Sample records for bud dormancy entrance

  1. Bud Dormancy and Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all land plants produce ancillary meristems in the form of axillary or adventitious buds in addition to the shoot apical meristem. Outgrowth of these buds has a significant impact on plant architecture and the ability of plants to compete with neighboring plants, as well as to respond to and ...

  2. Polyamine levels in buds and twigs of Tilia cordata from dormancy onset to bud break

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arja Santanen; Liisa Kaarina Simola

    2007-01-01

    The fluctuations of free and bound polyamines (PAs) were studied in vegetative buds and underlying twigs of linden (Tilia cordata L.) from August to May, to assess the connection between PA levels and seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy. Outer and inner\\u000a bud scales and shoot tips (short shoot tips with leaf initials in contiguous short internodes) were analyzed separately,

  3. Grape Bud Dormancy Release ? The Molecular Aspect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grapevine is a woody temperate-zone perennial. As such, it presents a period of active growth from spring to fall, followed\\u000a by a rest period in the winter. Soon after bud burst in the spring, a complex bud is formed within the axil of each leaf on\\u000a the young shoot. In the prophyll of the prompt bud, which may burst within

  4. Transcriptome analysis of chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree buds suggests a putative role for epigenetic control of bud dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, María Estrella; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, María Jesús; Toorop, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent papers indicated that epigenetic control is involved in transitions in bud dormancy, purportedly controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and non-dormant Castanea sativa buds. Methods Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed to characterize the transcriptomes of dormant apical buds of C. sativa, and buds in which dormancy was released. Key Results A total of 512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated in a forward and reverse subtractive hybridization experiment. Classification of these ESTs into functional groups demonstrated that dormant buds were predominantly characterized by genes associated with stress response, while non-dormant buds were characterized by genes associated with energy, protein synthesis and cellular components for development and growth. ESTs for a few genes involved in different forms of epigenetic modification were found in both libraries, suggesting a role for epigenetic control in bud dormancy different from that in growth. Genes encoding histone mono-ubiquitinase HUB2 and histone acetyltransferase GCN5L were associated with dormancy, while a gene encoding histone H3 kinase AUR3 was associated with growth. Real-time RT-PCR with a selection of genes involved in epigenetic modification and stress tolerance confirmed the expression of the majority of investigated genes in various stages of bud development, revealing a cyclical expression pattern concurring with the growth seasons for most genes. However, senescing leaves also showed an increased expression of several of the genes associated with dormancy, implying pleiotropy. Furthermore, a comparison between these subtraction cDNA libraries and the poplar bud dormancy transcriptome and arabidopsis transcriptomes for seed dormancy and non-dormancy indicated a common basis for dormancy in all three systems. Conclusions Bud dormancy and non-dormancy in C. sativa were characterized by distinct sets of genes and are likely to be under different epigenetic control. PMID:21803738

  5. Epicormic buds in trees: a review of bud establishment, development and dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Meier, Andrew R; Saunders, Michael R; Michler, Charles H

    2012-05-01

    The formation of epicormic sprouts on the boles of trees is a phenomenon that has, until recently, been poorly understood. Renewed interest in the topic in the last two decades has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the subject, especially in regard to bud anatomy, morphology and ontogeny. There exists, however, no comprehensive synthesis of results from different disciplines across genera and geographical areas; this review seeks to fill that void and provide a comprehensive framework capable of guiding future research. A tree's potential for producing epicormic branches is dependent on the number of buds that are produced on a growing shoot, the development of those buds and associated meristems over time and the factors that promote sprout formation or bud death. Based on the descriptions of a limited number of researched species, we were able to describe four different developmental strategies for epicormics based on characteristics of meristem development. Control over epicormic bud dormancy is complex, but it is clear that the traditional view of auxin-mediated dormancy release is incomplete. Genetic control over epicormic development is yet to be empirically proven. Future research should focus on clarifying these physiological and genetic controls of epicormic bud development as well as developing more robust methods for tracking epicormics in ecological and silvicultural studies. PMID:22555307

  6. Gene expression during the induction, maintenance, and release of dormancy in apical buds of poplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Rohde; Tom Ruttink; Vanessa Hostyn; Lieven Sterck; Klara Van Driessche; Wout Boerjan

    2007-01-01

    The perennial lifestyle of trees is characterized by seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy. The recur- rent transitions into and out of dormancy represent an adaptation mechanism that largely determines survival and, hence, the geographical distribution of tree spe- cies. To understand better the molecular basis of bud dormancy, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymor- phism (AFLP) transcript profiling was used to

  7. Dormancy in grape buds: isolation and characterization of catalase cDNA and analysis of its expression following chemical induction of bud dormancy release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etti; Iris Vilozny; Anne Fennell; Yoram Eyal; Aliza Ogrodovitch

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism by which hydrogen cyanamide (HC) exerts its dormancy-breaking effect is not clear, but it has been shown to inactivate catalase in grape buds shortly after its application. Recently, we showed that some potential components in the process leading to dormancy release are induced at the level of gene expression following application of HC. Therefore, we inquired whether changes

  8. Physiological correlations and bud dormancy in the apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Physiological correlations and bud dormancy in the apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) O. Bailly J Introduction During their autumn rest period, terminal and axillary buds of apple trees exhibit dif- ferent behaviours: the terminal bud is always much more dormant than the axil- lary ones so that one can wonder

  9. A Molecular Timetable for Apical Bud Formation and Dormancy Induction in Poplar[W

    PubMed Central

    Ruttink, Tom; Arend, Matthias; Morreel, Kris; Storme, Véronique; Rombauts, Stephane; Fromm, Jörg; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Boerjan, Wout; Rohde, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The growth of perennial plants in the temperate zone alternates with periods of dormancy that are typically initiated during bud development in autumn. In a systems biology approach to unravel the underlying molecular program of apical bud development in poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), combined transcript and metabolite profiling were applied to a high-resolution time course from short-day induction to complete dormancy. Metabolite and gene expression dynamics were used to reconstruct the temporal sequence of events during bud development. Importantly, bud development could be dissected into bud formation, acclimation to dehydration and cold, and dormancy. To each of these processes, specific sets of regulatory and marker genes and metabolites are associated and provide a reference frame for future functional studies. Light, ethylene, and abscisic acid signal transduction pathways consecutively control bud development by setting, modifying, or terminating these processes. Ethylene signal transduction is positioned temporally between light and abscisic acid signals and is putatively activated by transiently low hexose pools. The timing and place of cell proliferation arrest (related to dormancy) and of the accumulation of storage compounds (related to acclimation processes) were established within the bud by electron microscopy. Finally, the identification of a large set of genes commonly expressed during the growth-to-dormancy transitions in poplar apical buds, cambium, or Arabidopsis thaliana seeds suggests parallels in the underlying molecular mechanisms in different plant organs. PMID:17693531

  10. [Transcriptional levels of AQPs genes in peach floral buds during dormancy].

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Tan, Yue; Wang, Hui; Leng, Chuan-Yuan; Li, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Taking the floral buds of 10 years old field-cultivated and 3 years old potted nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarine cv. Shuguang) as test materials, and by the method of real-time quantitative PCR, this paper studied the expressions of the AQPs genes deltaTIP1 and PIP1; 1 during dormancy and dormancy-release (September 15, 2009-January 15, 2010) and the transcriptional levels of the genes under low temperature stress. Within the period of dormancy and dormancy-release, the transcriptional level of PIP1; 1 presented a persistent increasing trend, and the high level expression of PIP1; 1 in January could be related to the efflux of water through cytoplasma membrane and vacuolar membrane, which protected the bud cells from ice crystal injuries. The contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and proline in the bud cells all peaked in January, which prevented the excessive water loss from the cells. After 2 weeks of low temperature treatment, the PIP1; 1 had a high level expression, indicating that it was a cold-induced gene. The transcriptional level of deltaTIP1 fluctuated during dormancy, and increased significantly during dormancy-release, which might be induced by the dormancy-release signals in buds and the resumption of plant activity. After 2 weeks of low temperature treatment, the expression level of deltaTIP1 had no increase, indicating that deltaTIP1 was not a cold-induced gene. PMID:22303661

  11. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH IN THE FIGHT AGAINST LEAFY SPURGE – BUD DORMANCY AND GROWTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a noxious perennial weed that spreads by both seed dispersal and vegetative propagation from underground root buds. Dormancy in seeds and underground root buds is the reason many weeds, including leafy spurge, can escape current control measures. Fundamental researc...

  12. A Molecular Timetable for Apical Bud Formation and Dormancy Induction in Poplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Ruttink; Matthias Arend; Kris Morreel; Veronique Storme; Stephane Rombauts; Jorg Fromm; Rishikesh P. Bhalerao; Wout Boerjan; A. Rohde

    2007-01-01

    The growth of perennial plants in the temperate zone alternates with periods of dormancy that are typically initiated during bud development in autumn. In a systems biology approach to unravel the underlying molecular program of apical bud development in poplar (Populus tremula 3 Populus alba), combined transcript and metabolite profiling were applied to a high-resolution time course from short-day induction

  13. Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) T. Suzuki acrotonic form, in which only a few upper buds grow out to form branches (Suzuki et al., 1988). In contrast, the majority of the buds of 1 yr old stems, including the basal buds, burst into growth almost simultaneously

  14. Similar mechanisms might be triggered by alternative external stimuli that induce dormancy release in grape buds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Halaly; Xuequn Pang; Tamar Batikoff; Omer Crane; Alexandra Keren; Jaganatha Venkateswari; Aliza Ogrodovitch; Avi Sadka; Shimon Lavee; Etti

    2008-01-01

    The detection of genes having similar expression profiles following the application of different stimuli that trigger bud\\u000a break may constitute potent tools for the identification of pathways with a central role in dormancy release. We compared\\u000a the effects of heat shock (HS) and hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and demonstrated that HS leads to earlier and higher bud-break\\u000a levels. Changes in transcript

  15. Candidate genes associated with bud dormancy release in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E Hedley; Joanne R Russell; Linzi Jorgensen; Sandra Gordon; Jenny A Morris; Christine A Hackett; Linda Cardle; Rex Brennan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of mild winter temperatures on the consistency of cropping of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) in parts of Europe have led to increasing interest in the genetic control of dormancy release in this species. This study examined patterns of gene expression in leaf buds of blackcurrant to identify key differential changes in these profiles around the time

  16. Comparative temporal analyses of the Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica litv. apical bud proteome from dormancy to growth.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ying-Dong; Wei, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhuo; Lu, Tian-Cong; Cheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Bai-Chen; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants adapts to environmental and seasonal changes. Bud dormancy is of ecological interest because it affects forest population growth characteristics and is of economical interest because it impacts wood production levels. To understand Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica litv. bud-dormancy and bud-burst mechanisms, we characterized the proteomes of their apical buds at the four critical stages that occur during the dormancy-to-growth transition. Ninety-six proteins with altered expression patterns were identified using NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. The majority of these proteins (57%) are involved in metabolic and other cellular processes. For 28% of the proteins, a function could not be assigned. However, because their expression levels changed, they may be potential candidate bud development- or dormancy-related proteins. Of the 75 non-redundant bud proteins identified, ascorbate peroxidase, pathogenesis-related protein PR-10, and heat shock proteins dramatically increased during August and November, suggesting that they may involved in the initiation of bud dormancy. Conversely, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, abscisic acid/stress-induced proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, actin, and type IIIa membrane protein cp-wap13 had greater expression levels during April, suggesting that they may be involved in the initiation of bud dormancy-release. Cell division cycle protein 48 and eukaryotic initiation factors 4A-15 and 4A had greater expression levels during May, suggesting that they may regulate cell proliferate and differentiation in the shoot apical meristem. These observations provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that induce or break bud dormancy. PMID:20373030

  17. Similar mechanisms might be triggered by alternative external stimuli that induce dormancy release in grape buds.

    PubMed

    Halaly, Tamar; Pang, Xuequn; Batikoff, Tamar; Crane, Omer; Keren, Alexandra; Venkateswari, Jaganatha; Ogrodovitch, Aliza; Sadka, Avi; Lavee, Shimon; Or, Etti

    2008-06-01

    The detection of genes having similar expression profiles following the application of different stimuli that trigger bud break may constitute potent tools for the identification of pathways with a central role in dormancy release. We compared the effects of heat shock (HS) and hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and demonstrated that HS leads to earlier and higher bud-break levels. Changes in transcript levels of catalase, alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase were induced following both treatments. However, timing and extent of changes in transcript level differed. Changes occurred earlier in HS-treated buds and were more intense in HC-treated buds. The changes in transcript levels after both treatments were temporary. The rapid and short-lasting changes in gene expression following HS treatment correlated with the faster and higher level of bud-break that this treatment exerted. This correlation may propose that the reported molecular events are mechanistically involved in dormancy release. To test the hypothesis that temporary oxidative stress is part of the mechanism inducing dormancy release, we analyzed the effect of HS and HC treatments on the expression of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin h, glutathione S-transferase and sucrose synthase genes and found that they were induced by both treatments in a similar pattern. Taken together, these findings propose that similar cellular processes might be triggered by different stimuli that lead to dormancy release, and are consistent with the hypothesis that temporary oxidative stress and respiratory stress might be part of the mechanism that leads to bud break. PMID:18324412

  18. Molecular analysis of signals controlling dormancy and growth in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge.

    PubMed

    Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Anderson, James V

    2002-04-01

    Dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical physiological process for many perennial plants. We have used the expression of hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In conjunction with earlier studies, we show that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. Gibberellin is sufficient for induction of S phase-specific but not M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of both apical and axillary buds or inhibition of polar auxin transport did not result in induction of S phase- or M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of polar auxin transport was necessary for continuation of the cell cycle and further bud development if the S phase was previously initiated. PMID:11950992

  19. Low temperatures impact dormancy status, flowering competence, and transcript profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge.

    PubMed

    Do?ramaci, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Foley, Michael E; Christoffers, Michael J; Anderson, James V

    2010-05-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that produces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study, we report the effects of different environmental conditions on vegetative production and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms associated with dormancy transitions under controlled conditions. Reduction in temperature (27-10 degrees C) and photoperiod (16-8 h) over a 3-month period induced a para- to endo-dormant transition in crown buds. An additional 11 weeks of cold (5-7 degrees C) and short-photoperiod resulted in accelerated shoot growth from crown buds, and 99% floral competence when plants were returned to growth-promoting conditions. Exposure of paradormant plants to short-photoperiod and prolonged cold treatment alone had minimal affect on growth potential and resulted in ~1% flowering. Likewise, endodormant crown buds without prolonged cold treatment displayed delayed shoot growth and ~2% flowering when returned to growth-promoting conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 373 and 260 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.005) during para- to endo-dormant and endo- to eco-dormant transitions, respectively. Transcripts from flower competent vs. non-flower competent crown buds identified 607 differentially expressed genes. Further, sub-network analysis identified expression targets and binding partners associated with circadian clock, dehydration/cold signaling, phosphorylation cascades, and response to abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellic acid, and jasmonic acid, suggesting these central regulators affect well-defined phases of dormancy and flowering. Potential genetic pathways associated with these dormancy transitions and flowering were used to develop a proposed conceptual model. PMID:20340040

  20. Seasonal shifts in dormancy status, carbohydrate metabolism, and related gene expression in crown buds of leafy spurge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES V. ANDERSON; RUSS W. GESCH; YING JIA; WUN S. CHAO; DAVID P. HORVATH

    2005-01-01

    Crown buds of field-grown leafy spurge ( Euphorbia esula L.) were examined to determine relationships between car- bohydrate metabolism and gene expression throughout para-, endo-, and eco-dormancy during the transition from summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The data indi- cates that endo-dormancy plays a role in preventing new shoot growth during the transition from autumn to winter. Cold temperature was

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length?=?853 bp), including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species. PMID:23234335

  2. On the mechanism of dormancy release in grapevine buds: a comparative study between hydrogen cyanamide and sodium azide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Pérez; Ricardo Vergara; Etti

    2009-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3), a well-known inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, stimulated bud-dormancy release in grapevines similar to hydrogen\\u000a cyanamide (HC), while HC, a well-known dormancy release agent, inhibited the O2 uptake in isolated grape bud mitochondria similarly to NaN3. Additionally, both chemicals induced transcript expression of the antioxidative enzyme glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase\\u000a (G6PD), therefore upregulated the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AGC) and

  3. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.) CROWN BUDS DURING SHIFTS IN WELL-DEFINED PHASES OF DORMANCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray analysis was used to follow changes in gene expression coinciding with seasonal changes in the dormancy status of crown buds of field-grown leafy spurge. Known cold-regulated genes were induced and numerous GA-responsive genes were down-regulated during the transition from paradormancy to...

  4. Vernalization and the chilling requirement to exit bud dormancy: shared or separate regulation?

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Amy M.; Evans, Luke M.; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Similarities have long been recognized between vernalization, the prolonged exposure to cold temperatures that promotes the floral transition in many plants, and the chilling requirement to release bud dormancy in woody plants of temperate climates. In both cases the extended chilling period occurring during winter is used to coordinate developmental events to the appropriate seasonal time. However, whether or not these processes share common regulatory components and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both gene function and association genetics studies in Populus are beginning to answer this question. In Populus, studies have revealed that orthologs of the antagonistic flowering time genes FT and CEN/TFL1 might have central roles in both processes. We review Populus seasonal shoot development related to dormancy release and the floral transition and evidence for FT/TFL1-mediated regulation of these processes to consider the question of regulatory overlap. In addition, we discuss the potential for and challenges to integrating functional and population genomics studies to uncover the regulatory mechanisms underpinning these processes in woody plant systems. PMID:25566302

  5. Changes in the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during three phases of bud dormancy in leafy spurge.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wun S; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2010-05-01

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. In this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by decapitation and in response to seasonal signals. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of carbohydrate metabolism genes at different phases of bud dormancy. Among differentially-regulated genes, expression of a specific Euphorbia esula beta-amylase gene (Ee-BAM1) increased 100-fold after growth induction and 16,000-fold from July (paradormancy) to December (ecodormancy). Sequence data analysis indicated that two genes, Ee-BAM1 and Ee-BAM2, could encode this beta-amylase. However, real-time PCR using gene-specific primer pairs only amplified Ee-BAM1, indicating that Ee-BAM2 is either specific to other organs or not abundant. The deduced amino acid sequences of these two genes are very similar at the N-terminal but differ at the C-terminal. Both contain a nearly identical, predicted 48-amino acid plastid transit peptide. Immunoblot analyses identified a 29 kD (mature Ee-BAM1 after cleavage of the transit peptide) and a 35 kD (unprocessed EeBAM1) protein. Both 35 and 29 kD proteins were constitutively expressed in growth-induced and seasonal samples. Immunolocalization indicated that Ee-BAM1 is in the cytosol of cells at the shoot tip of the bud. Ee-BAM1 also surrounds the amyloplasts in mature cells toward the base of the bud. These observations suggests that Ee-BAM1 may have dual functions; serving as reserve protein in the cytosol and as a degrading enzyme at the surface of amyloplasts. PMID:19924545

  6. The transduction of the signal for grape bud dormancy breaking induced by hydrogen cyanamide may involve the SNF-like protein kinase GDBRPK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etti; Iris Vilozny; Yoram Eyal; Aliza Ogrodovitch

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression during early stages of dormancy release in grapevine buds were analyzed to facilitate the identification of gene products that may mediate the signal transduction of a dormancy-release signal, or derepression of meristematic activity. In the present report we describe the identification of GDBRPK, a transcript for an SNF-like protein kinase that is up-regulated upon chemical induction

  7. Gene-expression profiling of grape bud response to two alternative dormancy-release stimuli expose possible links between impaired mitochondrial activity, hypoxia, ethylene-ABA interplay and cell enlargement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Ophir; Xuequn Pang; Tamar Halaly; Jaganatha Venkateswari; Shimon Lavee; David Galbraith; Etti

    2009-01-01

    A grape-bud-oriented genomic platform was produced for a large-scale comparative analysis of bud responses to two stimuli\\u000a of grape-bud dormancy release, hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and heat shock (HS). The results suggested considerable similarity\\u000a in bud response to the stimuli, both in the repertoire of responding genes and in the temporary nature of the transcriptome\\u000a reprogramming. Nevertheless, the bud response to

  8. ptr-MIR169 is a posttranscriptional repressor of PtrHAP2 during vegetative bud dormancy period of aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees

    SciTech Connect

    Potkar, Rewati; Recla, Jill [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)] [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Busov, Victor, E-mail: vbusov@mtu.edu [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)] [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? We show a novel microRNA-mediated mechanism for control of bud dormancy in trees. ? ptr-MIR169a and PtrHAP2–5 gene showed inverse expression during dormancy period. ? The PtrHAP2–5 decline in abundance correlated with high ptr-MIR169a levels. ? PtrHAP2–5 cleavage occurred at the miR169 site during PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline. ? Our results show that miR169 attenuates PtrHAP2–5 transcript during dormancy. -- Abstract: Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2–5 showed inverse expression patterns during the dormancy period. ptr-MIR169a transcript steadily increased through the first half of the dormancy period and gradually declined with the approach of active growing season. PtrHAP2–5 abundance was higher in the beginning of the dormancy period but rapidly declined thereafter. The decline of PtrHAP2–5 correlated with the high levels of ptr-MIR169a accumulation, suggesting miR169-mediated attenuation of the target PtrHAP2–5 transcript. We experimentally verified the cleavage of PtrHAP2–5 at the predicted miR169a site at the time when PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline was observed. HAP2 is a subunit of a nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) complex consisting of two other units, HAP3 and HAP5. Using digital expression profiling we show that poplar HAP2 and HAP5 are preferentially detected in dormant tissues. Our study shows that microRNAs play a significant and as of yet unknown and unstudied role in regulating the timing of bud dormancy in trees.

  9. A comprehensive overview of the spatial and temporal variability of apple bud dormancy release and blooming phenology in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Legave, Jean Michel; Blanke, Michael; Christen, Danilo; Giovannini, Daniela; Mathieu, Vincent; Oger, Robert

    2013-03-01

    In the current context of global warming, an analysis is required of spatially-extensive and long-term blooming data in fruit trees to make up for insufficient information on regional-scale blooming changes and determinisms that are key to the phenological adaptation of these species. We therefore analysed blooming dates over long periods at climate-contrasted sites in Western Europe, focusing mainly on the Golden Delicious apple that is grown worldwide. On average, blooming advances were more pronounced in northern continental (10 days) than in western oceanic (6-7 days) regions, while the shortest advance was found on the Mediterranean coastline. Temporal trends toward blooming phase shortenings were also observed in continental regions. These regional differences in temporal variability across Western Europe resulted in a decrease in spatial variability, i.e. shorter time intervals between blooming dates in contrasted regions (8-10-day decrease for full bloom between Mediterranean and continental regions). Fitted sequential models were used to reproduce phenological changes. Marked trends toward shorter simulated durations of forcing period (bud growth from dormancy release to blooming) and high positive correlations between these durations and observed blooming dates support the notion that blooming advances and shortenings are mainly due to faster satisfaction of the heating requirement. However, trends toward later dormancy releases were also noted in oceanic and Mediterranean regions. This could tend toward blooming delays and explain the shorter advances in these regions despite similar or greater warming. The regional differences in simulated chilling and forcing periods were consistent with the regional differences in temperature increases. PMID:22610120

  10. BRANCHED1 Promotes Axillary Bud Dormancy in Response to Shade in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Poza-Carrión, César; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Cubas, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Plants interpret a decrease in the red to far-red light ratio (R:FR) as a sign of impending shading by neighboring vegetation. This triggers a set of developmental responses known as shade avoidance syndrome. One of these responses is reduced branching through suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene BRANCHED1 (BRC1), expressed in axillary buds, is required for branch suppression in response to shade. Unlike wild-type plants, brc1 mutants develop several branches after a shade treatment. BRC1 transcription is positively regulated 4 h after exposure to low R:FR. Consistently, BRC1 is negatively regulated by phytochrome B. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type and brc1 buds of plants treated with simulated shade has revealed groups of genes whose mRNA levels are dependent on BRC1, among them a set of upregulated abscisic acid response genes and two networks of cell cycle– and ribosome-related downregulated genes. The downregulated genes have promoters enriched in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF (TCP) binding sites, suggesting that they could be transcriptionally regulated by TCP factors. Some of these genes respond to BRC1 in seedlings and buds, supporting their close relationship with BRC1 activity. This response may allow the rapid adaptation of plants to fluctuations in the ratio of R:FR light. PMID:23524661

  11. Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration from dormancy induction to bud burst among provenances of three European oak species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Xavier; Améglio, Thierry; Ahas, Rein; Kurz-Besson, Cathy; Lanta, Vojtech; Lebourgeois, François; Miglietta, Franco; Chuine, Isabelle

    2007-06-01

    Although cold hardiness is known to be a major determinant of tree species distribution, its dynamics and the factors that regulate it remain poorly understood. Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration, from dormancy induction until bud burst, were investigated in populations of two deciduous (Quercus robur L. and Quercus pubescens Willd.) and one evergreen (Quercus ilex L.) European oak. Mean cold hardiness values in January were -56, -45 and -27 degrees C for Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. ilex, respectively. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were closely related to instantaneous cold hardiness, estimated by the electrolyte leakage method, whereas total carbohydrate concentration was related to maximum cold hardiness. Both cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration showed a close linear relationship with temperatures at the location of the sampled population. Our results show that temporal variation in both the inter- and intraspecific cold hardiness in European oaks can be related to variations in the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and that these relationships appear to be driven by temperature. PMID:17331900

  12. ptr-MIR169 is a posttranscriptional repressor of PtrHAP2 during vegetative bud dormancy period of aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees.

    PubMed

    Potkar, Rewati; Recla, Jill; Busov, Victor

    2013-02-15

    Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2-5 showed inverse expression patterns during the dormancy period. ptr-MIR169a transcript steadily increased through the first half of the dormancy period and gradually declined with the approach of active growing season. PtrHAP2-5 abundance was higher in the beginning of the dormancy period but rapidly declined thereafter. The decline of PtrHAP2-5 correlated with the high levels of ptr-MIR169a accumulation, suggesting miR169-mediated attenuation of the target PtrHAP2-5 transcript. We experimentally verified the cleavage of PtrHAP2-5 at the predicted miR169a site at the time when PtrHAP2-5 transcript decline was observed. HAP2 is a subunit of a nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) complex consisting of two other units, HAP3 and HAP5. Using digital expression profiling we show that poplar HAP2 and HAP5 are preferentially detected in dormant tissues. Our study shows that microRNAs play a significant and as of yet unknown and unstudied role in regulating the timing of bud dormancy in trees. PMID:23321309

  13. PsRBR1 encodes a pea retinoblastoma-related protein that is phosphorylated in axillary buds during dormancy-to-growth transition

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Ike, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    In intact plants, cells in axillary buds are arrested at the G1 phase of the cell cycle during dormancy. In mammalian cells, the cell cycle is suppressed at the G1 phase by the activities of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) family proteins, depending on their phosphorylation state. Here, we report the isolation of a pea cDNA clone encoding an RB-related protein (PsRBR1, Accession No. AB012024) with a high degree of amino acid conservation in comparison with RB family proteins. PsRBR1 protein was detected as two polypeptides using an anti-PsRBR1 antibody in dormant axillary buds, whereas it was detected as three polypeptides, which were the same two polypeptides and another larger polypeptide 2 h after terminal decapitation. Both in vitro-synthesized PsPRB1 protein and lambda protein phosphatase-treated PsRBR1 protein corresponded to the smallest polypeptide detected by anti-PsRBR1 antibody, suggesting that the three polypeptides correspond to non-phosphorylated form of PsRBR1 protein, and lower- and higher-molecular mass forms of phosphorylated PsRBR1 protein. Furthermore, in vivo labeling with [32P]-inorganic phosphate indicated that PsRBR1 protein was more phosphorylated before mRNA accumulation of cell cycle regulatory genes such as PCNA. Together these findings suggest that dormancy-to-growth transition in pea axillary buds is regulated by molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control similar to those in mammals, and that the PsRBR1 protein has an important role in suppressing the cell cycle during dormancy in axillary buds. PMID:18034314

  14. SUGARS, HORMONES, AND ENVIRONMENT AFFECT THE DORMANCY STATUS IN UNDERGROUND ADVENTITIOUS BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a deep-rooted perennial weed that propagates vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds located on roots and crown (root and crown buds). Signals from both leaves and apical or axillary meristems are known to inhibit root bud growth. To increase our understanding...

  15. H 2 O 2 is involved in the dormancy-breaking effect of hydrogen cyanamide in grapevine buds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Pérez; Ricardo Vergara; Sebastián Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is widely used to induce the breakage of endodormancy (ED) in grape and other deciduous fruit crop,\\u000a though its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Applications of HC to grapevine buds produce oxidative stress and transient\\u000a respiratory disturbances which are related to the breakage of ED. Moreover, since the expression and activity of catalase\\u000a (Cat) is inhibited

  16. A rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Eric F.; Wu, Rong-Mei; Richardson, Annette C.; Davy, Marcus; Hellens, Roger P.; Thodey, Kate; Janssen, Bart J.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rae, Georgina M.; Wood, Marion; Schaffer, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Budbreak in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. Kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) to increase and synchronize budbreak. This treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. A genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak in kiwifruit. Most genes identified following HC application appear to be associated with responses to stress, but a number of genes appear to be associated with the reactivation of growth. Three patterns of gene expression were identified: Profile 1, an HC-induced transient activation; Profile 2, an HC-induced transient activation followed by a growth-related activation; and Profile 3, HC- and growth-repressed. One group of genes that was rapidly up-regulated in response to HC was the glutathione S-transferase (GST) class of genes, which have been associated with stress and signalling. Previous budbreak studies, in three other species, also report up-regulated GST expression. Phylogenetic analysis of these GSTs showed that they clustered into two sub-clades, suggesting a strong correlation between their expression and budbreak across species. PMID:19651683

  17. SEED DORMANCY IN LEAFY SPURGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge reproduces asexually via crown and root buds and sexually by seeds. Our unit has largely focused on dormancy in buds and vegetative reproduction. However, dormant seeds in the soil play a key role in the persistence of weeds. For example, leafy spurge seeds can remain dormant and viable...

