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  1. Isonymy structure of Buenos Aires city.

    PubMed

    Bronberg, Rubén A; Dipierri, José E; Alfaro, Emma L; Barrai, Italo; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Castilla, Eduardo E; Colonna, Vincenza; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Greta; Bailliet, Graciela

    2009-08-01

    The isonymy structure of Buenos Aires was studied based on its surname frequency. Information on 2,552,359 voters of the 28 Buenos Aires districts was used to estimate Lasker's coefficient of relationship by isonymy (R(i)), surname diversity according to Fisher's alpha, the coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy (F), and Nei's, Lasker's and the Euclidean isonymy distances. These distances were correlated with geographic distances, which were calculated by assigning an arbitrary point to each district and measuring distances on a map of the city. The R(i) x 10(5) and F x 10(4) averages of the districts located south of Rivadavia Avenue were higher (R(i) = 66.08; F = 3.4) than those situated north of that avenue (R(i) = 46.60; F = 2.4) (p < 0.001). Fisher's alpha showed the opposite behavior (north, alpha = 1,055.5; south, alpha = 757.2). There was a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between geographic distance and Nei's and the Euclidean distances (0.496 and 0.503, respectively), but the correlation was not significant for Lasker's distance (0.051). These results indicate isolation by distance in the city of Buenos Aires and reveal subdivision of the metropolitan population, with greater consanguinity and a lesser variety of surnames in the districts located in the southern section of the city. This structure agrees with the fragmentation and social, cultural, and economic differences observed among the districts of this Latin American metropolis. PMID:20067369

  2. A palace for astronomy in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-06-01

    In no other epoch of Western history like in the Middle Ages, cosmology was so key an element of culture and, one way or another, the motion of the heavens ended up impregnating the literature of that time. Among the most noteworthy poets we find Dante Alighieri, who became famous for his Commedia, a monumental poem written roughly between 1307 and his death in 1321, and which the critics from 16th century onwards dubbed Divina. In this and other works, Dante pictures the cosmic image for the world, summing up the current trends of Neoplatonic and Islamic traditions. The Barolo Palace in the city of Buenos Aires is a singular combination of both astronomy and the worldview displayed in Dante's poetic masterpiece. Some links of the Palace's main architectural structure with the three realms of the Comedy have been studied in the past. In this note we consider its unique astronomical flavor, an issue which has not been sufficiently emphasized yet.

  3. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study. PMID:26826986

  4. Conditions for free-air laser communications in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, D. S.; Castro, E. H.

    2005-08-01

    The wavelength, availability, range and power budget of an infrared free-space laser communication system critically depend on the atmospheric channel, which in turn is closely related to local weather conditions. As a result, the atmospheric propagation characteristics of the transmission medium must be taken into account from the beginning in the design of a free-space laser communication link. The most important linear effects that affect the attenuation of laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are absorption, scattering and turbulence. Weather parameters such as humidity, temperature and visibility are essential in determining the performance of a free-space laser communication system. Based on weather data recorded in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) at every hour during two years and made available to us by the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (National Meteorological Service of the Argentinean Air Force), we calculate attenuation of laser radiation for an horizontal transmission path of 1 km for a near infrared direct detection optical communication system. Then, with these results, we estimate link availability and draw conclusions about when it is more convenient to transfer information.

  5. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, Marcela; Querci, Marcia; Marcone, Debora; Videla, Cristina; Martinez, Alfredo; Bonvehi, Pablo; Carballal, Guadalupe

    2010-02-01

    To determine clinical and virologic characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, we conducted real-time reverse transcription-PCR on samples from patients with influenza-like illness, June 11-30, 2009. Of 513 patients tested, 54% were positive for influenza virus subtype H1N1. Infection rate was lowest for patients >or=60 years of age. PMID:20113568

  6. [Structure and functioning of research ethics committees in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Sabio, María Fernanda; Bortz, Jaime Elías

    2015-06-01

    Given the few existing studies on research ethics committees (RECs) in Argentina, this paper aims to describe the structure and functioning of institutional RECs in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research study was carried out using a survey conducted between March and July 2012. The sample was made up of 46 RECs. Forty percent of committee members were doctors and the age and sex distribution met standards. Inadequate numbers of methodologists, community representatives, lawyers and members external to the institution were identified, as well as shortcomings regarding administrative staff, fixed locations for meetings, budgets adequate to expenditures and training in research ethics. Some of those surveyed reported problems in their relationship with the institution and with researchers, in addition to difficulties regarding the time available to perform tasks. PMID:26172100

  7. [Marchigiani in Buenos Aires: work and associated life].

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, A

    1997-12-01

    "Studies on Italian immigration in Argentina have shown that approaches at the provincial level add to our understanding of migration patterns and processes. The case study of urban immigrants from a region in central Italy shows similarities and differences with Italian immigration in Buenos Aires in general. Residential patterns and occupations are analyzed through a combination of mutual association membership registers and shipping lists; the linkage of available sources showed, at least for these immigrants, a considerable gap between arrival and entry in a mutual aid society, a fact which reduces the importance of the voluntary associations in assisting recent immigrants to obtain a job." (EXCERPT) PMID:12322010

  8. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  9. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  10. [RESEARCH AMONG PSYCHIATRISTS IN TRAINING IN CIUDAD DE BUENOS AIRES].

