Science.gov

Sample records for budget feasible mechanisms

  1. Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.

    2009-07-01

    Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.

  2. Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antolovic, Laurie G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how the implementation of new information technologies or deployment of new information services in higher education institutions pose challenges for budget planners that must be met with a thorough understanding of the nature of communication and information systems infrastructures. Describes these technical considerations and their…

  3. Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinze; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Wang, Tianyi; Neev, Joseph; Glickman, Randolph D.; Chan, Kin Foong; Milner, Thomas E.

    2010-03-01

    Light emitted from a femtosecond laser is capable of plasma-induced ablation of various materials. We tested the feasibility of utilizing femtosecond-pulsed laser radiation (λ=800 nm, 140 fs, 0.9 mJ/pulse) for ablation of urinary calculi. Ablation craters were observed in human calculi of greater than 90% calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYST), or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAPH). Largest crater volumes were achieved on CYST stones, among the most difficult stones to fragment using Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) lithotripsy. Diameter of debris was characterized using optical microscopy and found to be less than 20 μm, substantially smaller than that produced by long-pulsed Ho:YAG ablation. Stone retropulsion, monitored by a high-speed camera system with a spatial resolution of 15 μm, was negligible for stones with mass as small as 0.06 g. Peak shock wave pressures were less than 2 bars, measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) needle hydrophone. Ablation dynamics were visualized and characterized with pump-probe imaging and fast flash photography and correlated to shock wave pressures. Because femtosecond-pulsed laser ablates urinary calculi of soft and hard compositions, with micron-sized debris, negligible stone retropulsion, and small shock wave pressures, we conclude that the approach is a promising candidate technique for lithotripsy.

  4. State Higher Education Budgeting Mechanisms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Kensuke; Yoshida, Kana; Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between certain characteristics of US states and their budgeting systems for higher education (HE), and to derive implications for Japanese HE budgeting policy from the results. (Methodology) The US's State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) conducted a 30-item…

  5. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  6. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  7. Oleochemicals as a fuel: mechanical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    The status of vegetable oils as diesel fuel substitutes is currently dubious. Although it is fair to consider them as short-term emergency fuels (or more desirably low proportion supplements to diesel fuels) they present mechanical problems in long-term use that have not yet been solved. It is preferable to use these oils blended in small proportions with diesel fuels. Indirect-injection diesel engines have had fewer problems than direct-injection engines, whether the tests were performed with pure vegetable oil fuel or with vegetable oil/diesel fuel blends. The economic prospect for these fuels is not promising. In general, they are not and have not been economical alternatives to diesel fuel. Exceptions appear to have occurred recently in Brazil and the Philippines where low local prices for vegetable oils combined with high petroleum prices encouraged officials to use low proportion vegetable oil/diesel fuel blends. Nonetheless, current and long-term trends in petroleum and oilseed prices indicate that these fuels will probably not be price competitive within the near future. Emergency disruption of petroleum supplies completely changes the economic situation. Vegetable oils would be worth much more as a fuel during disruptions than otherwise; thus incentives could be strong to include these oils in the fuel supply, diverting them from the food supply. 20 references.

  8. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    PubMed

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population. PMID:27499398

  9. Feasibility of treating partially soluble wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) with mechanical stirring.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Samantha Cristina; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Foresti, Eugenio; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2005-03-01

    This work reports on the treatment of partially soluble wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor, containing biomass immobilized on polyurethane matrices and stirred mechanically. The results showed that agitation provided optimal mixing and improved the overall organic matter consumption rates. The system showed to be feasible to enhance the treatment of partially soluble wastewaters. PMID:15491835

  10. The Marine VHR 2.5-D Seismic Brute Stack Cube as a Feasible Tool for Low Budget Investigation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christof

    2005-06-01

    Between 1997 and 1999 several marine seismic surveys were carried out in Kiel Bay aimed towards the development of a three-dimensional acquisition and interpretation technique for small scale subsurface structures using high-frequency sources and multichannel streamers. The data set was recently revisited by the author and reprocessed to obtain a multichannel stacked seismic data cube. Nominal hydrophone positions are deduced by determining offsets from first arrival times and estimating the hydrophone positions under consideration of the ships track. Processing towards a ‘seismic cube’ mainly comprised CMP sorting, constant velocity NMO correction and stacking. The resulting VHR 3-D seismic ‘brute stack cube’ reveals rich structural details. The fluvial Pleistocene channel system already documented in an earlier publication was tracked further to the north. It is situated below a flat cover of gas-bearing Holocene sediments, which locally constitute the seafloor. This till-horizon is superimposed on a second till layer showing strong topographic variations. Seismic signal phase and shielding effects indicate the possible presence of gas in these formations. This case history demonstrates that the VHR 3-D seismic method is a feasible tool for low budget investigation and research.

  11. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included. PMID:25906273

  12. Feasibility of dynamic entrainment with ankle mechanical perturbation to treat locomotor deficit.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville

    2010-01-01

    Dynamically entraining human gait with periodic torque from a robot may provide an approach to walking therapy that is uniquely supportive of normal biological function. To test the feasibility of this approach we perturbed the gait of unimpaired human subjects by applying a periodic impulsive ankle torque at various frequencies. Eighteen subjects out of 19 exhibited entrained gaits: for a small range of frequencies their gait periods adapted to synchronize with the mechanical perturbation. In addition, the phase when synchronized was such that the robot perturbation assisted propulsion. These results support a new strategy for walking therapy that exploits an embedded neural oscillator interacting with peripheral mechanics and the resulting natural dynamics of walking, which are essential but hitherto neglected elements of walking therapy. PMID:21097251

  13. Neural Network Models of Simple Mechanical Systems Illustrating the Feasibility of Accelerated Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Jones, Steven P.; Jansen, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    A complete evaluation of the tribological characteristics of a given material/mechanical system is a time-consuming operation since the friction and wear process is extremely systems sensitive. As a result, experimental designs (i.e., Latin Square, Taguchi) have been implemented in an attempt to not only reduce the total number of experimental combinations needed to fully characterize a material/mechanical system, but also to acquire life data for a system without having to perform an actual life test. Unfortunately, these experimental designs still require a great deal of experimental testing and the output does not always produce meaningful information. In order to further reduce the amount of experimental testing required, this study employs a computer neural network model to investigate different material/mechanical systems. The work focuses on the modeling of the wear behavior, while showing the feasibility of using neural networks to predict life data. The model is capable of defining which input variables will influence the tribological behavior of the particular material/mechanical system being studied based on the specifications of the overall system.

  14. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  15. Feasibility study of a large-scale tuned mass damper with eddy current damping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihao; Chen, Zhengqing; Wang, Jianhui

    2012-09-01

    Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) have been widely used in recent years to mitigate structural vibration. However, the damping mechanisms employed in the TMDs are mostly based on viscous dampers, which have several well-known disadvantages, such as oil leakage and difficult adjustment of damping ratio for an operating TMD. Alternatively, eddy current damping (ECD) that does not require any contact with the main structure is a potential solution. This paper discusses the design, analysis, manufacture and testing of a large-scale horizontal TMD based on ECD. First, the theoretical model of ECD is formulated, then one large-scale horizontal TMD using ECD is constructed, and finally performance tests of the TMD are conducted. The test results show that the proposed TMD has a very low intrinsic damping ratio, while the damping ratio due to ECD is the dominant damping source, which can be as large as 15% in a proper configuration. In addition, the damping ratios estimated with the theoretical model are roughly consistent with those identified from the test results, and the source of this error is investigated. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the damping ratio in the proposed TMD can be easily adjusted by varying the air gap between permanent magnets and conductive plates. In view of practical applications, possible improvements and feasibility considerations for the proposed TMD are then discussed. It is confirmed that the proposed TMD with ECD is reliable and feasible for use in structural vibration control.

  16. 78 FR 78395 - Mechanical Power Presses Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mechanical Power Presses Standard; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in the Mechanical Power Presses Standard for General Industry (29 CFR...

  17. 75 FR 48726 - Mechanical Power Presses Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Order No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, this 6th day of August 2010. David Michaels... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mechanical Power Presses Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Mechanical Power Presses Standard...

  18. Mechanisms and feasibility of prey capture in ambush-feeding zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders; Langlois, Vincent J; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-07-28

    Many marine zooplankters, particularly among copepods, are "ambush feeders" that passively wait for their prey and capture them by fast surprise attacks. This strategy must be very demanding in terms of muscle power and sensing capabilities, but the detailed mechanisms of the attacks are unknown. Using high-speed video we describe how copepods perform spectacular attacks by precision maneuvering during a rapid jump. We show that the flow created by the attacking copepod is so small that the prey is not pushed away, and that the attacks are feasible because of their high velocity (approximately 100 mm x s(-1)) and short duration (few ms), which leaves the prey no time for escape. Simulations and analytical estimates show that the viscous boundary layer that develops around the attacking copepod is thin at the time of prey capture and that the flow around the prey is small and remains potential flow. Although ambush feeding is highly successful as a feeding strategy in the plankton, we argue that power requirements for acceleration and the hydrodynamic constraints restrict the strategy to larger (> 0.25 mm), muscular forms with well-developed prey perception capabilities. The smallest of the examined species is close to this size limit and, in contrast to the larger species, uses its largest possible jump velocity for such attacks. The special requirements to ambush feeders with such attacks may explain why this strategy has evolved to perfection only a few times among planktonic suspension feeders (few copepod families and chaetognaths). PMID:19622725

  19. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na(+)/H(+)-exchange and HCO3 (-) transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na(+) and/or Cl(-) concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification. PMID:26219611

  20. Budget Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostosky, Don

    2001-01-01

    Addresses budget issues in terms of "getting" and "spending." Notes that educators should not lay waste their powers in exchange for getting and spending. Notes that careful budget management is a necessary virtue, but it is not a sufficient virtue to win additional support. Suggests what to take to an annual budget hearing. (SG)

  1. Program Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John

    Literature on program budgeting is synthesized. Program budgeting has progressed considerably in development and use, but only recently has it been used by the public schools. Program budgeting is practiced differently, depending on the mission of an organization or school district. With regard to schools, literature on the subject is mainly…

  2. Enterogenesis in a clinically feasible model of mechanical small-bowel lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ariel U.; Sun, Xiaoyi; El-Sawaf, Mohammed; Haxhija, Emir Q.; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Yang, Hua; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent work indicates that mechanical force induces small-bowel growth, although methods reported do not have direct clinical application. We report a clinically feasible technique of enterogenesis and describe intestinal function in this model. Methods Using a pig model (n = 11), we stretched isolated small intestinal segments mechanically for 7 days in vivo with an intraluminal device. Control segments were not stretched. Morphology, histology, and epithelial proliferation were assessed. Absorption and epithelial barrier function were examined in an Ussing chamber. Results Stretch segments were significantly longer than Control segments and had nearly 2-fold greater surface area (P < .001). Mucosal thickness was much greater in Stretch than Control segments (772 ± 134 vs. 647 ± 75 μm, P = .02). Although villus height was reduced in Stretch and Control segments (353 ± 76 vs. 324 ± 76 μm, P = .6) versus native jejunum (522 ± 87, P < .0005), crypt depth was increased dramatically in Stretch (450 ± 95 μm) versus Control segments (341 ± 64, P = .005). This observation was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in cellular proliferation (26.3 ± 3.8 vs 12.1 ± 6.6 % bromodeoxyuridine+, P < .05). Barrier function was intact ([3H]-mannitol permeation, 0.16 ± 0.08%, vs native jejunum, 0.17 ± 0.08%, P = .81). Glucose-mediated sodium transport was similar in Stretch versus native jejunum segments (60.0 ± 23.5 vs 82.3 ± 47.3 μA/ cm2, P = .31), as was carbachol-induced chloride transport (82.4 ± 72.2 vs 57.2 ± 33.4 μA/cm2, P = .54) and alanine absorption (16.46 ± 12.94 vs 23.53 ± 21.31 μA/cm2, P = .53). Conclusions Mechanical stretching induces small intestinal growth, while maintaining function. Epithelial architecture does change, such that a decrease in villus height is offset by a marked increase in crypt depth and a 2-fold increase in epithelial proliferation. Epithelial barrier and absorptive functions remain intact. The device described may

  3. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.

    2013-05-01

    Today's information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor - heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon - industry's darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%).

  4. Budget Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    Computerized formula-driven budget models are used by the Washington community college system to define resource needs for legislative budget requests and to distribute legislative appropriations among 22 community college districts. This manual outlines the sources of information needed to operate the model and illustrates the principles on which…

  5. Lack of Penetration in Friction Stir Welds: Effects on Mechanical Properties and NDE Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Adams, Glynn P.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the issue of lack of penetration (LOP) in Friction Stir Welding and the feasibility of using non-destructive tests to detect . Friction Stir Welding takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials to be joined. It thus gives the ability to join materials which are difficult to fusion weld, for example 2000 and 7000 aluminium alloys. This process though can result in a lack of penetration, due to an incomplete penetration of the DXZ. This is frequently referred to as a "kissing bond", which requires micro examination to detect. The presentation then discusses the surface crack tension tests. It then reviews the simulated service test and results. It then discusses the feasibility of using non-destructive examination to detect LOP, the forms of test which can be used, and the results the tests.