  18. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P Horvath; Wun S Chao; Jeffrey C Suttle; Jyothi Thimmapuram; James V Anderson

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial

  19. Chilling of Dormant Buds Hyperinduces FLOWERING LOCUS T and Recruits GA-Inducible 1,3-?-Glucanases to Reopen Signal Conduits and Release Dormancy in Populus[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Päivi L.H.; Welling, Annikki; Vahala, Jorma; Ripel, Linda; Ruonala, Raili; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; van der Schoot, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    In trees, production of intercellular signals and accessibility of signal conduits jointly govern dormancy cycling at the shoot apex. We identified 10 putative cell wall 1,3-?-glucanase genes (glucan hydrolase family 17 [GH17]) in Populus that could turn over 1,3-?-glucan (callose) at pores and plasmodesmata (PD) and investigated their regulation in relation to FT and CENL1 expression. The 10 genes encode orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana BG_ppap, a PD-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, the Arabidopsis PD callose binding protein PDCB, and a birch (Betula pendula) putative lipid body (LB) protein. We found that these genes were differentially regulated by photoperiod, by chilling (5°C), and by feeding of gibberellins GA3 and GA4. GA3 feeding upregulated all LB-associated GH17s, whereas GA4 upregulated most GH17s with a GPI anchor and/or callose binding motif, but only GA4 induced true bud burst. Chilling upregulated a number of GA biosynthesis and signaling genes as well as FT, but not CENL1, while the reverse was true for both GA3 and GA4. Collectively, the results suggest a model for dormancy release in which chilling induces FT and both GPI lipid-anchored and GA3-inducible GH17s to reopen signaling conduits in the embryonic shoot. When temperatures rise, the reopened conduits enable movement of FT and CENL1 to their targets, where they drive bud burst, shoot elongation, and morphogenesis. PMID:21282527

  20. DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DAM genes encode transcription factors suspected of regulating bud dormancy in numerous perennials. This chapter discusses the functional genetics and regulation of these genes and summarizes the evidence that these transcription factors play a central role in seasonal bud dormancy induction and mai...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Jiménez; Amy L Lawton-Rauh; Gregory L Reighard; Albert G Abbott; Douglas G Bielenberg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the

  2. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  3. Entrance Entrance Handicapped

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    contact our housing and accommodations coordinatorat the hospital information desk, or call (608) 263 shop, near the hospital information desk, carriesstationery,magazines, candy, cards and many gift items the hospital securityoffice located at the hospital entrance,near the hospital information desk and gdl shop

  4. De novo synthesis of budding yeast DNA polymerase alpha and POL1 transcription at the G1/S boundary are not required for entrance into S phase.

    PubMed Central

    Falconi, M M; Piseri, A; Ferrari, M; Lucchini, G; Plevani, P; Foiani, M

    1993-01-01

    The POL1 gene, encoding DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transiently transcribed during the cell cycle at the G1/S phase boundary. Here we show that yeast pol alpha is present at every stage of the cell cycle, and its level only slightly increases following the peak of POL1 transcription. POL1 mRNA synthesis driven by a GAL1 promoter can be completely abolished without affecting the growth rate of logarithmically growing yeast cultures for several cell divisions, although the amount of the pol alpha polypeptide drops below the physiological level. Moreover, alpha-factor-arrested cells can enter S phase and divide synchronously even if POL1 transcription is abolished. These results indicate that the level of yeast pol alpha is not rate limiting and de novo synthesis of the enzyme is not required for entrance into S phase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8248139

  5. Summary We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date,

    E-print Network

    DeJong, Theodore

    Summary We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY-EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that proliferates from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. Dormancy in these buds contributes to persistence of leafy spurge and makes current control methods difficult. To identify genetic mechanisms regulating dormancy status, we developed two ...

  7. Gibberellins and Subapical Cell Divisions in Relation to Bud Set and Bud Break in Salix pentandra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hansen; J. E. Olsen; O. Junttila

    1999-01-01

    .   In young plants of Salix pentandra, a temperate zone deciduous woody species, elongation growth ceases and a terminal bud is formed at day lengths shorter than\\u000a a critical length. This is the first step in dormancy development, making survival under harsh winter conditions possible.\\u000a Early studies strongly indicate that gibberellin is involved in the photoperiodic control of bud set

  8. Genomics approach to investigate seasonal dormancy transitions in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. The leafy spurge EST-database contains 45,314 high-quality sequences which assembled into 2...

  9. Transcriptome analysis identifies novel responses and potential regulatory genes involved in seasonal dormancy transitions of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Anderson, James V

    2008-01-01

    Background Dormancy of buds is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive extreme seasonal variations in climate. Dormancy transitions in underground crown buds of the model herbaceous perennial weed leafy spurge were investigated using a 23 K element cDNA microarray. These data represent the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of dormancy in underground buds of an herbaceous perennial species. Crown buds collected monthly from August through December, over a five year period, were used to monitor the changes in the transcriptome during dormancy transitions. Results Nearly 1,000 genes were differentially-expressed through seasonal dormancy transitions. Expected patterns of gene expression were observed for previously characterized genes and physiological processes indicated that resolution in our analysis was sufficient for identifying shifts in global gene expression. Conclusion Gene ontology of differentially-expressed genes suggests dormancy transitions require specific alterations in transport functions (including induction of a series of mitochondrial substrate carriers, and sugar transporters), ethylene, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellic acid, and abscisic acid responses, and responses to stress (primarily oxidative and cold/drought). Comparison to other dormancy microarray studies indicated that nearly half of the genes identified in our study were also differentially expressed in at least two other plant species during dormancy transitions. This comparison allowed us to identify a particular MADS-box transcription factor related to the DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from peach and hypothesize that it may play a direct role in dormancy induction and maintenance through regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T. PMID:19014493

  10. Photosynthetic leaf area modulates tiller bud outgrowth in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2015-08-01

    Shoot branches or tillers develop from axillary buds. The dormancy versus outgrowth fates of buds depends on genetic, environmental and hormonal signals. Defoliation inhibits bud outgrowth indicating the role of leaf-derived metabolic factors such as sucrose in bud outgrowth. In this study, the sensitivity of bud outgrowth to selective defoliation was investigated. At 6?d after planting (6 DAP), the first two leaves of sorghum were fully expanded and the third was partially emerged. Therefore, the leaves were selectively defoliated at 6 DAP and the length of the bud in the first leaf axil was measured at 8 DAP. Bud outgrowth was inhibited by defoliation of only 2?cm from the tip of the second leaf blade. The expression of dormancy and sucrose-starvation marker genes was up-regulated and cell cycle and sucrose-inducible genes was down-regulated during the first 24?h post-defoliation of the second leaf. At 48?h, the expression of these genes was similar to controls as the defoliated plant recovers. Our results demonstrate that small changes in photosynthetic leaf area affect the propensity of tiller buds for outgrowth. Therefore, variation in leaf area and photosynthetic activity should be included when integrating sucrose into models of shoot branching. PMID:25496467

  11. Dormancy of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ossowski, Liliana; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Metastatic dormancy of melanoma has not received sufficient attention, most likely because once detectable, metastasis is almost invariably fatal and, understandably, the focus has been on finding ways to prolong life of patients with overt recurrences. Nevertheless, analysis of the published clinical and experimental data on melanoma indicates that some aspect of melanoma biology imitate traits recently associated with dormancy in other solid cancers. Among them the ability of some melanomas to disseminate early during primary tumor progression and once disseminated, to remain undetected (dormant) for years. Comparison of cutaneous and uveal melanoma indicates that, in spite of being of the same origin, they differ profoundly in their clinical progression. Importantly for this discussion, between 40 and 50% of uveal melanoma remain undetected for longer than a decade, while less than 5% of cutaneous melanoma show this behavior. Both types of melanoma have activating oncogene mutations that provide autonomous pro-proliferative signals, yet the consensus is that those are not sufficient for tumor progression. If that is the case, it is possible to envision that signals from outside the tumor cell, (microenvironment) shape the fate of an individual disseminated cell, regardless of an oncogene mutation, to progress or to pause in a state of dormancy. To stimulate further debate and inquiry we describe here a few examples of potential signals that might modify the fate of disseminated cell and provide brief description of the current knowledge on dormancy in other cancers. Our hope is to convince the reader that disseminated melanoma cells do enter periods of prolonged dormancy and that finding ways to induce it, or to prolong it, might mean an extension of symptoms-free life for melanoma patients. Ultimately, understanding the biology of dormancy and the mechanisms of dormant cell survival, might allow for their specific targeting and elimination. PMID:19843243

  12. Gibberellins and Subapical Cell Divisions in Relation to Bud Set and Bud Break in Salix pentandra.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Olsen; Junttila

    1999-12-01

    In young plants of Salix pentandra, a temperate zone deciduous woody species, elongation growth ceases and a terminal bud is formed at day lengths shorter than a critical length. This is the first step in dormancy development, making survival under harsh winter conditions possible. Early studies strongly indicate that gibberellin is involved in the photoperiodic control of bud set and bud break. GA(1) action was studied by application under short days to plants where cessation of shoot elongation had occurred, followed by subsequent anatomic investigations of shoot tips. Under short days the frequency of cell division decreased rapidly along with the earlier observed decrease in GA(1) levels. Application of GA(1) to short-day-induced terminal buds rapidly stimulated cell division in apices several days before visible shoot elongation in response to this treatment was observed. One day after GA(1) application a fourfold increase in cell division frequency in apices was observed, increasing to a maximum of sevenfold 2 days after application. Long-day treatment leading to induction of bud break after about 4-6 days was followed by slowly increasing frequency of cell divisions. In earlier studies of this species, short days and gibberellins had no effect on cell elongation. These data show that increased GA(1) content, by application or long-day treatment, results in increased frequency of mitosis. This strongly indicates that GA(1) affects stem elongation in connection with bud set and bud break primarily by affecting cell divisions in subapical tissues. PMID:10688705

  13. Dormancy studies in blackberry seed

    E-print Network

    Lasheen, Abdel Moty

    1954-01-01

    been extensive, very little dealt with dormancy of blackberry seeds. Indeed, all the avail? able literature is limited to the practical side of the problem. As early as 1919 Rose (62) suggested that dormancy in Rubus idaeus was probably due... acid treatment was inadvisable. Hottes (39) stated that when raspberry and blackberry seeds are soaked in vinegar their germination will be hastened. Afanasiev (l), in suggesting means to overcome dormancy in blackberry (Rubus spp.),reported the seed...

  14. Genetics of seed dormancy in Papaver rhoeas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Lawrence

    1995-01-01

    Seed dormancy in a cross between wild Papaver rhoeas and its ‘Shirley’ cultivar appeared to be controlled by genes that displayed additive effects, dominance in the direction of low dormancy and non-allelic interaction of the duplicate type; in addition, there was a small maternal dominance effect in the direction of high dormancy. The genetics of seed dormancy in this cross

  15. Early wound reactions of Japanese maple during winter dormancy: the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes

    PubMed Central

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Decuyper, Mathieu; Mohren, Godefridus M. J.; Loomans, Antoon J. M.; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2014-01-01

    During winter dormancy, temperate trees are capable of only a restricted response to wounding. Depending on the ambient temperature during winter dormancy, wounded trees may start compartmentalization, e.g. by producing inhibitory compounds, but it is thought that processes involving cell proliferation, such as the formation of callus and wound xylem, are delayed until the next growing season. We investigated the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes on early reactions of Acer palmatum trees to wounding during winter bud dormancy. Stems of A. palmatum trees were wounded and stored under an ambient temperature of 4 or 15 °C for 3 weeks during winter bud dormancy. We then studied wound reactions in the living bark, cambial region and xylem. In the 4 °C treatment, wound reactions were virtually absent. In the 15 °C treatment, however, trees reacted to wounding by dieback of the cortex and phloem and by the formation of ligno-suberized layers. In the cambial zone, cambial dieback occurred and callus tissue and wound xylem were formed locally, close to the wound margins. In the xylem, compartmentalization took place by deposition of inhibitory compounds in fibre cells and vessel elements. We conclude that temperature is an important factor in wound reactions during winter dormancy, and may even induce proliferation of callus and wound xylem within a 3-week period. It therefore seems likely that trees that have been wounded during dormancy in areas with mild or warm winters might cope better with wounding, as unlike trees in cold environments, they may compartmentalize wounds even during winter dormancy. PMID:25275087

  16. Early wound reactions of Japanese maple during winter dormancy: the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Decuyper, Mathieu; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Loomans, Antoon J M; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2014-01-01

    During winter dormancy, temperate trees are capable of only a restricted response to wounding. Depending on the ambient temperature during winter dormancy, wounded trees may start compartmentalization, e.g. by producing inhibitory compounds, but it is thought that processes involving cell proliferation, such as the formation of callus and wound xylem, are delayed until the next growing season. We investigated the effect of two contrasting temperature regimes on early reactions of Acer palmatum trees to wounding during winter bud dormancy. Stems of A. palmatum trees were wounded and stored under an ambient temperature of 4 or 15 °C for 3 weeks during winter bud dormancy. We then studied wound reactions in the living bark, cambial region and xylem. In the 4 °C treatment, wound reactions were virtually absent. In the 15 °C treatment, however, trees reacted to wounding by dieback of the cortex and phloem and by the formation of ligno-suberized layers. In the cambial zone, cambial dieback occurred and callus tissue and wound xylem were formed locally, close to the wound margins. In the xylem, compartmentalization took place by deposition of inhibitory compounds in fibre cells and vessel elements. We conclude that temperature is an important factor in wound reactions during winter dormancy, and may even induce proliferation of callus and wound xylem within a 3-week period. It therefore seems likely that trees that have been wounded during dormancy in areas with mild or warm winters might cope better with wounding, as unlike trees in cold environments, they may compartmentalize wounds even during winter dormancy. PMID:25275087

  17. UC Santa Cruz Main Entrance

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    UC Santa Cruz West Entrance Em pire Grade Main Entrance HagarDrive Coolid geDrive P PLAZA WEST. At the Main Entrance, proceed west on Empire Grade, then turn right on Heller (the West Entrance). Turn right-day visitor permits may be purchased at the main entrance kiosk or at the TAPS Sales Office (located in the H

  18. [Effects of high temperature and hydrogen cyanamide on dormant nectarine's floral bud respiratory metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yue; Leng, Chuan-Yuan; Li, Ling; Xu, Chen-Shan; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Taking 3-year old potted 'Shuguang' nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) as test material, this paper studied the effects of high temperature (50 degrees C, HT) and hydrogen cyanamide (HC) on the floral bud respiratory metabolism of the tree during its natural dormancy. Both HT and HC could break the natural dormancy of the tree, and lead to a significant decrease in the respiratory metabolism of floral buds for several hours. The main respiratory pathways, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), were affected. For the buds not received dormancy-breaking treatments, both the TCA and the PPP decreased, while treating with HT and HC induced a rapid recovery of PPP after the early respiratory attenuation. HT also induced the recovery of TCA, but HC did not show this effect in 96 hours. Therefore, respiratory attenuation and the following PPP activation could be the important part in the floral bud respiratory mechanism of HT- and HC-induced dormancy release. PMID:23286008

  19. Increase in ACC oxidase levels and activities during paradormancy release of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is known to affect various developmental processes including dormancy and growth. Yet, little information is available about ethylene’s role during paradormancy break in adventitious buds of leafy spurge. In this study, we examined changes in ethylene evolution and the eth...

  20. Transcriptomic changes during tuber dormancy release process revealed by RNA sequencing in potato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Yikai; Jin, Xin; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-03-20

    Potato tuber dormancy release is a critical development process that allows potato to produce new plant. The first Illumina RNA sequencing to generate the expressed mRNAs at dormancy tuber (DT), dormancy release tuber (DRT) and sprouting tuber (ST) was performed. We identified 26,639 genes including 5,912 (3,450 up-regulated while 2,462 down-regulated) and 3,885 (2,141 up-regulated while 1,744 down-regulated) genes were differentially expressed from DT vs DRT and DRT vs ST. The RNA-Seq results were further verified using qRT-PCR. We found reserve mobilization events were activated before the bud emergence (DT vs DRT) and highlighted after dormancy release (DRT vs ST). Overexpressed genes related to metabolism of auxin, gibberellic acid, cytokinin and barssinosteriod were dominated in DT vs DRT, whereas overexpressed genes involved in metabolism of ethylene, jasmonate and salicylate were prominent in DRT vs ST. Various histone and cyclin isoforms associated genes involved in cell division/cycle were mainly up-regulated in DT vs DRT. Dormancy release process was also companied by stress response and redox regulation, those genes related to biotic stress, cell wall and second metabolism was preferentially overexpressed in DRT vs ST, which might accelerate dormancy breaking and sprout outgrowth. The metabolic processes activated during tuber dormancy release were also supported by plant seed models. These results represented the first comprehensive picture of a large number of genes involved in tuber dormancy release process. PMID:25661840

  1. Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

    1995-07-01

    Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

  2. The Normalcy of Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Rittershaus, Emily S. C.; Baek, Seung-hun; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    All microorganisms are exposed to periodic stresses that inhibit growth. Many bacteria and fungi weather these periods by entering a hardy, non-replicating state, often termed quiescence or dormancy. When this occurs during an infection, the resulting slowly-growing pathogen is able to tolerate both immune insults and prolonged antibiotic exposure. While the stresses encountered in a free-living environment may differ from those imposed by host immunity, these growth-limiting conditions impose common pressures and many of the corresponding microbial responses appear to be universal. In this review, we discuss the common features of these growth-limited states, which suggest new approaches for treating chronic infections such as tuberculosis. PMID:23768489

  3. Home > Editorials & Opinions > Bud Kennedy BUD KENNEDY RSS Mobile Newsletters

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Home > Editorials & Opinions > Bud Kennedy BUD KENNEDY RSS Mobile Newsletters Quick links: Submit BY BUD KENNEDY bud@star-telegram.com This definitely is not Gen. Robert E. Lee's Arlington. The Texas Sanders Bud Kennedy Richard Greene Cynthia M. Allen Arlington's `American Dream' comes in all colors | Bud

  4. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break. PMID:21378115

  5. Transcription profiling of the chilling requirement for bud break in apples: a putative role for FLC-like genes.

    PubMed

    Porto, Diogo Denardi; Bruneau, Maryline; Perini, Pâmela; Anzanello, Rafael; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Santos, Henrique Pessoa Dos; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Apple production depends on the fulfilment of a chilling requirement for bud dormancy release. Insufficient winter chilling results in irregular and suboptimal bud break in the spring, with negative impacts on apple yield. Trees from apple cultivars with contrasting chilling requirements for bud break were used to investigate the expression of the entire set of apple genes in response to chilling accumulation in the field and controlled conditions. Total RNA was analysed on the AryANE v.1.0 oligonucleotide microarray chip representing 57 000 apple genes. The data were tested for functional enrichment, and differential expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in samples treated with cold temperatures. Cold exposure mostly repressed expression of transcripts related to photosynthesis, and long-term cold exposure repressed flavonoid biosynthesis genes. Among the differentially expressed selected candidates, we identified genes whose annotations were related to the circadian clock, hormonal signalling, regulation of growth, and flower development. Two genes, annotated as FLOWERING LOCUS C-like and MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING, showed strong differential expression in several comparisons. One of these two genes was upregulated in most comparisons involving dormancy release, and this gene's chromosomal position co-localized with the confidence interval of a major quantitative trait locus for the timing of bud break. These results indicate that photosynthesis and auxin transport are major regulatory nodes of apple dormancy and unveil strong candidates for the control of bud dormancy. PMID:25750421

  6. Differential expression of dehydrin in flower buds of two Japanese apricot cultivars requiring different chilling requirements for bud break.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Kashiwa, Yukinobu; Kakehi, Eiko; Yonemori, Keizo; Mori, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kyohei; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Tao, Ryutaro; Kataoka, Ikuo

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we investigated seasonal changes in protein profiles in dormant flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold Zucc.) cultivars 'Ellching', from subtropical Taiwan, and 'Nanko', from temperate Japan. One protein, isolated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of flower bud extracts, was shown by peptide sequencing to be a dehydrin (the group of D-11 LEA (late embryogenesis-abundant) proteins). Patterns of dehydrin protein and transcript accumulation differed between the cultivars, with greater accumulations and longer persistence in 'Nanko' than in 'Ellching'. These differences correspond with the greater requirement for chilling to break flower bud dormancy in 'Nanko' than in 'Ellching'. Our study supports the findings of earlier work comparing dehydrin expression in the bark tissue of the evergreen and deciduous peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) genotypes, and suggests that the role of dehydrin during the dormant season is common to all Prunus species. PMID:17169895

  7. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information. PMID:25447903

  8. Seed Dormancy Mechanisms in Vegetable Crop Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Bennett; Andrew F. Evans

    Seed dormancy is a physical or physiological condition of a viable seed which prevents germination even in the presence of otherwise favorable conditions for germination. This paper will review the types of dormancy observed for various vegetable crop species, and the methods available for dormancy breaking.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine

  10. 8. WEST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS EASTERN ENTRANCE. STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS EASTERN ENTRANCE. STORAGE TANKS LOCATED BELOW CATWALK. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of secondary entrance south of main entrance on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. SUBTRACTIVE CDNA LIBRARIES IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY-EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subtracted cDNA libraries (growing and paradormant) were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy and initiation of shoot growth in leafy spurge. Initial analysis revealed that both libraries contained many redundant clones. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, ...

  13. SUBTRACTIVE CDNA LIBRARIES IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subtractive cDNA libraries were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy (reverse library) and initiation of shoot growth (forward library) in leafy spurge. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, 15744 clones were screened to reduce the level of redundancy within ...

  14. Overexpression of a peach CBF gene in apple: a model for understanding the integration of growth, dormancy, and cold hardiness in woody plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing of cold acclimation and de-acclimation, dormancy, and bud break play an integral role in the life cycle of woody plants. The molecular events that regulate these parameters have been the subject of much study, however, in most studies these events have been investigated independently of ...

  15. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  16. Experiences with dormancy in tardigrades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto BERTOLANI; Roberto GUIDETTI; K. Ingemar JÖNSSON; Tiziana ALTIERO; Deborah BOSCHINI; Lorena REBECCHI

    2004-01-01

    Tardigrades often colonise extreme habitats, in which they survive using both types of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. To- gether with nematodes and bdelloid rotifers, tardigrades are known to enter quiescence (with several forms of cryptobiosis: anhy- drobiosis, cryobiosis, anoxybiosis, osmobiosis) at any stage of their life cycle, from egg to adult. Entering anhydrobiosis, tardigrades contract their body into a so-called

  17. On dormancy strategies in tardigrades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Guidetti; Tiziana Altiero; Lorena Rebecchi

    2011-01-01

    In this review we analyze the dormancy strategies of metazoans inhabiting “hostile to life” habitats, which have a strong impact on their ecology and in particular on the traits of their life history. Tardigrades are here considered a model animal, being aquatic organisms colonizing terrestrial habitats. Tardigrades evolved a large variety of dormant stages that can be ascribed to diapause

  18. Nitric oxide reduces seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Paul C; Libourel, Igor G L; Jones, Russell L

    2006-01-01

    Dormancy is a property of many mature seeds, and experimentation over the past century has identified numerous chemical treatments that will reduce seed dormancy. Nitrogen-containing compounds including nitrate, nitrite, and cyanide break seed dormancy in a range of species. Experiments are described here that were carried out to further our understanding of the mechanism whereby these and other compounds, such as the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bring about a reduction in seed dormancy of Arabidopsis thaliana. A simple method was devised for applying the products of SNP photolysis through the gas phase. Using this approach it was shown that SNP, as well as potassium ferricyanide (Fe(III)CN) and potassium ferrocyanide (Fe(II)CN), reduced dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds by generating cyanide (CN). The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) on dormant seeds were tested and it was confirmed that cyanide vapours were sufficient to break Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Nitrate and nitrite also reduced Arabidopsis seed dormancy and resulted in substantial rates of germination. The effects of CN, nitrite, and nitrate on dormancy were prevented by the NO scavenger c-PTIO. It was confirmed that NO plays a role in reducing seed dormancy by using purified NO gas, and a model to explain how nitrogen-containing compounds may break dormancy in Arabidopsis is presented. PMID:16377732

  19. Coordinated Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX-Like Genes in Leafy Spurge

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xinyuan; Chao, Wun; Yang, Yajun; Horvath, David

    2015-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious perennial weed that produces underground adventitious buds, which are crucial for generating new vegetative shoots following periods of freezing temperatures or exposure to various control measures. It is also capable of flowering and producing seeds, but requires vernalization in some cases. DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes have been proposed to play a direct role in the transition to winter-induced dormancy and maintenance through regulation of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which also is likely involved in the vernalization process. To explore the regulation of FT and DAM during dormancy transitions in leafy spurge, the transcript accumulation of two previously cloned DAM splice variants and two different previously cloned FT genes was characterized. Under long-photoperiods (16 h light), both DAM and FT transcripts accumulate in a diurnal manner. Tissue specific expression patterns indicated the tissues with high DAM expression had low FT expression and vice versa. DAM expression is detected in leaves, stems, shoot tips, and crown buds. FT transcripts were detected mainly in leaves and flowers. Under dormancy inducing conditions, DAM and FT genes had an inverse expression pattern. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed using DAM-like protein specific antibodies to demonstrate that DAM or related proteins likely bind to cryptic and/or conserved CArG boxes in the promoter regions of FT genes isolated from endodormant crown buds. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DAM proteins play a crucial role in leafy spurge dormancy transition and maintenance, potentially by negatively regulating the expression of FT. PMID:25961298

  20. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into floral bud development of summer-flowering Camellia azalea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Jiyuan; Li, Xinlei; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Zhongchi; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in woody perennials involves pathways controlling flowering timing, bud dormancy and outgrowth in responses to seasonal cues. However little is known about the mechanism governing the adaptation of signaling pathways to environmental conditions in trees. Camellia azalea is a rare species in this genus flowering during summer, which provides a unique resource for floral timing breeding. Here we reported a comprehensive transcriptomics study to capture the global gene profiles during floral bud development in C. azalea. We examined the genome-wide gene expression between three developmental stages including floral bud initiation, floral organ differentiation and bud outgrowth, and identified nine co-expression clusters with distinctive patterns. Further, we identified the differential expressed genes (DEGs) during development and characterized the functional properties of DEGs by Gene Ontology analysis. We showed that transition from floral bud initiation to floral organ differentiation required changes of genes in flowering timing regulation, while transition to floral bud outgrowth was regulated by various pathways such as cold and light signaling, phytohormone pathways and plant metabolisms. Further analyses of dormancy associated MADS-box genes revealed that SVP- and AGL24- like genes displayed distinct expression patterns suggesting divergent roles during floral bud development. PMID:25978548

  1. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

  2. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Münevver Do?ramac?; David P. Horvath; Michael J. Christoffers; James V. Anderson

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs),\\u000a which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo-, and ecodormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration\\u000a stress on vegetative growth and flowering potential from endodormant UABs of leafy spurge was monitored. Further, microarray\\u000a analysis was used to

  3. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  4. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FLORENCE VOLAIRE; MARK NORTON

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. Scope

  5. Multiple risk reduction mechanisms: can dormancy substitute for dispersal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin E. Snyder

    2006-01-01

    In a spatiotemporally variable environment, plants use seed dispersal and dormancy to reduce risk. Intuition suggests that dormancy should be able to substitute for dispersal, so that dormancy will reduce the optimal mean dispersal distance, and previous theoretical studies using temporally uncorrelated environments have found this to be true. I show that in the presence of positive temporal correlations, dormancy

  6. WHEELCHAIR NEGOTIABLE PATHS ACCESSIBLE ENTRANCE

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    NEGOTIABLE PATHS ACCESSIBLE ENTRANCE ACCESSIBLE PARKING SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP ENTRANCE ACCESSIBLE PARKING SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP (EAGLE ESCORT) BLUE LIGHT SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP (EAGLE ESCORT) BLUE LIGHT EMERGENCY PHONE #12

  7. Overexpression of a peach CBF gene in apple: a model for understanding the integration of growth, dormancy, and cold hardiness in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Artlip, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The timing of cold acclimation and deacclimation, dormancy, and budbreak play an integral role in the life cycle of woody plants. The molecular events that regulate these parameters have been the subject of much study, however, in most studies these events have been investigated independently of each other. Ectopic expression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) in apple increases the level of both non-acclimated and acclimated freezing tolerance relative to the non-transformed control, and also inhibits growth, induces early bud set and leaf senescence, and delays bud break in the spring. The current study examined differences in the seasonal expression of genes (CBF, DAM, RGL, and EBB) that have been reported to be associated with freezing tolerance, dormancy, growth, and bud break, respectively, in the PpCBF1 T166 transgenic apple line and the non-transformed M.26 control. Results indicated that expression of several of these key genes, including MdDAM, MdRGL, and MdEBB was altered in transgenic T166 trees relative to non-transformed M.26 trees. In particular, several putative MdDAM genes, associated with the dormancy-cycle in other species of woody plants in the Rosaceae, exhibited different patterns of expression in the T166 vs. M.26 trees. Additionally, for the first time a putative APETALA2/Ethylene-responsive transcription factor, originally described in poplar and shown to regulate the timing of bud break, was shown to be associated with the timing of bud break in apple. Since the overexpression of PpCBF1 in apple results in a dramatic alteration in cold acclimation, dormancy, and growth, this transgenic line (T166) may represent a useful model for studying the integration of these seasonal life-cycle parameters. PMID:25774159

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Lalit S. Shah; William K. Davis

    2000-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal or coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Test Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of Coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Success through dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Gengenbacher, Martin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat, killing near to 2 million individuals around this globe, annually. The sole vaccine developed almost a century ago, provides limited protection only during childhood. After decades without the introduction of new antibiotics, several candidates are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Curing TB requires prolonged combination chemotherapy with several drugs. Moreover, monitoring the success of therapy is questionable due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. To substantially improve the situation, a detailed understanding of the crosstalk between human host and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vital. Principally, Mtb’s enormous success is based on three capacities: First, reprogramming of macrophages after primary infection/phagocytosis in order to prevent its own destruction; second, initiating the formation of well-organized granulomas, comprising different immune cells to create a confined environment for the host–pathogen standoff; third, the capability to shut down its own central metabolism, terminate replication and thereby transit into a stage of dormancy rendering itself extremely resistant to host defense and drug treatment. Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, draw conclusions in a working model of mycobacterial dormancy and highlight gaps in our understanding to be addressed in future research. PMID:22320122

  10. Molecular Biology Building North Lobby Entrance

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    Molecular Biology Building North Lobby Entrance Elevators Men's Restroom Women's Restroom Molecular Biology Building North Breezeway Entrance Stairwell Pyromark DNA Sequencing Facility Protein Metabolite

  11. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  12. Project BudBurst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project BudBurst (UCAR)

    2010-03-19

    This website is all about observing and collecting data on the timing of leafing and flowering of trees and flowers in your area. The ultimate goal of Project BudBurst is to have you observe the first day of the appropriate phenophase for your plant (e.g. First Flower).

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the manufacture of ethylene and propylene chemicals from F-T naphtha, for the generation of hydrogen from F-T naphtha to power fuel cells, for direct blending of F-T diesels into transportation fuels, for the conversion of F-T heavy product wax to transportation fuels, and the conversion of F-T Heavy product wax to a valuable high melting point food-grade specialty wax product. Product evaluations conducted under Task 2.5 of Phase II successfully mitigated the above technical and economic risks to the EECP with the development of product yields and product qualities for the production of chemicals, transportation fuels, and specialty food-grade waxes from the F-T synthesis products.

