE AS SEEN FROM WEST ACROSS MADISON AVENUE Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-B-1977-401R. - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

317

151. ENTRANCE HALL FIREPLACEDIRECT VIEW Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. ENTRANCE HALL FIREPLACE--DIRECT VIEW Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS13-B-1977-418R. - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

318

148. VIEW TO NORTH IN ENTRANCE HALL Copy photograph of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

148. VIEW TO NORTH IN ENTRANCE HALL Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-B-1977-415L. - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

319

Preliminary Development of the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition into kindergarten is important because it sets the foundation for future academic achievement. Identifying a child's readiness at school entry and intervening appropriately facilitates positive academic outcomes. The Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP) is a school district developed universal screening measure used to…

Lilles, Elena; Furlong, Michael; Quirk, Matthew; Felix, Erika; Dominguez, Karin; Anderson, Mona

2009-01-01

320

48. Historic American Buildings Survey PATIO SHOWING ENTRANCE TO LIVING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Historic American Buildings Survey PATIO SHOWING ENTRANCE TO LIVING ROOM PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOTT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 805 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

321

6. Interior view of main entrance vestibule looking towards lobby; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior view of main entrance vestibule looking towards lobby; showing wall mounted information stations and drinking fountain; near southeast corner of building on main floor; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

322

4. VIEW OF THE FRONT ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 220. THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF THE FRONT ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 220. THROUGH THE SWINGING HARDWOOD DOUBLE DOORS AND SLIDING EXPANDED METAL/WOOD FRAMED DOORS IS THE CONTROL CENTER (LOCATED ON THE LEFT) AND BULL PEN (STRAIGHT AHEAD). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Brig, Neville Way near Ninth Street at Marine Barracks, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

323

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

324

2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH LOBBY AND ALUMINUM VESTIBULE ADDED IN RECENT YEARS. ELEVATOR WILL BE CONSTRUCTED TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOORWAY IN THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE LOBBY. - Tillamook County Courthouse, 201 Laurel Avenue, Tillamook, Tillamook County, OR

325

6. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH ENTRANCE TO BASEMENT SHOWING WORKBENCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH ENTRANCE TO BASEMENT SHOWING WORKBENCH AT PHOTO LEFT AND ONE OF TWO DOORWAYS TO MAIN BASEMENT AREA AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

326

Service Building No. 620. Detail of north elevation and entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Service Building No. 620. Detail of north elevation and entrance to substation & windowns in top of elevator shafts no. 2 & stair no. 1 & section thru substation (dry dock associates, June 12, 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

327

Expression of multiple delta-protocadherins during feather bud formation.  

PubMed

The expression of the chicken delta-protocadherin (Pcdh) subfamily was investigated in the developing feather buds of the chicken. The expression profiles of the eight investigated Pcdhs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. Pcdh1, Pcdh7, Pcdh8 and Pcdh10 are differentially expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud. Expression of Pcdh1 and Pcdh10 is restricted to the periderm and Pcdh17 expression to the epidermis of interbud region. Pcdh19 is mostly expressed at the anterior side of epidermis as well as in the blood vessels of the feather buds. Furthermore, Pcdh9 and Pcdh18 both are regionally expressed in the dermis of the feather bud. These results suggest that Pcdhs may play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation. PMID:23318466

Lin, Juntang; Wang, Congrui; Redies, Christoph

2013-01-11

328

Differential regional expression of multiple ADAMs during feather bud formation.  

PubMed

The expression of seven members of the ADAM family was investigated by in situ hybridization in the developing feather buds of chicken. The expression profiles of the ADAMs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud, whereas ADAM23 expression is restricted to the bud crest, with a distribution similar to that of sonic hedgehog. ADAM13 is not only expressed in the epidermis, but also in restricted regions of the dermis. Both ADAM12 and ADAM22 are expressed in the dermis of the feather bud, with an opposite mediolateral and anteroposterior polarity. Furthermore, the mRNAs of all investigated ADAMs show regional differences in their expression, for example, in the neck and in the roots of the leg and wing. These results suggest that ADAMs play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation. PMID:21780243

Lin, Juntang; Luo, Jiankai; Redies, Christoph

2011-07-20

329

Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

2003-05-01

330

Light filtering function of bud scales in woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bud scales ofPicea abies (L.) Karst andFagus sylvatica L. selectively transmit the incident spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. It was shown that the scales absorb almost all radiation below 600 nm. Only the red and far-red light which is reduced to 0.01–2% reaches the apical domes. The center of a beech bud receives 0.11% and the center of a spruce bud

Maciej Giertych

1980-01-01

331

Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field.

Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

2012-01-01

332

Lessons on longevity from budding yeast.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen fundamental advances in our understanding of the ageing process and raised optimism that interventions to slow ageing may be on the horizon. Studies of budding yeast have made immense contributions to this progress. Yeast longevity factors have now been shown to modulate ageing in invertebrate and mammalian models, and studies of yeast have resulted in some of the best candidates for anti-ageing drugs currently in development. The first interventions to slow human ageing may spring from the humble yeast. PMID:20336133

Kaeberlein, Matt

2010-03-25

333

Overexpression of CONSTANS homologs CO1 and CO2 fails to alter normal reproductive onset and fall bud set in woody perennial poplar.  

PubMed

CONSTANS (CO) is an important flowering-time gene in the photoperiodic flowering pathway of annual Arabidopsis thaliana in which overexpression of CO induces early flowering, whereas mutations in CO cause delayed flowering. The closest homologs of CO in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.) are CO1 and CO2. A previous report showed that the CO2/FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) regulon controls the onset of reproduction in poplar, similar to what is seen with the CO/FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulon in Arabidopsis. The CO2/FT1 regulon was also reported to control fall bud set. Our long-term field observations show that overexpression of CO1 and CO2 individually or together did not alter normal reproductive onset, spring bud break, or fall dormancy in poplar, but did result in smaller trees when compared with controls. Transcripts of CO1 and CO2 were normally most abundant in the growing season and rhythmic within a day, peaking at dawn. Our manipulative experiments did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation being affected by photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, or water stress when transcripts of CO1 and CO2 were consistently measured in the morning. A genetic network analysis using overexpressing trees, microarrays, and computation demonstrated that a majority of functionally known genes downstream of CO1 and CO2 are associated with metabolic processes, which could explain their effect on tree size. In conclusion, the function of CO1 and CO2 in poplar does not appear to overlap with that of CO from Arabidopsis, nor do our data support the involvement of CO1 and CO2 in spring bud break or fall bud set. PMID:23029015

Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P; No, Kyoungok; Liang, Haiying; Meilan, Richard; Pechanova, Olga; Barakat, Abdelali; Carlson, John E; Page, Grier P; Yuceer, Cetin

2012-09-19

334

Overexpression of Constans Homologs CO1 and CO2 Fails to Alter Normal Reproductive Onset and Fall Bud Set in Woody Perennial Poplar  

PubMed Central

CONSTANS (CO) is an important flowering-time gene in the photoperiodic flowering pathway of annual Arabidopsis thaliana in which overexpression of CO induces early flowering, whereas mutations in CO cause delayed flowering. The closest homologs of CO in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.) are CO1 and CO2. A previous report [1] showed that the CO2/FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) regulon controls the onset of reproduction in poplar, similar to what is seen with the CO/FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulon in Arabidopsis. The CO2/FT1 regulon was also reported to control fall bud set. Our long-term field observations show that overexpression of CO1 and CO2 individually or together did not alter normal reproductive onset, spring bud break, or fall dormancy in poplar, but did result in smaller trees when compared with controls. Transcripts of CO1 and CO2 were normally most abundant in the growing season and rhythmic within a day, peaking at dawn. Our manipulative experiments did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation being affected by photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, or water stress when transcripts of CO1 and CO2 were consistently measured in the morning. A genetic network analysis using overexpressing trees, microarrays, and computation demonstrated that a majority of functionally known genes downstream of CO1 and CO2 are associated with metabolic processes, which could explain their effect on tree size. In conclusion, the function of CO1 and CO2 in poplar does not appear to overlap with that of CO from Arabidopsis, nor do our data support the involvement of CO1 and CO2 in spring bud break or fall bud set.

Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; No, Kyoungok; Liang, Haiying; Meilan, Richard; Pechanova, Olga; Barakat, Abdelali; Carlson, John E.; Page, Grier P.; Yuceer, Cetin

2012-01-01

335

VIEW SOUTH SOUTHWEST LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM ENTRANCE TO LOCKS 35 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTH SOUTHWEST LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM ENTRANCE TO LOCKS 35 AND 71. THE BRIDGE IN THE VIEW IS NOTED FOR ITS EXTRAORDINARY WIDTH (475 FT.) RELATIVE TO ITS MODEST SPAN (116 FT. 10 IN.). WHEN CONSTRUCTED IN 1914 IT WAS CLAIMED TO BE THE WIDEST BRIDGE IN THE WORLD. MAIN STREET CROSSES IT DIAGONALLY, ALONG WITH TWO CROSS STREETS. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

336

Improving the accuracy of entrance dosimetry measurements for dose modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due in part to measurement positional uncertainties, the entrance region of depth-ionization curves has challenged beam modelers\\u000a - thus this region is often ignored in beam modeling despite the valuable dosimetric information contained within. In a previous\\u000a work, for a single ionization chamber (IC), we demonstrated a method to reduce the positional uncertainty by scanning the\\u000a IC beyond the water

J. V. Siebers; J. D. Ververs; M. R. McEwen

337

2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

338

Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes full size detail of mullion for iron gates. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

339

33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165.1195...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated...Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in...

2013-07-01

340

Viscoelastic Modelling of Entrance Flow Using Multimode Leonov Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation of planar 2D flow of a viscoelastic fluid employing the Leonov constitutive equation has been presented. Triangular finite elements with lower-order interpolations have been employed for velocity and pressure as well as the extra stress tensor arising from the constitutive equation. A generalized Lesaint-Raviart method has been used for an upwind discretization of the material derivative of the extra stress tensor in the constitutive equation. The upwind scheme has been further strengthened in our code by also introducing a non-consistent streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method to modify the weighting function of the material derivative term in the variational form of the constitutive equation. A variational equation for configurational incompressibility of the Leonov model has also been satisfied explicitly.The corresponding software has been used to simulate planar 2D entrance flow for a 4:1 abrupt contraction up to a Deborah number of 670 (Weissenberg number of 6.71) for a rubber compound using a three-mode Leonov model. The predicted entrance loss is found to be in good agreement with experimental results from the literature. Corresponding comparisons for a commercial-grade polystyrene, however, indicate that the predicted entrance loss is low by a factor of about four, indicating a need for further investigation.

Gupta, Mahesh; Hieber, C. A.; Wang, K. K.

1997-03-01

341

Cellular relations in mouse circumvallate taste buds.  