  6. Towards the feasibility of using ultrasound to determine mechanical properties of tissues in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joseph M; Gu, Di-Win Marine; Chung, Chen-Yuan; Heebner, Joseph; Althans, Jake; Abdalian, Sarah; Schluchter, Mark D; Liu, Yiying; Welter, Jean F

    2014-10-01

    Our ultimate goal is to non-destructively evaluate mechanical properties of tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage using ultrasound (US). We used agarose gels as surrogates for TE cartilage. Previously, we showed that mechanical properties measured using conventional methods were related to those measured using US, which suggested a way to non-destructively predict mechanical properties of samples with known volume fractions. In this study, we sought to determine whether the mechanical properties of samples, with unknown volume fractions could be predicted by US. Aggregate moduli were calculated for hydrogels as a function of SOS, based on concentration and density using a poroelastic model. The data were used to train a statistical model, which we then used to predict volume fractions and mechanical properties of unknown samples. Young's and storage moduli were measured mechanically. The statistical model generally predicted the Young's moduli in compression to within <10% of their mechanically measured value. We defined positive linear correlations between the aggregate modulus predicted from US and both the storage and Young's moduli determined from mechanical tests. Mechanical properties of hydrogels with unknown volume fractions can be predicted successfully from US measurements. This method has the potential to predict mechanical properties of TE cartilage non-destructively in a bioreactor. PMID:25092421

  7. Formula Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the mathematical formula devised by George O. Weber on budgeting for physical plants of colleges and universities. Uses four functions of administration, maintenance (operational), housekeeping/custodial, and grounds as a base. (Author/MLF)

  8. Feasibility of Using Neural Network Models to Accelerate the Testing of Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Verification testing is an important aspect of the design process for mechanical mechanisms, and full-scale, full-length life testing is typically used to qualify any new component for use in space. However, as the required life specification is increased, full-length life tests become more costly and lengthen the development time. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, we theorized that neural network systems may be able to model the operation of a mechanical device. If so, the resulting neural network models could simulate long-term mechanical testing with data from a short-term test. This combination of computer modeling and short-term mechanical testing could then be used to verify the reliability of mechanical systems, thereby eliminating the costs associated with long-term testing. Neural network models could also enable designers to predict the performance of mechanisms at the conceptual design stage by entering the critical parameters as input and running the model to predict performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using neural networks to predict the performance and life of mechanical systems. To do this, we generated a neural network system to model wear obtained from three accelerated testing devices: 1) A pin-on-disk tribometer; 2) A line-contact rub-shoe tribometer; 3) A four-ball tribometer.

  9. A Feasibility Study on a Parallel Mechanism for Examining the Space Shuttle Orbiter Payload Bay Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Rodney G.; LopezdelCastillo, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop the necessary analysis tools for a feasibility study of a cable suspended robot system for examining the space shuttle orbiter payload bay radiators These tools were developed to address design issues such as workspace size, tension requirements on the cable, the necessary accuracy and resolution requirements and the stiffness and movement requirements of the system. This report describes the mathematical models for studying the inverse kinematics, statics, and stiffness of the robot. Each model is described by a matrix. The manipulator Jacobian was also related to the stiffness matrix, which characterized the stiffness of the system. Analysis tools were then developed based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the corresponding matrices. It was demonstrated how the SVD can be used to quantify the robot's performance and to provide insight into different design issues.

  10. Deactivation mechanism and feasible regeneration approaches for the used commercial NH3-SCR catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanke; Meng, Xiaoran; Chen, Jinsheng; Yin, Liqian; Qiu, Tianxue; He, Chi

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation and regeneration of selective catalytic reduction catalysts which have been used for about 37,000 h in a coal power plant are studied. The formation of Al2(SO4)3, surface deposition of K, Mg and Ca are primary reasons for the deactivation of the studied Selective catalytic reduction catalysts. Other factors such as activated V valence alteration also contribute to the deactivation. Reactivation of used catalysts via environment-friendly and finance-feasibly approaches, that is, dilute acid or alkali solution washing, would be of great interest. Three regeneration pathways were studied in the present work, and dilute nitric acid or sodium hydroxide solution could remove most of the contaminants over the catalyst surface and partly recover the catalytic performance. Notably, the acid-alkali combination washing, namely, catalysts treated by dilute sodium hydroxide and nitric acid solutions orderly, was much more effective than single washing approach in recovering the activity, and NO conversion increased from 23.6% to 89.5% at 380°C. The higher removal efficiency of contaminants, the lower dissolution of activated V, and promoting the formation of polymeric vanadate should be the main reason for recovery of the activity. PMID:26323336

  11. Experimental investigation on feasible bioreactor using mechanism of hydrogen oxidation of natural soil for detritiation system.

    PubMed

    Edao, Yuki; Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Hayashi, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    A passive reactor for tritium oxidation at room temperature has been widely studied in nuclear engineering especially for a detritiation system (DS) of a tritium process facility taking possible extraordinary situation severely into consideration. We have focused on bacterial oxidation of tritium by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in natural soil to realize the passive oxidation reactor. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a bioreactor with hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in soil from a point of view of engineering. The efficiency of the bioreactor was evaluated by kinetics. The bioreactor packed with natural soil shows a relative high conversion rate of tritium under the saturated moisture condition at room temperature, which is obviously superior to that of a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst generally used for tritium oxidation in the existing tritium handling facilities. The order of reaction for tritium oxidation with soil was the pseudo-first order as assessed with Michaelis-Menten kinetics model. Our engineering suggestion to increase the reaction rate is the intentional addition of hydrogen at a small concentration in the feed gas on condition that the oxidation of tritium with soil is expressed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics model. PMID:27180219

  12. Maintenance Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  13. Battling Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Higher-education institutions are facing financial crises in their capital programs. Constant increases in the cost of oil, combined with material shortages in copper, steel and gypsum products, have contributed to an inexorable rise in the cost of construction. At the same time, capital budgets are decreasing. The result is that the education…

  14. Forage Budgeting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management in tropical agro-ecosystems is challenging because of unique soil, climate, and animal interactions. Budgeting forage as part of the grazing system can be difficult because of the strong seasonality of forage production and rapidly changing forage quality. Planning, measuring, and...

  15. A review of the feasibility of lightening structural polymeric composites with voids without compromising mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Benjamin H; Berg, John C

    2010-10-15

    High performance polymer-fiber composites are high strength, low weight materials that have many applications, many of which would benefit from a decrease in weight, without a decrease in material properties. Generally, the fibers serve as the main load carriers, while the matrix serves to distribute load and protect the fibers from the environment. Thus, it is postulated that if the volume fraction of matrix is reduced, while still ensuring complete wetting of the fibers by the matrix, the per unit weight, i.e., specific, mechanical properties could be improved. This can be done by introducing small, spherical bubbles. Given the small average inter-fiber distance and assuming that the bubbles must not interact with the surface of the reinforcements the bubble diameter would need to be less than 1 μm. Introducing bubbles this small and ensuring that they do not form, or become attached, on the surface of the reinforcement are significant challenges. Two methods to produce such bubbles and the effect of these bubbles on mechanical properties of neat resins are reviewed: the addition of hollow spherical fillers, called microballoons, and the creation of bubbles from blowing agents. Microballoons in resins are a class of materials called syntactic foams. Although commercial microballoons are too large, smaller diameters can be made and could be used to reduce the weight of a reinforced composite on the order of 10%. The use of a physical blowing agent to produce bubbles in a composite is also considered. However, traditional polymer foaming techniques may be inadequate, as nucleation on the reinforcing phase is likely, and the bubbles formed are generally too large, so the use of blowing agent wells is considered. Blowing agent wells are discontinuous regions made from copolymer micelles or immiscible polymers that act as reservoirs of blowing agent. Additionally, the use of nano-sized materials for use as heterogeneous nucleation sites and secondary reinforcement of

  16. Budget management.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G

    1997-05-01

    Budgetary responsibility gives you more control. Take time to master the fine detail, ask questions of your management and finance colleagues about anything you do not understand (you will not lose face), and develop the skills of lateral thinking and creative accountancy. Even if your budget is repeatedly overspent do not take it personally, ensure that management are aware of it and have a good night's sleep. Do not worry about it. PMID:9193994

  17. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  18. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials: neural mechanisms and feasibility of a placebo-controlled design in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Gevensleben, Holger; Albrecht, Björn; Lütcke, Henry; Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Schweizer, Renate; Moll, Gunther; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate basic mechanisms underlying neurofeedback we investigated neural mechanisms of training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) by considering EEG- and fMRI. Additionally, we analyzed the feasibility of a double-blind, placebo-controlled design in NF research based on regulation performance during treatment sessions and self-assessment of the participants. Twenty healthy adults participated in 16 sessions of SCPs training: 9 participants received regular SCP training, 11 participants received sham feedback. At three time points (pre, intermediate, post) fMRI and EEG/ERP-measurements were conducted during a continuous performance test (CPT). Performance-data during the sessions (regulation performance) in the treatment group and the placebo group were analyzed. Analysis of EEG-activity revealed in the SCP group a strong enhancement of the CNV (electrode Cz) at the intermediate assessment, followed by a decrease back to baseline at the post-treatment assessment. In contrast, in the placebo group a continuous but smaller increase of the CNV could be obtained from pre to post assessment. The increase of the CNV in the SCP group at intermediate testing was superior to the enhancement in the placebo group. The changes of the CNV were accompanied by a continuous improvement in the test performance of the CPT from pre to intermediate to post assessment comparable in both groups. The change of the CNV in the SCP group is interpreted as an indicator of neural plasticity and efficiency while an increase of the CNV in the placebo group might reflect learning and improved timing due to the frequent task repetition. In the fMRI analysis evidence was obtained for neuronal plasticity. After regular SCP neurofeedback activation in the posterior parietal cortex decreased from the pre- to the intermediate measurement and increased again in the post measurement, inversely following the U-shaped increase and decrease of the tCNV EEG amplitude in the SCP-trained group

  19. Percutaneous Transcatheter One-Step Mechanical Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Preliminary Feasibility Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan Peregrin, Jan H.; Rocek, Miloslav; Timmermans, Hans A.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Roesch, Josef

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of one-step implantation of a new type of stent-based mechanical aortic disc valve prosthesis (MADVP) above and across the native aortic valve and its short-term function in swine with both functional and dysfunctional native valves. Methods. The MADVP consisted of a folding disc valve made of silicone elastomer attached to either a nitinol Z-stent (Z model) or a nitinol cross-braided stent (SX model). Implantation of 10 MADVPs (6 Z and 4 SX models) was attempted in 10 swine: 4 (2 Z and 2 SX models) with a functional native valve and 6 (4 Z and 2 SX models) with aortic regurgitation induced either by intentional valve injury or by MADVP placement across the native valve. MADVP function was observed for up to 3 hr after implantation. Results. MADVP implantation was successful in 9 swine. One animal died of induced massive regurgitation prior to implantation. Four MADVPs implanted above functioning native valves exhibited good function. In 5 swine with regurgitation, MADVP implantation corrected the induced native valve dysfunction and the device's continuous good function was observed in 4 animals. One MADVP (SX model) placed across native valve gradually migrated into the left ventricle. Conclusion. The tested MADVP can be implanted above and across the native valve in a one-step procedure and can replace the function of the regurgitating native valve. Further technical development and testing are warranted, preferably with a manufactured MADVP.

  20. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  1. Monsoon Depression: Formation mechanism, propagation property, water vapor budget, and its impact on the interannual variation of the northeast Indian monsoon rainfall (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.

    2009-12-01

    Because half of the Indian monsoon rainfall is produced by monsoon depressions, variation in the activity of these disturbances has a significant impact on the monsoon rainfall. Thus, the formation mechanism, propagation property, and water vapor budget of monsoon depression, and interannual variation of its population are important issues in the climate research of monsoon rainfall. Major results of these issues obtained by previous studies and current research will be presented: 1) Formation mechanism: A great majority of monsoon depressions evolves from the regenesis of residual lows from the east. Approximately, 85% of these depressions develop from residual lows traceable to tropical cyclones and 12-24 day monsoon lows in the South China Sea (SCS), while only 15% grow out of local genesis over Indochina and the Bay of Bengal. 2) Westward propagation of residual lows across Indochina and monsoon depressions into northern India a. The Southeast Asian monsoon trough is spatially in quadrature with a counterclockwise east-west circulation. Synoptic disturbances originated from this trough exhibit the same spatial relationship with their east-west circulations. These circulations coupled with residual lows of these disturbances are changed across Indochina to become clockwise when they reach the Bay of Bengal. b. The upward branch of the east-west circulation associated with the monsoon depression developed over the Bay of Bengal is coupled a low-level convergent center to generate a negative streamfunction tendency west of the depression center. The spatial quadrature relationship between a depression and its east-west circulation rejuvenates the water vapor supply in maintaining diabatic heating, and perpetuating the generation of negative streamfunction tendency ahead of the depression. The depression is propagated westward by this dynamic interaction between convection/rainfall and this disturbance until the cessation of water vapor supply. 3) Water vapor

  2. Mechanical support of the pressure overloaded right ventricle: an acute feasibility study comparing low and high flow support.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Tom; Verhoeven, Jelle; Goda, Motohiko; Burkhoff, Daniel; Delcroix, Marion; Rega, Filip; Meyns, Bart

    2015-08-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of low flow right ventricular support and to describe the hemodynamic effects of low versus high flow support in an animal model of acute right ventricular pressure overload. A Synergy Pocket Micro-pump (HeartWare International, Framingham, MA) was implanted in seven sheep. Blood was withdrawn from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery. Hemodynamics and pressure-volume loops were recorded in baseline conditions, after banding the pulmonary artery, and after ligating the right coronary artery in these banded sheep. End-organ perfusion (reflected by total cardiac output and arterial blood pressure) improved in all conditions. Intrinsic right ventricular contractility was not significantly impacted by support. Diastolic unloading of the pressure overloaded right ventricle (reflected by decreases in central venous pressure, end-diastolic pressure and volume, and ventricular capacitance) was successful, but with a concomitant and flow-dependent increase of the systolic afterload. This unloading diminished with right ventricular ischemia. Right ventricular mechanical support improves arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. It provides diastolic unloading of the right ventricle, but with a concomitant and right ventricular assist device flow-dependent increase of systolic afterload. These effects are most distinct in the pressure overloaded right ventricle without profound ischemic damage. We advocate the low flow strategy, which is potentially beneficial for the afterload sensitive right ventricle and has the advantage of avoiding excessive increases in pulmonary artery pressure when pulmonary hypertension exists. This might protect against the development of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. PMID:26071544

  3. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  4. CDO budgeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  5. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  6. Variability of the Heat and Salt Budget in the Subtropical South-Eastern Pacific Mixed Layer between 2004 and 2010: Spice Injection Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Gaillard, Fabienne

    2013-04-01

    The mixed layer heat and salt budget in the southeastern subtropical Pacific is estimated using 7 years (2004-2010) of Argo profiling float data, surface fluxes, precipitation, surface velocity data and wind stress observations and reanalysis. In this region the mixed layer heat budget is characterized by a strong annual cycle mainly modulated by the shortwave radiation annual cycle. During the austral fall and winter the shortwave radiation input minimum is overwhelmed by the heat loss mainly due to the latent heat flux. The mixed layer salt budget presents also a strong annual cycle with a minimum of salt content during the late austral winter. In contrast with the heat budget, the salt budget is mainly driven by the unresolved terms computed as the residual of the budget. Among these missing terms, the most likely candidate is the vertical eddy mixing due to convection caused by the heat surface buoyancy loss and the destabilizing vertical gradient of salinity at the base of the mixed layer. This downward flux of salt at the base of the mixed layer could explain the annual spiciness injection and interannual spiciness variability in the permanent thermocline in the southeastern Pacific.