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several important issues were addressed in this phase of the project. They included Rejuvenation/Regeneration of the Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst, online Catalyst Withdrawal and Addition from the synthesis reactor, and the Fischer-Tropsch Design Basis Confirmation. In Phase III the results from these RD&T work will be incorporated in developing the engineering design package. This Topical Report documents the Phase II RD&T work that was completed for this task.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sergio; Lawton-Rauh, Amy L; Reighard, Gregory L; Abbott, Albert G; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Background Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the phylogenetic context of the MADS-box gene family. Results The peach DAM genes grouped with the SVP/StMADS11 lineage of type II MIKCC MADS-box genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the peach SVP/StMADS11-like gene family, which contains significantly more members than annual model plants, expanded through serial tandem gene duplication. We found evidence of strong purifying selection acting to constrain functional divergence among the peach DAM genes and only a single codon, located in the C-terminal region, under significant positive selection. Conclusion Because all DAM genes are expressed in peach and are subjected to strong purifying selection we suggest that the duplicated genes have been maintained by subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization. In addition, this pattern of selection suggests that the DAM genes are important for peach growth and development. PMID:19558704

  16. Genetic analysis of embryo dormancy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galau, G.

    1998-09-01

    Primary dormancy is the inability of mature seed to immediately germinate until specific environmental stimuli are perceived that predict that future conditions will support plant growth and seed set. The analysis of abscisic acid deficient and insensitive mutants, in particular in Arabidopsis, suggests that embryo abscisic acid may be directly involved in the development of primary dormancy. Other studies implicate the continued accumulation of LEA proteins as inhibiting germination in dormant embryos. The results of these physiological, molecular and genetic approaches are complex and equivocal. There is a real need for approaches that test the separate nature of vivipary inhibition and primary dormancy and deliberately seed to decouple and dissect them. These approaches should be of help in understanding both late embryo development and primary dormancy. The approach taken here is to directly isolate mutants of Arabidopsis that appear to be deficient only in primary dormancy, that is fresh seed that germinate rapidly without the normally-required cold-stratification. The authors have isolated at least 8 independent, rapidly germinating RGM mutants of Arabidopsis. All others aspects of plant growth and development appear normal in these lines, suggesting that the rgm mutants are defective only in the establishment or maintenance of primary dormancy. At least one of these may be tagged with T-DNA. In addition, about 50 RGM isolates have been recovered from EMS-treated seed.

  17. Subtractive cDNA Libraries Identify Differentially Expressed Genes in Dormant and Growing Buds of Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Jia; James V. Anderson; David P. Horvath; Yong-Qiang Gu; Rodney G. Lym; Wun S. Chao

    2006-01-01

    Two subtractive cDNA libraries were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy (reverse library) and initiation\\u000a of shoot growth (forward library) in leafy spurge. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, 15744 clones\\u000a were screened to reduce the level of redundancy within both libraries. A total of 516 unique sequences were obtained from\\u000a 2304 minimally redundant clones. Radioactive

  18. Identification and analysis of phosphorylation status of proteins in dormant terminal buds of poplar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there has been considerable progress made towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of bud dormancy, the roles of protein phosphorylation in the process of dormancy regulation in woody plants remain unclear. Results We used mass spectrometry combined with TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment strategies to investigate the phosphoproteome of dormant terminal buds (DTBs) in poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra). There were 161 unique phosphorylated sites in 161 phosphopeptides from 151 proteins; 141 proteins have orthologs in Arabidopsis, and 10 proteins are unique to poplar. Only 34 sites in proteins in poplar did not match well with the equivalent phosphorylation sites of their orthologs in Arabidopsis, indicating that regulatory mechanisms are well conserved between poplar and Arabidopsis. Further functional classifications showed that most of these phosphoproteins were involved in binding and catalytic activity. Extraction of the phosphorylation motif using Motif-X indicated that proline-directed kinases are a major kinase group involved in protein phosphorylation in dormant poplar tissues. Conclusions This study provides evidence about the significance of protein phosphorylation during dormancy, and will be useful for similar studies on other woody plants. PMID:22074553

  19. A modular systems biology analysis of cell cycle entrance into S-phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilia Alberghina; Riccardo L. Rossi; Danilo Porro; Marco Vanoni

    A modular systems biology approach to the study of the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Literature on the structure of yeast population and its relevance to the study of yeast cell cycle is reviewed.\\u000a A model for the control of yeast cell cycle, with emphasis on a threshold mechanism controlling entrance into S-phase is presented.

  20. 14 CFR 204.7 - Revocation for dormancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revocation for dormancy. 204.7 Section 204.7 Aeronautics and Space ...DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.7 Revocation for dormancy. (a) An air carrier that has not commenced...

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla H. Ali; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker operating parameters. The specific petroleum coke characteristics at a refinery affect the design of the Gasification and Acid Gas Removal (AGR) subsystems. Knowing the petroleum coke composition provides the necessary data to proceed to the EECP Phase III engineering design of the gasification process. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience, the EECP team ranked the technical, economic, and overall risks of the petroleum coke composition related to the gasification subsystem as low. In Phase I of the EECP Project, the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery had been identified as the potential EECP site. As a result of the merger between Texaco and Chevron in October 2001, Texaco was required to sell its interest in the Motiva Enterprises LLC joint venture to Shell Oil Company and Saudi Refining Inc. To assess the possible impact of moving the proposed EECP host site to a ChevronTexaco refinery, samples of petroleum coke from two ChevronTexaco refineries were sent to MTC for bench-scale testing. The results of the analysis of these samples were compared to the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis developed for Motiva's Port Arthur Refinery. The analysis confirms that if the proposed EECP is moved to a new refinery site, the Phase I EECP Gasification Design Basis would have to be updated. The lower sulfur content of the two samples from the ChevronTexaco refineries indicates that if one of these sites were selected, the Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) might be sized smaller than the current EECP design. This would reduce the capital expense of the SRU. Additionally, both ChevronTexaco samples have a higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio than the Motiva Port Arthur petroleum coke. The higher hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio could give a slightly higher F-T products yield from the F-T Synthesis Reactor. However, the EECP Gasification Design Basis can not be updated until the site for the proposed EECP site is finalized. Until the site is finalized, the feedstock (petroleum coke) characteristics are a low risk to the EECP project.

  2. Studies in Wild Oat Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Stephen W.; Ross, James D.

    1981-01-01

    Seed of Avena fatua were shown to exhibit a characteristic loss of dormancy during dry storage at 25 C, whereas similar seed stored at 5 C maintained dormancy. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid was shown to increase germination of partly dormant seed imbibed under certain temperature regimes; a similar effect could not be established for fully dormant or fully nondormant seed. Using gas-liquid chromatography, natural ethylene levels were followed during imbibition of fully dormant and nondormant seed. A large peak in production was observed in the period prior to radicle emergence in the case of the nondormant seed. Measurements of ethylene production taken at 15 C, following periods of after-ripening in moist soil at either 5 or 25 C, indicated that endogenous production was unlikely to be a main cause of dormancy breakage in this species. The possibility that endogenous ethylene could play a role in natural dormancy breakage in aged seeds is discussed. The practical possibilities of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid as a dormancy breaking agent in a field situation are outlined. PMID:16661675

  3. Increase in ACC oxidase levels and activities during paradormancy release of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) buds.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wun S; Serpe, Marcelo; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Jia, Ying

    2013-07-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is known to affect various developmental processes including dormancy and growth. Yet, little information is available about the role of ethylene during paradormancy release in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge. In this study, we examined changes in ethylene evolution and the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme ACC oxidase following paradormancy release (growth induction). Our results did not show an obvious increase in ethylene during bud growth. However, when buds were incubated with 1 mM ACC, ethylene levels were higher in growing than non-growing buds, suggesting that the levels of ACC oxidase increased in growing buds. Real-time qPCR indicated that the transcript of a Euphorbia esula ACC oxidase (Ee-ACO) increased up to threefold following growth induction. In addition, a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in ACO activity was observed 4 days after decapitation, and the Ee-ACO accounted for 40 % of the total ACO activity. Immunoblot analyses identified a 36-kD Ee-ACO protein that increased in expression during bud growth. This protein was highly expressed in leaves, moderately expressed in crown buds, stems and meristems, and weakly expressed in roots and flowers. Immunolocalization of Ee-ACO on growing bud sections revealed strong labeling of the nucleus and cytoplasm in cells at the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. An exception to this pattern occurred in cells undergoing mitosis, where labeling of Ee-ACO was negligible. Taken together, our results indicated an increase in the levels of Ee-ACO during paradormancy release of leafy spurge that was not correlated with an increase in ethylene synthesis. PMID:23625016

  4. Cold acclimation and floral development in almond bud break: insights into the regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro M; Gonçalves, Nuno; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2012-07-01

    In temperate fruit trees, seasonal dormancy and cold acclimation have a major impact on blooming time and, consequently, fruit production. To gain insight into the still unclear molecular processes underlying blooming, expression of genes putatively involved in the cold response was studied in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), which is the earliest fruit tree in the family Rosaceae to bloom. The transcript levels of two C-repeat binding factor (PdCBF) genes and one of their putative targets, PdDehydrin1 (PdDHN1), were analysed in flower buds and shoot internodes during seasonal dormancy up to bud break. In parallel, expression of candidate genes related to flower development was also followed. In a 2-year study, PdCBF2 showed a progressive increase in transcript abundance during the autumn in close correlation with cold acclimation, while high transcript levels of PdCBF1 and PdDHN1 were already found by summer. After bud break, with temperatures still within the chilling range, both PdCBF genes and PdDHN1 were found to sharply reduce transcription in flower buds and internodes, suggesting damping of CBF-mediated cold signalling during growth resumption, in correlation with cold hardiness decline. Flower bud break was also followed by a decrease in the expression of PdGA20OX, a candidate gene involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, and an increase in the expression of two homeotic genes related to floral organ development, PdMADS1 and -3. These genes may also be relevant players in the regulation of anthesis in this model Rosaceae species. PMID:22685307

  5. Circadian Clock Components Regulate Entry and Affect Exit of Seasonal Dormancy as Well as Winter Hardiness in Populus Trees1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Cristian; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Johansson, Mikael; Ögren, Erling; Rohde, Antje; Eriksson, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role of the circadian clock in the seasonal growth cycle of trees: growth cessation, bud set, freezing tolerance, and bud burst. Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides (Ptt) LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (PttLHY1), PttLHY2, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 constitute regulatory clock components because down-regulation by RNA interference of these genes leads to altered phase and period of clock-controlled gene expression as compared to the wild type. Also, both RNA interference lines show about 1-h-shorter critical daylength for growth cessation as compared to the wild type, extending their period of growth. During winter dormancy, when the diurnal variation in clock gene expression stops altogether, down-regulation of PttLHY1 and PttLHY2 expression compromises freezing tolerance and the expression of C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR1, suggesting a role of these genes in cold hardiness. Moreover, down-regulation of PttLHY1 and PttLHY2 causes a delay in bud burst. This evidence shows that in addition to a role in daylength-controlled processes, PttLHY plays a role in the temperature-dependent processes of dormancy in Populus such as cold hardiness and bud burst. PMID:20530613

  6. Deer Ridge Entrance Award The Deer Ridge Entrance Award was established by the

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Deer Ridge Entrance Award The Deer Ridge Entrance Award was established by the Deer Ridge. To be eligible, candidates must have lived in the Region of Waterloo for at least 10 years. Deer Ridge Golf Club for the University of Waterloo Entrance Bursary to assess financial need (submit along with the Deer Ridge Entrance

  7. Montana State University ~ Bozeman Bud 200 Total Unrestricted Expenses

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ______________________________________________________________________________ Bud 200 Total Unrestricted Expenses 1 Instruction 2 Organized Research 3 Public Service & Maintenance of Plant 8 Scholarships & Fellowships Bud 220 Comparison of Expenditures by Program Bud 230 Statement of Waivers & Scholarships Bud 300 Current Unrestricted Revenues Bud 400A

  8. Montana State University ~ Bozeman Bud 200 Total Unrestricted Expenses

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ______________________________________________________________________________ Bud 200 Total Unrestricted Expenses 1 Academic Support 2 Institutional Support 3 Scholarships & Fellowships 8 Student Services Bud 220 Comparison of Expenditures by Program Bud 230 Statement of Waivers & Scholarships Bud 300 Current Unrestricted Revenues Bud 400A

  9. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa and fixed across a species' range. Such interspecific and regional differences in life history traits need to be incorporated in models simulating Eastern Boundary Current pelagic ecosystem dynamics.

  10. Proteomic approach to analyze dormancy breaking of tree seeds.

    PubMed

    Paw?owski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    In forest broadleaves from the temperate zone, a large number of species exhibit seed dormancy phenomena. Tree seeds show some of the most pronounced and complicated forms of dormancy in the plant kingdom. Many seeds are deeply physiologically dormant whatever their moisture level and age. However, dormancy can usually be overcome by a cold or warm stratification for several months. The transition from seed dormancy to germination is a multi-step process. In combination with the availability of genome sequence data, proteomics has opened up enormous possibilities for identifying the total set of expressed proteins as well as expression changes during dormancy breaking. The proteomic approach used for analysis of dormancy breaking of tree seeds offers new data allowing better understanding of the mechanism of deep physiological dormancy. The results of proteomic studies on dormancy breaking and the presence of abscisic and gibberellic acids in tree seeds (beech Fagus sylvatica L., Norway maple Acer platanoides L. and sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus L.), help to explain this process better. Most of the changes in protein expression were observed at the end of stratification and in the germinated seeds. This is the most active period of dormancy breaking when seeds pass from the quiescent state to germination. The analysis of the proteins' function showed that the mechanism of seed dormancy breaking involves many processes. Energy metabolism, proteasome, transcription, protein synthesis, signal transduction and methionine metabolism proteins have a special importance. PMID:20306286

  11. ESCRT requirements for EIAV budding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retroviruses and many other enveloped viruses usurp the cellular ESCRT pathway to bud from cells. However, the stepwise process of ESCRT-mediated virus budding can be challenging to analyze in retroviruses like HIV-1 that recruit multiple different ESCRT factors to initiate budding. Results In this study, we characterized the ESCRT factor requirements for budding of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), whose only known direct ESCRT protein interaction is with ALIX. siRNA depletion of endogenous ESCRT proteins and “rescue” experiments with exogenous siRNA-resistant wild type and mutant constructs revealed budding requirements for the following ESCRT proteins: ALIX, CHMP4B, CHMP2A and VPS4A or VPS4B. EIAV budding was inhibited by point mutations that abrogate the direct interactions between ALIX:CHMP4B, CHMP4B:CHMP2A, and CHMP2A:VPS4A/B, indicating that each of these interactions is required for EIAV budding. Unexpectedly, CHMP4B depletion led to formation of multi-lobed and long tubular EIAV virions. Conclusions We conclude that EIAV budding requires an ESCRT protein network that comprises EIAV Gag-ALIX-CHMP4B-CHMP2A-VPS4 interactions. Our experiments also suggest that CHMP4B recruitment/polymerization helps control Gag polymerization and/or processing to ensure that ESCRT factor assembly and membrane fission occur at the proper stage of virion assembly. These studies help establish EIAV as a streamlined model system for dissecting the stepwise processes of lentivirus assembly and ESCRT-mediated budding. PMID:24107264

  12. Effect of Growth Regulators on CO2 Assimilation in Leaves, and its Correlation with the Bud Break Response in Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, R. G. S.; Turner, Wendy B.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments have been done to confirm the previously reported effect of indoleacetic acid (IAA) on the rate of CO2 assimilation in bean leaves. It was shown that spraying the leaves of a variety of plants caused an increase in the rate of CO2 assimilation from 30% to 100% during the half-hour to 1 hour period following spraying. The only plant tested which did not show such an effect was corn. The breaking of dormancy of axial buds in the bean plant was correlated with an increase in the rate of CO2 assimilation in adjacent leaves for a brief period of time. It has been shown that IAA solution sprayed on 1 leaflet of a leaf can cause an increase in the rate of CO2 assimilation in the other leaflets, and that IAA applied to the cut stem of a leaflet or a developing bud can be transported to adjacent leaves and cause an increase in the CO2 assimilation rate. The reaction caused by IAA is very similar to that caused by the breaking of dormancy of a bud. This indicates that the bud break response in CO2 assimilation in leaves is caused by auxin synthesized in a bud as it begins to grow, and exported into adjacent leaves. PMID:16656249

  13. [Effects of low temperature on dormancy breaking and growth after planting in bulbs of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Miao, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Hong-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of low temperature storage on dormancy breaking, sprouting and growth after planting of Tulipa edulis was studied. The results showed that starch content and activity of amylases significantly decreased during 10 weeks of cold storage, soluble protein content raised at first then decreased, and the peak appeared at the 6th week. However, total soluble sugar content which in- creased slowly at first than rose sharply and reducing sugar content increased during the storage duration. The bulbs with cold storage treatment rooted in the 6th week, which was about 2 weeks earlier than room temperature storage, but there were less new roots in the late period of storage. After stored at a low temperature, bud lengths were longer than that with room temperature treatment. Cold storage treatment could promote earlier emergence, shorten germination time, prolong growth period and improve the yield of bulb, but rarely affect the emergence rate. It was not beneficial to flowering and fruiting. The results indicated that 6-8 weeks of cold storage was deemed to be the key period of dormancy breaking preliminary. PMID:25993786

  14. Note on organic dormancy of estuarine Ruppia maritima L. seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Jung Cho; Yvonne L. Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Information on seed dormancy is one of the primary requirements for successful seedling propagation of submerged aquatics\\u000a and seagrass. Studies on Ruppia\\u000a maritima seed germination have been done, but the presence, requirements, and the types of dormancy have not been well understood.\\u000a A laboratory study was conducted to understand presence and types of organic dormancy of the seeds of estuarine

  15. Ecological mechanisms involved in dormancy breakage in Ulex parviflorus seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Baeza; V. R. Vallejo

    2006-01-01

    Dormancy in the hard seed coats of Mediterranean species is considered a strategy that enables persistent seed banks to be\\u000a formed in the soil. An important factor related to seed coat fracture and dormancy breakage in Mediterranean ecosystems is\\u000a heat. Nevertheless, the effect of factors other than heat on dormancy breakage in these species has hardly been studied. To\\u000a investigate

  16. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    PubMed Central

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 °C in the air, +1.35 °C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October–April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost. Warming delayed dormancy release more in the cultivar ‘Narve Viking’ than in the cultivar ‘Titania’, but advanced budburst and flowering predominantly in ‘Titania’. Since ‘Narve Viking’ has a higher chilling requirement than ‘Titania’, this indicates that, in high-chilling-requiring genotypes, dormancy responses may temper the effect of warming on spring phenology. Winter warming significantly reduced fruit yield the following summer in both cultivars, corroborating the hypothesis that a decline in winter chill may decrease reproductive effort in blackcurrant. Elevated winter temperatures tended to decrease stem freezing tolerance during cold acclimation and deacclimation, but it did not increase the risk of freeze-induced damage mid-winter. Plants at elevated temperature showed decreased levels of sucrose in stems of both cultivars and flower buds of ‘Narve Viking’, which, in buds, was associated with increased concentrations of glucose and fructose. Hence, winter warming influences carbohydrate metabolism, but it remains to be elucidated whether decreased sucrose levels account for any changes in freezing tolerance. Our results demonstrate that even a slight increase in winter temperature may alter phenological traits in blackcurrant, but to various extents depending on genotype-specific differences in chilling requirement. PMID:25802249

  17. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub.

    PubMed

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 °C in the air, +1.35 °C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October-April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost. Warming delayed dormancy release more in the cultivar 'Narve Viking' than in the cultivar 'Titania', but advanced budburst and flowering predominantly in 'Titania'. Since 'Narve Viking' has a higher chilling requirement than 'Titania', this indicates that, in high-chilling-requiring genotypes, dormancy responses may temper the effect of warming on spring phenology. Winter warming significantly reduced fruit yield the following summer in both cultivars, corroborating the hypothesis that a decline in winter chill may decrease reproductive effort in blackcurrant. Elevated winter temperatures tended to decrease stem freezing tolerance during cold acclimation and deacclimation, but it did not increase the risk of freeze-induced damage mid-winter. Plants at elevated temperature showed decreased levels of sucrose in stems of both cultivars and flower buds of 'Narve Viking', which, in buds, was associated with increased concentrations of glucose and fructose. Hence, winter warming influences carbohydrate metabolism, but it remains to be elucidated whether decreased sucrose levels account for any changes in freezing tolerance. Our results demonstrate that even a slight increase in winter temperature may alter phenological traits in blackcurrant, but to various extents depending on genotype-specific differences in chilling requirement. PMID:25802249

  18. Dormancy in potato tuber meristems: chemically induced cessation in dormancy matches the natural process based on transcript profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Campbell; Erika Segear; Lee Beers; Donna Knauber; Jeffrey Suttle

    2008-01-01

    Meristem dormancy in perennial plants is a developmental process that results in repression of metabolism and growth. The\\u000a cessation of dormancy results in rapid growth and should be associated with the production of nascent transcripts that encode\\u000a for gene products controlling for cell division and growth. Dormancy cessation was allowed to progress normally or was chemically\\u000a induced using bromoethane (BE),

  19. CARBOHYDRATES AFFECT DORMANCY AND GROWTH IN UNDERGROUND BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term “low-carb diet” is frequently mentioned by a health conscious society interested in reducing carbohydrate intake. What are carbohydrates? In general, carbohydrates are either simple sugars like glucose, fructose, and sucrose (table sugar) or complexes of sugars like starch. Carbohydrates ar...

  20. Dormancy in potato tuber meristems: chemically induced cessation in dormancy matches the natural process based on transcript profiles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael; Segear, Erika; Beers, Lee; Knauber, Donna; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Meristem dormancy in perennial plants is a developmental process that results in repression of metabolism and growth. The cessation of dormancy results in rapid growth and should be associated with the production of nascent transcripts that encode for gene products controlling for cell division and growth. Dormancy cessation was allowed to progress normally or was chemically induced using bromoethane (BE), and microarray analysis was used to demonstrate changes in specific transcripts in response to dormancy cessation before a significant increase in cell division. Comparison of normal dormancy cessation to BE-induced dormancy cessation revealed a commonality in both up and downregulated transcripts. Many transcripts that decrease as dormancy terminates are inducible by abscisic acid particularly in the conserved BURP domain proteins, which include the RD22 class of proteins and in the storage protein patatin. Transcripts that are associated with an increase in expression encoded for proteins in the oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family. We conclude that BE-induced cessation of dormancy initiates transcript profiles similar to the natural processes that control dormancy. PMID:18317824

  1. Subtractive cDNA libraries identify differentially expressed genes in dormant and growing buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula).

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying; Anderson, James V; Horvath, David P; Gu, Yong-Qiang; Lym, Rodney G; Chao, Wun S

    2006-05-01

    Two subtractive cDNA libraries were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy (reverse library) and initiation of shoot growth (forward library) in leafy spurge. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, 15744 clones were screened to reduce the level of redundancy within both libraries. A total of 516 unique sequences were obtained from 2304 minimally redundant clones. Radioactive probes developed from RNAs extracted from crown buds of either intact (para-dormant control) or a series of growth-induced (2 h, 2, and 4 d after decapitation) plants were used to identify differentially expressed genes by macroarray analysis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm results obtained by macroarray analysis and to determine the expression profiles for other transcripts identified within the subtractive libraries. Selected clones were also used to examine gene expression in crown buds after growth induction and/or during normal seasonal growth. In this study, four distinct patterns of gene expression were observed during the transition from para-dormancy to growth-induction. Many of the differentially regulated genes identified have unknown or hypothetical functions while others are known to play important roles in molecular functions. Gene ontology analysis identified a greater proportion of genes involved with catalytic activity in the forward library while the reverse library had a greater proportion of genes involved in DNA/RNA binding. PMID:16786310

  2. School of Law Entrance Scholarships SCHOOL OF LAW ENTRANC E SCHOLARSHIP REGULATI ONS FOR 2009

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    School of Law Entrance Scholarships SCHOOL OF LAW ENTRANC E SCHOLARSHIP REGULATI ONS FOR 2009 BACKGROUND The School of Law Entrance Scholarships were established by the School of Law to assist students with the cost of studying in their first year of law at the University of Waikato. Up to five Scholarships

  3. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    PubMed

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  4. Models, mechanisms and clinical evidence for cancer dormancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso

    2007-01-01

    Patients with cancer can develop recurrent metastatic disease with latency periods that range from years even to decades. This pause can be explained by cancer dormancy, a stage in cancer progression in which residual disease is present but remains asymptomatic. Cancer dormancy is poorly understood, resulting in major shortcomings in our understanding of the full complexity of the disease. Here,

  5. Seed Dormancy of Rice: From Natural Variation to Underlying Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report updates our research progress on the natural variation of seed dormancy in rice (Oryza sativa). Ten quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been associated with variation in seed dormancy between the weedy rice line SS18-2 and the cultivated rice line EM93-1. SS18-2 contributes alleles delay...

  6. Dormancy-Status Pool Dynamics in Indian Ricegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides [Roem. & Schult] Barkworth) (Poaceae), a rangeland species native to western North America, is limited by persistent mechanical and physiological dormancy. We previously selected high (HD 3-15) and low-dormancy (LD 6-6) lines from the cv. Rimr...

  7. Limb bud and flank mesoderm have distinct "physical phenotypes" that may contribute to limb budding

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    Limb bud and flank mesoderm have distinct "physical phenotypes" that may contribute to limb budding 2008 Available online 20 June 2008 Keywords: Limb bud Surface tension Active response -smooth muscle actin Limb bud outgrowth in chicken embryos is initiated during the third day of development

  8. 1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ENTRANCE SIGN IS IN TREES IN CENTER. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  9. Candidate Cave Entrances on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Glen

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visiblewavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  10. LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) SEED DORMANCY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces asexually through adventitious vegetative buds and sexually by seed. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 yr. The objectives of this research were to identify seed components which restrict germination and to determine if afterri...

  11. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL; Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Steinweg, Jessica M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here, we enhanced the Microbial-Enzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, i.e., MEND with dormancy and MEND without dormancy, against long-term (270 d) lab incubations of four soils with isotopically-labeled substrates. MEND without dormancy adequately fitted multiple observations (total and 14C respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. The MEND with dormancy improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20 71% over the MEND without dormancy. We observed large differences for two fitted model parameters, the specific maintenance and growth rates for active microbes, depending on whether dormancy was considered. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with observations in multiple carbon pools are necessary to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  12. Functional genomics of seed dormancy in wheat: advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Ayele, Belay T.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy is a mechanism underlying the inability of viable seeds to germinate under optimal environmental conditions. To achieve rapid and uniform germination, wheat and other cereal crops have been selected against dormancy. As a result, most of the modern commercial cultivars have low level of seed dormancy and are susceptible to preharvest sprouting when wet and moist conditions occur prior to harvest. As it causes substantial loss in grain yield and quality, preharvest sprouting is an ever-present major constraint to the production of wheat. The significance of the problem emphasizes the need to incorporate an intermediate level of dormancy into elite wheat cultivars, and this requires detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of seed dormancy and preharvest sprouting. Seed dormancy research in wheat often involves after-ripening, a period of dry storage during which seeds lose dormancy, or comparative analysis of seeds derived from dormant and non-dormant cultivars. The increasing development in wheat genomic resources along with the application of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics approaches in studying wheat seed dormancy have extended our knowledge of the mechanisms acting at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Recent progresses indicate that some of the molecular mechanisms are associated with hormonal pathways, epigenetic regulations, targeted oxidative modifications of seed mRNAs and proteins, redox regulation of seed protein thiols, and modulation of translational activities. Given that preharvest sprouting is closely associated with seed dormancy, these findings will significantly contribute to the designing of efficient strategies for breeding preharvest sprouting tolerant wheat. PMID:25309557

  13. Stratification Requirements for Seed Dormancy Alleviation in a Wetland Weed

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Louis G.; Bradford, Kent J.; Fischer, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (?) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base ? and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at ??=?0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that ? contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence. PMID:24039714

  14. Bud4 mediates the cell-type-specific assembly of the axial landmark in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Pil Jung; Angerman, Elizabeth; Jung, Chan-Hun; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select a site for polarized growth in a specific pattern depending on cell type. Haploid a and ? cells bud in the axial budding pattern, which depends on a transient marker and requires proteins Bud3, Bud4, Axl1 and Axl2. Here, we report that Bud4 functions as a platform that mediates the ordered assembly of the axial landmark at the division site during M and early G1 phase. Whereas Bud4 associates with Bud3 in all cell types and in the absence of Axl1 or Axl2, Bud4 interacts with Axl1 and Axl2 mainly in haploid cells and only in the presence of all other components of the landmark. Bud4 can bind to GTP or GDP, and a GTP-binding-defective Bud4 fails to interact with Axl1 in vitro. The same bud4 mutation leads to mis-localization of Axl1 and disrupts the axial budding pattern, indicating that GTP binding to Bud4 is important for its role in bud-site selection. We also show the cell-type-specific association of the axial landmark with Bud5, a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rsr1. Despite their expression in all cell types, Bud4 and Axl2 associate with Bud5 specifically in haploid cells and in the presence of Axl1, whose expression is limited to a and ? cells. Together, our findings suggest that Bud4 plays a critical role in the assembly of the axial landmark and its link to the Rsr1 GTPase module. PMID:22553209

  15. New entrance shade design for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A new design for the entrance shade for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is presented. The evolution of the entrance shade began with a simple frustum, symmetrical about the telescope axis, when SIRTF was expected to be Shuttle-attached. With the change to a free-flying SIRTF this frustum was cut off at an angle. The telescope will be operated so that whenever not in the earth's shadow the high side is kept toward the sun. However, the entrance shade interior itself will be so warm that the optics, including the secondary mirror and its mechanisms and support structure, will be restricted to the rear part of the barrel, termed the aftbaffle, which is shaded from the interior of the entrance shade by the forebaffle. This is best accomplished by the most recent design in which the axis of the entrance shade is offset from the telescope axis. This results in a shorter entrance shade, shorter forebaffle, and a shaded region within the barrel which is symmetrical about the telescope axis. All of these are advantageous.

  16. CHEMICALLY FORCED DORMANCY TERMINATION MIMICS NATURAL DORMANCY PROGRESSION IN POTATO TUBER MERISTEMS BY REDUCING ABA LEVELS AND MODIFYING EXPRESSION OF GENES INVOLVED IN REGULATING ABA CONTENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of potato tuber dormancy depends on both the genotype and environmental conditions during growth and storage. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to play a critical role in tuber dormancy control but the mechanisms regulating ABA content during dormancy as well as the sites of ABA synthesi...