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Berrío Cuartas, Diana M; Villafañe, Claudia I; Pereyra, Walter D; Martínez Didolich, Laura C; Cesoni, Oscar M; Uriarte, Martín A

    2015-01-01

    Research is a cornerstone in the training of medical doctors in any specialty, whereas it substantially contributes to good clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of research among psychiatrists in training in Ciudad de Buenos Aires. A cross sectional descriptive study using a paper survey, which was voluntary and anonymous, was sent to psychiatrists in training in different training centers between October-November 2013. 76.6% considered research training deficient; 27.8% participated in a research project during their psychiatric training and only 21.5% presented their results at a scientific activity. 95.6% participants considered important to include research in their training. In summary, a small proportion of psychiatrists in training who participated in this study conducted research and we observed limited experience in the area, as opposed to the interest in being trained in this field. PMID:26966750

  11. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis. PMID:27236582

  12. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  13. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine. PMID:24247021

  14. Temporal variability of the Buenos Aires, Argentina, urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilloni, Inés; Barrucand, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical characteristics and temporal variability of the urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Buenos Aires using 32-year surface meteorological data with 1-h time intervals. Seasonal analyses show that the UHI intensity is strongest during summer months and an "inverse" effect is found frequently during the afternoon hours of the same season. During winter, the UHI effect is in the minimal. The interannual trend and the seasonal variation of the UHI for the main synoptic hours for a longer record of 48 years are studied and associated to changes in meteorological factors as low-level circulation and cloud amount. Despite the population growth, it was found a negative trend in the nocturnal UHI intensity that could be explained by a decline of near clear-sky conditions, a negative trend in the calm frequencies and an increase in wind speed. Urban to rural temperature differences and rural temperatures are negatively correlated for diurnal and nocturnal hours both for annual and seasonal scales. This result is due to the lower interannual variability of urban temperatures in comparison to rural ones.

  15. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  16. Tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, P; Duggan, A; Adger, H; Anthony, J C; Joffe, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were given to 3909 8th and 11th graders in a stratified random sample of 49 public and private schools. The instrument included items from American surveys, translated and validated among Argentinean teens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate possible effects on smoking behavior of environment, students' personal characteristics, and their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding smoking. RESULTS: Of 8th and 11th graders, 20% and 43%, respectively, were classified as current smokers. Overall, 29% of males and 32% of females were current smokers. Students attending public schools were more likely to smoke than those in private schools (P < .05). Current smoking was associated with having a best friend who smokes, reporting that more than 50% of friends of the same sex smoke, having positive attitudes and beliefs toward smoking, and having a positive intention to smoke within the next year (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 20% of the 8th graders in our sample were current smokers; prevention efforts must therefore start early. PMID:11213790

  17. John Tweedie and Charles Darwin in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Chancellor, Gordon; van Wyhe, John

    2012-06-20

    The journey of exploration undertaken by Charles Darwin FRS during the voyage of HMS Beagle has a central place within the historical development of evolutionary theory and has been intensively studied. Despite this, new facts continue to emerge about some of the details of Darwin's activities. Drawing on recently published Darwin material and unpublished letters in the archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, we document a hitherto unexamined link between Darwin and John Tweedie (1775-1862), a relatively obscure Scottish gardener turned South American plant collector. All of the available evidence points to a meeting between the two men in Buenos Aires in 1832. Tweedie provided Darwin with information about the geography of the Rio Paraná, including the locality of fossilized wood eroding from the river bank. It also seems likely that Tweedie supplied Darwin with seeds that he later shipped back to John Stevens Henslow in Cambridge. Although this brief meeting was at the time relatively unimportant to either man, echoes of that encounter have resonated with Tweedie's descendants to the present day and have formed the basis for a family story about a written correspondence between Darwin and Tweedie. Local information supplied to Darwin by residents such as Tweedie was clearly important and deserves further attention. PMID:23045784

  18. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  19. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  20. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  1. First Record and Larval Habitat Description of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urcola, Juan Ignacio; Fischer, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    Larvae of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus were collected during February-April 2014 in temporary pools in "Bosques de Ezeiza," a large forested park, near Buenos Aires city, Argentina. This is the first record in Buenos Aires Province, extending the distribution of this species 380 km to the south. Regarding habitat use, Cx. (Mel.) pilosus is a generalist, although a slight association of larval abundances with pools of lower pH and higher vegetation cover was observed. The comparison of larval instars of Cx. (Mel.) pilosus with those of other genera suggests a life-history strategy similar to that of floodwater mosquitoes. PMID:26375909