  7. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  8. Library Budget Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  9. Program Budgeting: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual recognizes there is a wide spectrum of budgeting practices in today's colleges and universities. In particular, universities in Ohio are at different stages in their utilization of program budgeting principles and also have different needs. Thus, this program budgeting manual was written to meet the specific needs of universities in…

  10. Zero Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarndal, Anne G.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional budgeting starts with the previous year's budget, but zero base budgeting demands that each activity be justified from "scratch," and establishes a number of increments for each unit, in order of priority. Given the set of increments and the money available, management can determine what activities to finance. (Author)

  11. Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

    The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

  12. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  13. Non-Invasive Drosophila ECG Recording by Using Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloy Electrode: A Feasible Tool for Future Research on the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hung; Tzeng, Te-Hsuen; Huang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Hao; Chang, Yi-Chung; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Wu, June-Tai; Lee, Hsiu-Hsian; Lai, Po-Jung; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background Drosophila heart tube is a feasible model for cardiac physiological research. However, obtaining Drosophila electrocardiograms (ECGs) is difficult, due to the weak signals and limited contact area to apply electrodes. This paper presents a non-invasive Gallium-Indium (GaIn) based recording system for Drosophila ECG measurement, providing the heart rate and heartbeat features to be observed. This novel, high-signal-quality system prolongs the recording time of insect ECGs, and provides a feasible platform for research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases. Methods In this study, two types of electrode, tungsten needle probes and GaIn electrodes, were used respectively to noiselessly conduct invasive and noninvasive ECG recordings of Drosophila. To further analyze electrode properties, circuit models were established and simulated. By using electromagnetic shielded heart signal acquiring system, consisted of analog amplification and digital filtering, the ECG signals of three phenotypes that have different heart functions were recorded without dissection. Results and Discussion The ECG waveforms of different phenotypes of Drosophila recorded invasively and repeatedly with n value (n>5) performed obvious difference in heart rate. In long period ECG recordings, non-invasive method implemented by GaIn electrodes acts relatively stable in both amplitude and period. To analyze GaIn electrode, the correctness of GaIn electrode model established by this paper was validated, presenting accuracy, stability, and reliability. Conclusions Noninvasive ECG recording by GaIn electrodes was presented for recording Drosophila pupae ECG signals within a limited contact area and signal strength. Thus, the observation of ECG changes in normal and SERCA-depleted Drosophila over an extended period is feasible. This method prolongs insect survival time while conserving major ECG features, and provides a platform for electrophysiological signal research

  14. An analysis of the feasibility of carbon management policies as a mechanism to influence water conservation using optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew; Hudson, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Studies of how carbon reduction policies would affect agricultural production have found that there is a connection between carbon emissions and irrigation. Using county level data we develop an optimization model that accounts for the gross carbon emitted during the production process to evaluate how carbon reducing policies applied to agriculture would affect the choices of what to plant and how much to irrigate by producers on the Texas High Plains. Carbon emissions were calculated using carbon equivalent (CE) calculations developed by researchers at the University of Arkansas. Carbon reduction was achieved in the model through a constraint, a tax, or a subsidy. Reducing carbon emissions by 15% resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of water applied to a crop; however, planted acreage changed very little due to a lack of feasible alternative crops. The results show that applying carbon restrictions to agriculture may have important implications for production choices in areas that depend on groundwater resources for agricultural production. PMID:24905638

  15. A study of the feasibility of mechanical pumps for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.; Nowak, D.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of mechanical vacuum pumps was completed. A small Roots blower for flight mass spectrometer applications was evaluated with respect to system operating parameters in a number of different modes of operation. The survey indicated that a metal bellows pump might be a viable alternative for the systems requirements. The results of the study are given, including current status of possible flight-type pumps, a systems analysis using available pumps, and recommendations for fabrication and tests of a potential flight-type pump.

  16. Chemical feasibility of the general acid/base mechanism of glmS ribozyme self-cleavage.

    PubMed

    Dubecký, Matúš; Walter, Nils G; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    In numerous Gram-positive bacteria, the glmS ribozyme or catalytic riboswitch regulates the expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) synthase via site-specific cleavage of its sugar-phosphate backbone in response to GlcN6P ligand binding. Biochemical data have suggested a crucial catalytic role for an active site guanine (G40 in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, G33 in Bacillus anthracis). We used hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations to probe the mechanism where G40 is deprotonated and acts as a general base. The calculations suggest that the deprotonated guanine G40(-) is sufficiently reactive to overcome the thermodynamic penalty arising from its rare protonation state, and thus is able to activate the A-1(2'-OH) group toward nucleophilic attack on the adjacent backbone. Furthermore, deprotonation of A-1(2'-OH) and nucleophilic attack are predicted to occur as separate steps, where activation of A-1(2'-OH) precedes nucleophilic attack. Conversely, the transition state associated with the rate-determining step corresponds to concurrent nucleophilic attack and protonation of the G1(O5') leaving group by the ammonium moiety of the GlcN6P cofactor. Overall, our calculations help to explain the crucial roles of G40 (as a general base) and GlcN6P (as a general acid) during glmS ribozyme self-cleavage. In addition, we show that the QM/MM description of the glmS ribozyme self-cleavage reaction is significantly more sensitive to the size of the QM region and the quality of the QM-MM coupling than that of other small ribozymes. PMID:25858644

  17. Monitoring of Structures and Mechanical Systems Using Virtual Visual Sensors for Video Analysis: Fundamental Concept and Proof of Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Thomas; Shariati, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has become a viable tool to provide owners of structures and mechanical systems with quantitative and objective data for maintenance and repair. Traditionally, discrete contact sensors such as strain gages or accelerometers have been used for SHM. However, distributed remote sensors could be advantageous since they don't require cabling and can cover an area rather than a limited number of discrete points. Along this line we propose a novel monitoring methodology based on video analysis. By employing commercially available digital cameras combined with efficient signal processing methods we can measure and compute the fundamental frequency of vibration of structural systems. The basic concept is that small changes in the intensity value of a monitored pixel with fixed coordinates caused by the vibration of structures can be captured by employing techniques such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In this paper we introduce the basic concept and mathematical theory of this proposed so-called virtual visual sensor (VVS), we present a set of initial laboratory experiments to demonstrate the accuracy of this approach, and provide a practical in-service monitoring example of an in-service bridge. Finally, we discuss further work to improve the current methodology.

  18. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  19. Budgeting Based on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  20. Taming the Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slosson, James

    2000-01-01

    Ideally, school budgeting should be divided into distinct rational steps: educating staff about budgets, determining the building allocation, setting education goals for upcoming years, determining fixed costs and sharing this information, making requests public, building a cash reserve, and determining and publishing final allocations. (MLH)

  1. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  2. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  3. Interim Budget Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides the interim budget plan of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA) for fiscal year 2000. It reviews factors influencing OSFA's budget request, including legislative requirements, recent accomplishments, the need to maintain both the Direct Loan and Federal Family Education Loan…

  4. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  5. A Budget Deferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Presents survey data on school maintenance and operations (M & O) budgets that show school districts nationwide are allocating, for the second year in a row, a smaller proportion of their budgets to preserve and run their facilities. M & O comparable cost-data are listed on a per-student and per-building square-footage basis for nine regions…

  6. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  7. PROGRAM BUDGETING FOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIRSCH, WERNER Z.

    THE APPLICATION OF PROGRAM BUDGETING TO EDUCATION IS RECOMMENDED. A NATIONAL-LEVEL PROGRAM BUDGET EXAMPLE IS PRESENTED, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR OBTAINING MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION. FINANCING OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES IS CURRENTLY UNDERTAKEN BY MORE THAN 40 AGENCIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 50 STATE GOVERNMENTS, AND MORE THAN…

  8. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  9. From formamide to purine: a self-catalyzed reaction pathway provides a feasible mechanism for the entire process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Springsteen, Greg; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-08-15

    A formamide self-catalyzed mechanistic pathway that transforms formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory calculations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest and lowest energy reaction pathway. All necessary reactants, including catalysts, are generated from a single initial compound, formamide. The most catalytically effective form of formamide is found to be the imidic acid isomer. The catalytic effect of formamide has been found to be much more significant than that of water. The self-catalytic mechanism revealed here provides a pathway with the lowest energy barriers among all reaction routes previously published. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanistic route: formylation-dehydration, Leuckart reduction, five- and six-member ring-closing, and deamination. Overall, a five-membered ring-closing is the rate-determining step in the present catalytic route, which is consistent with our previous mechanistic investigations. The activation energy of this rate-controlling step (ca. 27 kcal/mol) is significantly lower than the rate-determining step (ca. 34 kcal/mol) in the pathway from 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamidine described by Schleyer's group (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007, 104, 17272-17277) and in the pyrimidine pathway (ca. 44 kcal/mol) reported by Sponer et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 720-726). The self-catalyzed mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than previously proposed routes. PMID:23902343

  10. Preparing the operating budget.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers. PMID:6660233

  11. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization. PMID:12577658

  12. Fiscal 1983 Science Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Support for science generally is strong in President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal, released last week; agency budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), however, did not beat inflation.Total federal funding for research and development and related facilities rose 9.6% to $44.3 billion, beating the 7.3% inflation rate estimated for 1982 by the Office of Management and Budget. Obligations for basic research by various departments and agencies also topped inflation. The President proposes federal funding of $5.82 billion in fiscal 1983, compared with $5.35 billion in 1982.

  13. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  14. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Castillo, Jerel Nelson

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentation of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file

  15. The implementation of an analgesia-based sedation protocol reduced deep sedation and proved to be safe and feasible in patients on mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Tobar, Eduardo; Aguirre, Marcia; Gonzalez, Hugo; Godoy, Jorge; Lira, Maria Teresa; Lora, Pilar; Encalada, Eduardo; Hernandez, Antonio; Tomicic, Vinko; Castro, José; Jara, Juan; Andresen, Max; Ugarte, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deep sedation in critically ill patients is associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged length of stay in the intensive care unit. Several protocols have been used to improve these outcomes. We implement and evaluate an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol used to treat critically ill patients who receive mechanical ventilation. Methods We performed a prospective, two-phase (before-after), non-randomized multicenter study that involved 13 intensive care units in Chile. After an observational phase (observational group, n=155), we designed, implemented and evaluated an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol (intervention group, n=132) to treat patients who required mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. The primary outcome was to achieve ventilator-free days by day 28. Results The proportion of patients in deep sedation or in a coma decreased from 55.2% to 44.0% in the interventional group. Agitation did not change between the periods and remained approximately 7%. Ventilator-free days to day 28, length of stay in the intensive care unit and mortality were similar in both groups. At one year, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors were similar in both groups. Conclusions We designed and implemented an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol in Chile. Although there was no improvement in major outcomes, we observed that the present protocol was safe and feasible and that it resulted in decreased periods of deep sedation without increasing agitation. PMID:24213081

  16. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  17. Congress trims NSF budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  18. Fluorescence quenching studies on the interaction of catechin-quinone with CdTe quantum dots. Mechanism elucidation and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Neunert, Grażyna; Nogala-Kałucka, Małgorzata; Polewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Changes of the photoluminescent properties of QD in the presence of oxidized catechin (CQ) were investigated by absorption, steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime and dynamic light scattering measurements. Photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime was decreasing with increasing CQ concentration. Dynamic light scattering technique found the hydrodynamic diameter of QD suspension in water is in range of 45 nm, whereas in presence of CQ increased to mean values of 67 nm. Calculated from absorption peak position of excition band indicated on average QD size of 3.2 nm. Emission spectroscopy and time-resolved emission studies confirmed preservation of electronic band structure in QD-CQ aggregates. On basis of the presented results, the elucidated mechanism of QD fluorescence quenching is a result of the interaction between QD and CQ due to electron transfer and electrostatic attraction. The results of fluorescence quenching of water-soluble CdTe quantum dot (QD) capped with thiocarboxylic acid were used to implement a simple and fast method to determine the presence of native antioxidant quinones in aqueous solutions. Feasibility studies on this method carried out with oxidized catechin showed a linear relation between the QD emission and quencher concentration, in range from 1 up to 200 μM. The wide linear range of concentration dependence makes it possible to apply this method for the fast and sensitive detection of quinones in solutions. PMID:25978020

  19. Earth radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged earth atmosphere radiation budgets, derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available in late 1979, are presented. The budgets are derived using a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. The annual, global average emitted infrared flux is 234 W/sq m, the planetary albedo is 0.30, and the net flux is zero within measurement uncertainty. In addition, the annual cycle of net flux is studied in detail, and the observed globally averaged net flux is found to display an annual cycle that is of similar magnitude and phase to the annual cycle imposed by the influence of sun-earth distance variations on solar radiation input into the atmosphere.

  20. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentationmore » of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file« less

  1. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic. PMID:23288060

  2. Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

  3. Marbling on a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art technique called marbling. Includes floating paints on water and transferring the patterns formed in the water to paper. Discusses how teachers can teach this technique with materials that fit their budgets. Describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  4. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  5. Enrollment and Budget Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community Coll. System, Hartford.

    This document discusses Fall 2001 enrollment and budget trends for Connecticut Community Colleges. It provides a map of the geographic planning regions as well as the geographic distribution of credit enrollments for the regions. The document shows the total credit enrollment for Fall 2001 was 42,642 students, which consisted of 28% full time and…

  6. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  8. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  9. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  10. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  11. TQM and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisha, George M.; Graham, J. Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A New York State school district opted to use total quality management techniques to improve the district's performance and gain public support. After defining four key measures and establishing standards of excellence for each, the district concerned itself with the first measure, proposing an affordable tax rate increase. The proposed budget was…

  12. Soil Nitrogen Budgets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) recoveries are commonly 45% to 70% for modern field-crop systems. Nitrogen budgets are a valuable tool for improving N efficiency because they assess the size of various N pools, N gains from the atmosphere, N losses to the environment, and the interactions among soil-N-cycle processes...