  17. MAIN CAMPUS ENTRANCE SIGNS Monika Furch and Michele

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    MAIN CAMPUS ENTRANCE SIGNS Monika Furch and Michele Deskin. Physical Facilities Main Campus Entrance designers. #12;MAIN CAMPUS ENTRANCE SIGN The project was designed with the following goals to emphasize signage for night time viewing Frame the main entrance to Binghamton University to welcome

  18. PennAccess: David Rittenhouse Laboratory Entrance Information

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Card with the building administrator. This entrance is level with the elevator. 2. The south entrance has an automatic floor auditoriums A1-A8. This entrance is level only to the upper areas of the auditoriums. The elevator which leads to the nearby elevators and the first floor corridors. #12;4. The main entrance from 33rd St

  19. The epigenetic/noncoding origin of tumor dormancy.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Nur Saidy, Nur Ridzwan; Collins, Colin C; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2015-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of treatment resistance and metastasis, which are the most deadly features of a neoplasm. However, an unequivocal definition of the CSC phenotype is still missing. A common feature of normal and aberrant stem cells is their ability to enter a prolonged dormant state. Cancer dormancy is a key mechanism for treatment resistance and metastasis. Here we propose a unified definition of dormancy-competent CSCs (DCCs) as the neoplastic subpopulation that can plastically alternate periods of dormancy and rapid growth. Irreversible DNA mutations can hardly account for this versatile behavior, and based on emerging evidence we propose that cancer dormancy is a nongenetic disease driven by the flexible nature of the epigenetic/noncoding interactome. PMID:25771096

  20. The perivascular niche regulates breast tumor dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R.; Evason, Kimberley J.; Brazier, Hélène; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Chen, Emily I.; Lyden, David

    2013-01-01

    In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what ‘wakes them up’, are fundamental problems in tumor biology. To address these questions, we utilized metastasis assays in mice to show that dormant DTCs reside upon microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-?1 and periostin as tumor-promoting, endothelial tip cell-derived factors. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a ‘dormant niche,’ whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

  1. Bacterial Persister Cell Formation and Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Knabel, Stephen J.; Kwan, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cells may escape the effects of antibiotics without undergoing genetic change; these cells are known as persisters. Unlike resistant cells that grow in the presence of antibiotics, persister cells do not grow in the presence of antibiotics. These persister cells are a small fraction of exponentially growing cells (due to carryover from the inoculum) but become a significant fraction in the stationary phase and in biofilms (up to 1%). Critically, persister cells may be a major cause of chronic infections. The mechanism of persister cell formation is not well understood, and even the metabolic state of these cells is debated. Here, we review studies relevant to the formation of persister cells and their metabolic state and conclude that the best model for persister cells is still dormancy, with the latest mechanistic studies shedding light on how cells reach this dormant state. PMID:24038684

  2. Bacterial persister cell formation and dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas K; Knabel, Stephen J; Kwan, Brian W

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cells may escape the effects of antibiotics without undergoing genetic change; these cells are known as persisters. Unlike resistant cells that grow in the presence of antibiotics, persister cells do not grow in the presence of antibiotics. These persister cells are a small fraction of exponentially growing cells (due to carryover from the inoculum) but become a significant fraction in the stationary phase and in biofilms (up to 1%). Critically, persister cells may be a major cause of chronic infections. The mechanism of persister cell formation is not well understood, and even the metabolic state of these cells is debated. Here, we review studies relevant to the formation of persister cells and their metabolic state and conclude that the best model for persister cells is still dormancy, with the latest mechanistic studies shedding light on how cells reach this dormant state. PMID:24038684

  3. Using Generic Data to Establish Dormancy Failure Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reistle, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Many hardware items are dormant prior to being operated. The dormant period might be especially long, for example during missions to the moon or Mars. In missions with long dormant periods the risk incurred during dormancy can exceed the active risk contribution. Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) need to account for the dormant risk contribution as well as the active contribution. A typical method for calculating a dormant failure rate is to multiply the active failure rate by a constant, the dormancy factor. For example, some practitioners use a heuristic and divide the active failure rate by 30 to obtain an estimate of the dormant failure rate. To obtain a more empirical estimate of the dormancy factor, this paper uses the recently updated database NPRD-2011 [1] to arrive at a set of distributions for the dormancy factor. The resulting dormancy factor distributions are significantly different depending on whether the item is electrical, mechanical, or electro-mechanical. Additionally, this paper will show that using a heuristic constant fails to capture the uncertainty of the possible dormancy factors.

  4. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Sun, Ming; Du, Dongliang; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum. Results The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated) were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated) were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT) as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum. Conclusion This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of flower-time regulation, breeding and molecular biology in chrysanthemum. PMID:26009891

  5. Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

    2000-01-01

    Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

  6. Main Entrance Medical College of Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    to the 2nd floor and exit left Directions to the Medical College of WI Office of Technology DevelopmentMain Entrance 2nd Floor Medical College of Wisconsin Lobby 1st Floor Take elevators to the 2nd Floor Elevator #1 Elevator #2 Elevator #1 Elevator #2 Carpet Ends Office of Technology Development (OTD

  7. Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    (permit holders only)P Visitor car parking only. Visitors must display a visitor parking permit)P Visitor car parking only. Visitors must display a visitor parking permit in their car, which they can B Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops Controlled parking areas (permit holders only)P Visitor car

  8. Gas leak through ultrathin radiation entrance windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veli-Pekka Viitanen; Heini Harvela

    1995-01-01

    The permeation rates through an ultrathin radiation entrance window membrane have been measured for several common detector gas components, as well as for some atmospheric gases, by collecting the permeated gas into a clean volume equipped with an absolute pressure transducer. The dependence of the leak rate on the differential pressure (1.0 bar in most of the measurements) has also

  9. Entrance Maze Locations Storage Ring Tunnel

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    Entrance Maze Locations for the Storage Ring Tunnel Martin Knott LS-83 2/17/87 The Purpose and the storage ring tunnel (and to the tunnel roof as well) at a point between the two RF cavities (see Figure 2). The remaining infield-side maze, which gives egress directly to the outside (and tunnel roof), was located

  10. For September 2014 Entrance Waseda University

    E-print Network

    Kaji, Hajime

    Science and Engineering Sub-Program in Pure and Applied Mathematics Department of Mathematics Department Sustainable Development Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering Sub-Program in International EnvironmentalFor September 2014 Entrance Waseda University School of Fundamental Science and Engineering School

  11. EARLY-AGE ENTRANCE TO FIRST GRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONSALL, MARCELLA; AND OTHERS

    THREE AREAS WERE CONSIDERED IN "EARLY-AGE ENTRANCE TO FIRST GRADE." FIRST, A LIST OF BACKGROUND MATERIALS USED INCLUDED SENATE NUMBER 723, DELORES DURKIN'S "CHILDREN WHO LEARNED TO READ AT HOME," AND "AN EARLIER START IN READING," JAMES R. HOBSON'S "HIGH SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF UNDERAGE PUPILS INITIALLY ADMITTED TO KINDERGARTEN ON THE BASIS OF…

  12. The BUD4 protein of yeast, required for axial budding, is localized to the mother\\/BUD neck in a cell cycle-dependent manner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia L. Sanders; Ira Herskowitz

    1996-01-01

    a and a cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cere- visiae exhibit an axial budding pattern, whereas aJot dip- loid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. Mutations in BUD3, BUD4, and AXL1 cause a and ~ cells to exhibit the bi- polar pattern, indicating that these genes are necessary to specify the axial budding pattern (Chant, J., and I. Herskowitz. 1991. Cell.

  13. Rapid and Effective Germination Methods for Overcoming Seed Dormancy in Annual Canarygrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Matus-Cádiz; P. Hucl

    2005-01-01

    Mediterranean climates (P. aquatica) (Carlson et al., 1996). Dormancy in pedigreed Phalaris seed can lead to unsatisfactory Seed dormancy, thetemporary failure of aviable seed germination in seed testing. The objective was to determine the effec- to germinate (Simpson, 1990), reduces germination per- tiveness of recommended germination methods in overcoming seed dormancy in annual canarygrass (P. canariensis L.). In 2003, 'CDC

  14. A simulation model for seasonal changes in dormancy and germination of weed seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Vleeshouwers; H. J. Bouwmeester

    2001-01-01

    A model has been developed to simulate the annual dormancy cycle of seeds of light-requiring species in the seed bank and the germination of exhumed seeds after irradiation. Simulation of dormancy and germination is based on a physiological model concerning the action of phytochrome in the seed. Dormancy is related to the amount of a hypothetical phytochrome receptor, which fluctuates

  15. Studies on genotypic variability and seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a great drawback and causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower for which great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes showed a large variability in dormancy. Few near...

  16. The Mechanisms of Vesicle Budding and Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan S. Bonifacino; Benjamin S. Glick

    2004-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical analyses of the secretory pathway have produced a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms involved in selective cargo transport between organelles. This transport occurs by means of vesicular intermediates that bud from a donor compartment and fuse with an acceptor compartment. Vesicle budding and cargo selection are mediated by protein coats, while vesicle targeting and fusion depend

  17. Dormancy contributes to the maintenance of microbial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stuart E.; Lennon, Jay T.

    2010-01-01

    Dormancy is a bet-hedging strategy used by a variety of organisms to overcome unfavorable environmental conditions. By entering a reversible state of low metabolic activity, dormant individuals become members of a seed bank, which can determine community dynamics in future generations. Although microbiologists have documented dormancy in both clinical and natural settings, the importance of seed banks for the diversity and functioning of microbial communities remains untested. Here, we develop a theoretical model demonstrating that microbial communities are structured by environmental cues that trigger dormancy. A molecular survey of lake ecosystems revealed that dormancy plays a more important role in shaping bacterial communities than eukaryotic microbial communities. The proportion of dormant bacteria was relatively low in productive ecosystems but accounted for up to 40% of taxon richness in nutrient-poor systems. Our simulations and empirical data suggest that regional environmental cues and dormancy synchronize the composition of active communities across the landscape while decoupling active microbes from the total community at local scales. Furthermore, we observed that rare bacterial taxa were disproportionately active relative to common bacterial taxa, suggesting that microbial rank-abundance curves are more dynamic than previously considered. We propose that repeated transitions to and from the seed bank may help maintain the high levels of microbial biodiversity that are observed in nearly all ecosystems. PMID:20231463

  18. Abscisic Acid Levels and Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Tzou, D. S.; Galson, Eva C.

    1968-01-01

    Dormant seeds from Fraxinus species require cold-temperature after-ripening prior to germination. Earlier, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) will inhibit germination of excised nondormant embryos and that this can be reversed with a combination of gibberellic acid and kinetin. Using Milborrow's quantitative “racemate dilution” method the ABA concentration in 3 types of Fraxinus seed and pericarp were determined. While ABA was present in all tissues, the highest concentration was found in the seed and pericarp of dormant F. americana. During the chilling treatment of F. americana the ABA levels decreased 37% in the pericarp and 68% in the seed. The ABA concentration of the seed of the nondormant species, F. ornus, is as low as that found in F. americana seeds after cold treatment. Experiments with exogenously added ABA solutions indicate that it is unlikely that the ABA in the pericarp functions in the regulation of seed dormancy. However, the ABA in the seed does seem to have a regulatory role in germination. Images PMID:16656935

  19. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL PAVILION, WITH SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND ENGINE HOUSE BEYOND - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE STATION. NOTE ENTRANCE STATION IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NW. (SAME AS CA-300-7.) - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. 57. POWDER MAGAZINE, DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST FRONT ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. POWDER MAGAZINE, DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST FRONT ENTRANCE TO ACESS PASSAGE TO MAGAZINES FROM INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE SHOWING VENTILATION WINDOWS (BARRED) FLANKING ENTRANCE DOOR (OPEN). NOTE ACCESS PASSAGE TO ADJOING MAGAZINE. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE WORK, AND GATE STOP FROM SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST ELEMENTS. - William Enston Home, Entrance Gate, 900 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  3. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Maine's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  4. PennAccess: John Morgan Building Entrance Information

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    PennAccess: John Morgan Building Entrance Information: 3620 Hamilton Walk . Philadelphia . PA and third floors of John Morgan Building. This entrance is located off Hamilton Walk on the north side. This entrance should be used when approaching John Morgan Building from the east side of the building. 2

  5. Do Conditions During Dormancy Influence Germination of Suaeda maritima?

    PubMed Central

    Wetson, Anne M.; Cassaniti, Carla; Flowers, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of annual halophytes such as Suaeda maritima experience fluctuating salinity, hydration, hypoxia and temperature during dormancy. Germination then occurs in one flush of 2–3 weeks after about 5 months of winter dormancy during which time the seeds can remain in saline, often waterlogged soil. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated natural conditions during dormancy on germination and to compare this with germination following the usual conditions of storing seeds dry. The effects of hydration, salinity, hypoxia and temperature regimes imposed during dormancy on germination were investigated. Also looked at were the effects of seed size on germination and the interaction between salinity during dormancy and salinity at the time of germination. Methods Various pre-treatments were imposed on samples of seeds that had been stored dry or wet for different periods of time during the 5 months of natural dormancy. Subsequent germination tests were carried out in conditions that simulated those found in the spring when germination occurs naturally. Various salinities were imposed at germination for a test of interaction between storage salinity and salinity at germination. Key Results A temperature of about 15 °C was needed for germination and large seeds germinated earlier and better than small seeds. Cold seawater pre-treatment was necessary for good germination; the longer the saline pre-treatment during the natural dormancy period the better the germination. There appeared to be no effect of any specific ion of the seawater pre-treatment on germination and severe hypoxia did not prevent good germination. A short period of freezing stimulated early germination in dry-stored seed. Storage in cold saline or equivalent osmotic medium appeared to inhibit germination during the natural dormancy period and predispose the seed to germinate when the temperature rose and the salinity fell. Seeds that were stored in cold wet conditions germinated better in saline conditions than those stored dry. Conclusions The conditions under which seeds of S. maritima are stored affect their subsequent germination. Under natural conditions seeds remain dormant in highly saline, anoxic mud and then germinate when the temperature rises above about 15 °C and the salinity is reduced. PMID:18369238

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Variant allometric scaling relationships between bud size

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Variant allometric scaling relationships between bud size and secondary shoot growth populations of contrasting climates are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that bud size and stem area, apical bud mass, and number of buds) were measured in ten trees per site, and the relationships

  7. Control of bud activation by an auxin transport switch

    E-print Network

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Control of bud activation by an auxin transport switch Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicza,1 , Scott of buds yield branches. Both the timing and extent of bud activation are tightly regulated to produce buds. This process is termed apical dominance and is dependent on the plant hormone auxin moving down

  8. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 ?L L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  9. BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA AND ARROWLEAF BALSAMROOT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Sexton

    Echinacea angustifolia and arrowleaf ba1samroot are valuable native plants that are difficult to germinate. Three hormones (kinetin, gibberelic acid, and ethylene) were tested along with a potassium nitrate treatment to evaluate their effect on breaking seed dormancy. Germination of E. angustifolia responded very strongly to treatment with ethephon (a source of ethylene), though field emergence was poorer than one would

  10. Scarification and Germination Treatments Break Dormancy of Rubus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Rubus exhibits morphological diversity and a wide range of reproductive systems and habitats. Seeds of blackberry (subgenus Rubus) and raspberry (subg. Idaeobatus) have a deep dormancy caused by one or more mechanisms. Rubus seeds are normally enclosed in a hard schlerenchymatous endocar...

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Environmental control of ovarian dormancy in natural

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    and Gilbert 1990; Williams and Sokolowski 1993; Tatar et al. 2001; Williams et al. 2006). However melanogaster Kevin J. Emerson Æ Alison M. Uyemura Æ Keely L. McDaniel Æ Paul S. Schmidt Æ William E. Bradshaw Æ tempera- tures promote ovarian dormancy in Canton-S females (Saunders and Gilbert 1990). To date

  12. Primary and Secondary Dormancy in Lomatium Dissectum Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacklyn Donahue; Michelle Perez

    2009-01-01

    Lomatium Dissectum (Apiaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant of wide distribution in Western North America. At the time of dispersal, L. dissectum seeds are dormant and have underdeveloped embryos. We investigated the environmental requirements for dormancy break and embryo growth. The embryos elongated between five and seven fold inside the seeds over several weeks of cold stratification. Embryo growth prior

  13. Observed limit of Solanum jamesii tuber dormancy at 14 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. We previously reported (AJPR 87:226-228) that tubers of greenhouse-grown Solanum jamesii from 1999 sprouted after 8+ years of storage in a continuous 40F (5C) cooler. One populat...

  14. Breaking seed dormancy of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season grass identified as a model species for bioenergy feedstock. Established switchgrass stand are very resilient to environmental fluctuations, however, seed dormancy and weak seedling vigor make establishment difficult. Seeds with high leve...

  15. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S.; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A.; Vessella, Robert L.; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis. PMID:26090669

  16. RESEARCH Open Access Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity

    E-print Network

    Snow, Allison A.

    in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal sorghum for dormancy and longevity and their response to varying levels of temperature and moisture and persistence in the soil. Wild sorghum seed was collected from different geographical regions in Ethiopia

  17. Apoptosis in mouse taste buds after denervation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Takeda; Yuko Suzuki; Nobuko Obara; Yasuko Nagai

    1996-01-01

    .   Apoptotic cells in the taste buds of mouse circumvallate papillae after the sectioning of bilateral glossopharyngeal nerves\\u000a were examined by the method of DNA nick-end labeling (TUNEL), together with standard electron microscopy. The taste buds decreased\\u000a in number and size 3–11 days after denervation and disappeared at 11 days. The TUNEL method revealed only a few positively\\u000a stained nuclei

  18. The BUD4 protein of yeast, required for axial budding, is localized to the mother/BUD neck in a cell cycle-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A and alpha cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit an axial budding pattern, whereas a/alpha diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. Mutations in BUD3, BUD4, and AXL1 cause a and alpha cells to exhibit the bipolar pattern, indicating that these genes are necessary to specify the axial budding pattern (Chant, J., and I. Herskowitz. 1991. Cell. 65:1203-1212; Fujita, A., C. Oka, Y. Arikawa, T. Katagi, A. Tonouchi, S. Kuhara, and Y. Misumi. 1994. Nature (Lond.). 372:567-570). We cloned and sequenced BUD4, which codes for a large, novel protein (Bud4p) with a potential GTP-binding motif. Bud4p is expressed and localized to the mother/bud neck in all cell types. Most mitotic cells contain two apparent rings of Bud4 immunoreactive staining, as observed for Bud3p (Chant, J., M. Mischke, E. Mitchell, I. Herskowitz, and J.R. Pringle. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 129: 767-778). Early G1 cells contain a single ring of Bud4p immunoreactive staining, whereas cells at START and in S phase lack these rings. The level of Bud4p is also regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Bud4p is inefficiently localized in bud3 mutants and after a temperature shift of a temperature-sensitive mutant, cdc12, defective in the neck filaments. These observations suggest that Bud4p and Bud3p cooperate to recognize a spatial landmark (the neck filaments) during mitosis and support the hypothesis that they subsequently become a landmark for establishing the axial budding pattern in G1. PMID:8707826

  19. A study of entrances to expressways

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Albert Williamson

    1956-01-01

    that they present, Accidents occurring on controlled access freeways can usually be put into two general classifications: the single car and the rear-end types. It is difficult for designers and traffic engineers to eliminate the single car accident, since.... In Dallas the accident reports contained ~ sketch of the location of the accident and the relative positions of the vehicles involved, It is possible that a vehicle darting suddenly from an entrance ramp into the traffic stream might be the cause of a...

  20. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds.

    PubMed

    Do?ramac?, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Christoffers, Michael J; Anderson, James V

    2011-12-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo-, and ecodormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration stress on vegetative growth and flowering potential from endodormant UABs of leafy spurge was monitored. Further, microarray analysis was used to identify critical signaling pathways of transcriptome profiles associated with endodormancy maintenance in UABs. Surprisingly, only 3-day of dehydration stress is required to break the endodormant phase in UABs; however, the dehydration-stress treatment did not induce flowering. Previous studies have shown that prolonged cold treatment of UABs breaks endodormancy and induces a vernalization response leading to flowering. Thus, in this study, comparing transcriptome data from UABs exposed to short-term dehydration and vernalization provided a unique approach to identify overlapping molecular mechanisms involved in endodormancy maintenance and floral competence. Analysis of transcriptome data associated with breaking endodormancy by both environmental treatments identified LEC1, PHOTOSYSTEM I RC, and brassinosteroids as common central hubs of upregulated genes, while DREB1A, CBF2, GPA1, MYC2, bHLH, BZIP, and flavonoids were identified as common central hubs of downregulated genes. The majority of over-represented gene sets common to breaking endodormancy by dehydration stress and vernalization were downregulated and included pathways involved in hormone signaling, chromatin modification, and circadian rhythm. Additionally, the over-represented gene sets highlighted pathways involved in starch and sugar degradation and biogenesis of carbon skeletons, suggesting a high metabolic activity is necessary during the endodormant phase. The data presented in this study helped to refine our previous model for dormancy regulation. PMID:21789635

  1. Phylogeny of seed dormancy in Convolvulaceae, subfamily Convolvuloideae (Solanales)

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, K. M. G. Gehan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Geneve, Robert L.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The water gap is an important morphoanatomical structure in seeds with physical dormancy (PY). It is an environmental signal detector for dormancy break and the route of water into the non-dormant seed. The Convolvulaceae, which consists of subfamilies Convolvuloideae (11 tribes) and Humbertoideae (one tribe, monotypic Humberteae), is the only family in the asterid clade known to produce seeds with PY. The primary aim of this study was to compare the morphoanatomical characteristics of the water gap in seeds of species in the 11 tribes of the Convolvuloideae and to use this information, and that on seed dormancy and storage behaviour, to construct a phylogenetic tree of seed dormancy for the subfamily. Methods Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define morphological changes in the hilum area during dormancy break; hand and vibratome sections were taken to describe the anatomy of the water gap, hilum and seed coat; and dye tracking was used to identify the initial route of water entry into the non-dormant seed. Results were compared with a recent cladogram of the family. Key Results Species in nine tribes have (a) layer(s) of palisade cells in the seed coat, a water gap and orthodox storage behaviour. Erycibe (Erycibeae) and Maripa (Maripeae) do not have a palisade layer in the seed coat or a water gap, and are recalcitrant. The hilar fissure is the water gap in relatively basal Cuscuteae, and bulges adjacent to the micropyle serve as the water gap in the Convolvuloideae, Dicranostyloideae (except Maripeae) and the Cardiochlamyeae clades. Seeds from the Convolvuloideae have morphologically prominent bulges demarcated by cell shape in the sclereid layer, whereas the Dicranostyloideae and Cardiochlamyeae have non-prominent bulges demarcated by the number of sub-cell layers. The anatomy and morphology of the hilar pad follow the same pattern. Conclusions PY in the subfamily Convolvuloideae probably evolved in the aseasonal tropics from an ancestor with recalcitrant non-dormant seeds, and it may have arisen as Convolvulaceae radiated to occupy the seasonal tropics. Combinational dormancy may have developed in seeds of some Cuscuta spp. as this genus moved into temperate habitats. PMID:19074450

  2. View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east entrance to Flume Tunnel #2. In foreground, covered decking (covered by debris) protects the flume below it (not visible). The extreme top of the tunnel entrance is visible in the middle of the picture, just beyond the covered decking. This is typical of gravity tunnel entrances and the only photograph representing these features in the system. Looking south - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Tunnel No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  6. 3. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY S. Lucas, Photographer, 1934 ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY S. Lucas, Photographer, 1934 ENTRANCE DETAIL. OFFICERS' QUARTERS. DETROIT ARSENAL. DEARBORN. MICHIGAN. - Detroit Arsenal, Officers' Quarters, 21950 Michigan Avenue, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  7. SOUTH ELEVATION, VIEW CONCENTRATING ON INDEPENDENCE AVENUE ENTRANCE, TAKEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION, VIEW CONCENTRATING ON INDEPENDENCE AVENUE ENTRANCE, TAKEN FROM STREET LEVEL - Smithsonian Institution, Arts & Industries Building, 900 Jefferson Drive Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Perspective view of east entrance from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east entrance from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Seed after-ripening and dormancy determine adult life history independently of germination timing.

    PubMed

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Kovach, Katherine; Dittmar, Emily; Barua, Deepak; Barco, Brenden; Donohue, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    • Seed dormancy can affect life history through its effects on germination time. Here, we investigate its influence on life history beyond the timing of germination. • We used the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to chilling at the germination and flowering stages to test the following: how seed dormancy affects germination responses to the environment; whether variation in dormancy affects adult phenology independently of germination time; and whether environmental cues experienced by dormant seeds have an effect on adult life history. • Dormancy conditioned the germination response to low temperatures, such that prolonged periods of chilling induced dormancy in nondormant seeds, but stimulated germination in dormant seeds. The alleviation of dormancy through after-ripening was associated with earlier flowering, independent of germination date. Experimental dormancy manipulations showed that prolonged chilling at the seed stage always induced earlier flowering, regardless of seed dormancy. Surprisingly, this effect of seed chilling on flowering time was observed even when low temperatures did not induce germination. • In summary, seed dormancy influences flowering time and hence life history independent of its effects on germination timing. We conclude that the seed stage has a pronounced effect on life history, the influence of which goes well beyond the timing of germination. PMID:22404637

  11. Maternal environment affects the genetic basis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2015-02-01

    The genetic basis of seed dormancy, a key life history trait important for adaptive evolution in plant populations, has yet been studied only using seeds produced under controlled conditions in greenhouse environments. However, dormancy is strongly affected by maternal environmental conditions, and interactions between seed genotype and maternal environment have been reported. Consequently, the genetic basis of dormancy of seeds produced under natural field conditions remains unclear. We examined the effect of maternal environment on the genetic architecture of seed dormancy using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Italy and Sweden. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for dormancy of seeds produced in the greenhouse and at the native field sites of the parental genotypes. The Italian genotype produced seeds with stronger dormancy at fruit maturation than did the Swedish genotype in all three environments, and the maternal field environments induced higher dormancy levels compared to the greenhouse environment in both genotypes. Across the three maternal environments, a total of nine dormancy QTL were detected, three of which were only detected among seeds matured in the field, and six of which showed significant QTL × maternal environment interactions. One QTL had a large effect on dormancy across all three environments and colocalized with the candidate gene DOG1. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the genetic basis of putatively adaptive traits under relevant conditions. PMID:25640699

  12. Mechanisms of disseminated cancer cell dormancy: an awakening field.

    PubMed

    Sosa, María Soledad; Bragado, Paloma; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A

    2014-09-01

    Metastases arise from residual disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). This can happen years after primary tumour treatment because residual tumour cells can enter dormancy and evade therapies. As the biology of minimal residual disease seems to diverge from that of proliferative lesions, understanding the underpinnings of this new cancer biology is key to prevent metastasis. Analysis of approximately 7 years of literature reveals a growing focus on tumour and normal stem cell quiescence, extracellular and stromal microenvironments, autophagy and epigenetics as mechanisms that dictate tumour cell dormancy. In this Review, we attempt to integrate this information and highlight both the weaknesses and the strengths in the field to provide a framework to understand and target this crucial step in cancer progression. PMID:25118602

  13. Virus Budding and the ESCRT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Jörg; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    Enveloped viruses escape infected cells by budding through limiting membranes. In the decade since the discovery that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) recruits cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery to facilitate viral budding, this pathway has emerged as the major escape route for enveloped viruses. In cells, the ESCRT pathway catalyzes the analogous membrane fission events required for the abscission stage of cytokinesis and for a series of “reverse topology” vesiculation events. Studies of enveloped virus budding are therefore providing insights into the complex cellular mechanisms of cell division and membrane protein trafficking (and vice versa). Here, we review how viruses mimic cellular recruiting signals to usurp the ESCRT pathway, discuss mechanistic models for ESCRT pathway functions, and highlight important research frontiers. PMID:24034610

  14. Dormancy phases in seeds of Verbascum thapsus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen A. Vanlerberghe; Jozef A. Van Assche

    1986-01-01

    Summary Seeds ofVerbascum thapsus were imbibed on filter papers in Petri dishes and were exposed to a series of temperatures of 4°C?10°C?20°C?10°C?4°C in darkness. After each temperature treatment lasting one month, samples were removed and tested in light and darkness over a range of alternating temperatures. The results showed us that the dormancy state changes gradually according to the imbibition

  15. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Sarath, Gautam; Baird, Lisa M; Mitchell, Robert B

    2014-03-01

    Perennial, temperate, C4 grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these species for biomass production on marginal lands, numerous aspects of their biology are as yet unexplored at the molecular level. Perenniality, a key agronomic trait, is a function of plant dormancy and winter survival of the below-ground parts of the plants. These include the crowns, rhizomes and meristems that will produce tillers. Maintaining meristem viability is critical for the continued survival of the plants. Plant tillers emerge from the dormant crown and rhizome meristems at the start of the growing period in the spring, progress through a phase of vegetative growth, followed by flowering and eventually undergo senescence. There is nutrient mobilization from the aerial portions of the plant to the crowns and rhizomes during tiller senescence. Signals arising from the shoots and from the environment can be expected to be integrated as the plants enter into dormancy. Plant senescence and dormancy have been well studied in several dicot species and offer a potential framework to understand these processes in temperate C4 perennial grasses. The availability of latitudinally adapted populations for switchgrass presents an opportunity to dissect molecular mechanisms that can impact senescence, dormancy and winter survival. Given the large increase in genomic and other resources for switchgrass, it is anticipated that projected molecular studies with switchgrass will have a broader impact on related species. PMID:24467906

  16. Dormancy cues alter insect temperature-size relationships.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Sharon F; Hahn, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Developmental temperatures can have dramatic effects on body size in ectotherms. Thermal plasticity in body size is often viewed in the context of seasonality, but the role of seasonal dormancy responses in generating temperature-size relationships is underappreciated. We used the moth Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) to examine how photoperiodic seasonal dormancy programming for pupal diapause affects the temperature-size relationship. Specifically, we partition out the contributions of somatic growth versus nutrient storage as fat to the thermal reaction norm for size. With increasing temperature from 16 °C to 20 °C, dormant pupae were both overall larger and progressively fatter than non-dormant pupae. This body mass response is likely driven by concurrent increases in food consumption and longer development times as temperatures increase. Our results demonstrate that seasonal photoperiodic cues can alter temperature-size relationships during pre-dormancy development. For biologists interested in seasonal effects on temperature-size relationships, our results suggest that the key to fully understanding these relationships may lie in integrating multiple seasonal cues and multiple aspects of body size and composition in a nutrient-allocation framework. PMID:25260999

  17. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity. PMID:12223597

  18. Physical dormancy in seeds: a game of hide and seek?

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Torbjørn Rage; Colville, Louise; Kranner, Ilse; Daws, Matthew I; Högstedt, Göran; Vandvik, Vigdis; Thompson, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Historically, 'physical dormancy', or 'hard seededness', where seeds are prevented from germinating by a water-impermeable seed coat, is viewed as a dormancy mechanism. However, upon water uptake, resumption of metabolism leads to the unavoidable release of volatile by-products, olfactory cues that are perceived by seed predators. Here, we examine the hypothesis that hard seeds are an anti-predator trait that evolved in response to powerful selection by small mammal seed predators. Seeds of two legume species with dimorphic seeds ('hard' and 'soft'), Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia sativa, were offered to desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) in a series of seed removal studies examining the differences in seed harvest between hard and soft seeds. Volatile compounds emitted by dry and imbibed soft seeds were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen main volatile compounds were identified, and hamsters readily detected both buried imbibed seeds and an artificial 'volatile cocktail' that mimicked the scent of imbibed seeds, but could not detect buried hard or dry soft seeds. We argue that physical dormancy has evolved to hide seeds from mammalian predators. This hypothesis also helps to explain some otherwise puzzling features of hard seeds and has implications for seed dispersal. PMID:23421728

  19. Activation of the Retroviral Budding Factor ALIX?†

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qianting; Landesman, Michael B.; Chung, Hyo-Young; Dierkers, Adam; Jeffries, Cy M.; Trewhella, Jill; Hill, Christopher P.; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular ALIX protein functions within the ESCRT pathway to facilitate intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. Here, we report that the C-terminal proline-rich region (PRR) of ALIX folds back against the upstream domains and auto-inhibits V domain binding to viral late domains. Mutations designed to destabilize the closed conformation of the V domain opened the V domain, increased ALIX membrane association, and enhanced virus budding. These observations support a model in which ALIX activation requires dissociation of the autoinhibitory PRR and opening of the V domain arms. PMID:21715492