PubMed

The fine structure of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae of two strains of mice was studied by electron microscopy. Mice anesthetized with ketamine were perfused through the heart with a double aldehyde mixture in cacodylate buffer and the tissues embedded in Epon. Semi-serial sections were employed. The morphology and relationships of cell types are consistent with the majority of descriptions of mammalian taste buds served by the ninth cranial nerve. Cells of type II are particularly well documented, as the stages in their origin, maturation and degeneration could be followed. Significant differences, however, relate to cell type I. These cells contain large dense-cored granules, contrasted with the more irregular and somewhat larger dark granules of the type I cells in the rabbit. These granules do not produce a dense homogenous product for the pore, as seen in the rabbit. Rather the pore substance consists of small, empty vesicles in a diffuse dark matrix. These granules are only moderately larger than the dense-cored vesicles of the type III cells. All features of the type III cell were demonstrated, although no instance of a complete cell was seen in any section. No significant differences were noted between the two strains of mice. Intimate proximity of a nerve to a cell nucleolus, suggestive of a trophic pathway, is illustrated. PMID:8241560

Murray, R G

1993-10-15

342

Epoxyeicosanoids stimulate multiorgan metastasis and tumor dormancy escape in mice  

PubMed Central

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are small molecules produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. They are lipid mediators that act as autocrine or paracrine factors to regulate inflammation and vascular tone. As a result, drugs that raise EET levels are in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension and many other diseases. However, despite their pleiotropic effects on cells, little is known about the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in cancer. Here, using genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endogenous EET levels, we demonstrate that EETs are critical for primary tumor growth and metastasis in a variety of mouse models of cancer. Remarkably, we found that EETs stimulated extensive multiorgan metastasis and escape from tumor dormancy in several tumor models. This systemic metastasis was not caused by excessive primary tumor growth but depended on endothelium-derived EETs at the site of metastasis. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, while EET antagonists suppressed tumor growth and metastasis, demonstrating in vivo that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect cancer growth. Furthermore, inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme that metabolizes EETs, elevated endogenous EET levels and promoted primary tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, our data indicate a central role for EETs in tumorigenesis, offering a mechanistic link between lipid signaling and cancer and emphasizing the critical importance of considering possible effects of EET-modulating drugs on cancer.

Panigrahy, Dipak; Edin, Matthew L.; Lee, Craig R.; Huang, Sui; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Butterfield, Catherine E.; Barnes, Carmen M.; Mammoto, Akiko; Mammoto, Tadanori; Luria, Ayala; Benny, Ofra; Chaponis, Deviney M.; Dudley, Andrew C.; Greene, Emily R.; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer-Pietramaggiori, Sandra S.; Short, Sarah M.; Seth, Meetu; Lih, Fred B.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Yang, Jun; Schwendener, Reto A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Falck, John R.; Manthati, Vijaya L.; Ingber, Donald E.; Kaipainen, Arja; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2011-01-01

343

Comparative Genomics of the Dormancy Regulons in Mycobacteria ?†  

PubMed Central

In response to stresses, Mycobacterium cells become dormant. This process is regulated by the DosR transcription factor. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the dormancy regulon is well characterized and contains the dosR gene itself and dosS and dosT genes encoding DosR kinases, nitroreductases (acg; Rv3131), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) (Rv3130c), and many universal stress proteins (USPs). In this study, we apply comparative genomic analysis to characterize the DosR regulons in nine Mycobacterium genomes, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1, Nocardia farcinica, and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The regulons are highly labile, containing eight core gene groups (regulators, kinases, USPs, DGATs, nitroreductases, ferredoxins, heat shock proteins, and the orthologs of the predicted kinase [Rv2004c] from M. tuberculosis) and 10 additional genes with more restricted taxonomic distribution that are mostly involved in anaerobic respiration. The largest regulon is observed in M. marinum and the smallest in M. abscessus. Analysis of large gene families encoding USPs, nitroreductases, and DGATs demonstrates a mosaic distribution of regulated and nonregulated members, suggesting frequent acquisition and loss of DosR-binding sites.

Gerasimova, Anna; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2011-01-01

344

Epoxyeicosanoids stimulate multiorgan metastasis and tumor dormancy escape in mice.  

PubMed

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are small molecules produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. They are lipid mediators that act as autocrine or paracrine factors to regulate inflammation and vascular tone. As a result, drugs that raise EET levels are in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension and many other diseases. However, despite their pleiotropic effects on cells, little is known about the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in cancer. Here, using genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endogenous EET levels, we demonstrate that EETs are critical for primary tumor growth and metastasis in a variety of mouse models of cancer. Remarkably, we found that EETs stimulated extensive multiorgan metastasis and escape from tumor dormancy in several tumor models. This systemic metastasis was not caused by excessive primary tumor growth but depended on endothelium-derived EETs at the site of metastasis. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, while EET antagonists suppressed tumor growth and metastasis, demonstrating in vivo that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect cancer growth. Furthermore, inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme that metabolizes EETs, elevated endogenous EET levels and promoted primary tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, our data indicate a central role for EETs in tumorigenesis, offering a mechanistic link between lipid signaling and cancer and emphasizing the critical importance of considering possible effects of EET-modulating drugs on cancer. PMID:22182838

Panigrahy, Dipak; Edin, Matthew L; Lee, Craig R; Huang, Sui; Bielenberg, Diane R; Butterfield, Catherine E; Barnés, Carmen M; Mammoto, Akiko; Mammoto, Tadanori; Luria, Ayala; Benny, Ofra; Chaponis, Deviney M; Dudley, Andrew C; Greene, Emily R; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer-Pietramaggiori, Sandra S; Short, Sarah M; Seth, Meetu; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Yang, Jun; Schwendener, Reto A; Hammock, Bruce D; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Ingber, Donald E; Kaipainen, Arja; D'Amore, Patricia A; Kieran, Mark W; Zeldin, Darryl C

2011-12-19

345

Dormancy Genes From Weedy Rice Respond Divergently to Seed Development Environments  

PubMed Central

Genes interacting with seed developmental environments control primary dormancy. To understand how a multigenic system evolved to adapt to the changing environments in weedy rice, we evaluated genetic components of three dormancy QTL in a synchronized nondormant genetic background. Two genetically identical populations segregating for qSD1, qSD7-1, and qSD12 were grown under greenhouse and natural conditions differing in temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity during seed development. Low temperatures tended to enhance dormancy in both conditions. However, genotypes responded to the environments divergently so that two populations displayed similar distributions for germination. Additive and/or dominance effects of the three loci explained ?90% of genetic variances and their epistases accounted for the remainder in each environment. The qSD1 and qSD7-1 main effects were increased, while the qSD12 additive effect was decreased by relatively low temperatures. Both gene main and epistatic effects were involved in G × E interactions, which in magnitude were greater than environmental main effect. The divergent responses of dormancy genes observed in this simple multigenic system presumably have selective advantages in natural populations adapted to changing environments and hence represent a genetic mechanism stabilizing the dormancy level of weedy rice ripened in different seasons or temperature regimes.

Gu, Xing-You; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Foley, Michael E.

2006-01-01

346

Seed dormancy and germination: the role of abscisic acid and gibberellins and the importance of hormone mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades many studies have aimed at elucidating the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. Many hypotheses have been proposed and rejected but the regulatory principle behind changes in dormancy and induction of germination is still a ‘black’ box. The majority of proposed mechanisms have a role for certain plant hormones in common. Abscisic acid and the gibberellins

H. W. M. Hilhorst; C. M. Karssen

1992-01-01

347

Heart rate and body weight alterations in juvenile specimens of the tropical land snail Megalobulimus sanctipauli during dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of heart rate and body weight alterations during the natural period of dormancy were determined in active feeding and dormant juvenile specimens of Megalobulimus sanctipauli. In both groups, heart rate markedly decreased during the first 40 days of dormancy, tending to stabilize thereafter. This time period coincided with the decrease in environmental temperature during autumn-win- ter. At

A. C. S. Rizzatti; S. M. B. Romero

2001-01-01

348

Sodium nitroprusside, cyanide, nitrite, and nitrate break Arabidopsis seed dormancy in a nitric oxide-dependent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of many plant species are dormant at maturity and dormancy loss is a prerequisite for germination. Numerous environmental and chemical treatments are known to lessen or remove seed dormancy, but the biochemical changes that occur during this change of state are poorly understood. Several lines of research have implicated nitric oxide (NO) as a participant in this process.

Paul C. Bethke; Igor G. L. Libourel; Vilem Reinöhl; Russell L. Jones

2006-01-01

349

Surface morphology of taste buds in catfish barbels  

Microsoft Academic Search

External taste buds abound on barbels of the adult catfish Corydoras arcuatus. When examined by scanning electron microscopy, they are visualized as a series of punctate, conical elevations projecting from the general surface epithelium. All taste buds were found to be of one type. Both their external and internal surface features could be clearly elucidated on intact barbels and in

W. K. Ovalle; S. L. Shinn

1977-01-01

350

Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus budding and assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to a large family of RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike budding of regular enveloped viruses, retroviruses bud concurrently with the assembly of retroviral capsids on the cell membrane. The kinetics of HIV (and other retroviruses) budding and assembly is therefore strongly affected by the elastic energy of the membrane and fundamentally different from regular viruses. The main result of this work shows that the kinetics is tunable from a fast budding process to a slow and effectively trapped partial budding process, by varying the attractive energy of retroviral proteins (call Gags), relative to the membrane elastic energy. When the Gag-Gag attraction is relatively high, the membrane elastic energy provides a kinetic barrier for the two pieces of the partial capsids to merge. This energy barrier determines the slowest step in the kinetics and the budding time. In the opposite limit, the membrane elastic energy provides not only a kinetic energy barrier, but a free energy barrier. The budding and assembly is effectively trapped at local free energy minimum, corresponding to a partially budded state. The time scale to escape from this metastable state is exponentially large. In both cases, our result fit with experimental measurements pretty well.

Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

2009-03-01

351

Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important

S. Henderson; C. Brewer; K. Havens; K. Meymaris

2007-01-01

352

Electron Micrography of Bud Formation in Metschnikowia krissii  

PubMed Central

The fine structure of bud formation of Metschnikowia krissii was studied by means of ultramicrotomy and transmission electron microscopy. Bud protrusion and development were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bud formation in this yeast takes place by an extension of a small localized area of the existing parent wall. The parent cell and its bud are initially separated by the plasmalemma, creating an intercellular site within which the generation of new cell wall (bud and birth scar areas) occurs centripetally. When the dividing wall is complete and new cell wall material is formed, a narrow cleavage plane becomes increasingly defined. This cleavage plane apparently proceeds laterally toward the direction of the existing outer walls which rupture, resulting in the separation of the bud from the parent cell. The bud scar is prominently convex in shape; the birth scar is less conspicuous and initially concave in shape. Comparison of bud formation in M. krissii is made with that observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula glutinis. Images

Talens, L. T.; Miranda, Mary; Miller, M. W.

1973-01-01

353

Semaphorin3a inhibits ureteric bud branching morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Class 3 semaphorins are guidance proteins involved in axon pathfinding, vascular patterning and lung branching morphogenesis in the developing mouse embryo. Semaphorin3a (Sema3a) is expressed in renal epithelia throughout kidney development, including podocytes and ureteric bud cells. However, the role of Sema3a in ureteric bud branching is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Sema3a plays a role in patterning the ureteric bud tree in both metanephric organ cultures and Sema3a mutant mice. In vitro ureteric bud injection with Sema3a antisense morpholino resulted in increased branching, whereas recombinant SEMA3A inhibited ureteric bud branching and decreased the number of developing glomeruli. Additional studies revealed that SEMA3A effects on ureteric bud branching involve downregulation of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling, competition with vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and decreased activity of Akt survival pathways. Deletion of Sema3a in mice is associated with increased ureteric bud branching, confirming its inhibitory role in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that Sema3a is an endogenous antagonist of ureteric bud branching and hence, plays a role in patterning the renal collecting system as a negative regulator. PMID:18249526

Tufro, Alda; Teichman, Jason; Woda, Craig; Villegas, Guillermo

2007-12-28

354

Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rh. viridis —Photosynthetic budding bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rh. viridis were found to reproduce by budding. The differences between budding reproduction and binary fission were discussed, and it was concluded that there was a lack of evidence to indicate a fundamental difference between the two processes in bacteria. Taxonomic and nomenclatural changes were discussed.