  2. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  3. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  4. Immigration and Educational Inclusion: Preliminary Evidence from Three Schools in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory comparative case study examines three schools in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that have a considerable number of recent immigrant students. The article illustrates how these schools advance ideas of inclusiveness and pluralism through the curriculum and educational opportunities, as mandated by the national education law of…

  5. [Nutritional status of vitamin D in mothers and neonates of Ushuaia and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M B; Mautalen, C A; Alonso, A; Velázquez, H; Trouchot, H A; Porto, R; Martinez, L; Barata, A D

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 25 hydroxyvitamin D (250HD) were measured at the end of the winter in Group 1 (Ushuaia, latitude 55 degrees S): 16 women (24-48 hs postpartum serum blood) and 20 neonates (cord blood) and in Group 2 (Buenos Aires, latitude 34 degrees S) 21 women (24-48 hs postpartum serum blood) and their 21 neonates (cord blood). The neonatal serum calcium and phosphorus were higher and the neonatal serum AP and 250HD level were lower than maternal levels in both groups (Table 1 and 2). Serum levels of 250HD were diminished (< 8 ng/ml) in 62% of the mothers and 81% of the neonates of Ushuaia and in 24% of the mothers and 16% of the neonates of Buenos Aires (figure 1). Neonatal serum 250HD levels correlate with maternal serum 250HD levels in the paired group of Buenos Aires (r = 0.65, p < 0.003) (Figure 2). In Ushuaia the serum 250HD levels (X +/- SD) in neonates (3.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml) and in mothers (6.3 +/- 4.8 ng/ml) were lower than in Buenos Aires (neonates: 11.3 +/- 6.0 ng/ml and mothers: 14.4 +/- 8.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Maternal serum calcium levels were lower in Ushuaia (8.7 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) than in Buenos Aires (9.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 1) In Ushuaia pregnant women and their neonates had a deficient nutritional state of vitamin D. Preventive administration of vitamin D would probably be beneficial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8201913

  6. [Winter serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in Ushuaia and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M B; Ladizesky, M; Somoza, J; Martínez, L; Mautalen, C

    1990-01-01

    Public Health Annals recording diagnosis of nutritional rickets in patients admitted in Public Hospitals disclosed that from birth to age 14, in the period 1980-1981, the incidence was 2.7 higher in the Patagonia (latitude 39 degrees S to 55 degrees S) compared with the Pampeana Region and 8.5 higher than in the rest of the country. After informed parental consent 37 healthy children of Buenos Aires (34 degrees S) with an age of (Av +/- 1 SD) 7.0 +/- 1.2 years, 29 with an age of 13.1 +/- 1.5 years and 63 of Ushuaia (55 degrees S) with an age of 7.1 +/- 0.8 years were studied at the end of winter (August). Serum levels of 25-OH-D were as follows (mean +/- SE): Buenos Aires: 21.1 +/- 2.03 ng/ml (Average: seven years old), 19.0 +/- 1.18 ng/ml (children of thirteen years old) and Ushuaia: 9.3 +/- 0.64 ng/ml (p less than 0.001) (Fig. 2). Serum levels were below 8 ng/ml in 52% of the children in Ushuaia but only in 9% in Buenos Aires. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels were similar in the two groups but serum phosphate was higher in Ushuaia (Table 1). The calcium intake was greater in Ushuaia (811 +/- 49 mg/day) than in Buenos Aires (634 +/- 61 mg/day) and was correlated with 25-OH-D levels in children of Ushuaia (r = 0.50, p less than 0.001) but not in Buenos Aires (r = 0.08). The main source of calcium intake was vitamin D fortified milk. These results disclosed a significantly diminished level of serum 25-OH-D in Ushuaia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2130224

  7. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  8. Use of tree bark for comparing environmental pollution in different sites from Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

    PubMed

    Faggi, Ana Maria; Fujiwara, Fabian; Anido, Carlos; Perelman, Patricia E

    2011-07-01

    Multi-elemental profiles in bark of green ash trees collected in three representative areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were assessed as potential air pollution indicators. Ten elements: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectrometry from 70 samples collected in different environments: central, residential and rural (reference site), in order to compare spatial patterns of metal concentration. The samples used as a control were collected from a nature reserve situated far away from any significant influences, not even a nearby road. The reference site (RF) exhibited the lowest concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, Ba and Mn showed similar concentrations in all measured sites. Magnesium is the only element that had a greater concentration in RF than at the other sites. Copper did not show any clear pattern. The Centre of Montevideo (MVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn than the Centre of Buenos Aires (BA). In the A sectors, Montevideo (SAMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Cu, Mg, Ni, and Zn and lower concentrations of Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pb than Buenos Aires (SABA). In the B sectors, Montevideo (SBMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and lower concentrations of Cr and Mg than Buenos Aires (SBBA), but similar concentrations of Mn and Ni. The use of bark for biomonitoring metals allowed us to detect concentration differences related to the urban fabric and the different kinds of vehicles and their fuels. In the cities, the differences in metal concentrations detected in bark were more striking between the sectors than between centers, despite CBA being much larger than CMVD in population, extension and vehicular traffic. PMID:20844948