  13. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  14. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  15. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  16. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  17. Battling Budget Woes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how various school districts are addressing school quality on tight budgets. Options discussed include use of portable classrooms, streamlining non-educational services, leasing and performance contracting, and energy improvements and working with power utilities to cut costs. Argues for adopting and enforcing ISO 9000 standards to…

  18. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  19. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  20. Contribution Margin Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambrino, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Iowa Valley Community College District's Contribution Margin Budgeting (CMB) program, successfully implemented to stave off bankruptcy. In this program, each responsibility center receives credit for all income generated and is charged for all expenditures, and each must build its own reserve against revenue shortfalls and unanticipated…

  1. Budgeting for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. E.

    Empirically and rationally derived bases for determining the costs for industrial libraries are suggested. Taken into consideration is the fact that recent accounting procedures and the advent of new technologies have introduced costs into the library budget so that literature and personnel costs may now account for only 75-80 percent of the…

  2. Stretch That Budget!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses ways in which industrial education teachers can stretch their budgets, which include reducing waste to a minimum, keeping an accurate and up-to-date inventory, trading surplus or excess materials with neighboring schools, and planning programs more carefully. Money-saving tips concerned with metals, plastics, woods, and printing are also…

  3. Program Budgeting for School Districts. Supplement to Handbook 3 Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrito, August E.

    The purpose of this handbook is to help clarify some of the procedural aspects leading to implementation of a program budgeting system and thereby assist those boards of education and administrators contemplating installation of program budgeting and, ultimately, a comprehensive program, planning, budgeting, system within their districts. The…

  4. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  5. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Cancer.gov

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  6. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  7. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  8. Implementation of Decentralized School Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Brian J.

    Decentralized school budgeting or school-based budgeting is relatively new to Canada. It means that school boards or central office administrators delegate to principals authority to make some budget decisions. High expectations for effects of the practice include greater efficiency in the allocation of resources, increased flexibility in the…

  9. Support Budget 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This report presents a proposed budget for the California State University (CSU) system (1991-92) which concentrates on three critical needs: financing enrollment increases; staffing new facilities; and restitution of funds removed from the basic budget for 1990-91. The budget proposal represents $1.94 billion, 13.7 percent over 1990-91, on…

  10. NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The House of Representatives has authorized $161.7 million more than President Ronald Reagan proposed for the fiscal 1984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget. The House NASA authorization bill (H.R. 2065) passed by voice vote on April 26. Five days earlier, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Technology Committee marked up S. 1096, the Senate's NASA authorization bill, and recommended $171.6 million more than the Reagan proposal. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in mid May, after which time a conference committee will iron out the differences between the House and Senate versions.President Reagan requested a total NASA budget of $7.1065 billion: $5.7085 billion for research and development, $150.5 million for construction of facilities, and $1.2475 billion for research and program management (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).

  11. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  12. FY 1986 budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    The FY 1986 budget request for DOE supports the energy, general science and defense missions of the Department in a comprehensive manner, while being responsive to the President's directive to all Federal agencies to freeze or reduce Government spending wherever possible to reduce the Federal deficit. The discussion displays the budget in a format designed to emphasize the varied activities of DOE. ''Research and Development'' describes the nature of the scientific and technical effort which underlies the Department's programs in a number of areas, such as energy, general science, and weapons research, which previously appeared in three distinct sections of our budget presentation. ''Defense Production and Support'' highlights a significant element of our defense activities which have production, whether of weapons or materials, as a common thread. ''Waste Activities'' combines programs from the civilian and defense areas to bring attention to a major effort of DOE ''Business Enterprises'' focuses attention on the fact that a number of the Department's activities are operated like businesses, marketing products and generating revenues. ''Grants and Other Energy Functions'' is how we group non-research and development grant programs and such essential activities as energy information and regulation. Finally, ''Department Management'' includes the various ''overhead'' organizations which keep the Department functioning at headquarters and in the field.

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem. PMID:10387778

  14. Conference OKs science budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  15. Permanent Shift?: Library Budgets 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2010-01-01

    It's no surprise that libraries in "LJ"'s annual budget survey reported an overall downward trend, with the expected decline in total budgets some 2.6% and the change in materials budgets 3.5%. Per capita funding is nudging down after years of steady if sometimes modest increases, with a projected decline of 1.6% in FY10. After all, the country…

  16. Global carbon budget 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Yue, C.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe datasets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. All uncertainties are reported as ± 1 sigma, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7

  17. Tivoli Brewery: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Combs, and Burch, Denver, CO.

    This document reports on a study made to ascertain the feasibility of preserving and restoring all or part of an existing historical site -- the "Tivoli Brewery" -- as a related and integral part of the Auraria Higher Education Center. After investigation of the building's structural integrity, the condition of electrical and mechanical systems,…

  18. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL...

  19. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  20. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  1. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  3. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  4. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  5. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  7. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article, the author…

  8. Budget Theory and Budget Practice: How Good the Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Irene S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the past and present and projects the future of the relationship between theory and practice for normative and descriptive budget theory. Considers the present and future of normative theory gloomy because budgeting has changed and traditional reform ideas have outlived their usefulness. States that descriptive theory has improved and…

  9. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  10. Debating personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  11. Global carbon budget 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1

  12. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  13. 2 CFR 200.8 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 200.8 Section 200.8 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.8 Budget. Budget means the financial plan for the...

  14. Refocusing Higher Education Budget Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report proposes changes to the current higher education budget development process in Illinois in order to provide more information to institutions and to make the process more inclusive and open. It argues that budget development should be goal-based and accountable, responsive, incentive-based, recognize diversity of institutions, stable…

  15. Budgeting Based on Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jason; Hill, Matt

    2011-01-01

    School finance reform has become a key component for transforming public schools in the United States. Over the last decade, a growing number of districts have turned to an approach known by different names--student-based budgeting, weighted student funding and fair student funding, among others--in which budgets are allocated to schools in…

  16. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  17. Apollo experience report: Consumables budgeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in predicting the consumables usage for the Apollo mission are discussed. Because of the many interfaces and influences on the consumables system, it is impractical to document all facets of consumables budgeting; therefore, information in this report is limited to the major contributions to the formulation of a consumables budget.

  18. FY 1986 science budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.; Robb, David W.

    Continental lithosphere research, scientific ocean drilling, investigative surveys in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and the Mars Observer were among those programs that fared best in the federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1986 that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. However, the Sea Grant and Coastal Zone Management programs were among those that fell victim to the budget ax once again.

  19. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  20. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  1. Creating a Flexible Budget Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frew, James; Olson, Robert; Pelton, M. Lee

    2009-01-01

    The budget process is often an especially thorny area in communication between administrators and faculty members. Last year, Willamette University took a step toward reducing tensions surrounding the budget. As university administrators planned for the current year, they faced the high degree of uncertainty that the financial crisis has forced on…

  2. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal…

  3. Service Increases Fueling Budget Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Reactionary stances against pending budget cuts should be considered to be less favorable positioning for library leaders versus more proactive and anticipatory strategies. By changing the attitudinal and service posturing of library staff and services, libraries can show themselves as a more essential function to their colleges. Budget cuts…

  4. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  5. Program Budgeting for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Merlyn Ludwig

    In recognition of the increasing concern for the expenditure of tax dollars and the resulting need for accountability in budgeting, this study provides a model for program budgeting at the collegiate level in industrial education. Course outlines for drafting and woodworking at the University of Northern Colorado were analyzed and activities were…

  6. Heat Budget of Large Rivers: Sensitivity to Stream Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, S. T.; Haggerty, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of effecting measurable changes in the heat budget of a large river through restoration, we use a numerical model to analyze the sensitivity of that heat budget to morphological manipulations, specifically those resulting in a narrower main channel with more alcoves. We base model parameters primarily on the gravel-bedded middle Snake River near Marsing, Idaho. The heat budget is represented by an advection-dispersion-reaction equation with, in addition to radiative, evaporative, and sensible heat fluxes, a hyporheic flux term that models lateral flow from the main stream, through bars, and into alcoves and side channels. This term effectively introduces linear dispersion of water temperatures with respect to time, so that the magnitude of the hyporheic term in the heat budget is expected to scale with the ``hyporheic number," defined as , where is dimensionless hyporheic flow rate and is dimensionless mean residence time of water entering the hyporheic zone. Simulations varying the parameters for channel width and hyporheic flow indicate that, for a large river such as the middle Snake River, feasible changes in channel width would produce downstream changes in heat flux an order of magnitude larger than would relatively extreme changes in hyporheic number. Changes, such as reduced channel width and increased hyporheic number, that tend to reduce temperatures in the summer, when temperatures are increasing with time and downstream distance, actually tend to increase temperatures in the fall, when temperatures are decreasing with time and distance.

  7. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  8. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    , minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  9. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level. PMID:26517295

  10. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe datasets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent Dynamic Global Vegetation Models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the variability and mean land and ocean fluxes to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  13. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  15. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  16. Budget Risk & Prioritization Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    BRPAtool performs the following: •Assists managers in making solid decisions on what scope/activities to reduce and/or eliminate, to meet constrained budgets, based on multiple risk factors •Enables analysis of different budget scenarios •Can analyze risks and cost for each activity based on technical, quantifiable risk criteria and management-determined risks •Real-time analysis •Enables managers to determine the multipliers and where funding is best applied •Promotes solid budget defense

  17. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  18. Federal budget process: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.

    Much geophysical research funding originates from the federal government, and many who obtain federal funding consider the executive branch to be its source. In fact, the federal budget results from a complex ballet between the executive and legislative branches. Because it is both little understood and essential to our work, this report will review the fundamentals of the three-year budgetary process.The Constitution assigns the power of the purse to the Congress. Before the 1920s, executive branch agencies and departments submitted their own separate budgets to Congress, and deliberate planning and priority setting was minimal. In 1921 Congress empowered the president to submit an executive branch budget reflecting his priorities for the next fiscal year. Following this protocol, former President Reagan submitted his budget for Fiscal Year 1990 in January, and President Bush outlined his FY'90 priorities in February.

  19. Carter Revises the Science Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviews budget changes made by President Carter in the following science areas: basic science research; fusion research and breeder reactor projects; oil and gas recovery; coal conversion techniques; and space exploration. (CS)

  20. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  1. Evolution of Triton's volatile budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's volatile budget provides important links to planetary formation processes in the cold outer solar nebula. However, the budget has been modified by processes subsequent to the accretion of this body. It is of interest to assess whether certain formation environments can be ruled out for Triton on the basis of its current volatile abundances, and also to quantify some of the post-accretional processes by which the abundances have been modified.

  2. Budget variance analysis using RVUs.

    PubMed

    Berlin, M F; Budzynski, M R

    1998-01-01

    This article details the use of the variance analysis as management tool to evaluate the financial health of the practice. A common financial tool for administrators has been a simple calculation measuring the difference between actual financials vs. budget financials. Standard cost accounting provides a methodology known as variance analysis to better understand the actual vs. budgeted financial streams. The standard variance analysis has been modified by applying relative value units (RVUs) as standards for the practice. PMID:10387247

  3. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  4. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  5. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  6. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  7. 34 CFR 75.251 - Budget periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget periods. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education Office...-Year Projects § 75.251 Budget periods. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of not more... multi-year project period, the Secretary: (1) Makes a grant to the project for the initial budget...

  8. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  9. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  10. Left-ventricular mechanical activation and aortic-arch orientation recovered from Magneto-hydrodynamic Voltages observed in 12-lead ECGs obtained inside MRIs: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Stevenson, William G.; Murrow, Jonathan R.; Ho Tse, Zion Tsz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore use of the Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage (VMHD), observed in intra-MRI 12-lead Electrocardiograms (ECG), to indicate the timing of the onset of left-ventricular mechanical activation (LVMA) and the orientation of the aortic-arch (AAO). Theory Blood flow through the aortic arch during systole, in the presence of the MRI magnetic field (B0), generates VMHD. Since the magnitude and direction of VMHD are determined by the timing and directionality of blood flow relative to B0, we hypothesized that clinically useful measures, LVMA and AAO, could be extracted from temporal and vectorial VMHD characteristics. Methods VMHD signals were extracted from 12-lead ECG traces by comparing traces obtained inside and outside the MRI scanner. VMHD was converted into the Vectorcardiogram frame of reference. LVMA was quantified in 1 subject at 1.5T and 3 subjects at 3T, and the result compared to CINE MRI. AAO was inferred for 4 subjects at 3T and compared to anatomical imaging of the aortic arch orientation in the transverse plane. Results and Conclusions A <10% error was observed in LVMA measurements, while a <3° error was observed in aortic arch orientation measurements. The temporal and vectorial nature of VMHD is useful in estimating these clinically relevant parameters. PMID:25224074

  11. Sediment budgeting of German waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promny, M.

    2012-04-01

    Waterways today rarely have a sustainable sediment budget. Supply from upstream and lateral sources is blocked by barrages in many places. The transport capacity is strongly modified by means of planform and cross-section alterations. Many free-flowing river sections are subject to bed degradation, while impoundments tend to aggrade. This has consequences for the usability of navigation facilities, stability of structures (like bridge foundations and dykes) and groundwater levels. Consequently, sediment managements operations are commonplace, being challenging in economic and ecologic terms. A first step towards an improved sediment management is to establish the current sediment budget of a river. There are different methods to gain information about the sediment budget: - measurements of bed-load and suspended load transport - deductions from temporal development of bed-level development - deductions from temporal development of streamwise water-level measurements - deductions from temporal development of water-levels at gauges - bed-load tracer analyses - numerical modelling An overview of the methods used in sediment budgeting of German waterways at the Federal Institute of Hydrology will be given. Ongoing research based on the above mentioned methodology will be presented, with a special focus on the possible influence of climate change on sediment budgets.

  12. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  13. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  14. Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderes, Thomas

    This plan for outcome-based budgeting (OBB) is the result of growing demands for increased fiscal accountability, measurable outcomes, strengthened assessment processes, and more meaningful performance indicators as mandated by many State and Federal legislators. OBB focuses on linking funding with outputs and outcomes. Higher education…

  15. 14-plex Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotongan, Victoria Hazel

    2013-06-21

    The Native Village of Unalakleet project was a feasibility study for a retrofit of a “tribally owned” three story, 14 apartment complex located in Unalakleet, Alaska. The program objective and overall goal was to create a plan for retrofitting to include current appraised value and comparable costs of new construction to determine genuine feasibility as low-income multi-family housing for tribal members.