  20. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control. PMID:26064777

  1. Physical Dormancy in Seeds of the Holoparasitic Angiosperm Cuscuta australis (Convolvulaceae, Cuscuteae): Dormancy-breaking Requirements, Anatomy of the Water Gap and Sensitivity Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, K. M. G. Gehan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Geneve, Robert L.; Baskin, Carol C.; Chien, Ching-Te

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Dormancy in seeds of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae, tribe Cuscuteae) is due to a water-impermeable seed coat (physical dormancy). In nondormant seeds of several species of this family, bulges adjacent to the micropyle have been identified as the initial route of water entry into seeds (water gap). However, there are claims that water enters seeds of Cuscuta spp. via the entire seed coat. Although several studies have been done on seed coat anatomy of Cuscuta, none has identified and/or characterized the morphology/anatomy of a water gap. Thus, the primary aim of this research was to identify and describe the morphology and anatomy of the water gap in seeds of Cuscuta australis. It was also determined if sensitivity cycling to dormancy-breaking treatments occurs in seeds of this species. Methods Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tissue-sectioning and dye-tracking and blocking experiments were used to investigate the morphology and anatomy of the water gap. Treatments simulating natural conditions were used to break seed dormancy. Storage of seeds at different temperatures was tested for their effect on sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatment. Key Results Dormancy-breaking treatments caused the tightly closed hilar fissure to open. Staining was observed in cells below the hilum area but not in those below the seed coat away from the hilum. Sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatment was induced by storing seeds dry and reduced by storing them wet. Conclusions Whereas bulges adjacent to the micropyle act as the water gap in other species of Convolvulaceae with physical dormancy, the hilar fissure serves this function in Cuscuta. Cuscuta australis can cycle between insensitivity ? sensitivity to dormancy-breaking treatments. PMID:18453546

  2. 12. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MAIN ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MAIN ENTRANCE LOOKING AT MAIN ENTRANCE TO TECHNICAL FACILITY, GROUND LEVEL. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 172. GENERAL VIEW OF APPROACHES TO BAE ENTRANCE. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    172. GENERAL VIEW OF APPROACHES TO BAE ENTRANCE. VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING THE BRIDGE CARRYING THE POST ROAD/ROUTE 1 OVER DAVISVILLE ROAD AND THE INTERSECTION WHERE THE ENTRANCES TO DAVISVILLE CBC AND QUONSET POINT NAS CONVERGE. SEABEE BEE MONUMENT VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  4. Investigation of permanent eddies in Dixon Entrance, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Crawford; Paul Greisman

    1987-01-01

    A unique couplet of basin-wide baroclinic eddies was observed in Dixon Entrance. These eddies were revealed in current meter observations, drifter tracks, and contours of dynamic heights derived from hydrographic measurements. Normally, in a coastal sea strait wider than the internal Rossby radius of deformation, the outflow of brackish water is on the right, looking seaward; but in Dixon Entrance

  5. 15. Interior view of main entrance hallway looking at opposite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of main entrance hallway looking at opposite entrance; showing display cases, cashier's window, and doors to public restrooms; near southeast corner of upper level; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess Hall & Administration Building, 1301 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  6. The induction of secondary seed dormancy by oxygen deficiency in a barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hon?k; Z. Martinková

    1992-01-01

    At 25°C, secondary dormancy was induced in seeds ofE. crus-galli exposed for 100 days to oxygen deficiency. By contrast, hypoxia did not induce dormancy at 15°C or prevent dormancy termination at 7°C. Secondary dormancy was terminated after 2 months stratification at 7°C. Oxygen deficiency may increase the proportion of dormant seeds in the soil, and affect the dynamics of the

  7. Rest and activity in vegetative buds of trees P. Champagnat

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rest and activity in vegetative buds of trees P. Champagnat Laboratoire de Phytomorphog6n6se instance low temperatures); in this case, the bud is called 'quiescent'; 2) correlative inhibitions exerted 'long distance correlative inhibitions (LOis)'; the apical dominance exerted by the terminal bud over

  8. Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast

    E-print Network

    Henikoff, Steven

    Tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin in budding yeast Kristina Krassovskya,b , Jorja G by nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant, whereas in budding yeast, a 120-bp centromere DNA element this is the case in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where each of the 16 centromeres consists of a 120

  9. Original article Latitudinal and altitudinal variation of bud burst

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Latitudinal and altitudinal variation of bud burst in western populations— Latitudinal and altitudinal variations of bud burst in western populations of sessile oak (Quer- cus petraea (Matt) Liebl) are examined. The phenology of bud burst in 50 populations of sessile oak has been studied

  10. Original article Structure and development of vegetative buds,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Structure and development of vegetative buds, from the lower crown of Picea abies in the development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) vege- tative buds in the lower crown position of 4 18-year-old free standing grafts in the climatic conditions of Poland are described. Bud awakening varies

  11. Original article Axillary bud proliferation of 2 North American

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Axillary bud proliferation of 2 North American oak species: Quercus alba rubra, northern red oak, were selected to devel- op in vitro plantlet regeneration methods from bud and embryo explants. Various hormonal combina- tions were applied to explants to induce axillary bud

  12. Vertebrate limb bud development: moving towards integrative analysis of organogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier López-Ríos; Aimée Zuniga; Rolf Zeller

    2009-01-01

    The limb bud is of paradigmatic value to understanding vertebrate organogenesis. Recent genetic analysis in mice has revealed the existence of a largely self-regulatory limb bud signalling system that involves many of the pathways that are known to regulate morphogenesis. These findings contrast with the prevailing view that the main limb bud axes develop largely independently of one another. In

  13. APICAL BUD STRENGTH TESTS AND TREE SWAY

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Strong apical dominance (Pyramid shape) Decurrent W k i l d i (R d h )Weak apical dominance (Round will require more energy to be broken than the sustained bud growth C ill b id i 2. Crown movements Corrections for low energy #12;10/27/2010 7 Measure and compare Crown movement during dormant and growing

  14. Bud building by septin patch hole punching.

    PubMed

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2013-07-29

    Small GTPase Cdc42 triggers polarity establishment in budding yeast. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Okada et al. (2013) combine in silico modeling and cell biology to show that Cdc42, septins, and the exocytosis pathway are integrated in a feedback system to define and insulate the site of polarity in the membrane. PMID:23906060

  15. The Protein Network of HIV Budding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uta K. von Schwedler; Melissa Stuchell; Barbara Müller; Diane M. Ward; Hyo-Young Chung; Eiji Morita; Hubert E. Wang; Thaylon Davis; Gong-Ping He; Daniel M. Cimbora; Anna Scott; Hans-Georg Kräusslich; Jerry Kaplan; Scott G. Morham; Wesley I. Sundquist

    2003-01-01

    HIV release requires TSG101, a cellular factor that sorts proteins into vesicles that bud into multivesicular bodies (MVB). To test whether other proteins involved in MVB biogenesis (the class E proteins) also participate in HIV release, we identified 22 candidate human class E proteins. These proteins were connected into a coherent network by 43 different protein-protein interactions, with AIP1 playing

  16. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  17. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. van Aardt; Roy E. Weber

    2010-01-01

    The survival strategies of frogs exposed to harsh conditions include various forms of dormancy. Giant bullfrogs Pyxicephalus adspersus subjected to slow desiccation without access to moist substrata over winter in cocoons during dormancy. We found that Pyxicephalus can survive long periods of dormancy in soil without forming cocoons. With virtually no information available on the associated respiratory adaptations, we measured

  18. The role of temperature in the regulation of dormancy and germination of two related summer-annual mudflat species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Brändel

    2004-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements were investigated in seeds (achenes) of the closely-related annuals Bidens cernua and Bidens tripartita (Asteraceae). They showed clear differences in their temperature requirements for germination, their dormancy and seed longevity in soil. In B. cernua seeds, primary dormancy was relieved when stratified at 3, 8, and 12°C, as seeds germinated to a maximum of more than

  19. Grain dormancy and light quality effects on germination in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of seed dormancy in cereal crops such as barley and wheat is a common problem affecting farming areas around the world, causing losses in yield and quality due to pre-harvest sprouting. Control of seed dormancy has been investigated extensively using various approaches in different species incl...

  20. Prolonged pupal dormancy is associated with significant fitness cost for adults of Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2012-08-01

    In temperate areas, dormancy (diapause and/or quiescence) enables herbivorous insect species to persist and thrive by synchronizing growth and reproduction with the seasonal phenology of their host plants. Within-population variability in dormancy increases survival chances under unpredictable environmental changes. However, prolonged dormancy may be costly, incurring trade-offs in important adult fitness traits such as life span and reproduction. We used the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi, a stenophagous, univoltine species that overwinters in the pupal stage for usually one or more years to test the hypotheses that prolonged dormancy of pupae has trade-offs with body size, survival and reproduction of the resulting adults. We used two geographically isolated populations of R. cerasi to compare the demographic traits of adults obtained from pupae subjected to one or two cycles of warm-cold periods (annual and prolonged dormancy respectively). Regardless of population, adults from pupae that experienced prolonged dormancy were larger than counterparts emerging within 1year. Prolonged dormancy did not affect adult longevity but both lifetime fecundity and oviposition were significantly decreased. Extension of the life cycle of some individuals in R. cerasi populations in association with prolonged dormancy is likely a bet-hedging strategy. PMID:22684113

  1. Genetic Variation of Seed Dormancy in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), has very strong seed dormancy and genes controlling the trait may be used in breeding programs to manipulate germinability of improved cultivars. Thus, this research was conducted to initiate a project to identify dormancy genes fro...

  2. Dormancy, germination, emergence and ecology of Gardner saltbush (Atriplex gardneri (Moq. ) D. Dietr. ) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansley; R. J. Jr

    1983-01-01

    Gardner saltbush (Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr.) provides valuable winter browse and is an important soil stabilizer in arid, alkaline, and saline areas of the intermountain region. However, seed dormancy and poor seedling vigor inhibit its potential for revegetation by direct seeding on disturbed lands. The objectives of this study were to 1) develop seed treatments which would overcome dormancy

  3. Positional cloning of a seed dormancy QTL from weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed weedy rice (SS-18-2) as a genetic system to investigate mechanisms regulating natural variation in seed dormancy. This included introduction of a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) enhancing seed dormancy into the non-dormant genetic background of cultivated rice (EM93-1) to clone and...

  4. Polyamines in dormancy breaking of tree seeds Z. Szczotka U. Lewandowska

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Polyamines in dormancy breaking of tree seeds Z. Szczotka U. Lewandowska Institute of Dendrology in the physiology of dormancy breaking of Acer platanoides and Fraxi- nus excelsior seeds (in the initial stage) has in the activity of other fundamental metabolic indicators; 2) re- cognition of the influence of polyamines on seed

  5. Environmental regulation of dormancy loss in seeds of Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Scholten; Jacklyn Donahue; Nancy L. Shaw; Marcelo D. Serpe

    2009-01-01

    †Background and Aims Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant of wide distribution in Western North America. At the time of dispersal, L. dissectum seeds are dormant and have under-developed embryos. The aims of this work were to determine the requirements for dormancy break and germination, to characterize the type of seed dormancy, and to determine the effect of

  6. Identification of seed dormancy for four populations derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a key adaptive trait for wild species and is also a major domestication-related trait for crop species. Cereal cultivars have been selected for rapid, uniform germination during domestication and breeding and consequently, they generally have an insufficient degree of seed dormancy ...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLS) FOR DORMANCY IN WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild oat is a wide spread weed causing substantial yield losses in small grain crops. Variable germination of seeds due to dormancy makes the control of wild oat difficult. Dormancy is a complex polygenic character with large influences of the environment on its expression. We are investigating gene...

  8. Seed mass and dormancy of annual plant populations and communities decreases with aridity and rainfall predictability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Harel; Claus Holzapfel; Marcelo Sternberg

    Several theoretical and empirical studies have examined the influence of environmental conditions on seed traits and germination strategies of annual species. A positive relationship between seed mass and dormancy has been described for annuals occupying climatically unpredictable ecosystems. Larger-seeded species tend to have higher seedling survival rates, while dormancy allows a bet-hedging strategy in unpredictable environments. Until now, these ideas

  9. DORMANCY GENES FROM WEEDY RICE RESPOND DIVERGENTLY TO SEED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes interacting with seed developmental environments control primary dormancy. To understand how a multigenic system evolved to adapt to the changing environments in weedy rice, we evaluated genetic components of three dormancy QTLs in a synchronized non-dormant genetic background. Two identical p...

  10. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Establishment of single visit entrance fees. 25.53 Section...Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit permits at a designated...

  11. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Establishment of single visit entrance fees. 25.53 Section...Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit permits at a designated...

  12. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Establishment of single visit entrance fees. 25.53 Section...Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit permits at a designated...

  13. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Establishment of single visit entrance fees. 25.53 Section...Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit permits at a designated...

  14. Identification of the Arabidopsis REDUCED DORMANCY 2 Gene Uncovers a Role for the Polymerase Associated Factor 1 Complex in Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Carles, Annaick; Li, Yong; Hörold, Anja; van Nocker, Steven; Soppe, Wim J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The life of a plant is characterized by major phase transitions. This includes the agriculturally important transitions from seed to seedling (germination) and from vegetative to generative growth (flowering induction). In many plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, freshly harvested seeds are dormant and incapable of germinating. Germination can occur after the release of dormancy and the occurrence of favourable environmental conditions. Although the hormonal control of seed dormancy is well studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction and release of dormancy are not yet understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the mutant reduced dormancy 2-1 (rdo2-1). We found that RDO2 is allelic to the recently identified dormancy gene TFIIS, which is a transcription elongation factor. HUB1, which was previously called RDO4, was identified in the same mutagenesis screen for reduced dormancy as rdo2-1 and was also shown to be involved in transcription elongation. The human homologues of RDO2 and HUB1 interact with the RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor 1 Complex (PAF1C). Therefore, we investigated the effect of other Arabidopsis PAF1C related factors; VIP4, VIP5, ELF7, ELF8 and ATXR7 on seed dormancy. Mutations in these genes resulted in reduced dormancy, similar to hub1-2 and rdo2-1. Consistent with a role at the end of seed maturation, we found that HUB1, RDO2 and VIP5 are upregulated during this developmental phase. Since mutants in PAF1C related factors are also described to be early flowering, we conclude that these components are involved in the regulation of both major developmental transitions in the plant. PMID:21799800

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of American Ginseng Seeds during the Dormancy Release Process by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Liao, Dengqun; Sun, Tongyu; Zhu, Juan; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an important herb that is cultivated in China, North American, and South Korea. It is propagated from seed, but the seed has deep dormancy characteristics described as morphophysiological dormancy. Two-stage temperature stratification, a warm (15–20°C) and cold (2°C) stratification period of 6 months, has been used successfully for seed dormancy release. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of seed dormancy release in the stratification process. In this study, seed development after pollination and seed development in the dormancy release process were investigated in American ginseng. The transcriptome during seed dormancy release was analyzed using RNA-Seq technology and 78,207 unigenes (mean length 531 bp) were generated. Based on similarity searches of public databases, 54,292 of the unigenes (69.4%) were functionally annotated. Further, three digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were sequenced and differences in gene expression at three stages during seed cold stratification were examined. The greatest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 90DCS versus 180DCS libraries, while the lowest number of differentially expressed genes occurred in the 135DCS verus 180DCS libraries. GO enrichment analysis revealed that 59, 29, and 39 GO terms were significantly enriched in the biological process, molecular function, and cell component GO categories, respectively. There were 25,190 genes with KEGG pathway annotation in the three DGE libraries and their enrichment pathways were compared. The gene expressions of 30 selected unigenes were validated using quantitative PCR. This study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequences for seed dormancy release in American ginseng, and demonstrates the successful use of DGE profiling data for analyzing transcriptomic variation during dormancy release. These data provide a basis for future researches of seed dormancy in morphophysiological dormancy seeds in non-model plants. PMID:25790114

  16. Environmental regulation of dormancy loss in seeds of Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Melissa; Donahue, Jacklyn; Shaw, Nancy L.; Serpe, Marcelo D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant of wide distribution in Western North America. At the time of dispersal, L. dissectum seeds are dormant and have under-developed embryos. The aims of this work were to determine the requirements for dormancy break and germination, to characterize the type of seed dormancy, and to determine the effect of dehydration after embryo growth on seed viability and secondary dormancy. Methods The temperature requirements for embryo growth and germination were investigated under growth chamber and field conditions. The effect of GA3 on embryo growth was also analysed to determine the specific type of seed dormancy. The effect of dehydration on seed viability and induction of secondary dormancy were tested in seeds where embryos had elongated about 4-fold their initial length. Most experiments examining the nature of seed dormancy were conducted with seeds collected at one site in two different years. To characterize the degree of variation in dormancy-breaking requirements among seed populations, the stratification requirements of seeds collected at eight different sites were compared. Key Results Embryo growth prior to and during germination occurred at temperatures between 3 and 6 °C and was negligible at stratification temperatures of 0·5 and 9·1 °C. Seeds buried in the field and exposed to natural winter conditions showed similar trends. Interruption of the cold stratification period by 8 weeks of dehydration decreased seed viability by about 30 % and induced secondary dormancy in the remaining viable seeds. Comparison of the cold stratification requirements of different seed populations indicates that seeds collected from moist habitats have longer cold stratification requirements that those from semiarid environments. Conclusions Seeds of L. dissectum have deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. The requirements for dormancy break and germination reflect an adaptation to trigger germination in late winter. PMID:19233890

  17. REDUCED DORMANCY5 Encodes a Protein Phosphatase 2C That Is Required for Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yong; Nakabayashi, Kazumi; Ding, Jia; He, Fei; Bentsink, Leónie; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy determines germination timing and contributes to crop production and the adaptation of natural populations to their environment. Our knowledge about its regulation is limited. In a mutagenesis screen of a highly dormant Arabidopsis thaliana line, the reduced dormancy5 (rdo5) mutant was isolated based on its strongly reduced seed dormancy. Cloning of RDO5 showed that it encodes a PP2C phosphatase. Several PP2C phosphatases belonging to clade A are involved in abscisic acid signaling and control seed dormancy. However, RDO5 does not cluster with clade A phosphatases, and abscisic acid levels and sensitivity are unaltered in the rdo5 mutant. RDO5 transcript could only be detected in seeds and was most abundant in dry seeds. RDO5 was found in cells throughout the embryo and is located in the nucleus. A transcriptome analysis revealed that several genes belonging to the conserved PUF family of RNA binding proteins, in particular Arabidopsis PUMILIO9 (APUM9) and APUM11, showed strongly enhanced transcript levels in rdo5 during seed imbibition. Further transgenic analyses indicated that APUM9 reduces seed dormancy. Interestingly, reduction of APUM transcripts by RNA interference complemented the reduced dormancy phenotype of rdo5, indicating that RDO5 functions by suppressing APUM transcript levels. PMID:25415980

  18. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C.; Hellens, Roger P.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-01-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. PMID:24948678

  19. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. PMID:24948678

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans Host Adaptation: Toward Biological Evidence of Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Vernel-Pauillac, Frédérique; Sturny-Leclère, Aude; Dromer, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection due to the ubiquitous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. This yeast interacts closely with innate immune cells, leading to various fates, including fungal persistence within cells, making possible the dissemination of the yeast cells with monocytes via a Trojan horse strategy. In humans, the natural history of the infection begins with primoinfection during childhood, which is followed by dormancy and, in some individuals, reactivation upon immunosuppression. To address the question of dormancy, we studied C. neoformans infection at the macrophage level (in vitro H99-macrophage interaction) and at the organ level in a murine model of cryptococcosis. We analyzed the diversity of yeast adaptation to the host by characterizing several C. neoformans populations with new assays based on flow cytometry (quantitative flow cytometry, multispectral imaging flow cytometry, sorting), microscopy (dynamic imaging), and gene expression analysis. On the basis of parameters of multiplication and stress response, various populations of yeast cells were observed over time in vivo and in vitro. Cell sorting allowed the identification of a subpopulation that was less prone to grow under standard conditions than the other populations, with growth enhanced by the addition of serum. Gene expression analysis revealed that this population had specific metabolic characteristics that could reflect dormancy. Our data suggest that dormant yeast cells could exist in vitro and in vivo. C. neoformans exhibits a huge plasticity and adaptation to hosts that deserves further study. In vitro generation of dormant cells is now the main challenge to overcome the limited number of yeast cells recovered in our models. PMID:25827423

  1. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Elizabeth C; Nelson, Sven K; Steber, Camille M

    2012-03-31

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity to ABA gradually decreases with dry after-ripening. Scarlet grain normally fails to germinate when fully dormant, shows ABA sensitive germination when partially after-ripened, and becomes ABA insensitive when after-ripened for 8-12 months. Scarlet ABA-insensitive (ScABI) mutants were isolated based on the ability to germinate on 5 µM ABA after only 3 weeks of after-ripening, a condition under which Scarlet would fail to germinate. Six independent seed-specific mutants were recovered. ScABI 1, ScABI2, ScABI3 and ScABI4 are able to germinate more efficiently than Scarlet at up to 25 µM ABA. The two strongest ABA insensitive lines, ScABI3 and ScABI4, both proved to be partly dominant suggesting that they result from gain-of-function mutations. The ScABI1, ScABI2, ScABI3, ScABI4, and ScABI5 mutants after-ripen more rapidly than Scarlet. Thus, ABA insensi-tivity is associated with decreased grain dormancy in Scarlet wheat. This suggests that ABA sensitivity is an important factor controlling grain dormancy in wheat, a trait that impacts seedling emergence and pre-harvest sprouting resistance. PMID:25431501

  2. Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes

    E-print Network

    Wolff, Jean; Andelman, David

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model that accounts for budding behavior of domains in lipid bilayers, where each of the bilayer leaflets has a coupling between its local curvature and local lipid composition. The compositional asymmetry between the two monolayers leads to an overall spontaneous curvature. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: bending energy, line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams which contain fully-budded, dimpled and flat states. In particular, for some range of membrane parameters, the phase diagrams exhibit a tricritical behavior as well as three-phase coexistence region. The global phase diagrams can be divided into three types and are analyzed in terms of the curvature-composition coupling parameter and domain size.

  3. Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes

    E-print Network

    Jean Wolff; Shigeyuki Komura; David Andelman

    2015-01-10

    We propose a model that accounts for budding behavior of domains in lipid bilayers, where each of the bilayer leaflets has a coupling between its local curvature and local lipid composition. The compositional asymmetry between the two monolayers leads to an overall spontaneous curvature. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: bending energy, line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams which contain fully-budded, dimpled and flat states. In particular, for some range of membrane parameters, the phase diagrams exhibit a tricritical behavior as well as three-phase coexistence region. The global phase diagrams can be divided into three types and are analyzed in terms of the curvature-composition coupling parameter and domain size.

  4. Bud3 activates Cdc42 to establish a proper growth site in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil Jung; Lee, Mid Eum; Park, Hay-Oak

    2014-07-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical assays and live-cell imaging, we show that cell polarization to a proper growth site requires activation of Cdc42 by Bud3 in haploid budding yeast. Bud3 catalyzes the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) from Cdc42 and elevates intracellular Cdc42-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels in cells with inactive Cdc24, which has as of yet been the sole GDP-GTP exchange factor for Cdc42. Cdc42 is activated in two temporal steps in the G1 phase: the first depends on Bud3, whereas subsequent activation depends on Cdc24. Mutational analyses suggest that biphasic activation of Cdc42 in G1 is necessary for assembly of a proper bud site. Biphasic activation of Cdc42 or Rac GTPases may be a general mechanism for spatial cue-directed cell polarization in eukaryotes. PMID:25002677

  5. Bud3 activates Cdc42 to establish a proper growth site in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Pil Jung; Lee, Mid Eum

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical assays and live-cell imaging, we show that cell polarization to a proper growth site requires activation of Cdc42 by Bud3 in haploid budding yeast. Bud3 catalyzes the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) from Cdc42 and elevates intracellular Cdc42–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels in cells with inactive Cdc24, which has as of yet been the sole GDP–GTP exchange factor for Cdc42. Cdc42 is activated in two temporal steps in the G1 phase: the first depends on Bud3, whereas subsequent activation depends on Cdc24. Mutational analyses suggest that biphasic activation of Cdc42 in G1 is necessary for assembly of a proper bud site. Biphasic activation of Cdc42 or Rac GTPases may be a general mechanism for spatial cue–directed cell polarization in eukaryotes. PMID:25002677

  6. 3. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR OF UNNUMBERED SCREEN HEADHOUSE, WITH ENTRANCES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR OF UNNUMBERED SCREEN HEADHOUSE, WITH ENTRANCES TO GREENHOUSES #3, #4, #5 (BUILDINGS 7, 8, 9) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Greenhouse Nos. 3-8, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  7. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) OF BUILDING 23, FROM MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) OF BUILDING 23, FROM MIDDLE OF COURTYARD, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. VIEW OF TYPICAL SIDE DOOR ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 23, (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TYPICAL SIDE DOOR ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 23, (AT SOUTHWEST CORNER), FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING 23, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP OF ELEVATOR FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. JL photographer, summer 1978, general view of main entrance facade of Baldwin Filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. Detail of stairway and main entrance on west front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stairway and main entrance on west front of center block, showing steps and frame canopy. View to southeast. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG EAST HILL DRIVE. BUILDING 1 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 2 ON LEFT, FACING EAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 4. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE FRONT SHOWING ENTRANCE TO FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION FROM ENTRANCE GATE, WITH NEW CHURCH ON RIGHT - Valley Grove Churches, Old Church, County Road 29, 1/4 mile from Minnesota Highway 246, Nerstrand, Rice County, MN

  18. 1. BUILDING 324, SOUTH SIDE, FROM F STREET OPPOSITE ENTRANCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 324, SOUTH SIDE, FROM F STREET OPPOSITE ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Interior detail of anteroom inside main entrance at west wall; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of ante-room inside main entrance at west wall; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME AS SEEN THROUGH SIDE ARCHED OPENING - U.S. Soldiers Home, Scott Building, Rock Creek Church Road & Upshur Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 22. CLOSEUP OF BUNKER ENTRANCE WITH WORK CREW PREPARING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CLOSEUP OF BUNKER ENTRANCE WITH WORK CREW PREPARING TO MOVE DUMPSTER. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 79-7187. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  3. 5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 28. DETAIL OF SOUTH WALL AT THE EAST ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DETAIL OF SOUTH WALL AT THE EAST ENTRANCE TO THE CENTRAL PART, SHOWING STAIRWAY TO BAY WINDOW OFFICE, AND WOOD SHOP UNDERNEATH STAIRWAY. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  5. 7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest Pumpkin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  6. 37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Shock isolator at left of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. 38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Shock isolator at right of Launch Control Center entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  8. Perspective view of main entrance, north façade with two story ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of main entrance, north façade with two story square tower, Note medical cross made of wood on tower, originally there were four. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. View from western bridge portal along entrance road, softball fields ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from western bridge portal along entrance road, softball fields to right and hospital complex in distance - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  10. First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance to the display area (room 101) is located directly behind the camera - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. 14. Main entrance to Gwing from Apollo Drive, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Main entrance to G-wing from Apollo Drive, looking north - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN OF BLACK TCI-US STEEL RED ORE MINE WORKERS - Company School for Blacks, 413 Morgan Road, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  14. 70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the snake or worm fences used to reinforce the roadway alignment. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR VESTIBULE AT STREETLEVEL ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR VESTIBULE AT STREET-LEVEL ENTRANCE TO 1897-98 PORTION OF BUILDING, PHOTOCOPY c. 1898 - Das Deutsche Haus, 401 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  16. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ELEVATION. THE WINDOWS ARE HINGED AT THE BOTTOM AND OPEN INWARD - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  17. 14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar building security area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

  20. 2. Building No. 9903. Interior view of front entrance and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building No. 9903. Interior view of front entrance and east wall of main dining and reception room. - Madigan Hospital, Officers' & Nurses' Recreation, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  1. 5. Building No. 9928. Interior detail of entrance doors. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Building No. 9928. Interior detail of entrance doors. View is from foyer looking into sanctuary. - Madigan Hospital, Chapel, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  2. 15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. ROOMS 48 AND 49, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ENTRANCE TO ROOM 47. THE OAK CABINETS ARE USED TO STORE ROCK CORE SAMPLES. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  3. 2. DETAIL, EAST ENTRANCE, SHOWING OUTER BLAST DOOR AND INNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL, EAST ENTRANCE, SHOWING OUTER BLAST DOOR AND INNER DOORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 14. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE OVERHANG, WEST SIDE OF NORTH PORTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE OVERHANG, WEST SIDE OF NORTH PORTION. SAME FEATURE AS A-13. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; detail of pilaster base and capital - National Zoological Park, Elephant House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN PASADENA AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND WALLIS ST. LOOKING 130° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. VIEW ACROSS NINTH HOLE TO SPECIMEN JUNIPER AT ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ACROSS NINTH HOLE TO SPECIMEN JUNIPER AT ENTRANCE TO CHEROKEE, THE HILL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  8. 12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. FEATURE D, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENTRANCE MOSTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE D, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENTRANCE MOSTLY BURIED IN SAND, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST (with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 6. Light tower, interior, stairs from entrance level, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower, interior, stairs from entrance level, looking south - Prospect Harbor Light Station, Off State Route 195 at end of road to Prospect Harbor Point, on east side of Inner Harbor, Prospect Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  13. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  14. View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. South side (red cross office entrance). Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side (red cross office entrance). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Red Cross Building, South Eighth Street Bounded by West McAfee Avenue on South & West Harlow Avenue on North, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. 10. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; ENTRANCE ON EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; ENTRANCE ON EAST SIDE. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW TREATMENT. See CA-174-B-22 FOR INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR LAB AT CENTER. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Engineering-Administration Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall on east side of building, facing southeast. Ticket booth center foreground, stairway to auditorium right foreground. - Community Hall, Rainier Avenue & View Drive, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  19. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  20. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Platelet Proteome and Tumor Dormancy: Can Platelets Content Serve as Predictive Biomarkers for Exit of Tumors from Dormancy?