  9. [Serological evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus circulation in birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Díaz, Luis A; Konigheim, Brenda; Molina, José; Beaudoin, Juan B; Contigiani, Marta; Spinsanti, Lorena I

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the presence of neutralizing antibodies against St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in sera of wild and domestic birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina. From October 2012 to April 2013, 180 samples were collected and processed by the microneutralization technique. A 7.2% of the sampled birds were seropositive for SLEV, while no seropositive birds for WNV were detected. PMID:26627114

  10. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  11. Serological evidence of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii in humans of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel Leonardo; Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Mamianetti, Andrea; Corin, Marcela Viviana; Linares, María Cielo; De Salvo, María Nazarena; Dohmen, Federico Eugenio Gury

    2015-12-01

    In Buenos Aires city (Argentina), the circulation of these agents has been detected mainly in vectors and animals, few human cases having been described. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of Rickettsia (spotted fever--SFG--and typhus--TG--groups) and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in residents of Buenos Aires city. The study involved 99 participants. Rickettsia IgG antibodies against SFG and TG were detected by IFA in 28.3% and 16.2% of serum samples, respectively. SFG titers were mostly 1/64 (53.6%) with a maximum of 1/512 (3.5%) whereas TG titers ranged between 1/64 (62.5%) and 1/256 (6.3%). Only one sample showed a titer of 1/32 for C. burnetii (phases I and II). The circulation of these pathogens in urban areas such as the city of Buenos Aires should be considered by health services, especially at the primary care level. PMID:26616661

  12. Age-related lung cell response to urban Buenos Aires air particle soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín; Evelson, Pablo; Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Sebastián Yakisich, J; Tasat, Deborah R

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) may alter lung homeostasis inducing changes in fluid balance and host defense. Bioavailability of soluble PM compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury. We have previously characterized the size, shape, and chemical components of urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and their biological impact on lungs. Herein, we evaluate the possible toxic effect of UAP-BA-soluble fraction (UAP-BAsf) on pulmonary cells obtained from young (1-2 months old) and aged (9-12 months old) Wistar rats using phagocytosis, oxidant-antioxidant generation, and apoptosis as endpoints. UAP-BA were collected in downtown BA and residual oil fly ash (ROFA), employed as a positive control, was collected from Boston Edison Co., Mystic Power Plant, Mystic, CT, USA. Both particle-soluble fractions (sf) were employed at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 microg/mL. UAP-BAsf and ROFAsf even at the lowest dose assayed (10 microg/mL) showed in both lung cell populations the ability to stimulate phagocytosis and increase superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation. Both types of air particles caused a marked intracellular oxidant stress in aged pulmonary cells that may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, leading to cell dysfunction. These data suggest that the impact of UAP-BAsf on phagocytosis, oxidant radical generation, and apoptosis is clearly dependent on the maturational state of the animal and might have different mechanisms of action. PMID:18313661

  13. Luminescence dating of glacial advances at Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A. T.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing of past glacial advances in Patagonia is of global climatic importance because of the insight this can provide into the influence on glacier behaviour of changes in temperature and precipitation related to the Southern Westerlies. In this paper we present new luminescence ages determined using single grains of K-feldspar from proglacial outwash sediments that were deposited by the Patagonian Ice Sheet around Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), east of the contemporary Northern Patagonian Icefield. The new luminescence ages indicate that major outwash accumulations formed around ∼110 ± 20 ka to 140 ± 20 ka and that these correspond to the Moreno I and II moraine ridges, which were previously dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to 150 ± 30 ka. Luminescence dating at Lago Buenos Aires has also identified outwash sediments that were deposited during glacial advances ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka and ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3) that are not recorded in the moraine record. Younger outwash accumulations were then deposited between ∼14.7 ± 2.1 and 26.2 ± 1.6 ka which correspond to the Fenix I - V moraine ridges. The combined chronology suggests that glacial advances occurred ∼110 ± 20 ka to 150 ± 30 ka (MIS 6), ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka to ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3), and ∼14.7 ± 2.1 to 26.2 ± 1.6 ka (MIS 2) at Lago Buenos Aires. Overall luminescence dating using single grains of K-feldspar has excellent potential to contribute towards the ever-increasing geochronological dataset constraining the timings of glacial advances in Patagonia.