R. Whittenbury; A. G. McLee

1967-01-01

355

Surgical treatment of enteric 'bud' fistulas in contaminated wounds. A riskless extraperitoneal method using split-thickness skin grafts.  

PubMed

We describe methods and results of a local extraperitoneal method of repairing enterocutaneous "bud" fistulas in abdominal-wall defects. The method is performed with local anesthesia and involves an extraperitoneal closure with skin-graft coverage. Of the nine fistulas so treated, five healed. No patient's postoperative course was set back by the repairs that failed since the method precludes intraperitoneal entrance. Two of three high-output fistulas were successfully repaired with the extraperitoneal method, reversing an otherwise stormy clinical course. We conclude that for epithelialized enterocutaneous fistulas, little is lost if our method of repair fails and much is gained if it is successful in these critically ill patients. PMID:1387525

Sarfeh, I J; Jakowatz, J G

1992-09-01

356

271. MONUMENT AT ENTRANCE TO SENIOR OFFICERS' QUARTERS AREA: A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

271. MONUMENT AT ENTRANCE TO SENIOR OFFICERS' QUARTERS AREA: A BROWNSTONE CARTOUCHE SALVAGED FROM A BUILDING ERECTED IN 1894-95 BY THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND AS PART OF ITS QUONSET POINT NATIONAL GUARD RESERVATION AND SET UP AS A FREE-STANDING MONUMENT, SUPPORTED BY BRICK PIERS, WHEN THE NAVAL AIR STATION WAS DEVELOPED IN 1940-41; LOCATED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GLENN CURTIS DRIVE AND RANGER STREET. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

357

Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells  

PubMed Central

Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-? receptor IFNGR1, are co-expressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and ?-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-? and IFN-? triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-? or IFN-? significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

2007-01-01

358

Tin-filled multi-entrance fixed point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the advantages, design possibilities, performance of the Multi-Entrance Fixed Point (MEFP) concept are described. The purpose of MEFP is to replace equalizing blocks in any temperature-controlled zone with phase transition of matter during melting or freezing. The phase transition in such a calibration is not intended to be the temperature standard itself, but only provides for spatial thermal homogeneity and temporal stability during comparison calibration. Knowing that some of the main uncertainty components in the uncertainty budget of the comparison calibrated thermometer are the radial and axial gradients in the isothermal zone and knowing that comparisons comprise by far the majority of all calibrations, the improvement of speed and quality of calibration is of significant importance. The tin-filled MEFP with multiple entrance tubes, designed in the Laboratory for Process Measurements allows for simultaneous calibration of several thermometers against a standard thermometer. MEFP prototypes filled with other materials and with other design characteristics are pending production. This concept allows the use of modest purity materials to fill the cell, since a standard thermometer is used as the calibration reference. During this investigation, thermometers were calibrated against a standard in the same furnace, using both the standard equalizing block and the MEFP. The measurement results indicate that the use of MEFP decreases the uncertainty contributions from temperature gradients and the stability of the bath by an order of magnitude, compared to the standard equalizing block.

Zvizdi?, D.; Šestan, D.

2013-09-01

359

Physiology, morphology and phenology of seed dormancy break and germination in the endemic Iberian species Narcissus hispanicus (Amaryllidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Only very few studies have been carried out on seed dormancy/germination in the large monocot genus Narcissus. A primary aim of this study was to determine the kind of seed dormancy in Narcissus hispanicus and relate the dormancy breaking and germination requirements to the field situation. Methods Embryo growth, radicle emergence and shoot growth were studied by subjecting seeds with and without an emerged radicle to different periods of warm, cold or warm plus cold in natural temperatures outdoors and under controlled laboratory conditions. Key Results Mean embryo length in fresh seeds was approx. 1·31 mm, and embryos had to grow to 2·21 mm before radicle emergence. Embryos grew to full size and seeds germinated (radicles emerged) when they were warm stratified for 90 d and then incubated at cool temperatures for 30 d. However, the embryos grew only a little and no seeds germinated when they were incubated at 9/5, 10 or 15/4 °C for 30 d following a moist cold pre-treatment at 5, 9/5 or 10 °C. In the natural habitat of N. hispanicus, seeds are dispersed in late May, the embryo elongates in autumn and radicles emerge (seeds germinate) in early November; however, if the seeds are exposed to low temperatures before embryo growth is completed, they re-enter dormancy (secondary dormancy). The shoot does not emerge until March, after germinated seeds are cold stratified in winter. Conclusion Seeds of N. hispanicus have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), with the dormancy formula C1bB(root) – C3(epicotyl). This is the first study on seeds with simple MPD to show that embryos in advanced stages of growth can re-enter dormancy (secondary dormancy).

Copete, Elena; Herranz, Jose M.; Ferrandis, Pablo; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.

2011-01-01

360

The Role of Water Uptake in the Transition of Recalcitrant Seeds from Dormancy to Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recalcitrant seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) maintaining a high water content during winter, dormancy is determined by the presence and influence of the seed coat, while the axial organs of the embryos excised from these seeds are not dormant. Such axial organs were capable for active water uptake and rapid fresh weight increase, so that their fresh

N. V. Obroucheva; O. V. Antipova

2004-01-01

361

Variation in Seed Dormancy Quantitative Trait Loci in Arabidopsis thaliana Originating from One Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was performed using two novel Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) populations, derived from the progeny between two Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes collected at the same site in Kyoto (Japan) crossed with the reference laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler). We used these two RIL populations to determine the genetic basis of seed dormancy and flowering time, which

Rebecca A. Silady; Sigi Effgen; Maarten Koornneef; Matthieu Reymond; Daniel J. Kliebenstein

2011-01-01

362

Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination and longevity in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testa of higher plant seeds protects the embryo against adverse environmental conditions. Its role is assumed mainly by controlling germination through dormancy imposition and by limiting the detrimental activity of physical and biological agents during seed storage. To analyze the function of the testa in the model plant Arabidopsis, we compared mutants affected in testa pigmentation and\\/or structure for

I. Debeaujon; K. M. Léon-Kloosterziel; M. Koornneef

2000-01-01

363

The link between environmental variation and evolutionary shifts in dormancy in zooplankton.  

PubMed

Sex and dormancy are intertwined in organisms that engage in asexual and sexual reproduction. The transition between asexual and sexual reproduction typically results in a dormant stage that provides a mechanism for persisting under harsh environmental conditions. For example, many zooplankton engage in sexual reproduction when environmental conditions deteriorate and produce resting eggs that remain viable for decades. It has long been assumed that observed variation in the timing and magnitude of investment into a dormant stage among populations or species reflects local environmental conditions. Yet, the importance of dormancy for the persistence of a given population can differ dramatically among habitats (i.e., permanent vs. seasonal ponds). As a result, environmental conditions may exert selection on the propensity for zooplankton to engage in sexual reproduction and enter dormancy in natural populations. Here, I highlight a growing body of research illustrating an important link between environmental conditions and divergent reproductive strategies in zooplankton. I specifically: (1) review the environmental cues that initiate a transition between asexual and sexual reproduction in zooplankton and (2) describe recent work demonstrating an evolutionary consequence of ecological selective pressures, such as predation and habitat predictability, on variation in the extent to which organisms engage in sex and enter dormancy. Such results have implications for the genetics and ecology of these organisms. PMID:23630969

Walsh, Matthew R

2013-04-29

364

Improved xenobiotic-degrading activity of Rhodococcus opacus strain 1cp after dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the present work were as follows: to obtain the dormant forms of R. opacus 1cp; to study the phenotypic variability during their germination; to compare phenotypic variants during the growth on selective and elective media; and to reveal changes in the ability of the strain to destruct xenobiotics that had not been degradable before dormancy. It was

Inna P. Solyanikova; Andrej L. Mulyukin; Natalja E. Suzina; Galina I. El-Registan; Ludmila A. Golovleva

2011-01-01

365

8. The role of plant growth regulators in dormancy in forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of plant growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins, and ethylene, in the initiation, maintenance, and breaking of dormancy in perennial, woody, temperate plants is reviewed. Particular topics discussed include: a) roles of individual compounds and antagonistic or synergistic effects of several growth regulators acting simultaneously; b) problems of compound isolation and identification; and c) hypotheses

Denis P. Lavender; Salim N. Silim

1987-01-01

366

Levels of physiological dormancy and methods for improving seed germination of four rose species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low seed germination is a major problem in commercial rose propagation and breeding and is species-dependent. The present work selected four rose species previously un-examined to explore effective methods for improving seed germination and the relevant dormancy mechanism and its levels in seven experiments. The results showed that both pulp and achenes from the four rose shrubs had chemical substances

Zhiqiong Zhou; Weikai Bao

2011-01-01

367

The role of peptidoglycan structure and structural dynamics during endospore dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dormant, bacterial endospores are the most resistant living structures known. The spore cell wall (cortex) maintains dormancy, core dehydration, and heat resistance. The cortex peptidoglycan has a unique, spore specific structure that enables it to fulfill its role. The cross-linking index of spore cortex peptidoglycan is very low, occurring at only 2.9% of the muramic acid residues compared to 33%

Abdelmadjid Atrih; Simon J. Foster

1999-01-01

368

Evidence from Polygene Mapping for a Causal Relationship between Potato Tuber Dormancy and Abscisic Acid Content.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies polygene mapping of a backcross population derived from haploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) and a diploid wild species (Solanum berthaultii) showed at least eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tuber dormancy. The same population was mapped for abscisic acid (ABA) content in tubers so that any QTLs identified could be compared with those detected previously. At least three distinct loci on three chromosomes (2, 4, and 7) were associated with variation in ABA content. One of the QTLs was detected only as a main (single locus) effect, and two QTLs were found through two-locus interaction analysis (epistasis). Interaction between QTLs at markers TG234 (chromosome 2) and TG155 (chromosome 4) explained 20% of total phenotypic variance for this trait. The interaction closely resembled one previously detected for dormancy, suggesting an association between high ABA content and long tuber dormancy. Although relationships between ABA level and dormancy could be demonstrated through polygene mapping, there was no indication of a relationship between these traits when they were subjected to a conventional correlation test. This illustrates the usefulness of polygene mapping as a tool to identify possible associations between hormone levels and plant development.

Simko, I.; McMurry, S.; Yang, H. M.; Manschot, A.; Davies, P. J.; Ewing, E. E.

1997-01-01

369

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE SYNDROMES INTERRELATED WITH SEED DORMANCY IN WEEDY RICE (ORYZA SATIVA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy in rice interrelates to the weedy characteristics shattering, awn, black hull color and red pericarp color. A cross between the weedy strain SS18-2 and the breeding line EM93-1 was developed to investigate the genetic basis and adaptive significance of the interrelationships. These cha...