    PubMed Central

    Almog, Nava; Klement, Giannoula Lakka

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the possibility of timely treatment and improvement in outcomes. We have recently described the ability of platelets to selectively uptake angiogenesis regulators very early in tumor growth, and proposed their use as an early marker of malignancy. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about these processes and will discuss the possibility of using platelet content to predict presence of occult tumors. PMID:24281097

  2. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Phenotypic Selection for Dormancy Introduced a Set of Adaptive Haplotypes From Weedy Into Cultivated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Foley, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    Association of seed dormancy with shattering, awn, and black hull and red pericarp colors enhances survival of wild and weedy species, but challenges the use of dormancy genes in breeding varieties resistant to preharvest sprouting. A phenotypic selection and recurrent backcrossing technique was used to introduce dormancy genes from a wild-like weedy rice to a breeding line to determine their effects and linkage with the other traits. Five generations of phenotypic selection alone for low germination extremes simultaneously retained dormancy alleles at five independent QTL, including qSD12 (R2 > 50%), as determined by genome-wide scanning for their main and/or epistatic effects in two BC4F2 populations. Four dormancy loci with moderate to small effects colocated with QTL/genes for one to three of the associated traits. Multilocus response to the selection suggests that these dormancy genes are cumulative in effect, as well as networked by epistases, and that the network may have played a “sheltering” role in maintaining intact adaptive haplotypes during the evolution of weeds. Tight linkage may prevent the dormancy genes from being used in breeding programs. The major effect of qSD12 makes it an ideal target for map-based cloning and the best candidate for imparting resistance to preharvest sprouting. PMID:15972459

  4. A cellular automaton model for tumor dormancy: emergence of a proliferative switch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duyu; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Malignant cancers that lead to fatal outcomes for patients may remain dormant for very long periods of time. Although individual mechanisms such as cellular dormancy, angiogenic dormancy and immunosurveillance have been proposed, a comprehensive understanding of cancer dormancy and the "switch" from a dormant to a proliferative state still needs to be strengthened from both a basic and clinical point of view. Computational modeling enables one to explore a variety of scenarios for possible but realistic microscopic dormancy mechanisms and their predicted outcomes. The aim of this paper is to devise such a predictive computational model of dormancy with an emergent "switch" behavior. Specifically, we generalize a previous cellular automaton (CA) model for proliferative growth of solid tumor that now incorporates a variety of cell-level tumor-host interactions and different mechanisms for tumor dormancy, for example the effects of the immune system. Our new CA rules induce a natural "competition" between the tumor and tumor suppression factors in the microenvironment. This competition either results in a "stalemate" for a period of time in which the tumor either eventually wins (spontaneously emerges) or is eradicated; or it leads to a situation in which the tumor is eradicated before such a "stalemate" could ever develop. We also predict that if the number of actively dividing cells within the proliferative rim of the tumor reaches a critical, yet low level, the dormant tumor has a high probability to resume rapid growth. Our findings may shed light on the fundamental understanding of cancer dormancy. PMID:25329892

  5. An immunoproteomic approach for characterization of dormancy within Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Cerveira, Frederico; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis is mainly attributed to surface colonization and biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices. Physiological heterogeneity of biofilms may influence host immune response and sensitivity to antibiotics. Dormant cells, among others, contribute to biofilm heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins of S. epidermidis biofilms associated with dormancy mechanism, by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 19 bacterial proteins, recognized by human serum samples, were identified. These proteins were mainly involved in small molecule metabolic biological processes. Catalytic activity and ion binding were the most representative molecular functions. CodY and GpmA proteins were more reactive to sera when biofilm dormancy was induced, while FtnA and ClpP were more reactive when dormancy was prevented. This is the first work that identifies differences in immunoreactive proteins within bacterial biofilms with induced or prevented dormancy. Considering the importance of dormancy within biofilms, further evaluation of these proteins can provide insights into the mechanisms related to dormancy and help to improve current understanding on how dormancy affects the host immune response. PMID:25749707

  6. Effect of root length on epicotyl dormancy release in seeds of Paeonia ludlowii, Tibetan peony

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Hai-ping; He, Zhi; Li, Hui; Shi, Lei; Tang, Yu-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Epicotyl dormancy break in seeds that have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) requires radicle emergence and even a certain root length in some species. However, the mechanisms by which root length affects epicotyl dormancy break are not clear at present. This study aims to explore the relationship between root length and epicotyl dormancy release in radicle-emerged seeds of Tibetan peony, Paeonia ludlowii, with discussion of the possible mechanisms. Methods Radicle-emerged seeds (radicle length 1·5, 3·0, 4·5 and 6·0 cm) were incubated at 5, 10 and 15 °C. During the stratification, some seeds were transferred to 15 °C and monitored for epicotyl–plumule growth. Hormone content was determined by ELISA, and the role of hormones in epicotyl dormancy release was tested by exogenous hormone and embryo culture. Key Results Cold stratification did not break the epicotyl dormancy until the root length was ?6 cm. The indole-3-actic acid (IAA) and GA3 contents of seeds having 6 cm roots were significantly higher than those of seeds with other root lengths, but the abscisic acid (ABA) content was lowest among radicle-emerged seeds. GA3 (400 mg L?1) could break epicotyl dormancy of all radicle-emerged seeds, while IAA (200 mg L?1) had little or no effect. When grown on MS medium, radicles of naked embryos grew and cotyledons turned green, but epicotyls did not elongate. Naked embryos developed into seedlings on a mixed medium of MS + 100 mg L?1 GA3. Conclusions A root length of ?6·0 cm is necessary for epicotyl dormancy release by cold stratification. The underlying reason for root length affecting epicotyl dormancy release is a difference in the GA3/ABA ratio in the epicotyl within radicle-emerged seeds, which is mainly as a result of a difference in ABA accumulation before cold stratification. PMID:24284815

  7. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  8. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species. PMID:25598169

  9. Identification of an Amphipathic Helix Important for the Formation of Ectopic Septin Spirals and Axial Budding in Yeast Axial Landmark Protein Bud3p

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (?1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1–858, 850–1220, and 1221–1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1–858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850–858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850–1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1–858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes. PMID:21408200

  10. Bud and Yvonne, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Bud and Yvonne are delighted by Bud's recovery thanks to Gleevec. Diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), Bud noticed an article in the newspaper on Brian Druker's research. Bud and his wife Yvonne contacted Druker in 1996, and Bud was the first patient to receive the drug STI-571 (Gleevec) in clinical trials.

  11. Cloning of DOG1, a quantitative trait locus controlling seed dormancy in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bentsink, Leónie; Jowett, Jemma; Hanhart, Corrie J.; Koornneef, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation for seed dormancy in nature is a typical quantitative trait controlled by multiple loci on which environmental factors have a strong effect. Finding the genes underlying dormancy quantitative trait loci is a major scientific challenge, which also has relevance for agriculture and ecology. In this study we describe the identification of the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene previously identified as a quantitative trait locus involved in the control of seed dormancy. This gene was isolated by a combination of positional cloning and mutant analysis and is absolutely required for the induction of seed dormancy. DOG1 is a member of a small gene family of unknown molecular function, with five members in Arabidopsis. The functional natural allelic variation present in Arabidopsis is caused by polymorphisms in the cis-regulatory region of the DOG1 gene and results in considerable expression differences between the DOG1 alleles of the accessions analyzed. PMID:17065317

  12. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  13. One phase of the dormancy developmental pathway is critical for the evolution of insect seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Woods, W A; Hahn, D A; Dopman, E B

    2013-11-01

    Evolutionary change in the timing of dormancy enables animals and plants to adapt to changing seasonal environments and can result in ecological speciation. Despite its clear biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of dormancy timing in animals remain poorly understood because of a lack of anatomical landmarks to discern which phase of dormancy an individual is experiencing. Taking advantage of the nearly universal characteristic of metabolic suppression during insect dormancy (diapause), we use patterns of respiratory metabolism to document physiological landmarks of dormancy and test which of the distinct phases of the dormancy developmental pathway contribute to a month-long shift in diapause timing between a pair of incipient moth species. Here, we show that divergence in life cycle between the earlier-emerging E-strain and the later-emerging Z-strain of European corn borer (ECB) is clearly explained by a delay in the timing of the developmental transition from the diapause maintenance phase to the termination phase. Along with recent findings indicating that life-cycle differences between ECB strains stem from allelic variation at a single sex-linked locus, our results demonstrate how dramatic shifts in animal seasonality can result from simple developmental and genetic changes. Although characterizing the multiple phases of the diapause developmental programme in other locally adapted populations and species will undoubtedly yield surprises about the nature of animal dormancy, results in the ECB moth suggest that focusing on genetic variation in the timing of the dormancy termination phase may help explain how (or whether) organisms rapidly respond to global climate change, expand their ranges after accidental or managed introductions, undergo seasonal adaptation, or evolve into distinct species through allochronic isolation. PMID:24016035

  14. Trade-offs between seed dispersal and dormancy in an amphi-basicarpic cold desert annual

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Juan J.; Tan, Dun Y.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Several studies have demonstrated trade-offs between depth of seed dormancy and dispersal ability for diaspore-dimorphic species. However, relatively little is known about trade-offs between these two life history traits for a species that produces more than two diaspore morphs. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between seed dormancy and dispersal in Ceratocarpus arenarius, an amphi-basicarpic cold desert annual that produces a continuum of dispersal unit morphs. Methods A comparison was made of dispersal and dormancy breaking/germination responses of dispersal units from ground level (a), the middle of the plant canopy (c) and the top of the plant canopy (f). Various features of the morphology and mass of dispersal units and fruits (utricles) were measured. The role of bracteoles in diaspore dispersal by wind, settlement onto the soil surface and dormancy/germination was determined by comparing responses of intact dispersal units and fruits. Movement of dispersal units by wind and animals, seed after-ripening, germination phenology and the presence of water-soluble germination inhibitors in bracteoles were tested using standard procedures. Key Results Dispersal units a, c and f differed in morphology and mass; in the majority of cases, extremes were exhibited by a and f, with c being intermediate. Overall, relative dispersal ability was f > c > a, whereas relative intensity of dormancy was a > c > f. Bracteoles increased dispersal distance by wind, enhanced settlement of diaspores onto the soil surface and mechanically inhibited germination. Conclusions The results provide evidence for a model in which there is a continuous inverse-linear relationship between diaspore dispersal ability and depth of dormancy. Thus, dispersal unit heteromorphism of C. arenarius results in a continuum, from no dispersal ability/high dormancy (dispersal unit a) to high dispersal ability/low dormancy (unit f), which may be a bet-hedging strategy in the cold desert environment. PMID:24197752

  15. Releasing primary dormancy in Avena fatua L. caryopses by smoke-derived butenolide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan K?pczy?ski; Danuta Cembrowska; Johannes Van Staden

    2010-01-01

    The effect of smoke and smoke-derived butenolide in releasing dormancy of caryopses (referred to as seeds) of the economically\\u000a important weed Avena fatua L. was studied. Seeds of A. fatua are dormant after harvest. Both smoke-water and butenolide, applied continuously, removed dormancy in darkness at 15, 20\\u000a and 25°C and slightly at 30°C. Butenolide was very active at a concentration

  16. Funding the bud bank: a review of the costs of buds Peter A. Vesk and Mark Westoby, Dept of Biological Sciences, Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW Australia. Present

    E-print Network

    Vesk, Peter

    Funding the bud bank: a review of the costs of buds Peter A. Vesk and Mark Westoby, Dept VIC, 3800 Australia. (peter.vesk@sci.monash.edu.au). Retaining a reserve of buds or meristems for recovery from occasional damage is widespread among plants. Yet possession of a bud bank is not ubiquitous

  17. Involvement of the ethylene response pathway in dormancy induction in chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    Temperature plays a significant role in the annual cycling between growth and dormancy of the herbaceous perennial chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). After exposure to high summer temperatures, cool temperature triggers dormancy. The cessation of flowering and rosette formation by the cessation of elongation are characteristic of dormant plants, and can be stimulated by exogenous ethylene. Thus, the ethylene response pathway may be involved in temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. Transgenic chrysanthemums expressing a mutated ethylene receptor gene were used to assess this involvement. The transgenic lines showed reduced ethylene sensitivity: ethylene causes leaf yellowing in wild-type chrysanthemums, but leaves remained green in the transgenic lines. Extension growth and flowering of wild-type and transgenic lines varied between temperatures: at 20 °C, the transgenic lines showed the same stem elongation and flowering as the wild type; at cooler temperatures, the wild type formed rosettes with an inability to flower and entered dormancy, but some transgenic lines continued to elongate and flower. This supports the involvement of the ethylene response pathway in the temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. At the highest dosage of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing agent, wild-type plants formed rosettes with an inability to flower and became dormant, but one transgenic line did not. This confirms that dormancy is induced via the ethylene response pathway. PMID:18952907

  18. Analysis of natural allelic variation at seed dormancy loci of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanhart, Corrie J; Blankestijn-de Vries, Hetty; Koornneef, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis accessions differ largely in their seed dormancy behavior. To understand the genetic basis of this intraspecific variation we analyzed two accessions: the laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler) with low dormancy and the strong-dormancy accession Cape Verde Islands (Cvi). We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify loci affecting the after-ripening requirement measured as the number of days of seed dry storage required to reach 50% germination. Thus, seven QTL were identified and named delay of germination (DOG) 1-7. To confirm and characterize these loci, we developed 12 near-isogenic lines carrying single and double Cvi introgression fragments in a Ler genetic background. The analysis of these lines for germination in water confirmed four QTL (DOG1, DOG2, DOG3, and DOG6) as showing large additive effects in Ler background. In addition, it was found that DOG1 and DOG3 genetically interact, the strong dormancy determined by DOG1-Cvi alleles depending on DOG3-Ler alleles. These genotypes were further characterized for seed dormancy/germination behavior in five other test conditions, including seed coat removal, gibberellins, and an abscisic acid biosynthesis inhibitor. The role of the Ler/Cvi allelic variation in affecting dormancy is discussed in the context of current knowledge of Arabidopsis germination. PMID:12807791

  19. Measuring Chromatin Structure in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) has revolutionized the ways in which the conformation of chromatin and its relationship to other molecular functions can be studied. 3C-based techniques are used to determine the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In particular, they can be applied to the study of chromosome folding and organization in model organisms with small genomes and for which powerful genetic tools exist, such as budding yeast. Studies in yeast allow the mechanisms that establish or maintain chromatin structure to be analyzed at very high resolution with relatively low cost, and further our understanding of these fundamental processes in higher eukaryotes as well. Here we provide an overview of chromatin structure and introduce methods for performing 3C, with a focus on studies in budding yeast. Variations of the basic 3C approach (e.g., 3C-PCR, 5C, and Hi-C) can be used according to the scope and goals of a given experiment. PMID:26134912

  20. [Induction of prostatic buds in the absence of androgens].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Saito, M; Tanemura, S

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the non-androgenic factors that induce the prostatic buds from the sinus epithelium. The buds were found to be induced in the explants cultured in the androgen-deficient medium containing 20 ng/ml rat keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) irrespective of the sex of the sinus. PMID:7780800

  1. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Henderson; C. Brewer; K. Havens; K. Meymaris

    2007-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important

  2. Photocontrol of bud burst involves gibberellin biosynthesis in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Choubane, Djillali; Rabot, Amélie; Mortreau, Eric; Legourrierec, Jose; Péron, Thomas; Foucher, Fabrice; Ahcène, Youyou; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Leduc, Nathalie; Hamama, Latifa; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2012-09-01

    Light is a critical determinant of plant shape by controlling branching patterns and bud burst in many species. To gain insight into how light induces bud burst, we investigated whether its inductive effect in rose was related to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. In axillary buds of beheaded plants subject to light, the expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (RoGA20ox and RoGA3ox) was promptly and strongly induced, while that of a GA-catabolism genes (RoGA2ox) was reduced. By contrast, lower expression levels of these two GA biosynthesis genes were found in darkness, and correlated with a total inhibition of bud burst. This effect was dependent on both light intensity and quality. In in vitro cultured buds, the inductive effect of light on the growth of preformed leaves and SAM organogenic activity was inhibited by ancymidol and paclobutrazol, two effectors of GA biosynthesis. This effect was concentration-dependent, and negated by GA(3). However, GA(3) alone could not rescue bud burst in the dark. GA biosynthesis was also required for the expression and activity of a vacuolar invertase, and therefore for light-induced sugar metabolism within buds. These findings are evidence that GA biosynthesis contributes to the light effect on bud burst and lay the foundations of a better understanding of its exact role in plant branching. PMID:22749285

  3. Desiccation tolerance of dormant buds from selected Prunus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormant buds of woody plant species present a convenient material for backing-up of germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Routinely, this type of material is used in long-term preservation of only a few species (e.g. apple and sour cherry). Cryopreservation procedures of dormant buds are species dependent, ...

  4. Budding of Liposomes Role of Intrinsic Shape of Membrane Constituents

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    CHAPTER 8 Budding of Liposomes ­ Role of Intrinsic Shape of Membrane Constituents Ales Iglic1,Ã-Constituent Energy 255 3. Liposomes Composed of a Single Kind of Phospholipid Molecules 256 3.1. The two-state model of the pear shape and the ADE model 269 4. Spherical Budding in Liposomes Composed of Two Kinds of Molecules

  5. Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Liang, Jie

    Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast (Accepted, Conf Proc of budding yeast nucleus. We successfully generated a large number of model genomes of yeast with appropriate yeast genome realistically. The model developed here provides a general computational framework

  6. Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section through foyer showing ticket window; detail front entrance with tiling; rear of ticket window. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 13, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation as case studies

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation: somitogenesis and feather bud formation. We outline mathematical models to describe each patterning mechanism

  8. Taste buds of the fungiform papillae in Cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Cottler-Fox, M; Friberg, U

    1981-01-01

    A study of the number of taste buds borne on 145 fungiform papillae from 20 Cynomolgus monkeys showed that, in contrast to the situation in man, most papillae are bud-bearing. The fine structure of taste buds on fungiform papillae of these monkeys was also examined. The cells contained clear apical vesicles, mitochondria, filament bundles and stacks of Golgi cisternae. Nerve fibres containing mitochondria, as well as clear and dense-cored vesicles, were scattered throughout the whole bud, but were more numerous near the base. It was, however, not possible to distinguish different cell types in these taste buds as a function of cell shape, electron density of the ground cytoplasm, presence of different organelles or relation to nerve processes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6277839

  9. The Early Entrance Option: Academic and Social/Emotional Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braymen, Rebecca K. F.; Piersel, Wayne C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines how early kindergarten entrants fare academically and socially/emotionally in their schooling. Screening procedures are used to identify children with exceptional ability and to eliminate from early entrance children likely to have adjustment difficulties. The screening battery includes measurements of academic readiness, social/emotional…

  10. 22. View of vehicle entrance to passageway link system taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of vehicle entrance to passageway link system taken from looking west. Note DR 3 antenna in background left. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. MARMION WAY AND AVENUE 66 ENTRANCE TO SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MARMION WAY AND AVENUE 66 ENTRANCE TO SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE SMALL ISLAND AND SHORT ACCESS LANES. SEEN FROM SAME CAMERA POSITION ON DEBS PARK HILL AS CA-265-14. LOOKING 0°N - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Marmion Way Bridge, Milepost 29.28, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST WALL SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE INTO SOUTH LOBBY AND ALUMINUM VESTIBULE ADDED IN RECENT YEARS. ELEVATOR WILL BE CONSTRUCTED TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOORWAY IN THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE LOBBY. - Tillamook County Courthouse, 201 Laurel Avenue, Tillamook, Tillamook County, OR

  13. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. View looking to the arched entrances that divide the Departmental ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking to the arched entrances that divide the Departmental Auditorium from the Interstate Commerce Commission (east) and U.S. Customs Agency (originally Labor Department to the west) - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 6. EAST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS THE NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EAST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. AGENT STORAGE TANKS LOCATED BELOW CATWALK. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST FACADE, ENTRANCE TO CATWALK OVER CONCRETE TANK VAULT. BUILDING 742 TO RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 5. EAST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS THE SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST ENTRANCE TO CATWALK LOOKING TOWARDS THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. AGENT STORAGE TANKS LOCATED BELOW CATWALK. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST SHOWING ENTRANCE TO CREW SHELTER AND THE TAPERING SHAPE OF THE SOUTHEAST END WALL OF AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. The Cognitive Abilities of Children: Reflections from an Entrance Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, Emine; Cepni, Salih

    2012-01-01

    The basic determiner for the school in which the children who completed their primary education will in at an upper education level in Turkey is the entrance exam carried out nationwide. The items of national exam, called as LDE (Level Determination Exam) which the primary education pupils (aged between 12 and 15) will participate in Turkey were…

  20. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 ?m entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 ?m. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  2. UW China Hong Kong Entrance Scholarship University of Waterloo ID#

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    UW ­ China Hong Kong Entrance Scholarship Name: University of Waterloo ID#: Program Applied of Waterloo who currently lives in or who previously lived in Hong Kong or mainland China. Candidates must also intend to return to Hong Kong or China after graduation. Selection will be based on academic

  3. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing. Sidewalk streetscape shows art deco entrance door to service yard and access ramp (added ca. 1985) along the south façade of the west wing. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance to the southern edge of the mansion grounds. The view illustrates significant grade change and includes rustic stone retaining walls, recently re-planted hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis), and canopy of mature Norway spruces (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  6. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING EAST. TANK COVER AND FRAME TO THE REAR OF VIEW. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6170, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior. Looking from balance room to the front entrance. Chemicals related to Edison's experiments on the extraction of latex for rubber from the goldenrod plant. Room is set up based on reconstruction research done in 1972. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  8. 2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC N. HAGAN (WHO CONTRACTED WITH FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT FOR THE DESIGN OF THIS HOUSE) - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  9. 42. ELEVATION EAST FACE BLDG. 4, 3, AND ENTRANCE BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. ELEVATION EAST FACE BLDG. 4, 3, AND ENTRANCE BLDG. 8. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  10. 34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" ENTRANCE CORRIDOR LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  11. "Dog House" or vestibule at the secondstory entrance located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Dog House" or vestibule at the second-story entrance located at the intersection of the west Verandah of the south wing and the south Verandah of the rotunda extension. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Interior view, front entrance doors; note; double doors have a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, front entrance doors; note; double doors have a box lock, sliding bolt locks into door head and sill as well as modern locks, butt hinges, slightly recessed panels, and five-ligh transom - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  13. 35. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTERROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTER-ROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE BUTLER'S PANTRY ON THE WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE SOUTH, WITHOUT SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  14. 34. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTERROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF QUARTER-ROUND ENCLOSURE AND ENTRANCE TO THE BUTLER'S PANTRY ON THE WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE SOUTH, WITH SCALE - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  15. HABS drawing field team at east entrance to Cyclorama Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS drawing field team at east entrance to Cyclorama Building. Front, left to right: Robyn Chrabascz (Roger Williams University), Brian Carnahan (University of Arkansas), Noelle McManus (Edinburgh College of Art, ICOMOS/Great Britian), Amanda Loughlin (Kansas State University). Standing: Steven Utz, Field Supervisor. - Cyclorama Building, 125 Taneytown Road, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  16. 42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST OF MAIN SHAFT LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CLOSURE BY PARK SERVICE, 1995. NOTE CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS IN THE CENTER OF IMAGE BEHIND OPENING FOR MAIN-SHAFT HOIST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  17. 8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Looking southwest toward entrance and inner blast door. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 1. EAST ENTRANCE FROM LOADING AREA. CONCRETE TUNNEL TO TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST ENTRANCE FROM LOADING AREA. CONCRETE TUNNEL TO TEST STAND 1-3 IS AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Stellenbosch University --Computer Science Division Honours Entrance Test

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    Stellenbosch University -- Computer Science Division Honours Entrance Test Monday 2 February 2009 is the decimal value of the base-2 number 1010102? [1] (c) What is the value of 5! + 1? [1] (d) What is the value, respectively. What is the decimal value of the floating-point number C1E00000 (hexadecimal notation)? (A) 26 (B

  20. 103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR MOUNTAIN VIEW, NEW JERSEY. THE POMPTON FEEDER BOATS TO TRAVEL NORTH 4.26 MILES TO TO POMPTON AS WELL AS PROVIDING THE MAIN CANAL WITH WATER FROM GREENWOOD LAKE. A MODIFIED QUEEN POST TRUSS BRIDGE SPANS THE CANAL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  1. PennAccess: Fisher -Bennett Hall Entrance Information

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    from the ramp (both the outer and the inner east door) has an automatic opener, which is controlled have four to nine steps at each entrance and are not accessible. Elevator Information: · There is one elevator just to the east of the main stair. To reach it, turn left after you pass through automated

  2. VIEW OF THE FRONT ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 708. THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FRONT ENTRANCE OF BUILDING 708. THROUGH THE WOODEN DOUBLE DOORS IS A CONFESSIONAL (LOCATED ON THE LEFT) AND A STAIR CASE (LOCATED ON THE RIGHT) WHICH LEADS TO THE CHOIR LOFT ABOVE. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 4. FACING NORTHWEST ACROSS BRIDGE SHOWING ENTRANCE TO PARKING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FACING NORTHWEST ACROSS BRIDGE SHOWING ENTRANCE TO PARKING AREA BETWEEN TAMARACK AND CASCADE CREEK BRIDGES. POST TO LOWER LEFT, 'B2', IS A MARKER FOR A SELF-GUIDED ROAD TOUR TO PARK. - Tamarack Creek Bridge, Spanning Tamarack Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. HISTORICAL VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE, BEFORE ADDITION OF SHELTERED PORCH, SOUTH ELEVATION, 1907. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

  6. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DRAWING, ENTRANCE TO COLEMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DRAWING, ENTRANCE TO COLEMAN MUSEUM (1880) (FROM THE ORIGINAL IN THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL PLANT, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL CONNECTING BUILDINGS 881 AND 883. THE TUNNEL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1957 TO TRANSPORT ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. View of main entrance of the Church of God. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main entrance of the Church of God. This structure was originally a lodge hall for the Woodmen of the World from the adjacent mill neighborhoods such as Lincoln and Dallas Mill - 601 Humes Avenue (House), 601 Humes Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Lipid droplet dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids, predominantly triacylglycerols and sterol esters, in organelles termed lipid droplets (LDs) that bulge out from the endoplasmic reticulum. LDs are highly dynamic and contribute to diverse cellular functions. The catabolism of the storage lipids within LDs is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways, providing molecules for energy production, membrane building blocks, and lipid signaling. LDs have been implicated in a number of protein degradation and pathogen infection processes. LDs may be linked to prevalent human metabolic diseases and have marked potential for biofuel production. The knowledge accumulated on LDs in recent years provides a foundation for diverse, and even unexpected, future research. This review focuses on recent advances in LD research, emphasizing the diverse physiological roles of LDs in the model system of budding yeast. PMID:25894691

  10. Biofilm/Mat Assays for Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucinlike flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/ mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species. PMID:25646504

  11. Droplet-Induced Budding Transitions of Membranes

    E-print Network

    Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on biomimetic membranes exposed to several aqueous phases, we theoretically study the morphology of a membrane in contact with a liquid droplet formed via aqueous phase separation. We concentrate on membranes with negligible spontaneous curvature. At small droplet volume, bending energy dominates and the droplet is only partially wrapped by the membrane. At large volume, this configuration can become unstable and undergo a discontinuous transition to a state, in which the droplet is (almost) completely wrapped by the membrane. A morphology diagram, showing the parameter region where such budding transition occurs, is constructed as a function of the membrane tension and the intrinsic contact angle of the liquid with the membrane. The effects of spontaneous curvature are discussed qualitatively.

  12. Budding and Fission of a multiphase vesicle

    E-print Network

    Jean-Marc Allain; Martine Ben Amar

    2005-04-08

    We present a model of bi-phasic vesicle in the limit of large surface tension. In this regime, the vesicle is completely stretched and well described by two spherical caps with a fold which concentrates the membrane stress. The conservation laws and geometric constraints restrict the space of possible shapes to a pair of solutions labeled by a parameter $\\tau$ given by {\\it line tension/pressure}. For a given $\\tau$ value, the two solutions differ by the length of the interface between domains. For a critical value $\\tau\\_c$, the two vesicle shapes become identical and no solution exists above this critical value. This model sheds new light on two proposed mechanisms (osmotic shocks and molecule absorption) to explain the budding and the fission in recent experiments.

  13. Budding and Fission of a multiphase vesicle

    E-print Network

    Allain, J M; Allain, Jean-Marc; Amar, Martine Ben

    2005-01-01

    We present a model of bi-phasic vesicle in the limit of large surface tension. In this regime, the vesicle is completely stretched and well described by two spherical caps with a fold which concentrates the membrane stress. The conservation laws and geometric constraints restrict the space of possible shapes to a pair of solutions labeled by a parameter $\\tau$ given by {\\it line tension/pressure}. For a given $\\tau$ value, the two solutions differ by the length of the interface between domains. For a critical value $\\tau\\_c$, the two vesicle shapes become identical and no solution exists above this critical value. This model sheds new light on two proposed mechanisms (osmotic shocks and molecule absorption) to explain the budding and the fission in recent experiments.

  14. Droplet-Induced Budding Transitions of Membranes

    E-print Network

    Halim Kusumaatmaja; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2011-06-25

    Motivated by recent experiments on biomimetic membranes exposed to several aqueous phases, we theoretically study the morphology of a membrane in contact with a liquid droplet formed via aqueous phase separation. We concentrate on membranes with negligible spontaneous curvature. At small droplet volume, bending energy dominates and the droplet is only partially wrapped by the membrane. At large volume, this configuration can become unstable and undergo a discontinuous transition to a state, in which the droplet is (almost) completely wrapped by the membrane. A morphology diagram, showing the parameter region where such budding transition occurs, is constructed as a function of the membrane tension and the intrinsic contact angle of the liquid with the membrane. The effects of spontaneous curvature are discussed qualitatively.