  14. [Demographic dynamics, migrants from bordering countries and economic activity in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Lattes, A E; Bertoncello, R

    1997-04-01

    The growth and changes--by age, sex, and place of birth--in the structure of the total population of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and of the subpopulation over 15 years of age and economically active are analyzed for the decade of the 1980s. Study of the economic participation of migrants and its possible influence on levels of employment or unemployment should be carried out within the framework of changes in the population's structure and economic participation. The 1981 and 1991 censuses and the Permanent Survey of Households were the sources of data. Immigration to Argentina has declined considerably in recent years, but it is still a factor in the population growth of metropolitan Buenos Aires. Between the 1981 and 1991 censuses, the population aged 15 and over grew by 10.9/1000, or a total of 827,806 people. Migrants from bordering countries increased in number (by 85,109, or 10.3%) and in proportion to the total population (from 3.9% to 4.6%). Migrant women increased at the highest rate (30.1/1000). The greatest growth occurred among men aged 40 and over and among women aged 35 and over. The growth of the economically active population over age 15 for different groups of national origin, sex, and age showed much greater heterogeneity. In 1991, women from bordering countries represented 3.8% of all women in metropolitan Buenos Aires but 5.7% of the total economically active female population and nearly 7% of the economically active female population aged 35 and over. Women from neighboring countries were responsible for 10.3% of the growth in the economically active female population aged 30-34 and 40-44 between 1981 and 1991. The absolute and relative increases in migrants from neighboring countries and their greater economic participation tend to increase the general level of economic activity. PMID:12321684

  15. [Cultural patterns of social alcohol use in Buenos Aires' students (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    The turning into an alcoholic state in a group of youngsters at the Province of Buenos Aires in relation to the alcohol consumption and the ideal patterns of availability are focused in an actual youthful celebration. More than half of the students considered amounts of alcohol that surpass 100 cc of absolute alcohol by person in each encounter and with different type of drinks. It was registered the peer pressure for consumption. It was analyzed the social pattern of the consumption in the youthful celebration as a way of managing a social fitness on the base of altering the field of the emotions with base in the alcohol abuse. PMID:20038983

  16. Unusual localization of an hydatid cyst: first reported case in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm larva of Echinococcus spp. Its relevance lies in its wide distribution, great number of clinical cases and outstanding morbility. Hydatid infection of the orbit comprises far less than 1% of the total incidence. This is a case of a patient from Argentina complaining of a two-week evolution proptosis of the right eye. A microscopic examination revealed the presence of protoscolices of Echinococcus spp. in the fluid obtained during the surgical proceedings. The patient was treated with oral albendazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ocular hydatidosis diagnosed in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:21412595

  17. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Evolution with Lidar in Buenos Aires from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer top height evolution is obtained from 2008 to 2011 in Buenos Aires using the multiwavelength lidar located at CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) (34°33' S; 58°30' W; 17 m asl). Algorithms recognition based on covariance wavelet transform are applied to obtain seasonal statistics. This method is being evaluated for use in the Lidar Network in Argentina and it is being deployed in Patagonia region currently. The technique operates in real time in both low and high aerosol loads and with almost no human supervision.

  18. [Buenos Aires, between Eros and Thanatos. Prostitution as dysgenic threat (1930-1955)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marisa A

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the medical-legal discourse around female prostitution that was articulated in Buenos Aires during the first decades of the 20th century. It focuses on the use of different ideological resources and on the policies and laws that were introduced to gain control over the sex trade and describes parallelisms between prostitution, disease and crime. In fact, the capital of Argentina was internationally known as a centre of prostitution and white slave trafficking, and Jewish participation in these activities allowed the consolidation of xenophobic theories. Medicine and law, among other disciplines, made important inputs into a simplified approach to this problem. PMID:22849217

  19. [Seasonal fluctuation of the Oomycetes in a polluted environment: Santigo River and affluents (Buenos Aires, Argentina).].

    PubMed

    Steciow, M M

    1998-03-01

    Oomycetes are ubiquitous filamentous water molds. They occur as saprotrophs on bits of substrata of both plant and animal origin, principally in fresh water. This paper results from an integral research on the Oomycetous flora of Santiago River and several associated shallow streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Information is provided concerning this polluted habitat and seasonal distribution of the zoosporic fungi. The principal physico-chemical characteristics of the aquatic environmental samples are described: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentration, sulphate concentration, phosphate concentration and heavy metals. PMID:17655404

  20. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Gallardo, Anabella; González-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés

    2009-06-01

    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infestation levels of head lice in elementary schools from Buenos Aires with resistant levels to permethrin >100. A total of 1,856 children aged 3-13 years old from eight selected elementary schools were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was observed in all the studied schools. The overall infestation rate was 29.7%. Girls were statistically significant more infested than boys, with infestation rate values of 36.1% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 42 of the infested girls (12%) and 23 of the infested boys (11.4%) had >10 lice on their hair. The proportions of infested children-both girls and boys-in each age group were not found to differ significantly from one another. The infestation rate among schools varied from 19.12% to 42.74%. This indicated that pediculosis is relatively common in elementary schools from Buenos Aires, and those levels are of epidemic importance. The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice. PMID:19148682

  1. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution. PMID:21460074

  2. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  3. Decentralization and Structural Change in Secondary Education in Argentina: The Case of the Province of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.; Senen-Gonzalez, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, Argentina created and implemented a compulsory lower-secondary education level, within an ambitious educational reform programme. This article addresses the reform at the national level, diverse provincial responses, and the particular way that the powerful province of Buenos Aires appropriated the structural change. The…

  4. [Nineteenth-century church records for Buenos Aires. The microfilms and their possible uses in socio-demographic studies].