370

The LuxR family regulator Rv0195 modulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormancy and virulence.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a leading global killer that has not been effectively controlled to date. The ability of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to become dormant is one of the major reasons for extended chemotherapeutic regimens and wide epidemicity. The underlying mechanisms of M. tuberculosis dormancy are not fully understood. In the present work, a LuxR family transcription factor gene, Rv0195, was deleted in the virulent M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Rv0195 deletion did not affect bacterial growth and long-term survival under aerobiosis but decreased cell survival and the ability to rapidly recover from dormancy in an in vitro anaerobiosis model. The deletion also reduced intracellular survivability under hypoxic and reductive stress triggered by vitamin C. Microarray hybridization analysis showed that Rv0195 affected the expression of more than 180 genes under anaerobiosis, and these genes did not overlap with the known anaerobiosis-up-regulated DosR regulon genes. Furthermore, the Rv0195 deletion diminished bacterial virulence in human macrophage-like cells and resulted in reduced bacterial survival and pathogenicity in a C57BL/6 mouse infection model. These findings offer a novel insight into the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis adapts to and recovers from dormancy and demonstrate that the dormancy regulator Rv0195 contributes to bacterial virulence. PMID:23673208

Fang, Haihong; Yu, Dan; Hong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Xiaodan; Li, Chuanyou; Sun, Baolin

2013-05-11

371

Influence of the Testa on Seed Dormancy, Germination, and Longevity in Arabidopsis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testa of higher plant seeds protects the embryo against adverse environmental conditions. Its role is assumed mainly by controlling germination through dormancy imposition and by lim- iting the detrimental activity of physical and biological agents dur- ing seed storage. To analyze the function of the testa in the model plant Arabidopsis, we compared mutants affected in testa pigmen- tation

Isabelle Debeaujon; Karen M. Leon-Kloosterziel; Maarten Koornneef

2000-01-01

372

Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.  

PubMed

Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L ?-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 ?mol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants. PMID:23179705

Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

2013-01-01

373

Suppression of heat shock protein 27 induces long-term dormancy in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying tumor dormancy have been elusive and not well characterized. We recently published an experimental model for the study of human tumor dormancy and the role of angiogenesis, and reported that the angiogenic switch was preceded by a local increase in VEGF-A and basic fibroblast growth factor. In this breast cancer xenograft model (MDA-MB-436 cells), analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was significantly up-regulated in angiogenic cells compared with nonangiogenic cells. The effect of HSP27 down-regulation was further evaluated in cell lines, mouse models, and clinical datasets of human patients with breast cancer and melanoma. Stable down-regulation of HSP27 in angiogenic tumor cells was followed by long-term tumor dormancy in vivo. Strikingly, only 4 of 30 HSP27 knockdown xenograft tumors initiated rapid growth after day 70, in correlation with a regain of HSP27 protein expression. Significantly, no tumors escaped from dormancy without HSP27 expression. Down-regulation of HSP27 was associated with reduced endothelial cell proliferation and decreased secretion of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Conversely, overexpression of HSP27 in nonangiogenic cells resulted in expansive tumor growth in vivo. By clinical validation, strong HSP27 protein expression was associated with markers of aggressive tumors and decreased survival in patients with breast cancer and melanoma. An HSP27-associated gene expression signature was related to molecular subgroups and survival in breast cancer. Our findings suggest a role for HSP27 in the balance between tumor dormancy and tumor progression, mediated by tumor–vascular interactions. Targeting HSP27 might offer a useful strategy in cancer treatment.

Straume, Oddbj?rn; Shimamura, Takeshi; Lampa, Michael J. G.; Carretero, Julian; ?yan, Anne M.; Jia, Di; Borgman, Christa L.; Soucheray, Margaret; Downing, Sean R.; Short, Sarah M.; Kang, Soo-Young; Wang, Souming; Chen, Liang; Collett, Karin; Bachmann, Ingeborg; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.; Kalland, Karl Henning; Folkman, Judah; Watnick, Randolph S.; Akslen, Lars A.; Naumov, George N.

2012-01-01

374

The Chilling Optimum of Idaho and Arizona Ponderosa Pine Buds  

Treesearch

... days required for 50% of the population to break bud were similar for both seed sources and decreased inverse exponentially from 74 to 23 days as ... than Arizona seedlings when returned to favorable environmental conditions for growth.

375

Ubiquitin is part of the retrovirus budding machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retroviruses contain relatively large amounts of ubiquitin, but the significance of this finding has been unknown. Here, we show that drugs that are known to reduce the level of free ubiquitin in the cell dramatically reduced the release of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus. This effect was suppressed by overexpressing ubiquitin and also by directly fusing ubiquitin to the C terminus of Gag, the viral protein that directs budding and particle release. The block to budding was found to be at the plasma membrane, and electron microscopy revealed that the reduced level of ubiquitin results in a failure of mature virus particles to separate from each other and from the plasma membrane during budding. These data indicate that ubiquitin is actually part of the budding machinery.

Patnaik, Akash; Chau, Vincent; Wills, John W.

2000-11-01

376

Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata  

PubMed Central

Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images

Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

1968-01-01

377

Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates.  

PubMed

Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of +/- 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to +/- 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data. PMID:19851788

Nendel, Claas

2009-10-23

378

Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGF?, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points.

DAVIES, JAMIE

2001-01-01

379

Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

380

Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.  

PubMed

Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells. PMID:23320081

Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

2013-01-08

381

Functional Cell Types in Taste Buds Have Distinct Longevities  

PubMed Central

Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8–12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

2013-01-01

382

Manipulation of the polyamine content and senescence of apical buds of G2 peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various treatments on the apical senescence and polyamine content of apical buds of G2 peas was analysed. Defruiting prevented senescence and increased bud size and polyamine content. Exogenous applications of GA20 enhanced bud size and spermidine concentration. Applied spermidine had a slight effect on spermidine level but did not delay senescence. ACC strongly induced adecrease in bud

Mary A. Smith; Peter J. Davies

1985-01-01

383

Use of burrow entrances to indicate densities of Townsend's ground squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Counts of burrow entrances have been positively correlated with densities of semi-fossorial rodents and used as an index of densities. We evaluated their effectiveness in indexing densities of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (SRBOPNCA), Idaho, by comparing burrow entrance densities to densities of ground squirrels estimated from livetrapping in 2 consecutive years over which squirrel populations declined by >75%. We did not detect a consistent relation between burrow entrance counts and ground squirrel density estimates within or among habitat types. Scatter plots indicated that burrow entrances had little predictive power at intermediate densities. Burrow entrance counts did not reflect the magnitude of a between-year density decline. Repeated counts of entrances late in the squirrels' active season varied in a manner that would be difficult to use for calibration of transects sampled only once during this period. Annual persistence of burrow entrances varied between habitats. Trained observers were inconsistent in assigning active-inactive status to entrances. We recommend that burrow entrance counts not be used as measures or indices of ground squirrel densities in shrubsteppe habitats, and that the method be verified thoroughly before being used in other habitats.

Van Horne, Beatrice; Schooley, R. L.; Knick, Steven T.; Olson, G. S.; Burnham, K. P.

1997-01-01

384

Bud damage from controlled heat treatments in Quercus garryana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus garryana habitats are increasingly being managed with prescribed fire, but acorn dependent wildlife might be adversely affected if\\u000a fires damage acorn crops. We examined one way that fire might affect subsequent acorn crops: through direct heating and damage\\u000a of buds containing the following year’s floral organs. We measured internal bud temperatures during controlled time and temperature\\u000a treatments, described damage

David H. Peter; James K. Agee; Douglas G. Sprugel

2009-01-01

385

Effect of monoamines on the taste buds in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse taste buds were investigated following administration of monoamines and their precursors by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The appearance of fluorescent cells within the taste bud and the ultrastructural changes of vesicles in the gustatory cells were due to the treatment of 5-hydroxytryptophan. Small dense-cored vesicles (30–60 nm in diameter) appeared throughout the cytoplasm and accumulated especially at the presynaptic

Masako Takeda; Kenji Kitao

1980-01-01

386

Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

2007-02-01

387

Membrane budding and scission by the ESCRT machinery: it's all in the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) catalyse one of the most unusual membrane remodelling events in cell biology. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II direct membrane budding away from the cytosol by stabilizing bud necks without coating the buds and without being consumed in the buds. ESCRT-III cleaves the bud necks from their cytosolic faces. ESCRT-III-mediated membrane neck cleavage is crucial

James H. Hurley; Phyllis I. Hanson

2010-01-01

388

Gibberellins do not act against abscisic acid in the regulation of bulb dormancy of Allium wakegi Araki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in bulb dormancy of Alliumwakegi Araki. We examined the antagonistic role of gibberellins(GAs)against ABA in the regulation of this dormancy. The concentrations of ABA andGAs in the basal leaf sheaths or bulbs of A. wakegi cv.Kiharawase were investigated during growth in the field and postharveststorage.The concentration of ABA in the basal leaf sheaths began to

Hiroko Yamazaki; Takaaki Nishijima; Masaji Koshioka; Hiroyuki Miura

2002-01-01

389

A QTL located on chromosome 4A associated with dormancy in white- and red-grained wheats of diverse origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved resistance to preharvest sprouting in modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. L.) can be achieved via the introgression of grain dormancy and would reduce both the incidence and severity of damage due\\u000a to unfavourable weather at harvest. The dormancy phenotype is strongly influenced by environmental factors making selection\\u000a difficult and time consuming and this trait an obvious candidate for marker

D. Mares; K. Mrva; J. Cheong; K. Williams; B. Watson; E. Storlie; M. Sutherland; Y. Zou

2005-01-01

390

Transcriptional programs regulating seed dormancy and its release by after-ripening in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait in wheat (Trticum aestivum). Seeds can be released from a physiologically dormant state by after-ripening. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening in conferring developmental switches from dormancy to germination in wheat seeds, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses between dormant (D) and after-ripened (AR) seeds in both dry and imbibed states. Transcriptional activation of genes represented by a core of 22 and 435 probesets was evident in the dry and imbibed states of D seeds, respectively. Furthermore, two-way ANOVA analysis identified 36 probesets as specifically regulated by dormancy. These data suggest that biological functions associated with these genes are involved in the maintenance of seed dormancy. Expression of genes encoding protein synthesis/activity inhibitors was significantly repressed during after-ripening, leading to dormancy decay. Imbibing AR seeds led to transcriptional activation of distinct biological processes, including those related to DNA replication, nitrogen metabolism, cytoplasmic membrane-bound vesicle, jasmonate biosynthesis and cell wall modification. These after-ripening-mediated transcriptional programs appear to be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Clustering of our microarray data produced 16 gene clusters; dormancy-specific probesets and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements were significantly overrepresented in two clusters, indicating the linkage of dormancy in wheat with that of seed sensitivity to ABA. The role of ABA signalling in regulating wheat seed dormancy was further supported by the down-regulation of ABA response-related probesets in AR seeds and absence of differential expression of ABA metabolic genes between D and AR seeds. PMID:22292455

Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

2012-02-01

391

QTL mapping of the domestication traits pre-harvest sprouting and dormancy in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the ITMI mapping population was grown under field conditions in Gatersleben. The lines were evaluated for the domestication traits pre-harvest sprouting and dormancy (germinability). Main QTLs could be localized for pre-harvest sprouting on chromosome 4AL and dormancy on chromosome 3AL. In addition, 85 Triticum aestivum cv. “Chinese Spring”-Aegilops tauschii introgression lines

Ulrike Lohwasser; Marion S. Röder; Andreas Börner

2005-01-01

392

Grain dormancy in fixed lines of white-grained wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grown under controlled environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be a significant problem, causing deleterious effects on grain quality. However, the adverse impacts of PHS can be\\u000a reduced by introgressing genes controlling grain dormancy into white-grained bread wheat. Screening for grain dormancy typically\\u000a involves germination testing of harvest-ripe grain grown in a glasshouse or field. However, the more uniform environmental

Lee T. Hickey; Mark J. Dieters; Ian H. DeLacy; Olena Y. Kravchuk; Daryl J. Mares; Phillip M. Banks

2009-01-01

393

Seasonal Changes in the Structure and Function of Mitochondrial Membranes of Artichoke Tubers: A Requisite for Surviving Low Temperatures during Dormancy.  