  16. Budget Formulas and Model Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G.

    Selected budget formulas currently in use for university operations are described as a background for examining a budgetary model that would provide for the integration of separate formulas. Data on the formulas were collected from states with system-wide coordinating boards that are responsible for budgetary reviews. The most common formula…

  17. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  18. Family Cash-Flow Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Mason, Jerald W.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution for a formalized budget variable is reported for a representative sample of families. Most households reported little, if any, formal planning. Compared to informal planners, formal planners are more likely to have the following characteristics: younger, more years of education, two-spouse households, and high circumstantial demands.…

  19. Congress Wraps Up 2011 Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates are already bracing for protracted budget battles in the coming year, even as they sort the winners and losers in the bill approved by Congress late last week financing the U.S. Department of Education and the rest of the federal government through September. The hard-fought agreement followed months of wrangling between…

  20. Zero-Based Budgeting Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Zero-based, programmatic budgeting involves four basic steps: (1) define what needs to be done; (2) specify the resources required; (3) determine the assessment procedures and standards to use in evaluating the effectiveness of various programs; and (4) assign dollar figures to this information. (MLF)

  1. EPS cautions against budget cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-03-01

    The European Physical Society (EPS) has hit out at plans to remove €2.7bn from the €80bn budget of Horizon 2020 - the European Union's main research funding programme - and use the money instead to help finance a new European Union economic-stimulus initiative.

  2. Program Budgeting: Promise and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Robert A.

    Planning, Programming, and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) are increasingly mentioned as effective means for improving the management of educational resources in institutions of higher education. PPBS has several advantages over conventional accounting systems, which still would be needed for day to day operations. First, it relates cost to output;…

  3. Cloudiness and the radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The problem of obtaining data for quantification of the effects of clouds on radiation budget measurements is discussed. Areas considered include the relationship between observed cloud characteristics and model predicted characteristics and selection of an angular distribution function for conversion of scanning radiometer radiance to irradiance. Storage of meteorological satellite data related to cloud-radiation interactions is discussed.

  4. Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    Planning Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) have been considered as either synonymous with abstract, advanced, mathematical systems analysis or as an advanced accounting and control system. If PPBS is to perform a useful function, both viewpoints must be combined such that a number of standardized procedures and reports are required and…

  5. Anatomy of a Budget Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Cheri L.

    2003-01-01

    Story of Empire School District (Oklahoma) school board's decision to cut the budget in the mid-1980s, including the elimination of the popular music and band program and termination of its director, a decision that caused considerable community conflict resulting in the defeat of all the incumbent board members at the polls and the resignation of…

  6. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  7. On Creating Global Gridded Terrestrial Water Budget Estimates from Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing availability and reliability of satellite remote sensing products [e.g., precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), and the total water storage change (TWSC)] make it feasible to estimate the global terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution. In this study, we start from a reference water budget dataset that combines all available data sources, including satellite remote sensing, land surface model (LSM) and reanalysis, and investigate the roles of different non-satellite remote sensing products in closing the terrestrial water budget through a sensitivity analysis by removing/replacing one or more categories of products during the budget estimation. We also study the differences made by various satellite products for the same budget variable. We find that the gradual removal of non-satellite data sources will generally worsen the closure errors in the budget estimates, and remote sensing retrievals of P, ET, and TWSC together with runoff (R) from LSM give the worst closure errors. The gauge-corrected satellite precipitation helps to improve the budget closure (4.2-9 % non-closure errors of annual mean precipitation) against using the non-gauge-corrected precipitation (7.6-10.4 % non-closure errors). At last, a data assimilation technique, the constrained Kalman filter, is applied to enforce the water balance, and it is found that the satellite remote sensing products, though with worst closure, yield comparable budget estimates in the constrained system to the reference data. Overall, this study provides a first comparison between the water budget closure using the satellite remote sensing products and a full combination of remote sensing, LSM, and reanalysis products on a quasi-global basis. This study showcases the capability and potential of the satellite remote sensing in closing the terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution if properly constrained.

  8. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  9. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  10. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  11. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  12. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  13. Predictive Modeling: Linking Enrollment and Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusheim, Dale; Rylee, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The hard choices that must be made to balance budgets at higher education institutions can be painful and have dramatic consequences that may linger for years. If enrollment projections and therefore tuition income/budgeting projections for future years are inaccurate, then the result may be unnecessary or insufficient budget reductions, both of…

  14. Budgeting in Tertiary Educational Institutions: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Administrators should examine the role and limitations of their budgeting systems and consider overemphasis on control of spending rather than efficiency or effectiveness, limitations on cash-based budgeting, need for information on operating costs, and the short range and fragmented nature of most budgets. (MSE)

  15. The School Budget: Blueprint for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the budget models and guidelines of the schools in the Diocese of Grand Rapids, Michigan, which are designed to provide consistency among the schools and to enable the schools to operate on sound business principles. Discusses the process' key components: policy development, budget calendar implementation, and budget preparation. (AJL)

  16. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  17. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  18. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  19. Budgeting in Higher Education (Teaching Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Rebecca A.

    A teaching module or student-oriented learning outline on budgeting in higher education is presented. The module is designed for either group or individual student use and is specifically for the study of higher education. Objectives of the unit are as follows: define "budget," list and describe several types of budgets, cite the three phases of…

  20. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  1. Budget Considerations: A Primer for Senate Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a selection of easy to use resources and tools to enhance the effectiveness of a local senate president during ongoing budget conversations. It is not intended to provide a narrative description of budgets and budget process, nor a comprehensive listing of the many arcane rules that govern community college…

  2. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  3. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  4. Community College Budgeting and Financing Demystified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David S.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of budgeting and financial resources often strikes fear in the hearts of community college administrators and faculty, as they believe it is an arcane and complex art understood only by accountants and financial specialists. This chapter attempts to demystify the basic concepts involved in budgeting and addresses approaches to budgeting,…

  5. Instruction Manual: ZBB. Zero Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Bernard; Linstone, Robert T.

    This guide to zero base budgeting (ZBB) offers information intended to be useful to those implementing this system in schools. Beginning with an explanation of zero base budgeting, the paper then enumerates the advantages of such a system. Zero base budgeting design is then explained as well as the assumptions that underlie the system. Suggested…

  6. "Budget" Is Not an Ugly Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellmy, William R.

    1999-01-01

    School district participation in the Meritorious Budget Awards (MBA) Program makes budgets more understandable and user-friendly. All budget data are presented in a single document in a pyramid approach that begins with a summary of all funds and then presents individual funds. Provides ordering information for a publication that guides readers…

  7. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal...

  8. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  9. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  10. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  11. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of...

  12. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter,...

  13. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of...

  14. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter,...

  15. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  16. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  17. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  18. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under...

  19. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  20. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  1. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter,...

  2. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  3. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  4. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  5. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under...

  6. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under...

  7. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal...

  8. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)...

  9. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  10. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  11. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under...

  12. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  13. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  14. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  15. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  16. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  17. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  18. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  19. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  20. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  1. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  2. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)...

  3. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  4. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  5. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  6. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter,...

  7. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  8. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  9. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  10. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under...

  11. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter,...

  12. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)...

  13. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  14. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of...

  15. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  16. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  17. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of...

  18. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of...

  19. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  20. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)...

  2. Planning to Communicate: A Budget Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Failing to have a plan to communicate with stakeholders during the budget process is a plan to fail. Without community support, getting budget approval can be difficult. Thus, school business officials must have a plan to ensure the appropriate budget message is conveyed throughout all communication channels. In fact, a communication plan is the…

  3. Budget Reform to Improve Higher Education Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folger, John

    A national project designed to examine issues of budget reform and quality improvement in higher education is described. The focus is state-level budget practices and their impact on institutions. Most of the funding for quality improvement has been categorical: a small percent of the budget is set aside to achieve particular quality or…

  4. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  5. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  6. Monitoring the spring-summer surface energy budget transition in the Gobi Desert using AVHRR GAC data. [Global Area Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Reiter, Elmar R.

    1986-01-01

    A research program has been started in which operationally available weather satellites radiance data are used to reconstruct various properties of the diurnal surface energy budget over sites for which detailed estimates of the complete radiation, heat, and moisture exchange process are available. In this paper, preliminary analysis of the 1985 Gobi Desert summer period results is presented. The findings demonstrate various important relationships concerning the feasibility of retrieving the amplitudes of the diurnal surface energy budget processes for daytime and nighttime conditions.

  7. Global change research budget frozen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For FY 1996, the interagency budget request for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) totals $2.156 billion, or a 1.8% ($39 million) increase over FY 1995. President Clinton has broadened the scope of the program to include another $358 million in reprogrammed activities in keeping with a push by the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR) to more closely link costs and objectives. In essence, the increase for what could be considered the “traditional” global change budget would be only 1.4%, or $24 million over the FY 1995 appropriation. USGCRP now embraces the Department of Energy (DoE) research on environmental technologies, NASA launch vehicle charges, and additional Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) research for environmental issues other than global change.

  8. NASA Science Budget Choices Criticized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    NASA's decision to focus its science efforts on large missions at the expense of smaller missions and research is misguided and will have a long-term negative impact on attracting and retaining scientists and engineers to NASA-related science, several scientists testified at a 2 March hearing. Witnesses at the hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee included NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Mary Cleave and members or chairs of four U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) decadal surveys of various aspects of NASA science. The witnesses discussed cuts and delays to NASA projects proposed in the agency's Fiscal Year 2007 budget request. NASA's science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007, and then by just one percent per year in 2008-2011 (see Eos 87(9), 2006).

  9. Vibration budget for observatory equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh

    2015-07-01

    Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing astronomical observatories, particularly for adaptive optics performance. Rather than relying only on best practices to minimize vibration, we present here a vibration budget that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). This design tool helps ensure that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding error budget allocation and is also useful in design trade-offs, specifying isolation requirements for equipment, and tightening or widening individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. The vibration budget relies on model-based analysis of the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations and frequencies, including both image jitter and primary mirror segment motion. We develop this tool here for the Thirty Meter Telescope but hope that this approach will be broadly useful to other observatories, not only in the design phase, but for verification and operations as well.

  10. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  11. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25740723

  12. Educational Feasibility Study -- 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C., Comp.; And Others

    By virtue of a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act grant, the feasibility of consolidating 7 Illinois high schools was studied. Areas of consideration were geographic characteristics, high school and elementary curriculum, and cost considerations relative to high school and elementary school buildings, curriculum, transportation,…

  13. 2001 BUDGET: Research Gets Hefty Boost in 2001 Defense Budget.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-09-01

    Next year's $289 billion defense budget, which President Bill Clinton signed last month, includes big boosts for a host of science programs, from endangered species research to developing laser weapons. And with the two major presidential candidates pledging further boosts, the Pentagon's portfolio is attracting increasing attention from the life sciences community as well. But some analysts worry that Congress and the Pentagon may be shortchanging long-term, high-risk research in favor of projects with a more certain payoff. PMID:17811142

  14. Implementing prospective budgeting for Dutch sickness funds.

    PubMed

    Okma, K G; Poelert, J D

    2001-06-01

    Most if not all social policies entail redistribution of scarce public resources from central government to regional and local authorities, to individual citizens or non-government agencies. Governments use a wide variety of instruments to allocate public funds, including direct state provision of subsidies and goods and services, setting budgets at different levels, and regulation of social insurance schemes. Most industrialised countries have developed budget models based on implicit or explicit allocation criteria. Governments usually start by determining global budgets for an entire category of public spending and then specifying the amounts allocated for categories of spending, and next, the budgets for individual agencies. Within such a 'cascading' model, the lower level budgets may be more controversial than the global budgets, as they directly affect the amounts available to individual actors in the system, e.g. hospitals or health insurance agencies. Setting budgets not only shifts decision-making authority but also financial risks from the central government to decentralised actors. The introduction of the prospective budgeting model for the Dutch sickness funds illustrates why determining budgets is not merely a matter of choosing objective allocation criteria, but also, of interaction between state and stakeholders. In the typical Dutch neocorporatist policy arena, where organised interests share responsibilities with government for the shaping and implementation of social policies, the health insurance agencies actively participated in the development of the budget model. PMID:11420806

  15. Tropospheric budget of reactive chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.; Keene, W. C.

    1995-03-01

    Reactive chlorine in the lower atmosphere (as distinguished from chlorofluorocarbon-derived chlorine in the stratosphere) is important to considerations of precipitation acidity, corrosion, foliar damage, and chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Many of the chlorine-containing gases are difficult to measure, and natural sources appear to dominate anthropogenic sources for some chemical species. As a consequence, no satisfactory budget for reactive chlorine in the lower atmosphere is available. We have reviewed information on sources; source strengths; measurements in gas, aqueous, and aerosol phases; and chemical processes and from those data derive global budgets for nine reactive chlorine species and for reactive chlorine as a whole. The typical background abundance of reactive chlorine in the lower tropospheric is about 1.5 ppbv. The nine species, CH3 Cl, CH3 CCl3, HCl, CHClF2, Cl2* (thought to be HOCl and/or Cl2), CCl2 = CCl2, CH2 Cl2 , COCl2 , and CHCl3, each contribute at least a few percent to that total. The tropospheric reactive chlorine burden of approximately 8.3 Tg Cl is dominated by CH3 Cl (≈45 %) and CH3 CCl3 (≈25 %) and appears to be increasing by several percent per year. By far the most vigorous chlorine cycling appears to occur among seasalt aerosol, HCl, and Cl2*. The principal sources of reactive chlorine are volatilization from seasalt (enhanced by anthropogenically generated reactants), marine algae, volcanoes, and coal combustion (natural sources being thus quite important to the budget). It is anticipated that the concentrations of tropospheric reactive chlorine will continue to increase in the next several decades, particularly near urban areas in the rapidly developing countries.

  16. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Raupach, M. R.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Davis, S. J.; Law, R. M.; Meyer, C. P.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Sherman, B.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2) budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990-2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP); net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC); riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock) and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial). Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012), a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05°) offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011), a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean) and 68 ± 15 TgC yr-1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes), which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr-1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr-1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP) is 36 ± 29 TgC yr-1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr-1) by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV) in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009-2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  17. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  18. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Santhi, Nankakishore; Pan, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  19. REP Concept Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

  20. Atmospheric rendezvous feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the feasibility of using atmospheric rendezvous to increase the efficiency of space transportation and to determine the most effective implementation. It is concluded that atmospheric rendezvous is feasible and can be utilized in a space transportation system to reduce size of the orbiter vehicle, provide a powered landing with go-around capability for every mission, and achieve lateral range performance that exceeds requirements. A significantly lighter booster and reduced launch fuel requirements are additional benefits that can be realized with a system that includes a large subsonic airplane for recovery of the orbiter. Additional reduction in booster size is possible if the airplane is designed for recovery of the booster by towing. An airplane about the size of the C-5A is required.