  15. Antioxidative flavonoids from Cleistocalyx operculatus buds.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung-Sun; Thu, Cao Van; Dat, Nguyen Tien; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Jang, Han-Su; Hung, Tran Manh

    2008-12-01

    Four new flavonoids, 3'-formyl-4',6',4-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-5'-methylchalcone (1), 3'-formyl-6',4-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-5'-methylchalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), (2S)-8-formyl-6-methylnaringenin (3), and (2S)-8-formyl-6-methylnaringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) were isolated from the buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Myrtaceae). The structures of the new metabolites (1-4) were determined on the basic of spectroscopic analyses including 2 dimensional NMR. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 22.8 and 27.1 microM, respectively. PMID:19043247

  16. Dormancy cycling and persistence of seeds in soil of a cold desert halophyte shrub

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Formation of seed banks and dormancy cycling are well known in annual species, but not in woody species. In this study it was hypothesized that the long-lived halophytic cold desert shrub Kalidium gracile has a seed bank and dormancy cycling, which help restrict germination to a favourable time for seedling survival. Methods Fresh seeds were buried in November 2009 and exhumed and tested for germination monthly from May 2010 to December 2011 over a range of temperatures and salinities. Germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were investigated in the field. Key Results Seeds of K. gracile had a soil seed bank of 7030 seeds m?2 at the beginning of the growing season. About 72 % of the seeds were depleted from the soil seed bank during a growing season, and only 1·4 % of them gave rise to seedlings that germinated early enough to reach a stage of growth at which they could survive to overwinter. About 28 % of the seeds became part of a persistent soil seed bank. Buried seeds exhibited an annual non-dormancy/conditional dormancy (ND/CD) cycle, and germination varied in sensitivity to salinity during the cycle. Dormancy cycling is coordinated with seasonal environmental conditions in such a way that the seeds germinate in summer, when there is sufficient precipitation for seedling establishment. Conclusions Kalidium gracile has three life history traits that help ensure persistence at a site: a polycarpic perennial life cycle, a persistent seed bank and dormancy cycling. The annual ND/CD cycle in seeds of K. gracile contributes to seedling establishment of this species in the unpredictable desert environment and to maintenance of a persistent soil seed bank. This is the first report of a seed dormancy cycle in a cold desert shrub. PMID:24249808

  17. SMAD signaling and redox imbalance cooperate to induce prostate cancer cell dormancy.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Thu; Laurent, Fanny; Havard, Maryline; Dautry, François; Tchénio, Thierry

    2015-04-18

    Metastasis involves the dissemination of single or small clumps of cancer cells through blood or lymphatic vessels and their extravasation into distant organs. Despite the strong regulation of metastases development by a cell dormancy phenomenon, the dormant state of cancer cells remains poorly characterized due to the difficulty of in vivo studies. We have recently shown in vitro that clonogenicity of prostate cancer cells is regulated by a dormancy phenomenon that is strongly induced when cells are cultured both at low cell density and in a slightly hypertonic medium. Here, we characterized by RT-qPCR a genetic expression signature of this dormant state which combines the presence of both stemness and differentiation markers. We showed that both TFG?/BMP signaling and redox imbalance are required for the full induction of this dormancy signature and cell quiescence. Moreover, reconstruction experiments showed that TFG?/BMP signaling and redox imbalance are sufficient to generate a pattern of genetic expression displaying all characteristic features of the dormancy signature. Finally, we observed that low cell density was sufficient to activate TGF?/BMP signaling and to generate a slight redox imbalance thus priming cells for dormancy that can be attained with a co-stimulus like hypertonicity, most likely through an increased redox imbalance. The identification of a dual regulation of dormancy provides a framework for the interpretation of previous reports showing a restricted ability of BMP signaling to regulate cancer cell dormancy in vivo and draws attention on the role of oxidative stress in the metastatic process. PMID:25706341

  18. Role of relative humidity, temperature, and water status in dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, J.; Batlla, D.; Dussert, S.; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H.; Bailly, C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of various combinations of temperature and relative humidity on dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening was investigated. The rate of dormancy alleviation depended on both temperature and embryo moisture content (MC). Below an embryo MC of 0.1 g H2O g?1 dw, dormancy release was faster at 15 °C than at higher temperatures. This suggests that dormancy release at low MC was associated with negative activation energy, supported by Arrhenius plots, and low Q10 values. At higher MC, the rate of dormancy alleviation increased with temperature, correlating well with the temperature dependence of biochemical processes. These findings suggests the involvement of two distinct cellular mechanisms in dormancy release; non-enzymatic below 0.1 g H2O g?1 dw and associated with active metabolism above this value. The effects of temperature on seed dormancy release above the threshold MC were analysed using a population-based thermal time approach and a model predicting the rate of dormancy alleviation is provided. Sunflower embryo dormancy release was effective at temperatures above 8 °C (the base temperature for after-ripening, TbAR, was 8.17 °C), and the higher the after-ripening temperature above this threshold value, the higher was the rate of dormancy loss. Thermodynamic analyses of water sorption isotherms revealed that dormancy release was associated with less bound water and increased molecular mobility within the embryonic axes but not the cotyledons. It is proposed that the changes in water binding properties result from oxidative processes and can, in turn, allow metabolic activities. PMID:20978143

  19. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  20. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  1. The qSD12 Underlying Gene Promotes Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Early Developing Seeds to Induce Primary Dormancy in Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds acquire primary dormancy during their development and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is considered to play a role in inducing the dormancy. qSD12 is a major seed dormancy QTL identified from weedy rice. This research was conducted to identify qSD12 candidate genes, isolate the candidat...

  2. 36 CFR 71.8 - Validation and display of entrance permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Validation and display of entrance permits. 71.8 Section 71...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.8 Validation and display of entrance permits. (a) Every...

  3. 36 CFR 71.8 - Validation and display of entrance permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Validation and display of entrance permits. 71.8 Section 71...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.8 Validation and display of entrance permits. (a) Every...

  4. 36 CFR 71.8 - Validation and display of entrance permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Validation and display of entrance permits. 71.8 Section 71...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.8 Validation and display of entrance permits. (a) Every...

  5. 36 CFR 71.8 - Validation and display of entrance permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Validation and display of entrance permits. 71.8 Section 71...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.8 Validation and display of entrance permits. (a) Every...

  6. 36 CFR 71.8 - Validation and display of entrance permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Validation and display of entrance permits. 71.8 Section 71...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.8 Validation and display of entrance permits. (a) Every...

  7. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing...

  8. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing...

  9. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing...

  10. A proposed mechanism for physical dormancy break in seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, K. M. G. Gehan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Geneve, Robert L.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The water-impermeable seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa undergo sensitivity cycling to dormancy breaking treatment, and slits are formed around bulges adjacent to the micropyle during dormancy break, i.e. the water gap opens. The primary aim of this research was to identify the mechanism of slit formation in seeds of this species. Methods Sensitive seeds were incubated at various combinations of relative humidity (RH) and temperature after blocking the hilar area in different places. Increase in seed mass was measured before and after incubation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and staining of insensitive and sensitive seeds were carried out to characterize these states morphologically and anatomically. Water absorption was monitored at 35 and 25 °C at 100 % RH. Key Results There was a significant relationship between incubation temperature and RH with percentage seed dormancy break. Sensitive seeds absorbed water vapour, but insensitive seeds did not. Different amounts of water were absorbed by seeds with different blocking treatments. There was a significant relationship between dormancy break and the amount of water absorbed during incubation. Conclusions Water vapour seals openings that allow it to escape from seeds and causes pressure to develop below the bulge, thereby causing slits to form. A model for the mechanism of formation of slits (physical dormancy break) is proposed. PMID:19098068

  11. Budding and fruitfulness of seedless grape in the São Francisco River Valley, northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão; Emanuel E. G da Silva

    th 2002, and Apr 8 th to 12 th 2002. The bud burst percentage was calculated by the ratio number of pushed buds and the total number of buds. The fertility index was obtained by dividing the total number of bunches by the total number of buds per plant. The results were statistically analyzed by the SAS computer program, and

  12. The effects of molecular noise and size control on variability in the budding yeast cell cycle

    E-print Network

    Siggia, Eric

    LETTERS The effects of molecular noise and size control on variability in the budding yeast cell remains unclear. We use single-cell imaging of fluorescently labelled budding yeast to measure times from division to budding (G1) and from budding to the next division. The variability in G1 decreases

  13. Salamander and Mouse How are the positions of the limb buds determined?

    E-print Network

    of the limb buds determined? #12;Fig13.6 Important points: 1. Fgf10 expressed throughout lateral mesoderm 2. Fgf10 expression stabilized in lateral mesoderm by Wnt2b in forelimb bud 3. Fgf10 expression stabilized in hindlimb bud by Wnt8c #12;Fig. 13.5 Fgf10 expression where limb buds form An extra (ectopic

  14. qSD7-1 is the first dormancy QTL cloned from weedy rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed weedy rice (SS-18-2) as a genetic system to investigate mechanisms regulating natural variation in seed dormancy. This included introduction of a set of quantitative trait loci (QTL) enhancing seed dormancy into the non-dormant genetic background of cultivated rice (EM93-1) to clone and...

  15. Effect of low temperature on dormancy breaking and growth after planting in lily bulblets regenerated in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merel M. Langens-Gerrits; William B. M. Miller; Anton F. Croes; Geert-Jan de Klerk

    2003-01-01

    Lilies regenerating on scale segments may develop dormancy in vitro depending on the culture conditions. The dormancy is broken by storage for several weeks at a low temperature (5 °C). The effect of the low temperature on sprouting, time of leaf emergence and further bulb growth was studied. Dormant and non-dormant bulblets were regenerated in vitro on bulb scale segments

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower. Attempts have been made to develop simple techniques for breaking seed dormancy. In the first experiment, different techniques were evaluated using treatments such as a growth regulator, Ethrel, priming (water soaking fo...

  17. Enhanced vadose zone nitrogen removal by poplar during dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ausland, Hayden; Ward, Adam; Licht, Louis; Just, Craig

    2015-01-01

    A pilot-scale, engineered poplar tree vadose zone system was utilized to determine effluent nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium concentrations resulting from intermittent dosing of a synthetic wastewater onto sandy soils at 4.5°C. The synthetic wastewater replicated that of an industrial food processor that irrigates onto sandy soils even during dormancy which can leave groundwater vulnerable to NO3(-) contamination. Data from a 21-day experiment was used to assess various Hydrus model parameterizations that simulated the impact of dormant roots. Bromide tracer data indicated that roots impacted the hydraulic properties of the packed sand by increasing effective dispersion, water content and residence time. The simulated effluent NO3(-) concentration on day 21 was 1.2 mg-N L(-1) in the rooted treatments compared to a measured value of 1.0 ± 0.72 mg-N L(-1). For the non-rooted treatment, the simulated NO3(-) concentration was 4.7 mg-N L(-1) compared to 5.1 ± 3.5 mg-N L(-1) measured on day 21. The model predicted a substantial "root benefit" toward protecting groundwater through increased denitrification in rooted treatments during a 21-day simulation with 8% of dosed nitrogen converted to N2 compared to 3.3% converted in the non-rooted test cells. Simulations at the 90-day timescale provided similar results, indicating increased denitrification in rooted treatments. PMID:26030360

  18. Global Dormancy of Metastases Due to Systemic Inhibition of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Benzekry, Sébastien; Gandolfi, Alberto; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Autopsy studies of adults dying of non-cancer causes have shown that virtually all of us possess occult, cancerous lesions. This suggests that, for most individuals, cancer will become dormant and not progress, while only in some will it become symptomatic disease. Meanwhile, it was recently shown in animal models that a tumor can produce both stimulators and inhibitors of its own blood supply. To explain the autopsy findings in light of the preclinical research data, we propose a mathematical model of cancer development at the organism scale describing a growing population of metastases, which, together with the primary tumor, can exert a progressively greater level of systemic angiogenesis-inhibitory influence that eventually overcomes local angiogenesis stimulation to suppress the growth of all lesions. As a departure from modeling efforts to date, we look not just at signaling from and effects on the primary tumor, but integrate over this increasingly negative global signaling from all sources to track the development of total tumor burden. This in silico study of the dynamics of the tumor/metastasis system identifies ranges of parameter values where mutual angio-inhibitory interactions within a population of tumor lesions could yield global dormancy, i.e., an organism-level homeostatic steady state in total tumor burden. Given that mortality arises most often from metastatic disease rather than growth of the primary per se, this finding may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:24465399

  19. Virus-Induced Dormancy in the Archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Maria A.; Zhang, Changyi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the interaction between Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus (SSV9) and its native archaeal host Sulfolobus islandicus. We show that upon exposure to SSV9, S. islandicus strain RJW002 has a significant growth delay where the majority of cells are dormant (viable but not growing) for 24 to 48 hours postinfection (hpi) compared to the growth of controls without virus. We demonstrate that in this system, dormancy (i) is induced by both active and inactive virus particles at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), (ii) is reversible in strains with active CRISPR-Cas immunity that prevents the establishment of productive infections, and (iii) results in dramatic and rapid host death if virus persists in the culture even at low levels. Our results add a new dimension to evolutionary models of virus-host interactions, showing that the mere presence of a virus induces host cell stasis and death independent of infection. This novel, highly sensitive, and risky bet-hedging antiviral response must be integrated into models of virus-host interactions in this system so that the true ecological impact of viruses can be predicted and understood. PMID:25827422

  20. Comparative Genomics of the Dormancy Regulons in Mycobacteria ?†

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimova, Anna; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2011-01-01

    In response to stresses, Mycobacterium cells become dormant. This process is regulated by the DosR transcription factor. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the dormancy regulon is well characterized and contains the dosR gene itself and dosS and dosT genes encoding DosR kinases, nitroreductases (acg; Rv3131), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) (Rv3130c), and many universal stress proteins (USPs). In this study, we apply comparative genomic analysis to characterize the DosR regulons in nine Mycobacterium genomes, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1, Nocardia farcinica, and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The regulons are highly labile, containing eight core gene groups (regulators, kinases, USPs, DGATs, nitroreductases, ferredoxins, heat shock proteins, and the orthologs of the predicted kinase [Rv2004c] from M. tuberculosis) and 10 additional genes with more restricted taxonomic distribution that are mostly involved in anaerobic respiration. The largest regulon is observed in M. marinum and the smallest in M. abscessus. Analysis of large gene families encoding USPs, nitroreductases, and DGATs demonstrates a mosaic distribution of regulated and nonregulated members, suggesting frequent acquisition and loss of DosR-binding sites. PMID:21602344

  1. 36 CFR 71.7 - Entrance fees for single-visit permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Entrance fees for single-visit permits. 71.7 Section 71...RECREATION FEES § 71.7 Entrance fees for single-visit permits. (a) Entrance fees for single-visit permits shall be selected by...

  2. 36 CFR 71.7 - Entrance fees for single-visit permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Entrance fees for single-visit permits. 71.7 Section 71...RECREATION FEES § 71.7 Entrance fees for single-visit permits. (a) Entrance fees for single-visit permits shall be selected by...

  3. 36 CFR 71.7 - Entrance fees for single-visit permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Entrance fees for single-visit permits. 71.7 Section 71...RECREATION FEES § 71.7 Entrance fees for single-visit permits. (a) Entrance fees for single-visit permits shall be selected by...

  4. 36 CFR 71.7 - Entrance fees for single-visit permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Entrance fees for single-visit permits. 71.7 Section 71...RECREATION FEES § 71.7 Entrance fees for single-visit permits. (a) Entrance fees for single-visit permits shall be selected by...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  9. Viral and host proteins that modulate filovirus budding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuliang; Harty, Ronald N

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, utilize a multifaceted mechanism for assembly and budding of infectious virions from mammalian cells. Growing evidence not only demonstrates the importance of multiple viral proteins for efficient assembly and budding, but also the exploitation of various host proteins/pathways by the virus during this late stage of filovirus replication, including endocytic compartments, vacuolar protein sorting pathways, ubiquitination machinery, lipid rafts and cytoskeletal components. Continued elucidation of these complex and orchestrated virus-host interactions will provide a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of filovirus assembly/budding and ultimately lead to the development of novel viral- and/or host-oriented therapeutics to inhibit filovirus egress and spread. This article will focus on the most recent studies on host interactions and modulation of filovirus budding and summarize the key findings from these investigations. PMID:20730024

  10. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates.

    PubMed

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of +/- 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to +/- 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data. PMID:19851788

  11. Phase Transition and dissipation driven budding in lipid vesicles

    E-print Network

    Franke, Thomas; Wixforth, Achim; Dan, Nily; Schneider, Matthias F

    2013-01-01

    Membrane budding has been extensively studied as an equilibrium process attributed to the formation of coexisting domains or changes in the vesicle area to volume ratio (reduced volume). In contrast, non-equilibrium budding remains experimentally widely unexplored especially when time scales fall well below the characteristic diffusion time of lipids{\\tau} . We show that localized mechanical perturbations, initiated by driving giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) through their lipid phase transition, leads to the immediate formation of rapidly growing, multiply localized, non-equilibrium buds, when the transition takes place at short timescales (buds arise from small fluid-like perturbations and grow as spherical caps in the third dimension, since in plane spreading is obstructed by the continuous rigid gel-like matrix. Accounting for both three and two dimensional viscosity, we demonstrate that dissipation decreases the size scale of the system and therefore favours the formation...

  12. Bud Fisher—Pioneer Dean of the Comic Artists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Thompson

    1979-01-01

    The George Arents Research Library for Special Collections at Syracuse University has an extensive collection of original drawings by American cartoonists. Among the most famous of these are Bud Fisher's \\

  13. Genomic stability disorders: from budding yeast to humans.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Nicolas Carlos; Lai, Xianning; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology are extensively studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome maintenance pathways are highly conserved and research into a number of human genetic disorders with increased genome instability and cancer predisposition have benefited greatly from studies in budding yeast. Here, we present some of the examples where yeast research into DNA damage responses and telomere maintenance pathways paved the way to understanding these processes, and their involvement in selected human diseases. PMID:23277058

  14. Tilt Texture Domains on a Membrane and Chirality induced Budding

    E-print Network

    R. C Sarasij; Madan Rao

    2001-05-25

    We study the equilibrium conformations of a lipid domain on a planar fluid membrane where the domain is decorated by a vector field representing the tilt of the stiff fatty acid chains of the lipid molecules, while the surrounding membrane is fluid and structureless. The inclusion of chirality in the bulk of the domain induces a novel budding of the membrane, which preempts the budding induced by a decrease in interfacial tension.

  15. A buckling mechanism for ESCRT-III budding

    E-print Network

    Lenz, Martin; Joanny, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The ESCRT-III protein complex binds to the membrane of eukaryotic cells, causing it to bud into long tubes. Here we propose that this budding is akin to a buckling instability. We analyze the linear stability of flat ESCRT-III-dressed membranes and account for the formation of long tubes. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism is compatible with reasonable in vivo parameter values and we propose an experiment allowing its validation.

  16. Flower-bud blasting in tulips caused by ethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. De Munk

    1973-01-01

    Several symptoms are described that characterize the extent of flower-bud blasting in tulips. The disorder could be induced by ethylene applied in concentrations of 0.3 ppm and higher during storage of the bulbs. When ethylene was applied late, the symptoms could be observed in most of the buds immediately after exposure. During subsequent storage in an ethylene-free environment, the injury

  17. Seed dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis: chromatin remodelling and regulation of DOG1 in response to seasonal environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Footitt, Steven; Müller, Kerstin; Kermode, Allison R; Finch-Savage, William E

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of chromatin remodelling in dormancy cycling in the soil seed bank (SSB) is poorly understood. Natural variation between the winter and summer annual Arabidopsis ecotypes Cvi and Bur was exploited to investigate the expression of genes involved in chromatin remodelling via histone 2B (H2B) ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination and histone acetylation/deacetylation, the repressive histone methyl transferases CURLY LEAF (CLF) and SWINGER (SWN), and the gene silencing repressor ROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1) and promoter of silencing KYP/SUVH4 (KRYPTONITE), during dormancy cycling in the SSB. ROS1 expression was positively correlated with dormancy while the reverse was observed for CLF and KYP/SUVH4. We propose ROS1 dependent repression of silencing and a sequential requirement of CLF and KYP/SUVH4 dependent gene repression and silencing for the maintenance and suppression of dormancy during dormancy cycling. Seasonal expression of H2B modifying genes was correlated negatively with temperature and positively with DOG1 expression, as were histone acetyltransferase genes, with histone deacetylases positively correlated with temperature. Changes in the histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were seen on DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION1) in Cvi during dormancy cycling. H3K4me3 activating marks remained stable along DOG1. During relief of dormancy, H3K27me3 repressive marks slowly accumulated and accelerated on exposure to light completing dormancy loss. We propose that these marks on DOG1 serve as a thermal sensing mechanism during dormancy cycling in preparation for light repression of dormancy. Overall, chromatin remodelling plays a vital role in temporal sensing through regulation of gene expression. PMID:25439058

  18. Membrane budding and scission by the ESCRT machinery: it's all in the neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Hurley; Phyllis I. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) catalyse one of the most unusual membrane remodelling events in cell biology. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II direct membrane budding away from the cytosol by stabilizing bud necks without coating the buds and without being consumed in the buds. ESCRT-III cleaves the bud necks from their cytosolic faces. ESCRT-III-mediated membrane neck cleavage is crucial

  19. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  20. 3. OVERALL VIEW FROM WEST From left to right: Entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW FROM WEST From left to right: Entrance Sign Blacksmith Shop No. 2 (HAER No. PA-232-B) Power Plant (HAER No. PA-232-I) Blacksmith Shop No. 1 (HAER No. PA-232-A) Paint Stores (HAER No. PA-232-H) Flue Shed (HAER No. PA-232-E) Boiler Shop - Juniata Shops, East side of Chestnut Avenue, South of Sixth Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. Wide-angle zoom lens with removed forward entrance pupil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits-Anitropova, Irina L.; Russinov, Michael M.; Bronchtein, Igor G.

    1998-09-01

    Some ideas of design zoom lenses with removed forward entrance pupils (pinhole zoom lenses) are presented. The methodology and current status will be discussed in this paper. Number of examples illustrate approaches proposed: optical extension adapter which allows to use together a pinhole lens with fixed focal length and video-camera zoom lens to form a zoom pinhole lens; three positive components, including linearly moving collective lens to provide variable focal length.

  2. Entrance and Exit Effects for Fluid Flow in Metal Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhan, Nihad; Patel, Krunal P.

    2010-05-01

    As an engineering technology, open-cell metal foam has gained an expanded industrial and scientific interest. Many applications require fluid flow through the open pores of the foam. In general, metal foam is treated as a porous medium subject to porous-media flow relations, i.e., the Darcy and Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (or Forchheimer) equations. Depending on the flow regime, the permeability, or the permeability and form drag coefficient, are usually obtained by fitting linear experimental pressure drop data as a function of seepage velocity, according to one of the above relations. The length of metal foam employed by researches is dictated by intended applications or by limitations on experimental set-ups. Little or no attention is paid to the effect of the length of the foam in the flow direction or the potential presence of entrance/exit effects. The current work is concerned with experimentally investigating the effects of entrance and exit of airflow in metal foam on the pressure drop. An experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel for velocities in the Forchheimer regime. An aluminum foam sample having a length of 30.5 cm in the flow direction and a square cross section of 10.16 cm2 was investigated. Pressure drop data was recorded at equal distances from the entrance and the exit. Results revealed strong entrance and exit effects over a significant portion of the sample. In both of these regions and for some velocities, the pressure drop did not conform to the Forchheimer equation.

  3. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  4. Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes full size detail of mullion for iron gates. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Complex Combination of Seed Dormancy and Seedling Development Determine Emergence of Viburnum tinus (Caprifoliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    KARLSSON, LAILA M.; HIDAYATI, SITI N.; WALCK, JEFFREY L.; MILBERG, PER

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The shrub Viburnum tinus is widely distributed in mattoral vegetation of the Mediterranean basin. The purpose of the present study was to classify the seed dormancy type and examine the requirements for embryo growth, root protrusion and shoot emergence. • Methods Overwintered fruits were collected in western Spain in April 2001 and prepared in three ways: entire pericarp was removed, exocarp and mesocarp were removed or fruits were left intact. Fruits treated in these three ways were subjected to artificial annual temperature cycles or to constant temperature regimes for 1·5 years. • Key Results Removal of exocarp and mesocarp was necessary for embryo growth and germination. High temperature favoured dormancy alleviation and embryo growth, intermediate to low temperatures favoured root protrusion, and intermediate temperature shoot emergence. There was substantial germination at constant temperature regimes, indicating an overlap between temperature intervals suitable for the different stages of embryo and seedling development. Functionally, V. tinus has the same root and shoot emergence pattern that is described for other Viburnum species considered to have epicotyl dormancy. However, the requirement for high and low temperatures for radicle protrusion and epicotyl emergence, respectively, was missing in V. tinus; these characters are the foundation for the epicotyl dormancy classification. • Conclusions It is concluded that V. tinus does not have epicotyl dormancy. Instead, there is a combination of a weak morphophysiological dormancy and a slow germination process, where different temperatures during an annual cycle favour different development stages. The present study suggests that the first complete seedlings would emerge in the field 1·5 years after fruit maturation in October, i.e. seed dispersal during winter, embryo growth during the first summer, root protrusion and establishment during the second autumn and winter, and cotyledon emergence during the second spring. PMID:15546926

  6. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L ?-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 ?mol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants. PMID:23179705

  7. Arabidopsis histone demethylases LDL1 and LDL2 control primary seed dormancy by regulating DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 and ABA signaling-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minglei; Yang, Songguang; Liu, Xuncheng; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy controls germination and plays a critical role in regulating the beginning of the life cycle of plants. Seed dormancy is established and maintained during seed maturation and is gradually broken during dry storage (after-ripening). The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) protein are essential regulators of seed dormancy. Recent studies revealed that chromatin modifications are also involved in the transcription regulation of seed dormancy. Here, we showed that two Arabidopsis histone demethylases, LYSINESPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE LIKE 1 and 2 (LDL1 and LDL2) act redundantly in repressing of seed dormancy. LDL1 and LDL2 are highly expressed in the early silique developing stage. The ldl1 ldl2 double mutant displays increased seed dormancy, whereas overexpression of LDL1 or LDL2 in Arabidopsis causes reduced dormancy. Furthermore, we showed that LDL1 and LDL2 repress the expression of seed dormancy-related genes, including DOG1, ABA2 and ABI3 during seed dormancy establishment. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the repression of seed dormancy by LDL1 and LDL2 requires DOG1, ABA2, and ABI3. Taken together, our findings revealed that LDL1 and LDL2 play an essential role in seed dormancy. PMID:25852712

  8. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Quantitative Trait Loci and Candidate Gene Mapping of Bud Set

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    Mapping of Bud Set and Bud Flush in Populus Barbara E. Frewen,* Tony H. H. Chen, Glenn T. Howe, Joel Davis ABSTRACT The genetic control of bud phenology in hybrid poplar was studied by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the timing of autumn bud set and spring bud flush. The founders of the mapping

  9. Seed Dormancy and Germination of the European Chaerophyllum temulum (Apiaceae), a Member of a Trans-Atlantic Genus

    PubMed Central

    Vandelook, Filip; Bolle, Nele; Van Assche, Jozef A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The European Chaerophyllum temulum and two North American Chaerophyllum species have a trans-Atlantic disjunct distribution. This work aimed to resolve requirements for dormancy break and germination of C. temulum seeds and to compare dormancy traits with those of the two North American congeners. Methods Phenology of germination and embryo growth was studied by regularly exhuming seeds sown in natural conditions. Temperature requirements for embryo growth, breaking of dormancy and germination were determined by incubating seeds under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally the effect of GA3 on germination was tested to determine the specific dormancy type. Key Results In natural conditions, embryo growth starts in early winter. Seedlings emerge in late winter shortly after the embryos reached the critical ratio for embryo length to seed length (E : S) of approx. 0·95. Growth of the embryo only occurs during a prolonged incubation period at 5 °C. After stratification at 5 °C, which breaks physiological and morphological dormancy, seeds can germinate at a wide range of temperatures. GA3 did not substitute for cold stratification in seeds placed at 23 °C. Conclusions Chaerophyllum temulum has deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. This dormancy type differs considerably from that of the two North American congeners. PMID:17556382

  10. Seed dormancy and germination in three Crocus ser. Verni species (Iridaceae): implications for evolution of dormancy within the genus.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Probert, R; Moretti, M; Peruzzi, L; Bedini, G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether seed ecophysiological traits in three closely related Crocus species were associated with ecological niche differentiation and species divergence. Seeds of the temperate tetraploid cytotype of Crocus neapolitanus, the sub-Mediterranean C. etruscus and the Mediterranean C. ilvensis were placed either on agar in the laboratory under different periods of simulated seasonal conditions or in nylon mesh bags buried outdoors to examine embryo growth, radicle and shoot emergence. In agreement with the phenology observed outdoors, in the laboratory embryos required a cool temperature (ca. 10 °C) to grow to full size (embryo length:seed length, E:S ratio ca. 0.75) but only after seeds received a warm stratification; radicle emergence then followed immediately (November). Shoot emergence is a temporally separated phase (March) that was promoted by cold stratification in C. neapolitanus while in the other two species this time lag was attributed to a slow continuous developmental process. These species have similar embryo growth and radicle phenology but differ in their degree of epicotyl dormancy, which is related to the length of local winter. Conclusions from laboratory experiments that only consider root emergence could be misleading; evaluating the phenology of both root and shoot emergence should be considered in order to demonstrate ecologically meaningful differences in germination behaviour and to develop effective propagation protocols. Although these taxa resulted from recent speciation processes, the outcomes suggest an early onset of adaptation to local ecological factors and that phylogeny may represent a significant constraint in the evolution and expression of seed traits in Crocus. PMID:24533601

  11. Physiology, morphology and phenology of seed dormancy break and germination in the endemic Iberian species Narcissus hispanicus (Amaryllidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Copete, Elena; Herranz, José M.; Ferrandis, Pablo; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Only very few studies have been carried out on seed dormancy/germination in the large monocot genus Narcissus. A primary aim of this study was to determine the kind of seed dormancy in Narcissus hispanicus and relate the dormancy breaking and germination requirements to the field situation. Methods Embryo growth, radicle emergence and shoot growth were studied by subjecting seeds with and without an emerged radicle to different periods of warm, cold or warm plus cold in natural temperatures outdoors and under controlled laboratory conditions. Key Results Mean embryo length in fresh seeds was approx. 1·31 mm, and embryos had to grow to 2·21 mm before radicle emergence. Embryos grew to full size and seeds germinated (radicles emerged) when they were warm stratified for 90 d and then incubated at cool temperatures for 30 d. However, the embryos grew only a little and no seeds germinated when they were incubated at 9/5, 10 or 15/4 °C for 30 d following a moist cold pre-treatment at 5, 9/5 or 10 °C. In the natural habitat of N. hispanicus, seeds are dispersed in late May, the embryo elongates in autumn and radicles emerge (seeds germinate) in early November; however, if the seeds are exposed to low temperatures before embryo growth is completed, they re-enter dormancy (secondary dormancy). The shoot does not emerge until March, after germinated seeds are cold stratified in winter. Conclusion Seeds of N. hispanicus have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), with the dormancy formula C1bB(root) – C3(epicotyl). This is the first study on seeds with simple MPD to show that embryos in advanced stages of growth can re-enter dormancy (secondary dormancy). PMID:21335326

  12. Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation-induced dormancy

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    REPORT Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation- induced dormancy Patrice A. Morrow1 stresses such as herbivory. We monitored 140 putative Solidago missouriensis clones (hereafter Ôclones canadensis. Eight of the clones produced no above-ground growth in the season following defoliation. Though

  13. Mixed-mode oscillations and chaos in a prey-predator system with dormancy of

    E-print Network

    of dormancy on the population dy- namics of phytoplankton-zooplankton in freshwater ecosystems. With regard popu- lation dynamics in a simple phytoplankton-zooplankton(-resting eggs) community in a microcosm known that zooplankton mainly produce subitaneous eggs in comfortable environments; however

  14. Temperature effects on dormancy levels and germination in temperate forest sedges (Carex)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Brändel; Wolfgang Schütz

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stratification temperatures and burial in soil on dormancy levels of Carex pendula L. and C. remota L., two spring-germinating perennials occurring in moist forests, were investigated. Seeds buried for 34 months outdoors, and seeds stratified in the laboratory at temperatures between 3 and 18 °C for periods between 2 and 28 weeks, were tested over a range of

  15. The effect of environmental conditions on the seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of weed seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Bouwmeester

    1990-01-01

    Weeds cause considerable losses in horticultural and agricultural crops. Weeds are still predominantly controlled with herbicides. To reduce the use of chemicals, a better understanding of the biology of weeds is required. In this thesis the effect of environmental conditions on dormancy and germination of Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L., P. lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium, Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.