PubMed

The temperature limits of the order-disorder transition, and the Arrhenius activation energy of succinate oxidase activity for mitochondria of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were determined from the initiation to the termination of dormancy. The temperature limits for the transition at the initiation of dormancy were 25 and 3 C. These changed to 9 and -5 C at mid-dormancy and returned to 25 and 2 C at the termination of dormancy. The Arrhenius activation energy measured in the temperature range above the transition was 35 kilojoules per mole at middormancy and decreased to 17 kilojoules per mole at the termination of dormancy when sprouting was evident. The coincidence of the changes in membrane structure and function with dormancy suggests that artichokes possess a mechanism for regulating membrane lipid structure so that cellular integrity of tuber tissue is maintained even when the tubers are exposed to low temperatures. PMID:16660729

Chapman, E; Wright, L C; Raison, J K

1979-02-01

394

Social Predictors of Unsuccessful Entrance into the Labour Market--A Socialization Process Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social determinants over the life course, including childhood family characteristics, were studied in predicting unsuccessful entrance into the labour market at the age of 31 years. Among men, unsuccessful entrance into the labour market was predicted prospectively by the mother's receptive attitude towards receiving social aid and contentment…

Ek, Ellen; Sovio, Ulla; Remes, Jouko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

2005-01-01

395

The accumulation of a chemical cue: nest-entrance trail in the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vespine wasps have been shown to deposit an attractive chemical in the nest entrance. Foragers use this to help locate the nest when returning to it. We determined how many individuals need to track (pass through) the entrance before the chemical is recognized. We found a logistic response as the number of tracks increased. At 200 tracks and above there

Jennifer M. Jandt; Christine Curry; Sarah Hemauer; Robert L. Jeanne

2005-01-01

396

On the Rationality of the College Entrance Examination: Analysis of Its Social Foundations, Functions, and Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giving everyone an equal opportunity to participate in higher education and to compete for society's resources is the foundation for the existence of the college entrance examination system. Despite the persistent imbalance between the supply of and the demand for higher education, the foundations of the entrance exam system have not been shaken;…

Ruoling, Zheng

2010-01-01

397

Teacher training for secondary education and graduates’ entrance into the teaching profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the relationship between teacher education and graduates’ intended and actual entrance into teaching. Moreover, it explores how this relationship differs for two types of initial teacher training for secondary education. A hypothetical model of graduates’ entrance into the teaching profession comprising empirically grounded variables was developed. Besides teacher education related variables, other factors (e.g., motivation and

Isabel Rots; Antonia Aelterman

2008-01-01

398

Reversing Water Exchange Patterns at the Entrance to a Semiarid Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water velocity and density profiles were obtained in late-spring and late-winter to document reversing mean circulation patterns at the entrance to a semiarid coastal lagoon, the Bay of Guaymas, in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The lagoon is shallow but the bathymetry at its entrance is similar to that of temperate estuaries with an asymmetrically positioned channel flanked by shoals.

A. Valle-Levinson; J. A. Delgado; L. P. Atkinson

2001-01-01

399

Nation-wide College Entrance Examination--Current Practice and Critical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Joint Entrance Examination of Universities and Colleges (JEE), the college entrance examination in the Republic of China, is discussed. It is suggested that the competitive selective process for college and university admission has survived for many centuries because it has served certain social functions. The system has been perceived and…

Kuo, Wei-fan

400

Entrance Counseling. Guide for Counselors. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help school financial aid administrators provide effective entrance counseling for first-time student borrowers of subsidized Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loans and Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loans. A section on what is required for entrance counseling specifies both regulatory requirements and the…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

401

Cross-species approaches to seed dormancy and germination: conservation and biodiversity of ABA-regulated mechanisms and the Brassicaceae DOG1 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy is genetically determined with substantial environmental influence mediated, at least in part, by the plant\\u000a hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA-related transcription factor ABI3\\/VP1 (ABA INSENSITIVE3\\/VIVIPAROUS1) is widespread among green plants. Alternative splicing of its transcripts appears to be involved in regulating seed dormancy,\\u000a but the role of ABI3\\/VP1 goes beyond seeds and dormancy. In contrast, DOG1 (DELAY

Kai Graeber; Ada Linkies; Kerstin Müller; Andrea Wunchova; Anita Rott; Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

2010-01-01

402

A cell cycle checkpoint monitors cell morphogenesis in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

Checkpoint controls are regulatory pathways that inhibit cell cycle progression in cells that have not faithfully completed a prior step in the cell cycle. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA replication and spindle assembly are monitored by checkpoint controls that prevent nuclear division in cells that have failed to complete these processes. During the normal cell cycle, bud formation is temporally coincident with DNA replication and spindle assembly, and the nucleus divides along the mother-bud axis in mitosis. In this report, we show that inhibition of bud formation also causes a dramatic delay in nuclear division. This allows cells to recover from a transient disruption of cell polarity without becoming binucleate. The delay occurs after DNA replication and spindle assembly, and results from delayed activation of the master cell cycle regulatory kinase, Cdc28. Cdc28 activation is inhibited by phosphorylation of Cdc28 on tyrosine 19, and by delayed accumulation of the B-type cyclins Clb1 and Clb2. These results suggest the existence of a novel checkpoint that monitors cell morphogenesis in budding yeast.

1995-01-01

403

Regulation of cell cycle regulators by environmental signals during growth-dormancy cycle of trees.  

PubMed

Climate change such as changing temperature and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2), are likely to drive significant modifications in forests. While many studies have demonstrated the responses and adoptions of tree to fluctuations in climatic and environmental conditions, the impact of environmental signals on trees is complex and poorly understood with respect to the molecular biology in context of the seasonal change of environmental signals. This addendum is focused on the impact of environmental signals on growth-dormancy cycle of trees growing in temperate regions, especially the regulation of cell cycle regulators by temperature and photoperiod. In addition, the plant hormone control of growth-dormancy cycle of trees and cell cycle regulators in the cambium is also discussed. PMID:19826221

Li, Wan-Feng; Cui, Ke-Ming; He, Xin-Qiang

2009-10-21

404

Microbial dormancy in batch cultures as a function of substrate-dependent mortality.  

PubMed

We present models and computational studies of dormancy in batch cultures to try to understand the relationship between reculturing time and death penalty for low substrate and the relative advantage of fast versus slow reawakening on the part of the bacteria. We find that the advantage goes to the faster waker for shorter reculturing times and lower mortality under low substrate, and moves to the slower waker as reculturing times and death penalty increase. The advantage returns again to the fast waker for very high death penalties. We use an explicit, continuous structure variable to represent dormancy so as to allow for flexibility in substrate usage on the part of dormant cells, and for a more mechanistic representation of the reawakening process. PMID:22004996

Ayati, Bruce P

2011-10-08

405

Anaerobic dormancy quantified in artemia embryos: a calorimetric test of the control mechanism.  

PubMed

Continuous measurement of heat dissipation from brine shrimp embryos during reversible transitions from aerobic development to anaerobic dormancy demonstrates a primary role for intracellular pH(pH(i))in this metabolic switching. Artificially elevating the depressed pH(i) during anoxia by adding ammonia markedly reactivates metabolism, as judged by increases in heat dissipation, trehalose catabolism, and the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate. Energy flow during anaerobic dormancy is suppressed to 2.4 percent of aerobic values, which is the lowest percentage thus far reported for euryoxic animals. Use of diguanosine tetraphosphate stores cannot account for this observed heat dissipation. Thus, mobilizing trace amounts of trehalose may explain the energy metabolism during quiescence. PMID:17769739

Hand, S C; Gnaiger, E

1988-03-18

406

Regulation of cell cycle regulators by environmental signals during growth-dormancy cycle of trees  

PubMed Central

Climate change such as changing temperature and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, are likely to drive significant modifications in forests. While many studies have demonstrated the responses and adoptions of tree to fluctuations in climatic and environmental conditions, the impact of environmental signals on trees is complex and poorly understood with respect to the molecular biology in context of the seasonal change of environmental signals. This addendum is focused on the impact of environmental signals on growth-dormancy cycle of trees growing in temperate regions, especially the regulation of cell cycle regulators by temperature and photoperiod. In addition, the plant hormone control of growth-dormancy cycle of trees and cell cycle regulators in the cambium is also discussed.

Li, Wan-Feng; Cui, Ke-Ming

2009-01-01

407

Dark CO2 Fixation in Gladiolus Cormels and Its Regulation during the Break of Dormancy 1  

PubMed Central

The increase in dark CO2 fixation during cold storage of Gladiolus x gandavensis van Houtte-type grandiflorus cormels is used to monitor changes in their state of dormancy. Dark fixation is also promoted by benzyladenine, which breaks cormel dormancy, and is inhibited by abscisic acid and gibberellin A3, which inhibit cormel germination. The rate of dark fixation by nondormant cormels is five times higher than that in dormant ones. Dark fixation is not due to microorganisms. It is temperature-dependent and can be measured stoichiometrically in vivo. The apex and base of the cormels accumulate more label than the central part. Dark fixation of both dormant and nondormant cormels is also promoted by imbibition in water. The fate of the labeled assimilates was followed by ion exchange chromatography.

Ginzburg, Chen

1975-01-01

408

Nitric oxide implication in the control of seed dormancy and germination  

PubMed Central

Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependent protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signaling during early seed germination.

Arc, Erwann; Galland, Marc; Godin, Beatrice; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loic

2013-01-01

409

Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity  

PubMed Central

Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42?d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development.

Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

2011-01-01

410

Life History, Aggregation and Dormancy of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, from the Rubber Plantations of Moist South Western Ghats  

PubMed Central

Life history, aggregation and dormancy of rubber plantation litter beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius, (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) is described from rubber plantation belts in the western slopes of Western Ghats from the south Indian state of Kerala. The life cycle lasted 12 months, including the 5 larval instars lasting 1 month, the 3 day pupal stage, and the adult stage that can last 11 months. The adult stage includes an inactive dormancy phase of 9 months in shelters and 1 month each of active pre-dormancy (feeding) and post-dormancy (feeding and reproduction) phases that occur in rubber plantation litter. Reproductive activities are confined to the post-dormancy phase. With the onset of summer rains, huge aggregations of adults invade residential buildings and enter into a state of dormancy for 9 months. Beetle aggregations were in the range of 0.5 million to 4.5 million individuals per residential building. Dormancy in L. tristis is best classified as oligopause, which is intermediate between quiescence and diapause. Adults and larvae feed preferentially on wilted rubber tree leaves. Age-specific variation in mortality during dormancy is distinct with higher survivability for adults that have a longer pre-dormancy period. Generations are non-overlapping.

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.; Jobi, M.C.