    PubMed

    Siegrist De Gentile, N L

    1993-04-01

    The author explores the history, quality, and availability of Catholic parish registers in Latin America in general. She then describes records for Buenos Aires, Argentina, as preserved on microfilm by the Genealogical Society of Utah. A list of the microfilms by register year, locality, church name, and year of filming is included. PMID:12344971

  5. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  6. "Zafar," So Good: Middle-Class Students, School Habitus and Secondary Schooling in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how students from the "loser" sections of the middle class dealt with the game of secondary schooling in a "good" state school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It engages with Bourdieu's theory of social practice and, in particular, with its concepts of game, habitus and cultural capital. It argues that middle-class…

  7. Antimony: a traffic-related element in the atmosphere of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Darío R; Fernanda Giné, María; Claudia Sánchez Bellato, Ana; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    Vehicular traffic is one of the main sources of antimony in highly populated urban areas like Buenos Aires where an overall traffic density of 1 500 000 vehicles per day (corresponding to 7500 vehicles km(-2)) is estimated. In this context, a study was undertaken to ascertain the levels of Sb and other traffic-related elements (TRE) in the atmosphere of this city. To this end, sixty-seven samples of PM-10 particulate matter were collected during eight days in nine representative sampling sites located downtown Buenos Aires and spread over an area of about 30 km2. The collection of particulate matter was performed on ash-free glass-fibre filters using high volume samplers with PM-10 sampling heads. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. The resulting solutions were evaporated and then diluted with 0.1 mol l(-1) HCl. Antimony was determined by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) at ng g(-1) levels. Concentrations of Sb varied from 12.9 +/- 0.9 to 375 +/- 23 microg g(-1)(equivalent to 0.87 +/- 0.06 to 15.3 +/- 0.8 ng m(-3)). Statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured PM-10 mass and Sb concentrations for the monitored period. Correlations of Sb with other TRE namely, Cu and Mo were also assessed. The highest concentrations of Sb were detected at two sites (Hospital Alemán and Casa Rapallini) located in streets with traffic consisting mostly of passenger cars and showing a "stop-and-go" pattern in peak hours. Antimony levels in the Buenos Aires PM-10 are by far below the level of 0.5 mg m(-3)(for an 8 hour workday, 40 hour work week) set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for occupational exposure. However, monitoring of Sb and other TRE should be carried out in a systematic fashion to detect the possibility of increases in from the present levels. PMID:16307067

  8. [Historical notes on Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the oldest in Latin America. It is over 100 years old and has a history worthy of pride. It became known as "Hospital of the pests" and was preceded by the old House of Insulation, which served as a quarantine station during epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox. The new House of Insulation, built in the neighborhood of Parque Patricios ("Barracks Hospital"), was renamed in 1904 in memory of Francisco Javier Muñiz, a former military doctor, naturalist and paleontologist. Its technical name is "Porteño Care Centre and National Reference Regional Infectious-Contagious Disease". It receives numerous national and foreign undergraduate and postgraduate students in its Departments of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Diseases. PMID:23096553

  9. [Drug use and crime: the data from Buenos Aires province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    The data of the epidemiologic soundings performed by the Undersecretary's Addictions Attention Office of the Ministry of Health at the Province of Buenos Aires were examined. Consumption of marijuana, cocaine and base paste have associations with behaviors of risk also associated to violence and delinquency. Drug and robbery were connected with the usual consumers of marijuana in 53.4%, of those of cocaine in 42.7% and in 26.9% of those consumers of base paste. High social permissiveness towards alcohol abuse that reaches more than half of the adolescents, as well as the impact in the emergency ward related to the use of substances and violence, were considered as risk factors. PMID:19434299

  10. [Emergency consultations for abuse of psychoactive substances in Buenos Aires hospitals].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Grimson, R W

    1989-10-01

    Emergency consultations connected with psychoactive substance abuse may reflect the particular nature and the magnitude of this problem in a community. A survey of three Buenos Aires hospitals revealed that 5% of all the cases attended during a single week were related to the consumption of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, or psychoactive drugs, either separately or in combination. Lack of formal education, unemployment, and marital separation were important factors in substance abuse by males (especially in the case of alcohol abuse among older men and the abuse of psychoactive and illegal drugs among the young), while women tended to take overdoses of psychoactive drugs in times of personal crisis. Cultural tolerance of alcoholism and the availability of psychoactive drugs emerged as problems requiring specific study. The research method generated reliable data and could be used to obtain epidemiological information to support the necessary control measures. PMID:2532900

  11. First record of Sarcoramphus Dumeril 1806 (Ciconiiformes: Vulturidae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Jorge I.; Areta, Juan I.