  1. Establishing a SCADA system budget

    SciTech Connect

    Senftleber, A.

    1997-05-01

    Replacement of a SCADA system is an infrequent occurrence. In fact, most SCADA systems last ten to fifteen years. Even if the personnel that implemented the current system have made it through corporate downsizing, the whole nature of SCADA has changed. No longer is SCADA that isolated system in the corner. It now affects virtually every aspect of the company from operations, to field maintenance, government regulatory compliance, environmental protection, to customer/in-house data access and revenue accounting, to name just a few. In addition to this immense corporate operational impact, for most oil and gas companies, today`s SCADA systems also represent a significant capital investment. How then does one establish an appropriate budget to acquire a new SCADA system? This paper highlights the key elements of successful SCADA budgets, identifying both buy-out and in-house components. Vendor topics include estimating hardware, software (including applications), project services, and life cycle costs. Company-side estimates cover facility and communication modifications and the cost of labor and expenses to support the project from initiation (e.g., requirements gathering, specification writing, etc.) through commissioning (e.g., Site Acceptance Testing, cut-over, etc.), and all activities in-between (e.g., vendor support, training, Factory Acceptance Testing, etc.). Other issues discussed include the handling of project reserves, establishing cash flow, and estimating taxes.

  2. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  3. Most science spared big budget bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Most science budgets emerged unscathed from President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal. Total funding for research and development came out slightly ahead of inflation, as did funding for basic research (Eos, February 16, p. 162). The National Science Foundation (NSF) edged past the projected 7.3% inflation rate for 1982, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget is to be increased by 10.6%. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is budgeted for a 4.2% increase in funding, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will take an 8.3% cut.

  4. Proposed U.S. Space Weather Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    The Obama administration's proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 includes $147.6 billion for research and development, which would be an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. Tucked away in the budget is funding for research and operations related to space weather. The budget, which needs approval by Congress, includes increases for space weather-related initiatives at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and NOAA and fairly flat funding for NASA.

  5. Advance Appropriations: A Needless and Confusing Education Budget Technique. Federal Education Budget Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This report argues that advance appropriations serve no functional purpose for schools, but they create a loss of transparency, comparability, and simplicity in federal education budgeting. It allocates spending before future budgets have been established. The approach was originally used to skirt spending limits and budget procedures in place…

  6. FY 1984 Science Budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astronomy, engineering, and the physical sciences as a whole were among the best funded programs in the fiscal 1984 budget that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. In addition, science education got a shot in the arm: The Reagan proposal includes plans for the nation's universities to upgrade scientific instrumentation and to attract and support high caliber scientists and engineers.Reagan proposes that federal funding for research and development, including R&D facilities, total $47 billion in fiscal 1984, up 17% from the fiscal 1983 level. Defense research and development programs would be increased 29%; nondefense R&D would be increased 0.4%. Total basic research would be boosted 10%.

  7. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  8. The Carbon Budget of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  9. A MEDLINE feasibility study.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, J L

    1980-01-01

    A MEDLINE feasibility study was conducted with the Northeastern Consortium for Health Information (NECHI) and sponsored by the New England Regional Medical Library Service. It is based on the theory that most potential users and supporters of MEDLINE within hospitals are unaware of its usefulness and applications, and that there exists a need for expanding MEDLINE services to more hospital libraries. The purpose of the study was to provide NECHI with an evaluation of MEDLINE as a feasible service by ascertaining the need and by evaluating the usefulness, satisfaction, and costs of the system. The study demonstrated sufficient use of MEDLINE to justify implementation within NECHI and it provided useful data to determine the future of MEDLINE in each institution. It documented that utilization improved rapidly with publicity and the presence of the system within an institution, that MEDLINE can be an effective and economical complement to the traditional reference services used to support information needs in hospitals, and that more hospital libraries should be able to implement MEDLINE to their advantage once potential users and supporters have been exposed to the system. PMID:6998531

  10. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  11. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  12. Planning the School Library Media Center Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Betty Jo; McCurdy, Susan

    As a result of an Iowa state mandate for budgeting of school library media centers, the publication "Planning the School Library Media Center Budget" was updated in 1991. Since that time, the Uniform Financial Accounting's document has phased in a management information system which includes different numbers and dimensions from those available in…

  13. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005…

  14. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  15. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  16. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  17. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  18. Developing and Negotiating Budgets for Women's Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Everywoman's Center.

    The materials on budgeting presented here are based on training programs conducted for women's centers through the Women's Educational Equity Project of the women's center at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. The booklet's purpose is to provide users with explicit information on developing and negotiating budgets for women's programs.…

  19. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  20. Educational Budget Preparation: Fiscal and Political Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Ellen

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" analyzes the types of budget preparation that are used in school districts across the United States. The chapter proposes as a basic premise that the budgetary process is inherently political, and states that some budgeting methods may provide more useful political information than others.…

  1. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  2. Building Budgets and Trust through Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Murray, Louise M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed school district superintendents in a southeastern state about their budget-building strategies. The majority of responding superintendents had worked with their most senior principals and business managers for less than three years. Patterns of variance along the openness of budget-building processes, information…

  3. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  4. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES MANAGEMENT OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit...

  5. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  6. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant organization's authorized representative in the case of a new SBDC application, shall prepare and... direct costs of Program delivery. (b) Indirect costs. If the applicant organization waives all indirect...) Separate SBDC service provider budgets. (1) The applicant organization shall include separate budgets...

  7. R&D Budget--Carter-Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Focus is on the $30.6 billion portion of the federal budget for fiscal year 1980 that is allotted to research and development. Budgets discussed include those of colleges and universities, the National Institute of Health, National Science Foundation, Defense Department, Agriculture Department, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and…

  8. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  9. Planning the School Library Media Center Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Betty Jo

    This booklet presents guidelines for planning the school library media center budget based on short and long range plans for maintaining and developing collections and services. It is noted that such planning should consider the goals and objectives of the district, the school, and particular programs, and that democratic budgeting should involve…

  10. Budgeting Basics: Profit Planning with Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Joan; Schultz, Sally M.

    1996-01-01

    Budgeting is a valuable planning tool, facilitated by basic spreadsheets. Three basic steps in creating a budget--listing fixed and variable costs, computing a break-even point, and evaluating modifications--are explained. Models illustrate the basics of moving around the spreadsheet and entering formulas. Popular spreadsheet programs and price…

  11. College Budgeting: Mysterious or Rational Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massouh, Michael

    To many faculty and to some administrators the budget and its preparation are a mystery, conjured up and released by the chief business officer and president as a straight-jacket to aspirations and expectation. This document attempts to demonstrate that the budget is a straight-forward presentation to a college's constituents of the itemized plan…

  12. Instructional Program Budgeting in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David G.; Huff, Robert A.

    This document illustrates one approach to the preparation of an instructional program budget and how it might be used to enhance the allocation of scarce resources in higher education. The ideas presented here are intended only as an introduction and will provide the reader with a brief overview of program budgeting as the term is currently used…

  13. Activity-Based Budgeting in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmary, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As other universities across the country struggle with their financial challenges, continuing education units can serve the same pioneering role in the development of new financial and budget systems. Confronted by serious financial shortfalls during the last three decades, university administrators started to focus on new budget and revenue…

  14. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  15. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  16. Becoming a Leader in University Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explains what senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) and those aspiring to the position should know and do in terms of budgeting to make the transition from division to university leadership. Before SSAOs can help lead any university-wide budget process, particularly ones that unfold amid fiscal decline, they must master divisional…

  17. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  18. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  19. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  20. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  1. Data Processing Applied to Library Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Walter

    The data involved in a program-planned budget may be considered as being a two-dimensional array of numbers as opposed to a single column of numbers in the traditional budget accounting systems. Depending on the complexity of the organization, there may be more or fewer blanks in the two dimensional matrix. In the worst case, items can be squared,…

  2. California Community Colleges 1999-2000 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This budget was submitted by the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office to the Community College Board of Governor's in November 1998. It presents the funds requested for 1999-2000 for review by the Board and the state legislature and governor. General fund apportionment comprises $3.7 billion of the budget request. Other major fund…

  3. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    EPA Science Inventory

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  4. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  5. Setting National Priorities: The 1974 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Edward R.; And Others

    This book attempts to make the problem of budgetary choice at the federal level more intelligible by classifying, analyzing, and projecting into the future the components of the budget in a way which makes it possible to put together several comprehensive alternative budgets, each illustrating from a different view how the Federal Government could…

  6. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  7. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  8. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  9. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  10. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  12. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Budget

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2012-03-16

    Budget information for hydrogen and fuel cell research, development, and other activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is provided here. Included are budgets for DOE's Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science.

  13. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Dennis

    The Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO) inaugurated the Meritorious Budget Awards Program (MBA) in July 1995. ASBO specifically created this program to help school business administrators achieve a standard of excellence in budget presentation. This book is intended to serve as a practical guide to the MBA program and…

  14. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  15. Crumb rubber feasibility report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-11-01

    The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess approximately 65 to 75 percent of the 37,000 tons into a marketable product. A processing plant sized for this supply would process 120 tons per day, a viable plant by industry standards. The end uses for whole tires constitute a negligible market, aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major development efforts, there are potentially large opportunities in North Carolina.

  16. Understanding the Recent Methane Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Masarie, K.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources are thought to account for roughly 2/3 of the global atmospheric methane budget, with natural sources making up the other 1/3. Emissions from wetlands are the largest contribution from natural sources while agriculture (rice and ruminants) and waste dominate anthropogenic emissions. Fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction are thought to make up about 20% of the global atmospheric methane budget. It is generally recognized that observed inter-annual variability in global network observations can be attributed to natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning, while longer-term trends likely indicate changes in anthropogenic sources. Exceptions include an abrupt decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the early 1990s associated with political changes in the Former Soviet Union, and long-term trends in emissions from the Arctic due to a warming climate. The growth rate of global average atmospheric methane since the 1980s shows a steady decline until recent years when it started to increase again. Superimposed on these trends are episodes of higher growth rates. The cause of the recent increase is not currently well-understood, although climate-driven increases in wetland emissions likely played an important role, especially in the tropics. Recent increases in anthropogenic emissions, especially from rapidly expanding Asian economies cannot be ruled out. In addition, trends in the photochemical lifetime of methane must also be considered. In this paper we use both traditional data analysis of observations of methane and related species, and a state-of-the-art ensemble data assimilation system (CarbonTracker-CH4) to attribute methane variability and trends to anthropogenic and natural source processes. We pay particular attention to the Arctic, where some recent years have been the warmest on record, and to the tropics and the potential role of ENSO in driving variability of wetland emissions. Finally, we explore whether a signal in

  17. Modeling global macroclimatic constraints on ectotherm energy budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, B.W.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-12-31

    The authors describe a mechanistic individual-based model of how global macroclimatic constraints affect the energy budgets of ectothermic animals. The model uses macroclimatic and biophysical characters of the habitat and organism and tenets of heat transfer theory to calculate hourly temperature availabilities over a year. Data on the temperature dependence of activity rate, metabolism, food consumption and food processing capacity are used to estimate the net rate of resource assimilation which is then integrated over time. They present a new test of this model in which they show that the predicted energy budget sizes for 11 populations of the lizard Sceloporus undulates are in close agreement with observed results from previous field studies. This demonstrates that model tests rae feasible and the results are reasonable. Further, since the model represents an upper bound to the size of the energy budget, observed residual deviations form explicit predictions about the effects of environmental constraints on the bioenergetics of the study lizards within each site that may be tested by future field and laboratory studies. Three major new improvements to the modeling are discussed. They present a means to estimate microclimate thermal heterogeneity more realistically and include its effects on field rates of individual activity and food consumption. Second, they describe an improved model of digestive function involving batch processing of consumed food. Third, they show how optimality methods (specifically the methods of stochastic dynamic programming) may be included to model the fitness consequences of energy allocation decisions subject to food consumption and processing constraints which are predicted from the microclimate and physiological modeling.

  18. Vibration Budget for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K; Wittmer, W.; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; Esposito, M.; Tomassini, S.; /Frascati

    2011-04-05

    We present a vibration budget for the SuperB accelerator. We include ground motion data, motion sensitivity of machine components, and beam feedback system requirements. The SuperB accelerator design attains at least 50 times higher than current B-factories due to smaller beam sizes and a crabbed waist crossing angle scheme at the IP (interaction point). The beam size (1{sigma}) at the IP will be about 10 {micro}m (horizontal) by 40 nm (vertical). These small beam sizes will make the luminosity very sensitive to mechanical vibration and electrical noise. Relative vertical misalignment of the two beams at the IP by only 8 nm will result in a 1% reduction in luminosity. The corresponding horizontal alignment tolerance of is 250x looser (2 {micro}m). The vertical beam angle at the IP for a 1% luminosity loss is fairly loose at 200 {micro}rad, and the horizontal beam angle tolerance is looser still. We will focus on vertical beam position at the IP, since this presents the greatest alignment challenge. The values presented here are for a closed orbit with tunes near a half-integer in the SuperB v.12 lattice.

  19. In Congress NOAA budget set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In late November, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget, which is part of the appropriations bill for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and related agencies; at the same time, he also signed into law an amendment attached to that bill that prohibits the sale of the weather satellites (Eos, May 17, 1983, p. 377, and March 22, 1983, p. 113). Commercialization of the land remote sensing satellite system is still being considered, however.As a result of the conference between the House of Representatives and the Senate appropriations committees, the appropriation for NOAA totals $1020.6 million, with a program level of $1073.1 million. The appropriation is the money that comes from the federal treasury; the program level represents all of the funds—including treasury funds, transfers, residuals, etc.—actually available for the program. Strictly in terms of dollars, the total fiscal 1984 NOAA appropriation is almost level with the fiscal 1983 appropriation of $1000.9 million. In fiscal 1984, NOAA's research core, called Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF), receives an appropriation of $988.2 million, with a program level of $1014.8 million

  20. Quantifying the Arctic methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, Nicola; Cain, Michelle; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane, containing climate-sensitive emissions from natural wetlands and gas hydrates, as well as the fossil fuel industry. Both wetland and gas hydrate methane emissions from the Arctic may increase with increasing temperature, resulting in a positive feedback leading to enhancement of climate warming. It is important that these poorly-constrained sources are quantified by location and strength and their vulnerability to change be assessed. The MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic: Measurements, process studies and Modelling') addresses these issues as part of the UK NERC Arctic Programme. A global chemistry transport model has been used, along with MAMM and other long term observations, to assess our understanding of the different source and sink terms in the Arctic methane budget. Simulations including methane coloured by source and latitude are used to distinguish between Arctic seasonal variability arising from transport and that arising from changes in Arctic sources and sinks. Methane isotopologue tracers provide a further constraint on modelled methane variability, distinguishing between isotopically light and heavy sources (e.g. wetlands and gas fields). We focus on quantifying the magnitude and seasonal variability of Arctic wetland emissions.