2008-01-01

411

Tools for Carex revegetation in freshwater wetlands: understanding dormancy loss and germination temperature requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex is a globally distributed genus with more than 2000 species worldwide and Carex species are the characteristic vegetation of sedge meadow wetlands. In the mid-continental United States, Carex species are dominant in natural freshwater wetlands yet are slow to recolonize hydrologically restored wetlands. To aid in\\u000a Carex revegetation efforts, we determined the dormancy breaking and temperature germination requirements of

Karin M. Kettenring; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2007-01-01

412

Anaerobic Dormancy Quantified in Artemia Embryos: A Calorimetric Test of the Control Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous measurement of heat dissipation from brine shrimp embryos during reversible transitions from aerobic development to anaerobic dormancy demonstrates a primary role for intracellular pH (pHi) in this metabolic switching. Artificially elevating the depressed pHi during anoxia by adding ammonia markedly reactivates metabolism, as judged by increases in heat dissipation, trehalose catabolism, and the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine

Steven C. Hand; Erich Gnaiger

1988-01-01

413

GAS EXCHANGE AND VENTILATION DURING DORMANCY IN THE TEGU LIZARD TUPINAMBIS MERIANAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae exhibits an episodic ventilatory pattern when dormant at 17 °C but a uniform ventilatory pattern when dormant at 25 °C. At 17 °C, ventilatory episodes were composed of 1-22 breaths interspaced by non-ventilatory periods lasting 1.8-26 min. Dormancy at the higher body temperature was accompanied by higher rates of O2 consumption and ventilation. The increase

DENIS VIEIRA DE ANDRADE; AUGUSTO SHINYA ABE

414

Gibberellin involvement in dormancy-break and germination of seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature-dependent, primary dormancy of cv. Florida 683 celery seeds in darkness was partially broken by a 30 min light exposure on the third day of incubation at 20–22°C, resulting in c 50 percent germination after 20 days. This light stimulation was negated by including different inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in the incubation medium. Subsequent addition of a solution of

Tudor H. Thomas

1989-01-01

415

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

416

Improvement of caper ( Capparis spinosa L.) seed germination by breaking seed coat-induced dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different dormancy-breaking pretreatments were assessed in order to improve germination of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) seeds. High germination percentages were obtained using concentrated sulfuric acid, followed by either a 90-min soaking procedure in a 100 ppm gibberellin (GA4 + 7) solution, or adding 0.2% potassium nitrate to the test substrate. Results obtained by means of a surgical treatment clearly suggest

Gabriel O. Sozzi; Angel Chiesa

1995-01-01

417

An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects  

SciTech Connect

The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects.

Grar, Nabila [DAC, Physics Department, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif, 19000 (Algeria); Rowley, Neil [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/Universite Louis Pasteur (UMR7500), 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

2006-08-14

418

Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures  

SciTech Connect

At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-10-23

419

Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 ×1 cm2 of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15×15 cm2 in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

Barrera-Rico, M.; López-Rendón, X.; Rivera-Ordóñez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.

2012-10-01

420

Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment.  

PubMed

The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals. PMID:15128561

Whittington, Richard J; Marshall, D Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J; Marsh, Ian B; Reddacliff, Leslie A

2004-05-01

421

Breaking seed dormancy in Hippophae salicifolia, a high value medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is an important limiting factor in exploitation of an economically important species to its fullest. Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (seabuckthorn), a rich source of medicinal metabolites shows both exogenous and endogenous dormancy. Evidently, we recorded a high seed viability (94 %) but poor germination (22 %) of untreated seeds. We applied different pre-sowing seed priming treatments including NaCl (50, 100, 200, 500 mM), KNO3 (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 %), Thiourea (1, 2, 3 %), GA3 (100, 250, 500 mg/L), Sulphuric acid (98 %) and cold (4 °C) and warm water (65 °C) stratifications to explore improvements in its germination percentage, if any. We found KNO3 (0.1 %) and Thiourea (1 %) treatments to be superior to other methods for enhancement of mean seed germination percentage of H. salicifolia. Considering the practical applicability and cost effectiveness, these treatments can be applied to overcome seed dormancy and recommended for mass multiplication through seeds of H. salicifolia. PMID:23573034

Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Pandey, Pankaj; Grover, Atul; Ahmed, Zakwan

2011-09-20

422

In silico discovery of the dormancy regulons in a number of Actinobacteria genomes  

SciTech Connect

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dangerous Actinobacteria infecting nearly one third of the human population. It becomes dormant and phenotypically drug resistant in response to stresses. An important feature of the M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is the prevalence of latent infection without disease, making understanding of the mechanisms used by the bacteria to exist in this state and to switch to metabolically active infectious form a vital problem to consider. M. tuberculosis dormancy is regulated by the three-component regulatory system of two kinases (DosT and DevS) and transcriprional regulator (DevR). DevR activates transcription of a set of genes, which allow the bacteria to survive long periods of anaerobiosis, and may be important for long-term survival within the host during latent infection. The DevR-regulon is studied experimentally in M. tuberculosis and few other phylogenetically close Mycobacteria spp. As many other two-component systems, the devRS operon is autoregulated. However, the mechanism of the dormancy is not completely clear even for these bacteria and there is no data describing the dormancy regulons in other species.

Gerasimova, Anna; Dubchak, Inna; Arkin, Adam; Gelfand, Mikhail

2010-11-16

423

Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy  

PubMed Central

Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism.

Martinez-Andujar, Cristina; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

424

Ethylene Production is Associated with Germination but not Seed Dormancy in Red Rice  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The relationship between ethylene production and both seed dormancy and germination was investigated using red rice (weedy rice) as a model species. Methods Both fully dormant and after-ripened (non-dormant) naked caryopses were incubated with or without inhibitors of ethylene synthesis [aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)] and perception [silver thiosulfate (STS)], or in the presence of the natural ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The kinetics of ethylene emissions were measured with a sensitive laser–photoacoustic system. Key Results Dormant red rice caryopses did not produce ethylene. In non-dormant caryopses, ethylene evolution never preceded the first visible stage of germination (pericarp splitting), and ethylene inhibitors completely blocked ethylene production, but not pericarp splitting. Accordingly, endogenous ACC appeared to be lacking before pericarp splitting. However, early seedling growth (radicle or coleoptile attaining the length of 1 mm) followed ethylene evolution and was delayed by the inhibitors. Wounding the dormant caryopses induced them to germinate and produce ethylene, but their germination was slow and pericarp splitting could be speeded up by ethylene. Conclusions The findings suggest that, in red rice, endogenous ethylene stimulates the growth of the nascent seedling, but does not affect seed dormancy or germination inception. Correspondingly, this phytohormone does not play a role in the dormancy breakage induced by wounding, but accelerates germination after such breakage has occurred.

Gianinetti, Alberto; Laarhoven, Lucas J. J.; Persijn, Stefan T.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Petruzzelli, Luciana

2007-01-01

425

Survival and Dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Environment  

PubMed Central

The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals.

Whittington, Richard J.; Marshall, D. Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Reddacliff, Leslie A.

2004-01-01

426

Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

2009-09-01

427

33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation...Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas....

2010-07-01

428

Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. Project BudBurst launched a pilot program in the Spring of 2007. The goals of Project BudBurst were to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From April through mid-June 2007, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of ~60 easily identifiable, broadly distributed wild and cultivated species found across the continent. We will report on the results of the pilot project and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst as it becomes a year round event beginning in 2008. A broad consortium of collaborators, representing the Chicago Botanic Garden, Plant Conservation Alliance, ESRI, the USA-National Phenology Network, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, University of Arizona, University of Montana, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, came together to design and implement Project BudBurst with seed funding from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the National Phenology Network (through a RCN grant from the NSF), and the Plant Conservation Alliance.

Henderson, S.; Brewer, C.; Havens, K.; Meymaris, K.

2007-12-01

429

Role of the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 in taste bud function.  

PubMed

Taste buds are unusual in requiring ATP as a transmitter to activate sensory nerve fibers. In response to taste stimuli, taste cells release ATP, activating purinergic receptors containing the P2X2 and P2X3 subunits on taste nerves. In turn, the released ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by a plasma membrane nucleoside triphosphate previously identified as nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2). In this paper we investigate the role of this ectonucleotidase in the function of taste buds by examining gene-targeted Entpd2-null mice globally lacking NTPDase2. RT-PCR confirmed the absence of NTPDase2, and ATPase enzyme histochemistry reveals no reaction product in taste buds of knockout mice, suggesting that NTPDase2 is the dominant form in taste buds. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that in knockout mice all cell types are present in taste buds, even those cells normally expressing NTPDase2. In addition, the overall number and size of taste buds are normal in Entpd2-null mice. Luciferin/luciferase assays of circumvallate tissue of knockout mice detected elevated levels of extracellular ATP. Electrophysiological recordings from two taste nerves, the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal, revealed depressed responses to all taste stimuli in Entpd2-null mice. Responses were more depressed in the glossopharyngeal nerve than in the chorda tympani nerve and involved all taste qualities; responses in the chorda tympani were more depressed to sweet and umami stimuli than to other qualities. We suggest that the excessive levels of extracellular ATP in the Entpd2-knockout animals desensitize the P2X receptors associated with nerve fibers, thereby depressing taste responses. PMID:23959882

Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Parnes, Jason; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

2013-08-19

430

Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago botanic Garden. Financial support has been received from the National Science Foundation, UCLA Center for Embedded network Sensors U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey , National Geographic Education Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and NASA.

Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

2010-12-01

431

Electrostatic Levitation of Plant Seeds and Flower Buds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the electrostatic levitation of various kinds of seeds and flower buds. Coral berry and pepper near a spherical shape show a stable levitation state. The prolate ellipsoid soybean and flower buds are always “standing" in the free space with satisfactory levitation stability. For the irregular mushroom and wheat grain, the levitation state is characterized as a “top-heavy" posture. These special stable equilibrium states are proved by the analysis of surface charge distribution. The obtained saturation polarization charge of samples presents a good accordance with experimental data. The levitation ability is weighed by the factor m(inr+2)/(inrD2).

Hu, Liang; Wang, Hai-Peng; Li, Liu-Hui; Wei, Bing-Bo

2012-06-01

432

Wax Ester Synthesis is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Enter In Vitro Dormancy  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is known to produce wax esters (WE) when subjected to stress. However, nothing is known about the enzymes involved in biosynthesis of WE and their role in mycobacterial dormancy. We report that two putative Mtb fatty acyl-CoA reductase genes (fcr) expressed in E. coli display catalytic reduction of fatty acyl-CoA to fatty aldehyde and fatty alcohol. Both enzymes (FCR1/Rv3391) and FCR2/Rv1543) showed a requirement for NADPH as the reductant, a preference for oleoyl-CoA over saturated fatty acyl-CoA and were inhibited by thiol-directed reagents. We generated Mtb gene-knockout mutants for each reductase. Metabolic incorporation of 14C-oleate into fatty alcohols and WE was severely diminished in the mutants under dormancy-inducing stress conditions that are thought to be encountered by the pathogen in the host. The fatty acyl-CoA reductase activity in cell lysates of the mutants under nitric oxide stress was significantly reduced when compared with the wild type. Complementation restored the lost activity completely in the ?fcr1 mutant and partially in the ?fcr2 mutant. WE synthesis was inhibited in both ?fcr mutants. The ?fcr mutants exhibited faster growth rates, an increased uptake of 14C-glycerol suggesting increased permeability of the cell wall, increased metabolic activity levels and impaired phenotypic antibiotic tolerance under dormancy-inducing combined multiple stress conditions. Complementation of the mutants did not restore the development of antibiotic tolerance to wild-type levels. Transcript analysis of ?fcr mutants showed upregulation of genes involved in energy generation and transcription, indicating the inability of the mutants to become dormant. Our results indicate that the fcr1 and fcr2 gene products are involved in WE synthesis under in vitro dormancy-inducing conditions and that WE play a critical role in reaching a dormant state. Drugs targeted against the Mtb reductases may inhibit its ability to go into dormancy and therefore increase susceptibility of Mtb to currently used antibiotics thereby enhancing clearance of the pathogen from patients.