    2005-10-01

    The finding of an incomplete specimen of Sarcoramphus papa (Linné 1758), commonly known as the King Vulture, from the locality of Camet Norte (Buenos Aires province) in Argentina is reported. The bearing level is referred to the Late Pleistocene Santa Clara Formation (Late Lujanian). Sarcoramphus papa is actually a dweller of undisturbed areas of tropical rainforest and humid tropical and subtropical forests in Central and South America, ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is rarely found in large open areas such as steppes and grasslands and/or habitats with extremely low temperatures in winter. The fossiliferous locality is located geographically more than 700 km south of the species' southern distributional limit and thus far away from suitable habitats for its survival. This fossil record contradicts previous paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the same place and time, suggesting a mixed community with some arboreal structures capable of holding this taxon.

  12. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  13. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  14. HIV status disclosure among infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men were recruited in Buenos Aires using respondent driven sampling. Of them, 46 respondents (24 of them not gay identified) who were HIV infected were asked questions on serodisclosure. The sample was characterized by indicators of low socioeconomic status. Most of the respondents reported being in good to excellent health despite 42% of them having been diagnosed with AIDS. Only 10% of respondents had not disclosed their serostatus to at least one person. Coworkers and lovers or main sexual partners were those most likely to know the respondents' serostatus. Reactions to disclosure were for the most part supportive. Those who had not disclosed anticipated less favorable reactions than those who had disclosed. No significant differences were observed between gay and non-gay identified respondents. The progressive social environment of Argentina that includes federal laws recognizing gay marriage may contribute to create a climate favorable for serostatus disclosure. PMID:24245593

  15. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs. PMID:27247680

  16. Population data for DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 loci from Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Noseda, Pablo A; Kenline, Jaclyn; Manning, Samantha; Gangitano, David A

    2013-07-01

    The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 were analysed in a population sample from Buenos Aires (Argentina) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex approach with fluorescent detection. We present allele frequencies for these loci in a population comprising 113 women and 99 men. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested in the female sample and no significant deviations were observed. The homogeneity of allele frequencies of men and women was compared by the Fisher's exact test and showed similar distributions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests were performed in males for all pairs of loci and no significant associations were detected. Parameters of forensic interest were also estimated. PMID:23756526

  17. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  18. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  19. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs. PMID:27247680

  20. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  1. [Decentralization and equity: public health expenditure in the municipalities of the Province of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Lago, Fernando Pablo; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Elorza, María Eugenia; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the degree of equity in access to the public health care system in the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). Through a quantitative retrospective study, we analyze the inequalities in the distribution of the total public health expenditure per capita. This variable is used as a proxy for the ability of the inhabitants of each jurisdiction to access health care services. The results indicate the existence of large disparities in the levels of expenditure devoted to the population without health coverage. Moreover, the existence of greater health care needs (estimated using infant mortality rates and percentage of homes with basic needs unmet) does not translate into higher levels of public expenditure. Finally, we detect a positive association between the relative wealth of municipalities (measured by the gross geographic product per capita) and the public health expenditure per capita. PMID:23681459

  2. Monitoring Aerosol Optical Properties in the ABL, Using Lidar System and Sunphotometer in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, J.; Pawelko, E.; Otero, L.; Ristori, P.; D'Elia, R.; Gonzalez, F.; Dworniczak, J.; Vilar, O.; Quel, E.

    2009-03-01

    At the Lasers and Applications Research Center (CEILAP, CITEFA-CONICET, (34°33' S, 58°30' W), located in an industrial suburb of the metropolitan area (Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina), operates a multiwavelength lidar, based on a Nd:Yag laser (Continuum Surelite III P-IV). This system emits in 1064, 532 and 355 nm simultaneously (10 Hz, 600 mJ @ 1064 nm) and allows the monitoring of the optical aerosols properties in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). On the same experimental site, an AERONET sunphotometer provides the AOT value. An analysis of boundary layer behaviour in some relevant days of March, from the years 2004 to 2006 is presented. On the days analyzed, no aerosols events and clouds were registered over the ABL. Evolutions of some characteristics of the ABL are presented, such as the height of the boundary layer, height of entrainment zone (EZ) and the entrainment flux ratio.

  3. Physicochemical parameters and sensory properties of honeys from Buenos Aires region.

    PubMed

    Silvano, María F; Varela, María S; Palacio, María A; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Yamul, Diego K

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical parameters (moisture, hydroxymethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity, free acidity, glucose, fructose and sucrose) and the sensory properties(aroma, taste, appeareance, texture) were determined in honeys from apiaries of the agricultural, hills and meadow zones of the south east region of Buenos Aires province (Argentina). The analysis of variance showed significant differences among zones in the mean value of hydroximethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity and sucrose content. The principal component analysis explained the 70% of the variance among samples with the first two principal components in both cases. The cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis showed that samples were grouped in relation to the sampling region coinciding with the results of the principal component analysis. Results suggest that could be possible to classify honeys according to the geographic origin based on the physicochemical parameters; however, the sensory properties were not good predictors. PMID:24444967

  4. HIV testing practices among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, nongay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less-affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among nongay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314

  5. Monitoring trace metals in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires city. Determination by plasma-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gómez, Dario R; Dawidowski, Laura E; Giné, María Fernanda; Bellato, Ana Claudia Sánchez; Reich, Silvia L