  1. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  2. Agreement on FY 1990 budget plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bush administration has reached agreement with congressional leaders over a thumbnail version of the Fiscal Year 1990 budget. The plan contains few details but could have implications for NASA's Space Station Freedom and other big science projects.Overall, the budget agreement would achieve Gramm-Rudman-Hollings targets for budget deficit reduction without raising taxes, mostly through accounting manipulation and unspecified cuts in social programs. But a supplemental bill that calls for $1.2 billion in new spending for FY 1989 is expected to go to the House floor soon. That measure would violate the new agreement and add to the deficit.

  3. Why clinicians should embrace individual budgets.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Simon John

    2012-06-01

    The use of individual budgets in healthcare marks the beginning of a new set of opportunities for clinicians to collaborate with their patients and use approaches that are not limited to traditional medical treatments. Individual budgets will be particularly valuable in areas of healthcare where increased patient control, responsiveness, creativity or personalisation are useful. Individual budgets are likely to be particularly useful for people with chronic health conditions or mental health needs and for those people who are at the end of life. PMID:24654045

  4. Preparing to introduce personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Porter, Zoe; Simpson, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    A large-scale study ( Forder et al 2012 ) piloting personal health budgets for people with long-term conditions found that they improved patients' quality of life and psychological wellbeing. They were cost-effective and reduced the use of other healthcare services. From April next year, people receiving NHS continuing healthcare funding will have the right to ask for personal health budgets. Some clinical commissioning groups are also introducing them for mental health service users and patients with other long-term conditions. This article outlines the benefits and challenges of introducing personal health budgets, and suggests how nursing managers can begin to consider their role in implementing them. PMID:24063340

  5. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  6. The MRIS feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Cross, Aubrey E.; Schrader, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument being developed for use in detecting and ranging of electron density layers in the reentry plasma of a space transfer vehicle. The rationale for the selection of the Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) system used in the feasibility study for the MRIS is presented. A 25 GHz single-oscillator system and a 220 GHz double-oscillator system are described. The 25 GHz system was constructed and tested in the laboratory and test results are presented. As developed, the system employs a sideband spacing of 160 MHz. Based on an estimated electromagnetic wave velocity in the plasma, a round-trip phase shift measurement accuracy of +/- 7.6 degrees was required for the desired +/- 1/2 cm distance measurement accuracy. The interaction of parallel ground and reflecting planes produces interference that prevents the basic DSBSC system from meeting the accuracy goal so a frequency modulation was added to the system to allow averaging of the measured phase deviation. With an FM deviation of +/- 1 GHz, laboratory measurements were made for distances from 5 to 61 cm tip free space. Accounting for the plasma velocity factor, 82 percent of the data were equal to or better than the desired accuracy. Based on this measured result a sideband spacing to 250 MHz could be expected to yield data approximately 96 percent within the accuracy goal.

  7. The work budget of rough faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Patrick J.; Ashley Griffith, W.

    2014-12-01

    Faults in nature have measurable roughness at many scales and are not planar as generally idealized. We utilize the boundary element method to model the geomechanical response of synthetic rough faults in an isotropic, linear elastic continuum to external tectonic loading in terms of the work budget. Faults are generated with known fractal roughness parameters, including the root mean square slope (β), a measure of roughness amplitude, and the Hurst exponent (H), a measure of geometric self-similarity. Energy within the fault models is partitioned into external work (Wext), internal elastic strain energy (Wint), gravitational work (Wgrav), frictional work (Wfric), and seismic energy (Wseis). Results confirm that Wext, or work done on the external model boundaries, is smallest for a perfectly planar fault, and steadily increases with increasing β. This pattern is also observed in Wint, the energy expended in deforming the host rock. The opposite is true for gravitational work, or work done against gravity in uplifting host rock, as well as with frictional work, or energy dissipated with frictional slip on the fault, and Wseis, or seismic energy released during slip events. Effects of variation in H are not as large as for β, but Wgrav, Wfric, and Wseis increase with increasing H, with Wint and Wext decreasing across the same range. Remarkably, however, for a narrow range of roughness amplitudes which are commonly observed along natural faults, the total work of the system remains approximately constant, while slightly larger than the total work of a planar fault. Faults evolve toward the most mechanically efficient configuration; therefore we argue that this range of roughness amplitudes may represent an energy barrier, preventing faults from removing asperities and evolving to smooth, planar discontinuities. A similar conclusion is drawn from simulations at relatively shallow depths, with results showing that shallower faults have larger energy barriers, and can

  8. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  9. Fiscal 1982 Budget highlights R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Geophysical research and development programs show growth beyond inflation in the $739.3 billion budget for fiscal 1982 that Jimmy Carter sent to Congress 5 days before completing his term. Included in the budget are provisions for increased support for the Ocean Margin Drilling Program and funds for an interagency Geological Applications Program, funds for an agriculture and resource surveys program that relies on remote sensing, and funds for the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission.Ronald Reagan is expected to make changes in the budget as early as late February, although in mid January the heads of the scientific agencies could not characterize possible changes. Some Washingtonians say sharp cuts are inevitable, with basic research a prime candidate. Others, however, contend that the Reagan administration's push for productivity and innovation could prevent severe carving. Eos will track the FY 1982 budget changes through congressional approval.

  10. Teaching Home Economics on a Low Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Describes how a home economics teacher developed a low budget home economics program for elementary students aged six to twelve. Includes class activities in clothing construction, baby care, foods and nutrition, crafts, and shopping. (EM)

  11. Update on Congress and new budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    Thanks to some all-night sessions, Congress has adjourned until next year, having completed work on all but one of 13 appropriations bills. Hearings are being held by the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee on economic growth packages, with little else scheduled. Congress is due to reconvene briefly on January 3, but will recess again until January 21.The action on the budget for fiscal year 1993, which begins on October 1, 1992, is now at the other end of Pennsylvania Avenue. Departments, agencies, and the Office of Management and Budget are in the midst of assembling the budget request for FY 1993. The executive branch maintains an almost total blackout on any official or unofficial news about what is being requested, much less what will be in the new budget.

  12. Clinton Administration announces FY 2001 budget request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Blessed with a strong US. economy the Clinton Administration on February 7 released a fiscal year 2001 federal budget request totaling a whopping $1,835 billion. Most of the funding request is slated for big ticket items including Social Security defense spending, Medicaid, Medicare, and paying down the federal debt. However, within the 19% of the budget that funds non-defense discretionary programs,science agencies receive fairly healthy increases.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request would increase NSF funding by 17.3% $675 million and bring the total budget request to $4.6 billion. This includes significant increases for several initiatives: biocomplexity in the environment, information technology research, nanoscale science and engineering, and 21st century workforce. Among the major Earth science projects are launching the Earthscope initiative which includes the US Array and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

  13. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  14. Dynamic cost risk estimation and budget misspecification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbeler, D. H.; Fox, G.; Habib-Agahi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cost risk for new technology development is estimated by explicit stochastic processes. Monte Carlo simulation is used to propagate technology development activity budget changes during the technology development cycle.

  15. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  16. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan. PMID:19160746

  17. Spanish researchers hit out at budget cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2009-11-01

    Societies representing over 30 000 researchers in Spain have expressed their concern about the government's budget for 2010. In a statement, they warn that if the budget presented last month by the ruling socialist party is approved by parliament, it "will have a very high cost" for science in Spain. The statement is supported by the Confederation of Spanish Scientific Societies and the Conference of Spanish University Rectors.

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment - Preliminary seasonal results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and from the operational NOAA-9 satellite being placed in the archive of the earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are discussed. The results of the ERBE data validation effort are reviewed along with ERBE solar constant observations and earth-viewing results. The latter include monthly average results for July 1985, annual average clear-sky fluxes, and annual average, zonal, and global results.

  19. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  20. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    production, and commercial forestry. The issues include the dispersed nature of some of the waste (increasing costs of transport and reducing economy of scale), and the fact that some of these are already applied in energy generation. (4) Rural firewood use is problematic. This is a significant resource, plays a large role in the energy budget of poor and rural households, and current use means that it will have little impact on the GHG emissions balance. Data availability and quality is poor, and needs improvement. (5) Process technologies are not all mature: We have investigated 52 different process technologies in respect of costs, economy of scale, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emission and job creation impacts, and maturity of technology. Many attractive options are not mature, and unlikely to be commercially useful in the next decade - essentially excluding them from consideration for medium-term implementation. (6) Solutions are probably 'packages'. One has to balance the diversity of available resource streams and processing technologies against the need to focus resources on development of critical mass (workforce skills, support industries, expertise). Combining feedstocks and aligning with other government initiatives or subsidies can achieve such critical mass more easily. (7) Solutions must be robust in future too. Feasibility studies that focus on the current situation only ignore the fact that future sustainability is strongly dependent on assumptions on relative economic growth (influences household and industrial energy consumption, and the limiting cost for energy), cost of capital and inflation (affects choices of labour- or capital-intensive industries), exchange rates and fossil fuel prices (huge effect on selection of alternatives). (8) The most promising biomass source is medium-term mining and eradication of invasive alien plants, but this source is limited in time and, if exploited as proposed, will not be available after about 20 years. The

  1. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  2. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  3. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  4. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  5. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budgeting methods for AFDC. 233.31 Section 233.31... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.31 Budgeting methods for AFDC. (a) Requirements for State... report for the month designated as the budget month under the State's retrospective budgeting...

  6. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting methods for AFDC. 233.31 Section 233.31... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.31 Budgeting methods for AFDC. (a) Requirements for State... report for the month designated as the budget month under the State's retrospective budgeting...

  7. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  8. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  9. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  10. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  11. Using Site-Based Budgeting To Improve Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Advances the use of school-based budgeting to improve student achievement. Describes four steps to implementing school-based budgeting: Access the current situation, set priorities and make decisions, plan action steps and benchmarks, and analyze choices and build the budget. Includes case study of the implementation of school-based budgeting at…

  12. What Is Your Budget Saying about Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Leslie; Strouse, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses budgeting for corporate libraries and how to keep budgets from getting cut. Topics include whether the budget is considered corporate overhead; recovering costs; models for content cost recovery; showing return on library investment; marketing library value to senior management; user needs and satisfaction; and comparing budgets to other…

  13. Program Budgeting and Accounting Manual for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To promote sound and efficient school budgeting and accounting, this revision of a 1975 manual outlines a system of financial accounts to be followed by Oregon's school districts. In discussing the budgeting process, the first part describes the budget document and the role of the school district board, suggests budget meeting agendas, and…

  14. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  15. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  16. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  17. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  18. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder...

  19. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  20. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget....

  1. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  2. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder...

  3. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  4. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget....

  5. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  6. A Primer on the Budget Resolution's Impact on Education Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The budget resolution put forward by Congress each year--which sets out the congressional budget plan for the next five years--and the ensuing budget process itself are enormously significant for education funding. However, the arcane procedures under which Congress produces and acts upon the budget resolution are often confusing to the media and…

  7. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  8. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for...

  9. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget....

  10. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  11. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for...

  12. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  13. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  14. 42 CFR 441.560 - Service budget requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service budget requirements. 441.560 Section 441...) § 441.560 Service budget requirements. (a) For the self-directed model with a service budget, a service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of functional need and...

  15. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  16. 42 CFR 441.560 - Service budget requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service budget requirements. 441.560 Section 441...) § 441.560 Service budget requirements. (a) For the self-directed model with a service budget, a service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of functional need and...

  17. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for...

  18. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  19. 42 CFR 441.560 - Service budget requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service budget requirements. 441.560 Section 441...) § 441.560 Service budget requirements. (a) For the self-directed model with a service budget, a service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of functional need and...

  20. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  1. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  2. 20 CFR 653.112 - State agency program budget plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State agency program budget plans. 653.112... State agency program budget plans. (a) Each State agency, in its annual program budget plan, shall... and Budget under control number 1205-0039) (Pub. L. No. 96-511, 94 Stat. 2812 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.))...

  3. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  4. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder...

  5. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  6. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  7. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget....

  8. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for...

  9. 20 CFR 653.112 - State agency program budget plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State agency program budget plans. 653.112... State agency program budget plans. (a) Each State agency, in its annual program budget plan, shall... and Budget under control number 1205-0039) (Pub. L. No. 96-511, 94 Stat. 2812 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.))...

  10. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget....

  11. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  12. 20 CFR 653.112 - State agency program budget plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State agency program budget plans. 653.112... State agency program budget plans. (a) Each State agency, in its annual program budget plan, shall... and Budget under control number 1205-0039) (Pub. L. No. 96-511, 94 Stat. 2812 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.))...

  13. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  14. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  15. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for...

  16. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  17. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder...

  18. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  19. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  20. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  1. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  2. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  3. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  4. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  5. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  6. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    SciTech Connect

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Houghton, R.A.; McGuire, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  8. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  9. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  10. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  11. Responsibility-Centred Budgeting: An Emerging Trend in Higher Education Budget Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger LuAnne

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States are entering a new era in budgeting. Therefore, institutions are actively engaging in dialogues about the budgeting tools that will most effectively assist them in achieving institutional goals and objectives within their strategic plans and being accountable for the use of scarce resources, as…

  12. Toward the Improvement of the Budgeting Process and Policy Realization Through Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myroon, John L.