Sirakova, Tatiana D.; Deb, Chirajyoti; Daniel, Jaiyanth; Singh, Harminder D.; Maamar, Hedia; Dubey, Vinod S.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.

2012-01-01

433

A Commentary on China's New Curriculum and the Programs to Design Subjects for the College Entrance Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designing and reforming the subjects on the College Entrance Examination, based on the new curriculum, are the focal point and also the most difficult aspect of entrance exam reform. The entrance exam subject programs instituted in more than ten "subject reform" regions in China, including the provinces of Shandong, Ningxia, Guangdong, Hainan,…

Wang, Houxiong

2013-01-01

434

Identification of cis-Elements That Regulate Gene Expression during Initiation of Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Arabidopsis[w  

PubMed Central

Growth regulation associated with dormancy is an essential element in plant life cycles. To reveal regulatory mechanisms of bud outgrowth, we analyzed transcriptomes of axillary shoots before and after main stem decapitation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We searched for any enriched motifs among the upstream regions of up-regulated and down-regulated genes after decapitation. The promoters of down-regulated genes were enriched for TTATCC motifs that resemble the sugar-repressive element, whereas the promoters of up-regulated genes were enriched for GGCCCAWW and AAACCCTA, designated Up1 and Up2, respectively. Transgenic plants harboring a reporter gene driven by a tandem repeat of the elements were produced to analyze their function in vivo. Sugar-repressive element-mediated gene expression was down-regulated by the application of sugars but was unaffected after decapitation. In contrast, expression driven by the repeat containing both Up1 and Up2 was up-regulated after decapitation, although the Up1 or Up2 repeat alone failed to induce reporter gene expression in axillary shoots. In addition, disruption of both Up1 and Up2 elements in a ribosomal protein gene abolished the decapitation-induced expression. Ontological analysis demonstrated that up-regulated genes with Up elements were disproportionately predicted to function in protein synthesis and cell cycle. Up1 is similar to an element known to be a potential target for TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCFs family) transcription factor(s), which regulate expression of cell cycle-related and ribosomal protein genes. Our data indicate that Up1-mediated transcription of protein synthesis and cell cycle genes is an important regulatory step during the initiation of axillary shoot outgrowth induced by decapitation.

Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Ward, Sally; Leyser, Ottoline; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji

2005-01-01

435

Activity-dormancy transition in the cambial meristem involves stage-specific modulation of auxin response in hybrid aspen.  

PubMed

The molecular basis of short-day-induced growth cessation and dormancy in the meristems of perennial plants (e.g., forest trees growing in temperate and high-latitude regions) is poorly understood. Using global transcript profiling, we show distinct stage-specific alterations in auxin responsiveness of the transcriptome in the stem tissues during short-day-induced growth cessation and both the transition to and establishment of dormancy in the cambial meristem of hybrid aspen trees. This stage-specific modulation of auxin signaling appears to be controlled via distinct mechanisms. Whereas the induction of growth cessation in the cambium could involve induction of repressor auxin response factors (ARFs) and down-regulation of activator ARFs, dormancy is associated with perturbation of the activity of the SKP-Cullin-F-box(TIR) (SCF(TIR)) complex, leading to potential stabilization of repressor auxin (AUX)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) proteins. Although the role of hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), in growth cessation and dormancy is well established, our data now implicate auxin in this process. Importantly, in contrast to most developmental processes in which regulation by auxin involves changes in cellular auxin contents, day-length-regulated induction of cambial growth cessation and dormancy involves changes in auxin responses rather than auxin content. PMID:21289280

Baba, Kyoko; Karlberg, Anna; Schmidt, Julien; Schrader, Jarmo; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Bako, Laszlo; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

2011-02-02

436

Barley mutants with low rates of endosperm starch synthesis have low grain dormancy and high susceptibility to preharvest sprouting.  

PubMed

• Studies of embryo dormancy in relation to preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals have focused on ABA and other hormones. The relationship between these phenomena and the rate of grain filling has not been investigated. • A collection of barley mutants impaired in starch synthesis was assessed for preharvest sprouting in the field. In subsequent glasshouse experiments, developing grains were assayed for germination index, sugars, abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects of temperature and exogenous ABA on germination. • Mutant lines displayed greater preharvest sprouting in the field than parental lines. In the glasshouse, nondeep physiological dormancy was reduced in developing grains of five lines with mutations affecting proteins involved in endosperm starch synthesis. Inhibition of germination by exogenous ABA and elevated temperature was decreased in developing mutant grains. Sugar concentrations were high but embryo and endosperm ABA contents were unaltered. • We reveal a direct connection between grain filling and the extent of grain dormancy. Impaired endosperm starch synthesis directly influences the acquisition of embryo dormancy, perhaps because endosperm sugar concentrations modulate the ABA responsiveness of the embryo. Thus environmental or genetic factors that reduce grain filling are likely to reduce dormancy and enhance susceptibility to PHS. PMID:22300545

Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Craggs, Alice; Mumford, Rachel; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Greenland, Andy; Smith, Alison M

2012-02-02

437

Coexpression of calcium signaling components in vertebrate taste bud cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling pathways common to the vertebrate gustatory systems, we have analyzed the expression of their molecular components. We first identified a phospholipase C (PLC) ? subtype expressed in the taste buds of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), designated DPLC?2, which is closely related to mammalian PLC?2 shown recently to be expressed in

Misaki Asano-Miyoshi; Keiko Abe; Yasufumi Emori

2000-01-01

438

Density and distribution of external taste buds in cyprinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The aim of the present qualitative and quantitative study was to survey the density and distribution of external taste buds (TB) in 10 common European cyprinid species. TB pores were stained with silver nitrate and counted in 7 sample areas on the body and 3 on the fins. TB densities decrease from rostral to caudal and from ventral to

Andreas Gomahr; Margit Palzenberger; Kurt Kotrschal

1992-01-01

439

FGF Induces New Feather Buds From Developing Avian Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of skin appendages involves a cascade of molecular events. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of peptide growth factors is involved in cell proliferation and morphogenesis. We explored the role of the FGFs during skin appendage induction using developing chicken feather buds as a model. FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 was added directly to the culture medium or was released

Randall B. Widelitz; Ting-Xin Jiang; Alexander Noveen; Chia-Wei Janet Chen; Cheng-Ming Chuong

1996-01-01

440

ESCRT-III Protein Requirements for HIV-1 Budding  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Two early-acting components of the cellular ESCRT pathway, ESCRT-I and ALIX, participate directly in HIV-1 budding. The membrane fission activities of ESCRT-III subunits are also presumably required, but humans express 11 different CHMP/ESCRT-III proteins whose functional contributions are not yet clear. We therefore depleted cells of each of the different CHMP proteins and protein families, and examined the effects on HIV-1 budding. Virus release was profoundly inhibited by co-depletion of either CHMP2 or CHMP4 family members, resulting in ?100-fold titer reductions. CHMP2A and CHMP4B proteins bound one another and this interaction was required for budding. By contrast, virus release was reduced only modestly by depletion of CHMP3 and CHMP1 proteins (2-8-fold titer reductions) and was unaffected by depletion of other human ESCRT-III proteins. HIV-1 budding therefore requires only a subset of the known human ESCRT-III proteins, with the CHMP2 and CHMP4 families playing key functional roles.

Morita, Eiji; Sandrin, Virginie; McCullough, John; Katsuyama, Angela; Hamilton, Ira Baci; Sundquist, Wesley I.

2011-01-01

441

Nuclear Envelope Fission Is Linked to Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the relationship between nuclear envelope fission and cytokinesis during mitotic cell division in budding yeast. By carrying out time-lapse and optical sectioning video microscopy analysis of cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged nuclear envelope and actomyosin ring components, we found that nuclear division is temporally coupled to cytokinesis. Light and electron microscopy analysis also showed that

John Lippincott; Rong Li

2000-01-01

442

Cryo Electron Tomography of Native HIV-1 Budding Sites  

PubMed Central

The structure of immature and mature HIV-1 particles has been analyzed in detail by cryo electron microscopy, while no such studies have been reported for cellular HIV-1 budding sites. Here, we established a system for studying HIV-1 virus-like particle assembly and release by cryo electron tomography of intact human cells. The lattice of the structural Gag protein in budding sites was indistinguishable from that of the released immature virion, suggesting that its organization is determined at the assembly site without major subsequent rearrangements. Besides the immature lattice, a previously not described Gag lattice was detected in some budding sites and released particles; this lattice was found at high frequencies in a subset of infected T-cells. It displays the same hexagonal symmetry and spacing in the MA-CA layer as the immature lattice, but lacks density corresponding to NC-RNA-p6. Buds and released particles carrying this lattice consistently lacked the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, suggesting that they correspond to aberrant products due to premature proteolytic activation. We hypothesize that cellular and/or viral factors normally control the onset of proteolytic maturation during assembly and release, and that this control has been lost in a subset of infected T-cells leading to formation of aberrant particles.

Carlson, Lars-Anders; de Marco, Alex; Oberwinkler, Heike; Habermann, Anja; Briggs, John A. G.; Krausslich, Hans-Georg; Grunewald, Kay

2010-01-01

443

The septin cortex at the yeast mother–bud neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specialized cortical domain is organized by the septins at the necks of budding yeast cells. Recent findings suggest that this domain serves as a diffusion barrier and also as a local cell-shape sensor. We review these findings along with what is known about the organization of the septin cortex and its regulation during the cell cycle.

Amy S Gladfelter; John R Pringle; Daniel J Lew

2001-01-01

444

New secoiridoid glycosides from the buds of Lonicera macranthoides.  

PubMed

Two new secoiridoid glycosides, named ethyl secologanoside (1) and 6'-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl demethylsecologanol (2), together with three known ones, secologanoside (3), secoxyloganin (4), and loniceroside (5), were isolated from the dried buds of Lonicera macranthoides. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and acidic hydrolysis. PMID:23413549

Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xingfu

2012-12-01

445

Glucosinolates from flower buds of Portuguese Brassica crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of green flower buds from Portuguese cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. tronchuda) and Portuguese kale (B. oleracea var. acephala) and B. rapa var. rapa were obtained from a local market and analysed for individual and total glucosinolate composition. In the B. oleracea types, the major glucosinolates were 2-propenyl-, 3-methylsulphinylpropyl- and indol-3-ylmethyl-, which accounted for an average of 35, 25 and

Eduardo A. S. Rosa

1997-01-01

446

At the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It might now seem obvious that the mechanisms regulating cell division would be found to be a highly conserved feature of eukaryotic cells. This was less clear 20 years ago when the pioneering genetic studies of the cell cycle were initiated. This article presents one view as to what lies at the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle. It

Kim Nasmyth

1996-01-01

447

Distribution and Innervation of Taste Buds in the Axolotl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult axolotls have approximately 1,400 taste buds in the epithelium of the pharyngeal roof and floor and the medial surfaces of the visceral bars. These receptors are most dense on the lingual surfaces of the upper and lower jaws, slightly less dense throughout lateral portions of the pharyngeal roof and floor, and more sparse within medial portions of the pharyngeal

R. Glenn Northcutt; Linda A. Barlow; Christopher B. Braun; Kenneth C. Catania

2000-01-01

448

Budding Yeast Chromosome Structure and Dynamics during Mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using green fluorescent protein probes and rapid acquisition of high-resolution fluorescence images, sister centromeres in budding yeast are found to be separated and oscillate between spindle poles before anaphase B spindle elongation. The rates of movement during these oscillations are similar to those of microtu- bule plus end dynamics. The degree of preanaphase sep- aration varies widely, with infrequent centromere