  16. Seed Dormancy and Delayed Flowering in Monocarpic Plants: Selective Interactions in a Stochastic Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Rees

    2006-01-01

    We explore the effects of temporal variation in multiple demographic rates on the joint evolution of delayed reproduction and seed dormancy using integral projection models (IPMs). To do this, we extend the standard IPM to include a discrete state variable representing the number of seeds in the seed bank, density-dependent recruitment, and temporal variation in demography. Parameter es- timates for

  17. Summary We investigated interrelations of dormancy and freezing tolerance and the role of endogenous abscisic acid

    E-print Network

    Palva, Tapio

    of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the development of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) ecotypes exposure to low temperature during short days. Keywords: abscisic acid, cold acclimation, dormancy is complex. Abscisic acid (ABA), a stress-inducible plant hormone and growth inhibitor, has frequently been

  18. Developing a Genetic System to Clone Seed Dormancy Genes from Red Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that is critical to the persistence and survival of weedy plants in agroecosystems. Fundamental information on physiological, biochemical, and molecular regulatory mechanisms is lacking. Thus, the goal of our research is to identify mechanisms that regulate the qua...

  19. The Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role of Reactive

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    is associated with a marked increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion generation in the embryonic axes. This increase results from an inhibition of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and also involves germination and are second messengers of cyanide in seed dormancy release. The effect of cyanide (potassium

  20. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are transcription factors that have been linked to endodormancy induction. The evergrowing mutation in peach, which renders it incapable of entering endodormancy, resulted from a deletion in a series of DAM genes (Bielenberg et al. 2008). Likewise, DAM genes ...

  1. Methods for breaking of seed dormancy in Echinacea angustifolia D.C. and Echinacea purpurea (Poster)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Reza Safahani; Rozbeh Farhoudi

    Results indicated significant differences (p<0.01)and the highest rate of germination is related to combined treatment. It was observed that the percentage of germination was significantly different at all treatments of breaking dormancy. The maximum number of germinated seed was found with in GA3 AND stratification. Conclusion

  2. The link between environmental variation and evolutionary shifts in dormancy in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    Sex and dormancy are intertwined in organisms that engage in asexual and sexual reproduction. The transition between asexual and sexual reproduction typically results in a dormant stage that provides a mechanism for persisting under harsh environmental conditions. For example, many zooplankton engage in sexual reproduction when environmental conditions deteriorate and produce resting eggs that remain viable for decades. It has long been assumed that observed variation in the timing and magnitude of investment into a dormant stage among populations or species reflects local environmental conditions. Yet, the importance of dormancy for the persistence of a given population can differ dramatically among habitats (i.e., permanent vs. seasonal ponds). As a result, environmental conditions may exert selection on the propensity for zooplankton to engage in sexual reproduction and enter dormancy in natural populations. Here, I highlight a growing body of research illustrating an important link between environmental conditions and divergent reproductive strategies in zooplankton. I specifically: (1) review the environmental cues that initiate a transition between asexual and sexual reproduction in zooplankton and (2) describe recent work demonstrating an evolutionary consequence of ecological selective pressures, such as predation and habitat predictability, on variation in the extent to which organisms engage in sex and enter dormancy. Such results have implications for the genetics and ecology of these organisms. PMID:23630969

  3. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE–Like MADS box transcription factors linked to endodormancy induction. We have cloned and characterized several cDNA and genomic clones of DAM genes from the model perennial weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). We present evidence fo...

  4. Cell cycle activity and beta-tubulin accumulation during dormancy breaking of Acer platanoides L. seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Pawlowski; J. H. W. Bergervoet; R. J. Bino; S. P. C. Groot

    2004-01-01

    Cell cycle events in embryo axes of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seeds were studied during dormancy breaking by flow cytometric analyses of the nuclear DNA content and by immunodetection of ?-tubulin. Most embryonic nuclei of dry, fully matured seeds were arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, the lowest content of ?-tubulin was detected in

  5. TEMPERATURE AND TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL EFFECTS ON BERMUDAGRASS GROWTH, DORMANCY AND FREEZING TOLERANCE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the transition zone in the southeastern U.S., growth regulators are being applied to bermudagrass in summer months and, recently, also in the fall. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of temperature and trinexapac-ethyl (TE) interactions in bermudagrass growth responses, dormanc...

  6. Phenology of dormancy in a Virginia population of Mesocyclops edax (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dobrzykowski; G. A. Wyngaard

    1993-01-01

    The abundance and age structure of a Virginia, USA population ofMesocyclops edax that undergoes dormancy in an eutrophic lake was investigated from October 1988 through March 1989. During the fall all instars ofM. edax were present in the water column. By early December, only CI-CIV instars were found.

  7. The Role of Water Uptake in the Transition of Recalcitrant Seeds from Dormancy to Germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Obroucheva; O. V. Antipova

    2004-01-01

    In recalcitrant seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) maintaining a high water content during winter, dormancy is determined by the presence and influence of the seed coat, while the axial organs of the embryos excised from these seeds are not dormant. Such axial organs were capable for active water uptake and rapid fresh weight increase, so that their fresh

  8. A dormancy extension technique for biotechnical streambank stabilization in warm regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Han Li; Harlow C. Landphair; Michael A. Arnold; Kenneth Mullin; Karen E. Eddleman

    2005-01-01

    Researchers identified four challenges to applying biotechnical streambank stabilization in warm regions. These challenges are strongly correlated to plant dormancy and planting period. Prompted by these challenges, researchers investigated the applicability of using the cold storage method to extend the dormant condition of live black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings for later planting. Black willow cuttings were harvested in February 2001

  9. Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Induced in the Wayne Dormancy Model

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Calvin; Li, Rong; Qi, Robert; Dick, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen starvation triggers the shiftdown of the obligate aerobe Mycobacterium bovis BCG to a state of dormancy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed a drastic up-regulation of the ?-crystallin homolog, the putative response regulator Rv3133c, and the two conserved hypothetical proteins Rv2623 and Rv2626c in dormant bacilli. PMID:11274129

  10. Inhibitor content of phloem and xylem sap obtained from willow ( Salix viminalis L.) entering dormancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Bowen; G. V. Hoad

    1968-01-01

    It is shown that there is one growth inhibitor in the phloem sap and two in the xylem sap of willow (S. viminalis L.). The concentration of the inhibitor in the phloem sap, (+)-abscisic acid, increases as the plants enter dormancy. This is also shown for (+)-abscisic acid in the xylem sap, but the concentration of the second inhibitor decreases

  11. 8. The role of plant growth regulators in dormancy in forest trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis P. Lavender; Salim N. Silim

    1987-01-01

    The role of plant growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins, and ethylene, in the initiation, maintenance, and breaking of dormancy in perennial, woody, temperate plants is reviewed. Particular topics discussed include: a) roles of individual compounds and antagonistic or synergistic effects of several growth regulators acting simultaneously; b) problems of compound isolation and identification; and c) hypotheses

  12. Temperature requirements for dormancy break and seed germination vary greatly among 14 wetland Carex species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin M. Kettenring; Susan M. Galatowitsch

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated dormancy loss in seeds of 14 Carex species (C. atherodes, C. brevior, C. comosa, C. cristatella, C. cryptolepis, C. granularis, C. hystericina, C. lacustris, C. pellita, C. scoparia, C. stipata, C. stricta, C. utriculata, C. vulpinoidea) under growing season and stratification conditions and determined the temperature requirements for germination. Seeds were germinated for 1 year at a diel

  13. Spike protein-nucleocapsid interactions drive the budding of alphaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, M; Liljeström, P; Garoff, H

    1992-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) particles are released from infected cells by budding of nucleocapsids through plasma membrane regions that are modified by virus spike proteins. The budding process was studied with recombinant SFV genomes which lacked the nucleocapsid protein gene or, alternatively, the spike genes. No subviral particles were released from cells which expressed only the nucleocapsid protein or the spike proteins. Virus release was found to be strictly dependent on the coexpression of the nucleocapsid and the spike proteins. These results provide direct proof for the hypothesis that the alphavirus budding is driven by nucleocapsid-spike interactions. The importance of the viral 42S RNA for virus assembly and budding was investigated by using the heterologous vaccinia virus-T7 expression system for the synthesis of the SFV structural proteins. The results demonstrate that the viral genome is not absolutely required for formation of budding competent nucleocapsids, since small amounts of viruslike particles were assembled in the absence of 42S RNA. Images PMID:1629953

  14. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A G

    2010-04-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  15. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  16. Phase Transition and dissipation driven budding in lipid vesicles

    E-print Network

    Thomas Franke; Christian T. Leirer; Achim Wixforth; Nily Dan; Matthias F. Schneider

    2013-03-26

    Membrane budding has been extensively studied as an equilibrium process attributed to the formation of coexisting domains or changes in the vesicle area to volume ratio (reduced volume). In contrast, non-equilibrium budding remains experimentally widely unexplored especially when time scales fall well below the characteristic diffusion time of lipids{\\tau} . We show that localized mechanical perturbations, initiated by driving giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) through their lipid phase transition, leads to the immediate formation of rapidly growing, multiply localized, non-equilibrium buds, when the transition takes place at short timescales (buds arise from small fluid-like perturbations and grow as spherical caps in the third dimension, since in plane spreading is obstructed by the continuous rigid gel-like matrix. Accounting for both three and two dimensional viscosity, we demonstrate that dissipation decreases the size scale of the system and therefore favours the formation of multiple buds as long as the perturbation takes place above a certain critical rate. This rate depends on membrane and media viscosity and is qualitatively and quantitatively correctly predicted by our theoretical description.

  17. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  18. Induction of endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) implicates a role for ethylene and cross-talk between photoperiod and temperature.

    PubMed

    Do?ramac?, Münevver; Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Christoffers, Michael J; Anderson, James V

    2013-04-01

    Leafy spurge is a model for studying well-defined phases of dormancy in underground adventitious buds (UABs) of herbaceous perennial weeds, which is a primary factor facilitating their escape from conventional control measures. A 12-week ramp down in both temperature (27 ? 10 °C) and photoperiod (16 ? 8 h light) is required to induce a transition from para- to endo-dormancy in UABs of leafy spurge. To evaluate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on molecular networks of UABs during this transition, we compared global transcriptome data-sets obtained from leafy spurge exposed to a ramp down in both temperature and photoperiod (RDtp) versus a ramp down in temperature (RDt) alone. Analysis of data-sets indicated that transcript abundance for genes associated with circadian clock, photoperiodism, flowering, and hormone responses (CCA1, COP1, HY5, MAF3, MAX2) preferentially increased in endodormant UABs. Gene-set enrichment analyses also highlighted metabolic pathways involved in endodormancy induction that were associated with ethylene, auxin, flavonoids, and carbohydrate metabolism; whereas, sub-network enrichment analyses identified hubs (CCA1, CO, FRI, miR172A, EINs, DREBs) of molecular networks associated with carbohydrate metabolism, circadian clock, flowering, and stress and hormone responses. These results helped refine existing models for the transition to endodormancy in UABs of leafy spurge, which strengthened the roles of circadian clock associated genes, DREBs, COP1-HY5, carbohydrate metabolism, and involvement of hormones (ABA, ethylene, and strigolactones). We further examined the effects of ethylene by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) to paradormant plants without a ramp down treatment. New vegetative growth from UABs of ACC-treated plants resulted in a dwarfed phenotype that mimicked the growth response in RDtp-induced endodormant UABs. The results of this study provide new insights into dormancy regulation suggesting a short-photoperiod treatment provides an additive cross-talk effect with temperature signals that may impact ethylene's effect on AP2/ERF family members. PMID:23436173

  19. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  20. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    E-print Network

    Thorsten Auth; Gerhard Gompper

    2009-10-16

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  1. Concept of common bud and related phenomena in Bryozoa

    E-print Network

    Elias, M. K.

    1971-05-01

    of the Treatise, but the definition concerned only most primitive forms of the Cyclo- stomata (BAssLER, 1953, p. G9): "Common bud. In Cyclostomata, the protoecium rancestrula grows into a cylindrical tube with mouth closed by an uncalcified terminal membrane which... of the Treatise, but the definition concerned only most primitive forms of the Cyclo- stomata (BAssLER, 1953, p. G9): "Common bud. In Cyclostomata, the protoecium rancestrula grows into a cylindrical tube with mouth closed by an uncalcified terminal membrane which...

  2. In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Davis, Trisha N.

    EMBO open In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces resonance energy transfer (FRET) to analyse inter- actions within the cohesin complex in live budding yeast

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed dormancy and heading date in rice, Oryza sativa L., using backcross inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Lin; T. Sasaki; M. Yano

    1998-01-01

    To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed dormancy, 98 BC1F5 lines (backcross inbred lines) derived from a backcross of Nipponbare (japonica)\\/Kasalath (indica)\\/\\/Nipponbare were analyzed genetically. We used 245 RFLP markers to construct a framework linkage map. Five putative QTLs\\u000a affecting seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 3, 5, 7 (two regions) and 8, respectively. Phenotypic variations explained\\u000a by each

  4. Induction of budding on chloronemata and caulonemata of the moss, Physcomitrella patens , using isopentenyladenine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reski; W. O. Abel

    1985-01-01

    The bud-inducing effect of the cytokinin N6-(?2-isopentenyl)-adenine (i6-Ade) was examined in the moss Physcomitrella patens growing in liquid culture. Under these conditions, buds could be induced on chloronemata as well as on caulonemata. By application of i6-Ade, bud-formation was accelerated in both types of tissue. The number of buds, their size and their site of development were dependent on the

  5. A novel role for histone methyltransferase KYP/SUVH4 in the control of Arabidopsis primary seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Chen, Fengying; Wang, Zhi; Cao, Hong; Li, Xiaoying; Deng, Xin; Soppe, Wim J J; Li, Yong; Liu, Yongxiu

    2012-02-01

    • Seed dormancy controls germination and plays a crucial role in the life cycle of plants. Chromatin modifications are involved in the regulation of seed dormancy; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. • KYP/SUVH4 is required for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Mutations in this gene cause increased seed dormancy. KYP/SUVH4-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants show decreased dormancy. KYP/SUVH4 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GA). The sensitivity of seed germination to ABA and paclobutrazol (PAC) is enhanced slightly in kryptonite-2 (kyp-2) and suvh4-2/suvh5 mutants, but weakened in KYP/SUVH4-overexpressing plants. • In the kyp-2 mutant, several dormancy-related genes, including DOG1 and ABI3, show increased expression levels, in agreement with a negative role for KYP/SUVH4 in gene transcription. • Genetic analysis showed that DOG1 and HUB1 are epistatic to KYP/SUVH4, suggesting that these genes regulate seed dormancy in the same genetic pathway. PMID:22122546

  6. Fire Season and Frequency Effects on Native Grass Bud Banks in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Axillary buds, belowground meristematic tissue located on plant crowns, regulate productivity of perennial grasses. However, the impact of fire frequency and season-of-fire on quantity and viability of axillary buds is still unclear. We evaluated axillary bud populations of Bouteloua gracilis, Hes...

  7. Molecular events of apical bud formation in white spruce, Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    El Kayal, Walid; Allen, Carmen C G; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Adams, Eri; King-Jones, Susanne; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Cooke, Janice E K

    2011-03-01

    Bud formation is an adaptive trait that temperate forest trees have acquired to facilitate seasonal synchronization. We have characterized transcriptome-level changes that occur during bud formation of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], a primarily determinate species in which preformed stem units contained within the apical bud constitute most of next season's growth. Microarray analysis identified 4460 differentially expressed sequences in shoot tips during short day-induced bud formation. Cluster analysis revealed distinct temporal patterns of expression, and functional classification of genes in these clusters implied molecular processes that coincide with anatomical changes occurring in the developing bud. Comparing expression profiles in developing buds under long day and short day conditions identified possible photoperiod-responsive genes that may not be essential for bud development. Several genes putatively associated with hormone signalling were identified, and hormone quantification revealed distinct profiles for abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, auxin and their metabolites that can be related to morphological changes to the bud. Comparison of gene expression profiles during bud formation in different tissues revealed 108 genes that are differentially expressed only in developing buds and show greater transcript abundance in developing buds than other tissues. These findings provide a temporal roadmap of bud formation in white spruce. PMID:21118421

  8. The ultrastructural aspects of the cytokinin-induced bud formation in Ceratodon purpureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystyna Idzikowska; Alicja Szweykowska

    1978-01-01

    Summary The fine structure of gametophore buds developing in response to a cytokinin treatment is described and compared with the results of biochemical and physiological investigations. In the early period of growth, the buds followed a regular pattern of development, with the differentiation of a tetrahedral apical cell at the 3-cell stage of the bud. After 6 and 48 hours

  9. Budding and domain shape transformations in mixed lipid films and bilayer membranes J. L. Harden*

    E-print Network

    MacKintosh, F.C.

    Budding and domain shape transformations in mixed lipid films and bilayer membranes J. L. Harden shape. With increasing line tension, we show numerically that there is a budding transformation from stable protruding circular domains to spherical buds. We calculate the full phase diagram and demonstrate

  10. Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes Jean Wolff1,3

    E-print Network

    Andelman, David

    Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes Jean Wolff1,3 , Shigeyuki Komura2 , and David, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel (Dated: October 14, 2014) We propose a model that accounts for budding behavior diagrams which contain fully-budded, dimpled and flat states. In particular, for some range of membrane

  11. Widespread cytoplasmic mRNA transport in yeast: Identification of 22 bud-localized transcripts

    E-print Network

    Vale, Ronald D.

    Widespread cytoplasmic mRNA transport in yeast: Identification of 22 bud-localized transcripts identified two mRNAs that localize to the bud tips of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify reporter assay, identified 22 mRNAs that are localized to bud tips. These messages encode a wide variety

  12. PRE-BUD: Prefetching for Energy-Efficient Parallel I/O Systems with Buffer Disks

    E-print Network

    Qin, Xiao

    3 PRE-BUD: Prefetching for Energy-Efficient Parallel I/O Systems with Buffer Disks ADAM MANZANARES and environmentally friendly parallel I/O systems, we propose an energy-aware prefetching strategy (PRE-BUD) utilizing an existing disk as the buffer disk. PRE-BUD is not only able to reduce the number of power

  13. COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Harvey

    COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches Harvey T McMahon1 Introduction: The coated vesicle budding hypothesis Early electron microscopy studies of cells led to a vesicle- transport hypothesis for protein trafficking. Vesicular transport intermediates bud from a donor organelle

  14. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200900658 Phase-Transition-and Dissipation-Driven Budding in Lipid

    E-print Network

    DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200900658 Phase-Transition- and Dissipation-Driven Budding in Lipid Vesicles- retical and an experimental perspective.[1­3] The formation of membrane `buds', which are spherical pro­7] The driving force for bud formation in these systems is thought to be the formation of minority domains

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer Localised axial progenitor cell populations in the avian tail bud

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Localised axial progenitor cell populations in the avian tail bud, 'Localised axial progenitor cell populations in the avian tail bud are not committed to a posterior Hox. Further (secondary body) development derives from a caudal cap of tissue, the tail bud, which generates

  16. Shoot preformation in clones of Fraxinus pennsylvanica in relation to site and year of bud formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Remphrey; C. G. Davidson

    1994-01-01

    Shoot preformation was investigated in buds of four clones of Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima (Vahl) Fern. at two sites in Manitoba in the second (1988) and third (1989) growing seasons after grafting. More preformed primordia were produced in terminal buds in 1989 compared to 1988 at each site. Both terminal and lateral buds at Morden contained significantly more primordia than

  17. Evolution of multinucleated Ashbya gossypii hyphae from a budding yeast-like ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Schmitz; Peter Philippsen

    2011-01-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii polarity establishment at sites of germ tube and lateral branch emergence depends on homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae factors controlling bud site selection and bud emergence. Maintenance of polar growth involves homologues of well-known polarity factors of budding yeast. To achieve the much higher rates of sustained polar surface expansion of hyphae compared to mainly

  18. Progress Report Development of a new method for breaking buds on

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    the internode above a specific axillary bud. We call this treatment a "Partial Crush" (PC) treatment. It induces using the Partial Crush treatment. Previous research helped develop a method that induces specific axillary bud breaks by partially crushing the stem above a selected axillary bud (Lieth, Orsi, unpublished

  19. GFP tagging of budding yeast chromosomes reveals that proteinprotein interactions can mediate sister chromatid

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    GFP tagging of budding yeast chromosomes reveals that protein­protein interactions can mediate by the spindle-assembly checkpoint. Studies on these problems in budding yeast are hampered by the inability for visualizing specific DNA sequences in fixed and living budding yeast cells. A tandem array of 256 copies

  20. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  1. INTRODUCTION Chromosome pairing has been studied in detail in budding

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Peter

    chromosomes and hence multivalent formation at metaphase 1 (Sears, 1976). However, most chromosomes are stillINTRODUCTION Chromosome pairing has been studied in detail in budding yeast, fission yeast, maize; Weiner and Kleckner, 1994). The chromosomes of hexaploid wheat (Abranches et al., 1998) and other

  2. The vertebrate tail bud: three germ layers from one tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. May Griffith; M. J. Wiley; Esmond J. Sanders

    1992-01-01

    The tail bud of amniote embryos comprises a mass of apparently undifferentiated mesenchymal cells located at the caudal limit of the embryo, representing the remains of Hensen's node and the primitive streak. These cells have the potential to give rise to a variety of different tissues including the posterior or ‘secondary’ neural tube, the tail gut, and somites and their

  3. In vitro development of angiosperm floral buds and organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Rastogi; Viren K. Sawhney

    1989-01-01

    In the last twenty-five years, young inflorescences, floral buds and individual floral organs of a number of species have been cultured in vitro. There is considerable variability in the requirement of plant growth regulators and nutritional factors for flower development of different species. This variability is compounded by the fact that the hormonal and nutritional requirements are different at various

  4. Nipped in the Bud: Suppression of the China Democracy Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Nipped in the Bud: Suppression of the China Democracy Party examines the situation of more than 30 people imprisoned for their role in the China Democracy Party and argues for their immediate release.

  5. At the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Nasmyth

    1996-01-01

    It might now seem obvious that the mechanisms regulating cell division would be found to be a highly conserved feature of eukaryotic cells. This was less clear 20 years ago when the pioneering genetic studies of the cell cycle were initiated. This article presents one view as to what lies at the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle. It

  6. The protein kinases of budding yeast: six score and more

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Hunter; Gregory D. Plowman

    1997-01-01

    The completion of the budding yeast genome sequencing project has made it possible to determine not only the total number of genes, but also the exact number of genes of a particular type1–3. As a consequence, we now know exactly how many protein kinases are encoded by the yeast genome, a number of considerable interest because of the importance of

  7. Chromosome condensation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Guacci; Eileen Hogan; Douglas Koshland

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a fluorescent in situ hy- bridization (FISH) method to examine the structure of both natural chromosomes and small artificial chromo- somes during the mitotic cycle of budding yeast. Our results suggest that the pairing of sister chromatids: (a) occurs near the centromere and at multiple places along the chromosome arm as has been observed in other eukaryotic

  8. Preparation and budding growth of whiskers in a homogeneous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan Hui; Chen, Li; Liu, Heng; Chen, Chang Lian; Wang, Shu Lin; Huang, Zhi Liang

    2012-09-01

    Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAP) and NH4Al(OH)2CO3·H2O (AACHH) whiskers were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method based on urea hydrolysis reaction. To clarify the growth process of whiskers in the homogeneous system, XRD and SEM results of the products obtained at different reaction time were investigated in detail. A novel observation about budding growth in preparing both whiskers was described. It was indicated that the growth of whiskers went through three stages, which were oversaturation, nucleation, and budding growth. The growth units of whiskers budded from the surfaces of substrates, which were crystallized flakes for HAP preparation and amorphous spherical nuclei for AACHH preparation. Subsequently, the whiskers grew up accompanying with the disappearing substrates. One-dimensional whiskers with fine morphology and large slenderness ratio were finally obtained. Besides, according to the crystal growth and the interface diffusion theories, the effects of the templates and the budding growth mechanism were discussed.

  9. ESCRT-III Protein Requirements for HIV-1 Budding

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Eiji; Sandrin, Virginie; McCullough, John; Katsuyama, Angela; Hamilton, Ira Baci; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Two early-acting components of the cellular ESCRT pathway, ESCRT-I and ALIX, participate directly in HIV-1 budding. The membrane fission activities of ESCRT-III subunits are also presumably required, but humans express 11 different CHMP/ESCRT-III proteins whose functional contributions are not yet clear. We therefore depleted cells of each of the different CHMP proteins and protein families, and examined the effects on HIV-1 budding. Virus release was profoundly inhibited by co-depletion of either CHMP2 or CHMP4 family members, resulting in ?100-fold titer reductions. CHMP2A and CHMP4B proteins bound one another and this interaction was required for budding. By contrast, virus release was reduced only modestly by depletion of CHMP3 and CHMP1 proteins (2-8-fold titer reductions) and was unaffected by depletion of other human ESCRT-III proteins. HIV-1 budding therefore requires only a subset of the known human ESCRT-III proteins, with the CHMP2 and CHMP4 families playing key functional roles. PMID:21396898

  10. Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Clustering, Communication and Environmental Oscillations in Populations of Budding Yeast Chris describe how simple models of communication, consistent with known yeast phys- iological mechanisms relevant variables during yeast growth and division have been reported and studied for over 40 years [8, 12

  11. Expression of Aquaporin Water Channels in Rat Taste Buds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina J. Watson; Insook Kim; Arian F. Baquero; Catherine A. Burks; Lidong Liu; Timothy A. Gilbertson

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that allow taste cells to respond to changes in their osmotic environment, we have used primarily immunocytochemical and molecular approaches to look for evidence of the presence of aquaporin-like water channels in taste cells. Labeling of isolated taste buds from the fungiform, foliate, and vallate papillae in rat tongue with antibodies

  12. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  13. Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

  14. Thomson scattering measurements at the hohlraum laser entrance hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, James; Froula, Dustin; Ralph, Joe; Divol, Laurant; Michel, Pierre; London, Richard; Sorce, Chuck; Callahan, Debbie; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity and electron temperature at the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a gas-filled hohlraum have been performed for multiple LEH diameters. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic simulations to assess calculations of crossed-beam energy transfer; a laser-plasma interaction process that is being applied on the National Ignition Facility to transfer large amounts of laser energy between beam cones. This process is used for tuning the capsule implosion symmetry and predictions rely on our detailed understanding of electron temperatures and plasma flow velocity in the LEH region. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Life History, Aggregation and Dormancy of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, from the Rubber Plantations of Moist South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.; Jobi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Life history, aggregation and dormancy of rubber plantation litter beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius, (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) is described from rubber plantation belts in the western slopes of Western Ghats from the south Indian state of Kerala. The life cycle lasted 12 months, including the 5 larval instars lasting 1 month, the 3 day pupal stage, and the adult stage that can last 11 months. The adult stage includes an inactive dormancy phase of 9 months in shelters and 1 month each of active pre-dormancy (feeding) and post-dormancy (feeding and reproduction) phases that occur in rubber plantation litter. Reproductive activities are confined to the post-dormancy phase. With the onset of summer rains, huge aggregations of adults invade residential buildings and enter into a state of dormancy for 9 months. Beetle aggregations were in the range of 0.5 million to 4.5 million individuals per residential building. Dormancy in L. tristis is best classified as oligopause, which is intermediate between quiescence and diapause. Adults and larvae feed preferentially on wilted rubber tree leaves. Age-specific variation in mortality during dormancy is distinct with higher survivability for adults that have a longer pre-dormancy period. Generations are non-overlapping. PMID:20345315

  16. Chromosome condensation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method to examine the structure of both natural chromosomes and small artificial chromosomes during the mitotic cycle of budding yeast. Our results suggest that the pairing of sister chromatids: (a) occurs near the centromere and at multiple places along the chromosome arm as has been observed in other eukaryotic cells; (b) is maintained in the absence of catenation between sister DNA molecules; and (c) is independent of large blocks of repetitive DNA commonly associated with heterochromatin. Condensation of a unique region of chromosome XVI and the highly repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster from chromosome XII were also examined in budding yeast. Interphase chromosomes were condensed 80-fold relative to B form DNA, similar to what has been observed in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the structure of interphase chromosomes may be conserved among eukaryotes. While additional condensation of budding yeast chromosomes were observed during mitosis, the level of condensation was less than that observed for human mitotic chromosomes. At most stages of the cell cycle, both unique and repetitive sequences were either condensed or decondensed. However, in cells arrested in late mitosis (M) by a cdc15 mutation, the unique DNA appeared decondensed while the repetitive rDNA region appeared condensed, suggesting that the condensation state of separate regions of the genome may be regulated differently. The ability to monitor the pairing and condensation of sister chromatids in budding yeast should facilitate the molecular analysis of these processes as well as provide two new landmarks for evaluating the function of important cell cycle regulators like p34 kinases and cyclins. Finally our FISH method provides a new tool to analyze centromeres, telomeres, and gene expression in budding yeast. PMID:8175878

  17. Microbial dormancy in batch cultures as a function of substrate-dependent mortality.

    PubMed

    Ayati, Bruce P

    2012-01-21

    We present models and computational studies of dormancy in batch cultures to try to understand the relationship between reculturing time and death penalty for low substrate and the relative advantage of fast versus slow reawakening on the part of the bacteria. We find that the advantage goes to the faster waker for shorter reculturing times and lower mortality under low substrate, and moves to the slower waker as reculturing times and death penalty increase. The advantage returns again to the fast waker for very high death penalties. We use an explicit, continuous structure variable to represent dormancy so as to allow for flexibility in substrate usage on the part of dormant cells, and for a more mechanistic representation of the reawakening process. PMID:22004996

  18. Abscisic acid and the regulation of embryo dormancy in the genus Acer.

    PubMed

    Pinfield, N J; Stutchbury, P A; Bazaid, S A; Gwarazimba, V E

    1990-03-01

    Germination of Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. seeds was increased by moist storage of the intact fruits (seed + pericarp) at 5 degrees C, but not at 17 degrees C. In both species, germinative capacity of isolated embryos (seeds with testa removed) was increased by moist storage of fruits at either 5 or 17 degrees C. Thus dormancy loss by intact seeds and excised embryos was not necessarily correlated. Loss of dormancy in isolated embryos was associated with a reduction in free abscisic acid (ABA) content. Embryos from freshly harvested fruits of A. pseudoplatanus had a higher germinative capacity and a lower free ABA content than embryos from freshly harvested fruits of A. platanoides. Morever, germinative capacity increased, and free ABA content decreased, more rapidly with length of fruit storage in A. platanoides embryos than in A. pseudoplatanus embryos. PMID:14972962

  19. Nitric oxide implication in the control of seed dormancy and germination

    PubMed Central

    Arc, Erwann; Galland, Marc; Godin, Béatrice; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependent protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signaling during early seed germination. PMID:24065970

  20. An excellent source of vegetative buds for use in plant hormone studies on apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Budd, T W

    1973-07-01

    When studying the role of plant hormones in the control of growth at apical meristems, it is often difficult to obtain needed amounts of physiologically uniform buds. A source and method are described for obtaining sufficient quantities of large, uniform buds and for the treatment of the buds with indoleacetic acid and kinetin. Buds from the root system of Euphorbia esula L. were grown in Petri plates, with agar suspending the short root sections from which they emanate. Plant hormones are applied by their incorporation in the agar. The effect of various concentrations of indoleacetic acid and kinetin on bud growth was examined. PMID:16658506