    Zero-base budgeting (ZBB), a systematically structured approach to budgeting, has the potential to improve policy attainment, resource reallocation, program review, and information systems. Some 300 businesses, a dozen states, one municipality, and one school district in the United States have operationalized the concept. Many private and public…

  13. Weakening mechanism and energy budget of laboratory earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passelegue, Francois; Brantut, Nicolas; Marty, Samson; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of earthquake ruptures in subduction zone are expected to be partially governed by the dehydration of minerals during shear heating. In this study, we conducted and compared results coming from stick-slip experiments on Westerly granite, serpentinized peridotite, and serpentinite. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures (σ3) of 50 and 100 MPa. The angle between the fault plane and the maximum stress (σ1) was imposed to be equal to 30°. Usual a dual gain system, a high frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particles acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events and premonitory background microseismicity. In addition, we used an amplified strain gage located at 3 mm to fault plane to record the dynamic stress change during laboratory earthquakes. In all rocks, we show that increasing the stress acting on the fault leads to an increase of the seismic slip, which in turns leads to a decrease in the dynamic friction coefficient. However, for a same initial stress, displacements are larger in serpentinized peridotite and in serpentinite than in Westerly granite. While the partial melting of the fault surface is observed in each rock tested, the dynamic friction drop is larger in peridotite and serpentinite. This larger friction drop is explained by the dehydration of antigorite, which leaves a partially amorphised material and leads to the production of a low viscosity melt. Finally, using theroretical assumptions, we show that the radiation efficiency of laboratory earthquakes is larger in peridotite and serpentinite than in granite. This calculation is supported by larger elastic wave radiation, and by microstructural analysis.

  14. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  15. Organic energy budget of Rattlesnake Springs, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of organic energy budgets has become a widely used method to compare lotic ecosystems and ecosystem functioning. Fisher and Likens included import and export of particulate organic matter (POM) with the parameters of production (P) and respiration (R), providing stream ecologists an added refinement in characterizing the trophic basis of streams. An annual organic energy budget for Rattlesnake Springs showed the system to be autotrophic as measured by the P/R ratio (P/R = 1.38). In terms of detrital processing, however, the system was a net importer on an annual basis despite one major export (remissive) event. Suggestions are made concerning the expression and comparison of annual stream energy budgets.

  16. Budget for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The major projects have been directed to schedule work activities with Primavera (P3). Previously, project budgets were developed and resourced within the P3 Primavera scheduling system, the PX scheduling system and other spreadsheet tools. These budgets for the execution year were then loaded manually into the system and other spreadsheet tools. These budgets for the execution year were then loaded manually into the Financial Data System. The closing process currently consists of the running of a preliminary close on the first working day following the last day of the fiscal month. The year end close is run with several preliminary closes prior to fiscal year end with a hard close predicated on receipt of a final obligation letter from DOE.

  17. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    PubMed

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets. PMID:8632104

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Smith, G. Louis; Green, Richard N.; Kibler, James F.; Cess, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 4 years, data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have been undergoing detailed examination. There is no direct source of groundtruth for the radiation budget. Thus, this validation effort has had to rely heavily upon intercomparisons between different types of measurements. The ERBE SCIENCE Team chose 10 measures of agreement as validation criteria. Late in August 1988, the Team agreed that the data met these conditions. As a result, the final, monthly averaged data products are being archived. These products, their validation, and some results for January 1986 are described. Information is provided on obtaining the data from the archive.

  19. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  20. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  1. Feasibility study of a corn-to-ethanol plant in Sardis, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    A technical description of a chemical processing facility capable of producing 5 million gallons per year of denatured anhydrous ethanol (power alcohol) is presented. In addition, certain equipment options are evaluated on the basis of availability, reliability, and budget constraints. Analysis of logistics and sensitivity of financial decision making criteria to market variables is not within the scope of this study. Consequently, concluding statements are limited to a discussion of technical feasibility and a statement of capital cost for turn-key construction.

  2. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    PubMed

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed. PMID:10142544

  3. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  4. Developing a Program Budgeting System as an Aid in Planning Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggart, S. A.

    In planning for higher education, budgets should be developed that reflect not merely the status quo but rather provide a realistic picture of what occurs relative to what should occur in current programs. This requires setting up an informational framework to provide a mechanism for generating and evaluating alternate ways to achieve…

  5. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  6. Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission has been investigated. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the earth-orbit assembled mass compared to LOX/LH/sub 2/ systems. The mass savings were 36% and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7B will easily pay for the NTR development. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5B. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4B.

  7. Allocating the Book Budget: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Joseph D.

    1974-01-01

    Inflation is currently affecting library book budgets, particularly the acquisition of serials. This model would balance the purchase of serials against the purchase of monographs by individual funding units within the academic library. Consideration is given to inflation as a cost factor. The model is applied to a specific example. (Author/LS)

  8. School Attendance and the District Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert-Guillory, Julie

    2009-01-01

    House Bill 1 became a major piece of legislation in Texas a few years ago. It was designed primarily to address public school finance, property tax relief, public school accountability, and education-related matters. This piece of legislation has forced districts to manage their finances very differently, undergo budget reductions, and continue…

  9. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  10. Developing guidance for budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Trueman, P; Drummond, M; Hutton, J

    2001-01-01

    The role of economic evaluation in the efficient allocation of healthcare resources has been widely debated. Whilst economic evidence is undoubtedly useful to purchasers, it does not address the issue of affordability which is an increasing concern. Healthcare purchasers are concerned not just with maximising efficiency but also with the more simplistic goal of remaining within their annual budgets. These two objectives are not necessarily consistent. This paper examines the issue of affordability, the relationship between affordability and efficiency and builds the case for why there is a growing need for budget impact models to complement economic evaluation. Guidance currently available for such models is also examined and it is concluded that this guidance is currently insufficient. Some of these insufficiencies are addressed and some thoughts on what constitutes best practice in budget impact modelling are suggested. These suggestions include consideration of transparency, clarity of perspective, reliability of data sources, the relationship between intermediate and final end-points and rates of adoption of new therapies. They also include the impact of intervention by population subgroups or indications, reporting of results, probability of re-deploying resources, the time horizon, exploring uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and decision-maker access to the model. Due to the nature of budget impact models, the paper does not deliver stringent methodological guidance on modelling. The intention was to provide some suggestions of best practice in addition to some foundations upon which future research can build. PMID:11456210

  11. Budget Eliminates Emergency Grants; Districts Regroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Emergency training programs aimed to prepare schools for events like Columbine are losing their funding amid budget cuts. "Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools" grants from the federal office of safe and drug-free schools, has evaporated. After paying for hundreds of school districts to prepare for a Columbine-like event, the roughly…

  12. School District Budgeting and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckbuchler, Scott Alan

    2009-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of a working, progressive, democratic society. Therefore, it matters where education dollars are spent. Budgeting decisions take on added significance in light of fulfilling the objectives of the No Child Left Behind Act, which is characterized as the most far-reaching piece of education legislation in decades.…

  13. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  14. University Budgeting for Critical Mass and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, L. R.

    A critical mass strategy for university academic budgeting, resource planning, and management is described, and state government budgetary and program policy for universities is analyzed. The use of "rational systems management" in universities is discussed as a means of placing in perspective the critical mass resource decision model. Attention…

  15. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  16. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  17. Improving Student Learning When Budgets Are Tight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R.

    2012-01-01

    How do you stay focused on increasing student learning when budget cuts threaten everything you are striving for? This book offers a comprehensive framework to enhance student achievement in good times and in bad. School reform expert Allan R. Odden outlines a school improvement action plan focused sharply on student learning and then shows how to…

  18. Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.

    1990-01-01

    The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global warming, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global warming.

  19. Budget Pain Dampening K-12 Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Governors and state lawmakers are poised to kick off their toughest legislative sessions in years, with the hope of sparing K-12 education from deep budget cuts in the face of mounting deficits--a far cry from the more typical push for new policy initiatives and school programs. Simply holding the line may prove difficult. Together, 31 states face…

  20. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  1. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust number -- the carbon budget for CO2-induced warming only -- is also the least relevant for real-world policy. Including all greenhouse gases and using methods based on scenarios that avoid instead of exceed a given temperature limit results in lower carbon budgets. For a >66% chance of limiting warming below the internationally agreed temperature limit of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels, the most appropriate carbon budget estimate is 590-1,240 GtCO2 from 2015 onwards. Variations within this range depend on the probability of staying below 2 °C and on end-of-century non-CO2 warming. Current CO2 emissions are about 40 GtCO2 yr-1, and global CO2 emissions thus have to be reduced urgently to keep within a 2 °C-compatible budget.

  2. Higher Education in California: Performance Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick; Cook, Kevin; Johnson, Hans; Weston, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    As California begins to reinvest in public higher education after several years of budget cuts, it could opt to tie funding more closely with outcomes--for example, the number of students educated or degrees awarded. This approach, known as performance-based funding, has the potential to incentivize investment by the state's higher education…

  3. Zero-Based Budgeting: The Texas Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting was instituted in all Texas state-funded agencies in 1975-76, including colleges. The first two years of using this procedure are reviewed and its applicability to higher education institutions is examined in light of the need to consider educational quality as well as costs. (MSE)

  4. Collegiate Connections: Music Education Budget Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaton, Emily Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current recession, the American economy within the last few years has taken a nosedive, making it difficult for national, state, and local governments to support all the programs they currently have in place. There are difficult choices that need to be made about where to make sacrifices in their budgets so things can still run…

  5. Keeping Schools Safe during Tight Budget Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Tight budgets are no excuse for failing to be proactive with school safety. In fact, school leaders must be especially committed to prevention and security programs during times when economic woes are increasing stress on kids, their families and school staff. Parents will forgive educators if their school's test scores drop. But they are much…

  6. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  7. Budgeting for Desegregation in Urban School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, William M; Colton, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Compares financial resource mobilization, allocation, and accounting for school desegregation in three large cities. Focuses on interactions between school officials, courts, and city officials in designing and funding desegregation remedies, and argues that budgeting for desegregation depends on legal and political processes that are often beyond…

  8. More Students + Budget Cuts = Tough Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, student enrollment is exploding, while budgets are being slashed to the bone. A March 2010 report by the League for Innovation and the Campus Computing Project says it all: "Still Doing More With Less." In a survey of 128 community college campus presidents and district chancellors for the report, 94 percent of respondents said…

  9. Budgets. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on budgets is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  10. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  11. Beyond Budgets: Changing for the Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Better budgeting, better forecasting, and new revenue sources will not eliminate the strains on postsecondary education today. Forces driving this situation include the trend toward part-time and lower-division learners, low graduation rates of low-income students, and failure to meet student needs. Development of "adult-friendly" colleges and…

  12. Building Middle Schools on a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundt, John C.; Matt, John

    This report describes the history of St. Ignatius, a small school district in western Montana, and reveals how it defied conventional wisdom that school construction was a stress-filled and expensive experience by building and then expanding their middle school under budget and with greater control. Use of a project manager who would serve as a…

  13. Public Participation in the Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Deirdra

    2001-01-01

    A diverse community, combined with a school division lacking independent taxing authority, led Fairfax County (Maryland) Public Schools to public participation in the budget process. Steps involved developing an objective, identifying the audience, establishing formats (surveys, focus groups, and voice polls), developing a timeline, and reporting…

  14. Proposed NIH Budget Includes Mandatory Funding.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    President Obama has proposed an overall budget increase of $825 million for the NIH in fiscal year 2017 compared with 2016. That money would be reserved for three efforts: the NCI's "moonshot" initiative, the Precision Medicine Initiative cohort program, and the BRAIN program. PMID:26984350

  15. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  16. Fla. Budget Threatens Online Ed. Mandate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    As Florida school districts scramble to meet a looming state mandate to offer full-time online instruction for K-8 students, and as high school enrollments in such courses continue to climb, lawmakers are mulling restrictions and budget cuts for the state's nationally known virtual school. Together, online-learning advocates say, the growing…

  17. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  18. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  19. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  20. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  1. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  2. Summary of 2009-2010 Annual Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009-10 operating budget for the North Dakota University System is over $1 billion. Approximately 29 percent of operations are supported by the state general fund. The remainder of the operations of the University System are self-supporting through tuition and fees, room and board charges paid by students, and private and federal research…

  3. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  4. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and the deployment of low-carbon technology. Here, we show typical values for these indicators for different carbon budgets, using the recently compiled IPCC scenario database, and discuss how these vary as a function of non-CO2 forcing, energy use and policy delay. For carbon budgets of 2000 GtCO2 and less over the 2010–2100 period, supply of low carbon technologies needs to be scaled up massively from today’s levels, unless energy use is relatively low. For the subgroup of scenarios with a budget below 1000 GtCO2 (consistent with >66% chance of limiting global warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels), the 2050 contribution of low-carbon technologies is generally around 50%–75%, compared to less than 20% today (range refers to the 10–90th interval of available data).

  5. Beware Higher Ed's Newest Budget Twist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1997-01-01

    A new budgeting concept currently popular in colleges and universities, Responsibility Centered Management (RCM) holds that unit heads, who understand their operations best, should be given greater budgetary authority and responsibility. Experience with the system at Indiana University and several hypothetical cases suggest that RCM would place…

  6. The Difference Between Conventional Budgeting and PPB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtz, Charles

    The architects of public resource allocation systems have put forth Planning Programming Budgeting Systems (PPBS) as a more rational method of managing the Federal establishment because PPBS allows identification of governmental objectives and reduces the opportunity for perpetuation of an enterprise which may no longer be necessary. Advantages of…

  7. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  8. Budget and Accounting Manual: California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This manual specifies in detail the new budget and accounting system for California Community Colleges, utilizing an activity-centered approach to expenditure reporting which describes real resource requirements, their costs, and relative use in each of the 37 discrete activities comprising community college operations. The system is designed to…

  9. Measuring and budgeting available forage in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled two farms that differed in size, grazing management, and feeding strategy. We first modeled the optimal management and performance conditions for each farm with the assumption that forage on pasture was measured accurately and budgeted optimally. We also established an economically optimu...

  10. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  11. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  12. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  13. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  15. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  16. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Synoptic scale budgets of kinetic energy are computed using 3 and 6 h data from three of NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE's). Numerous areas of intense convection occurred during the three experiments. Large kinetic energy variability, with periods as short as 6 h, is observed in budgets computed over each entire experiment area and over limited volumes that barely enclose the convection and move with it. Kinetic energy generation and transport processes in the smaller volumes are often a maximum when the enclosed storms are near peak intensity, but the nature of the various energy processes differs between storm cases and seems closely related to the synoptic conditions. A commonly observed energy budget for peak storm intensity indicates that generation of kinetic energy by cross-contour flow is the major energy source while dissipation to subgrid scales is the major sink. Synoptic scale vertical motion transports kinetic energy from lower to upper levels of the atmosphere while low-level horizontal flux convergence and upper-level horizontal divergence also occur. Spatial fields of the energy budget terms show that the storm environment is a major center of energy activity for the entire area.

  17. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  18. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and...

  19. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and...

  20. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and...