Chad G. Pearson; Paul S. Maddox; E. D. Salmon; Kerry Bloom

2001-01-01

449

Interview with Bud Selig by Andrea L’Hommedieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biographical NoteAllan Huber “Bud” Selig was born on July 30, 1934, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His father, Ben, was a businessman and his mother, Marie, taught school; they were both immigrants from Romania and the Ukraine, respectively. His mother instilled in him a love of baseball at a young age. He attended the University of Wisconsin and became president of the

Allan Bud H Selig

2010-01-01

450

Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFbeta, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

Davies, J

2001-03-01

451

Chromosome condensation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a fluorescent in situ hy- bridization (FISH) method to examine the structure of both natural chromosomes and small artificial chromo- somes during the mitotic cycle of budding yeast. Our results suggest that the pairing of sister chromatids: (a) occurs near the centromere and at multiple places along the chromosome arm as has been observed in other eukaryotic

Vincent Guacci; Eileen Hogan; Douglas Koshland

1994-01-01

452

Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

2008-01-01

453

Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, University of Montana in collaboration with the USA -National Phenology Network and with financial support from U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey, NEON, and the Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

2008-12-01

454

Immunohistochemical distribution of CD44 and some of its isoforms during human taste bud development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste buds are accumulations of elongated bipolar cells situated on lingual papillae. The factors that determine the sites\\u000a where a taste bud may develop are largely obscure, although it is known that the early invasion of nerve fibers plays one\\u000a of the key roles in taste bud development and maturation. The conditions under which taste bud primordium cells develop are

M. Witt; Michael Kasper

1998-01-01

455

Investigation of the taste buds of the frog tongue by luminescence microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special dumbbell-shaped cells of unknown nature, rich in catecholamines and giving a specific yellowish-green luminescence, were found inside the taste buds. The taste buds responded differently to preliminary (24 h before taking the material) injection of reserpine (0.25 mg). In some taste buds the dumbbell cells lost their property of specific luminescence and became invisible. In othertaste buds the intensity

M. A. Savushkina; E. M. Krokhina; A. I. Esakov

1974-01-01

456

Induction of budding on chloronemata and caulonemata of the moss, Physcomitrella patens , using isopentenyladenine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-inducing effect of the cytokinin N6-(?2-isopentenyl)-adenine (i6-Ade) was examined in the moss Physcomitrella patens growing in liquid culture. Under these conditions, buds could be induced on chloronemata as well as on caulonemata. By application of i6-Ade, bud-formation was accelerated in both types of tissue. The number of buds, their size and their site of development were dependent on the

R. Reski; W. O. Abel

1985-01-01

457

UNUSED 1950S GUARD SHACK WITH SEGREGATED ENTRANCES SITTING IN FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UNUSED 1950S GUARD SHACK WITH SEGREGATED ENTRANCES SITTING IN FRONT OF 'Y' BUILDING THAT WAS CONSTRUCTED OUTSIDE OF THE THEN FENCED AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

458

The atypical entrance wound: differential diagnosis and discussion of an unusual cause.  

PubMed

The appearance of gunshot entrance wounds on the body depends upon many factors including, the type of firearm, the type of ammunition, the location of the wound on the body, and the circumstances of how a wound was sustained. Atypical gunshot entrance wounds are usually created when the bullet is destabilized prior to entering the body and consequently does not enter the body nose first but sideways or at an angle. The most common causes of an atypical entrance wound are bullet ricochet and interaction with an intermediate target. A case is presented in which the decedent sustained a gunshot wound with an atypical entrance. The cause of the atypical nature of the wound was determined to be increased yaw due to bullet instability caused by the condition of the firearm used, not a ricochet or intermediate target. The case emphasizes the importance of collaborative investigation between the different forensic agencies in gunshot cases. PMID:23066534

Molina, D Kimberley; Rulon, Jennifer J; Wallace, Edward I

2012-09-01

459

East and West Elevations and Entrance Details U.S. Veterans ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East and West Elevations and Entrance Details - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

460

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION WITH THREE ENTRANCES TO FORMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION WITH THREE ENTRANCES TO FORMER COMPANY MEAT, GROCERY AND DRY GOODS OPERATIONS. - Mulga Commisary, Off AL 269 at I 20-59, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

461

Boundary conditions for plasma fluid models at the magnetic presheath entrance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proper boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance for plasma fluid turbulence models based on the drift approximation are derived, focusing on a weakly collisional plasma sheath with Ti<entrance is rigorously derived. Then boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance are analytically deduced for v||i, v||e, n, ?, Te, and for the vorticity ?=??2?. The effects of E × B and diamagnetic drifts on the boundary conditions are also investigated. Kinetic simulations are performed that confirm the analytical results. Finally, the new set of boundary conditions is implemented in a three-dimensional global fluid code for the simulation of plasma turbulence and, as an example, the results of a tokamak scrape-off layer simulation are discussed. The framework presented can be generalized to obtain boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance in more complex scenarios.

Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Halpern, F. D.; Jolliet, S.

2012-12-01

462

8. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE WITH FLANKING ROUND TOWERS TO A.O.H. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE WITH FLANKING ROUND TOWERS TO A.O.H. HALL, EAST SIDE - Anaconda Historic District, Ancient Order of Hibernians Hall, 321-323 East Commercial Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

463

10. DETAIL, WEST ENTRANCE (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x 23/4 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, WEST ENTRANCE (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

464

The Time Required for Dormancy Release in Arabidopsis Is Determined by DELAY OF GERMINATION1 Protein Levels in Freshly Harvested Seeds[OA  

PubMed Central

Seed dormancy controls the start of a plant’s life cycle by preventing germination of a viable seed in an unfavorable season. Freshly harvested seeds usually show a high level of dormancy, which is gradually released during dry storage (after-ripening). Abscisic acid (ABA) has been identified as an essential factor for the induction of dormancy, whereas gibberellins (GAs) are required for germination. The molecular mechanisms controlling seed dormancy are not well understood. DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) was recently identified as a major regulator of dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the DOG1 protein accumulates during seed maturation and remains stable throughout seed storage and imbibition. The levels of DOG1 protein in freshly harvested seeds highly correlate with dormancy. The DOG1 protein becomes modified during after-ripening, and its levels in stored seeds do not correlate with germination potential. Although ABA levels in dog1 mutants are reduced and GA levels enhanced, we show that DOG1 does not regulate dormancy primarily via changes in hormone levels. We propose that DOG1 protein abundance in freshly harvested seeds acts as a timer for seed dormancy release, which functions largely independent from ABA.

Nakabayashi, Kazumi; Bartsch, Melanie; Xiang, Yong; Miatton, Emma; Pellengahr, Silke; Yano, Ryoichi; Seo, Mitsunori; Soppe, Wim J.J.

2012-01-01

465

The Arabidopsis thaliana aleurone layer responds to nitric oxide, gibberellin, and abscisic acid and is sufficient and necessary for seed dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle and several parts of the seed can contribute to dormancy. Whole seeds, seeds lacking the testa, embryos, and isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis thaliana were used in experiments designed to identify components of the arabidopsis seed that ...

466

Association between seed dormancy and pericarp color is controlled by a pleiotropic gene that regulates abscisic acid and flavonoid synthesis in weedy red rice.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy has been associated with red grain color in cereal crops for a century. The association was linked to qSD7-1/qPC7, a cluster of quantitative trait loci for seed dormancy/pericarp color in weedy red rice. This research delimited qSD7-1/qPC7 to the Os07g11020 or Rc locus encoding a basic helix-loop-helix family transcription factor by intragenic recombinants and provided unambiguous evidence that the association arises from pleiotropy. The pleiotropic gene expressed in early developing seeds promoted expression of key genes for biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), resulting in an increase in accumulation of the dormancy-inducing hormone; activated a conserved network of eight genes for flavonoid biosynthesis to produce the pigments in the lower epidermal cells of the pericarp tissue; and enhanced seed weight. Thus, the pleiotropic locus most likely controls the dormancy and pigment traits by regulating ABA and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, respectively. The dormancy effect could be eliminated by a heat treatment, but could not be completely overcome by gibberellic acid or physical removal of the seed maternal tissues. The dormancy-enhancing alleles differentiated into two groups basically associated with tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice. Of the pleiotropic effects, seed dormancy could contribute most to the weed adaptation. Pleiotropy prevents the use of the dormancy gene to improve resistance of white pericarp cultivars against pre-harvest sprouting through conventional breeding approaches. PMID:21954164

Gu, Xing-You; Foley, Michael E; Horvath, David P; Anderson, James V; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Mowry, Chase R; Ye, Heng; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Chen, Zongxiang

2011-09-27

467

Changes in endogenous abscisic acid levels during dormancy release and maintenance of mature seeds: studies with the Cape Verde Islands ecotype, the dormant model of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature seeds of the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. show a very marked dormancy. Dormant (D) seeds completely fail to germinate in conditions that are favourable for germination whereas non-dormant (ND) seeds germinate easily. Cvi seed dormancy is alleviated by after-ripening, stratification, and also by nitrate or fluridone treatment. Addition of gibberellins to D seeds

Sonia Ali-Rachedi; Denise Bouinot; Marie-Hélène Wagner; Magda Bonnet; Bruno Sotta; Philippe Grappin; Marc Jullien

2004-01-01

468

Effects of different bud loading levels on the yield, leaf and fruit characteristics of Hayward kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different levels of bud loading on the yield and some leaf and fruit characteristics in Hayward cultivar (A. deliciosa) in the province of Ordu, Turkey were examined during two growing seasons in 2000-2001. Six years old kiwifruit vines were pruned to carry the loads of 120, 180, 240 or 300 buds\\/vine on the canes with 12 buds.

R. CANGI; D. A. ATALAY

2006-01-01

469

Shoot Bud Proliferation from Axillary Nodes and Leaf Sections of Non-toxic Jatropha curcas L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for in vitro propagation of non-toxic variety of J. curcas through axillary bud proliferation and direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration from leaf segments have been established. Shoot bud proliferation from axillaries was assessed on an initial basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) salt medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), kinetin and thidiazuron (TDZ) followed by subculture to medium

M. Sujatha; H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker

2005-01-01

470

Mechanisms for enveloped virus budding: Can some viruses do without an ESCRT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. Some viruses encode “late” (L) domain motifs that are able to hijack host proteins involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway, a cellular budding process that gives rise to multivesicular bodies and that is topologically equivalent to virus budding. Although many enveloped viruses

Benjamin J. Chen; Robert A. Lamb

2008-01-01

471

Rhabdoviruses and the Cellular Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: a Budding Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix (M) proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RV) play a key role in both assembly and budding of progeny virions. A PPPY motif (PY motif or late-budding domain) is conserved in the M proteins of VSV and RV. These PY motifs are important for virus budding and for mediating interactions with specific cellular proteins containing

RONALD N. HARTY; MELISSA E. BROWN; JAMES P. MCGETTIGAN; GUANGLI WANG; HIMANGI R. JAYAKAR; JON M. HUIBREGTSE; MICHAEL A. WHITT; MATTHIAS J. SCHNELL

2001-01-01

472

Influence of temperature on bud break, shoot growth, flower bud atrophy and winter production of glasshouse roses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature in the range 15-22 °C on growth, production, quality and flower bud atrophy ('blindness') of the rose cultivars Sweet Promise and Varlon was studied. The roses were grown in Dutch glasshouse soil under natural light conditions and studied from October until May during 7 successive years. The influence of the distribution of the air temperature between

Berg van den G. A

1987-01-01

473