    2004-04-01

    A study was undertaken, within the framework of a 3 years national project, to assess the content of 13 elements in airborne particulate matter collected in representative zones of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The sampling strategy followed consisted in collecting simultaneously 67 samples of PM10 particulate matter in 9 sampling sites covering an area of about 30 km2 during one week. The collection was performed on ash-free fibre-glass filters using high volume samplers. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. Key elements, namely Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Zn and Zr, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at micro g g(-1) and ng g(-1) levels. Analyte concentration varied from 130 ng g(-1)(Mo) to over 30%(Ca). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured elemental compositions for the monitored period. The atmospheric concentration found for Pb confirms the decreasing levels of this element since the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1995: 88 ng m(-3)(2001) < 220 ng m(-3)(1997) < 3900 ng m(-3)(1994). The average S concentration above 3 microg m(-3) is somehow unexpectedly high for Buenos Aires since the relatively low S content of liquid fuels and the massive usage of natural gas imply low emissions of this element from combustion activities. To the best of our knowledge, S concentrations are reported for the first time for this city. PMID:15054536

  6. HIV Testing Practices among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C.; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A.; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, non-gay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among non-gay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314

  7. Dengue Virus 1 in Buenos Aires from 1999 to 2010: Towards Local Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tittarelli, Estefanía; Mistchenko, Alicia S.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health problem representing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. In Argentina, Northern provinces have reported autochthonous cases since 1997, though these outbreaks have originated in bordering countries, where co-circulation of more than one serotype has been reported. In the last decade, imported dengue cases have been reported in Buenos Aires, the urban area of Argentina with the highest population density. In 2009, a dengue outbreak affected Buenos Aires and, for the first time, local transmission was detected. All cases of this outbreak were caused by DENV-1. In this report, we present the full-length sequences of 27 DENV-1 isolates, corresponding to imported cases of 1999–2000, as well as local and imported cases of the 2009 and 2010 outbreaks. We analyzed their phylogenetic and phylodynamic relationships and their global and local spread. Additionally, we characterized their genomic and phenotypic features. All cases belonged to DENV-1 genotype V. The most recent ancestor for this genotype was dated ∼1934, whereas that for the 2009 outbreak was dated ∼2007. The mean rates of nucleotide substitution were 4.98E-4 and 8.53E-4 subs./site/yr, respectively. We inferred an introduction from Paraguay in 1999–2000 and mainly from Venezuela during 2009–2010. Overall, the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site significantly exceeded the number of non-synonymous substitutions per site and 12 positively selected sites were detected. These analyses could contribute to a better understanding regarding spread and evolution of this pathogen in the Southern Cone of South America. PMID:25343372

  8. [Air contamination in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires: the current risk or future climate change, a false option].

    PubMed

    Abrutzky, Rosana; Dawidowski, Laura; Murgida, Ana; Natenzon, Claudia Eleonor

    2014-09-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of environmental risk, this article discusses the management of air quality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in relation to current and potential impacts of toxic gases and global climate change on the health of the population. Information on historical and current management of the air was linked to the results of the South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate research project to assess danger, exposure, vulnerability and uncertainty as the dimensions of risk. By contextualizing public policies developed in recent decades on this subject, it was possible to identify emerging configurations of risk and uncertainties as accelerators of social vulnerability. On the one hand, the fact that there is a positive correlation between mortality, changes in temperature and air pollution was confirmed. On the other hand, it became clear that there is a disconnect between air quality management and health care management, while limitations were found in the proposed mitigation measures relating to emissions of greenhouse gases produced by fuel, revealing uncertainties regarding their efficacy. PMID:25184582

  9. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  10. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  11. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996. PMID:12321683

  12. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and domestic dogs, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; Rodríguez Eugui, Juan I; Lebrero, Cecilia González; De Salvo, María N; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gury Dohmen, Federico E; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are emerging diseases that are mainly transmitted by arthropods and that affect humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize those pathogens in dogs and ticks from Buenos Aires city. We studied 207 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 52 canine blood samples from poor neighborhoods of Buenos Aires city. The samples were molecularly screened for the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae (3.4%) and Anaplasma platys (13.5%) was detected in ticks and blood samples, respectively. For characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (spotted fever group rickettsiae) and a fragment of the groESL gene (specific for A. platys). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Buenos Aires city and portray the potentially high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents, especially in poor neighborhoods, where there is close contact with animals in an environment of poor health conditions. PMID:24907186

  13. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate. PMID:26222020

  14. The HIV/AIDS epidemic and changes in injecting drug use in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Pawlowicz, María Pía; Rangugni, Victoria; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Vila, Marcelo; Touzé, Graciela

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the changes in injecting drug use from 1998 to 2003 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Rapid Situation Assessment and Response methodology was used to obtain the information. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were triangulated: 140 current IDUs and 35 sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) were surveyed; 17 in-depth interviews with the surveyed IDUs and 2 focus groups were held, as well as ethnographic observations. The way in which risk and care practices among injecting drug users changed and the influence of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on this process are described. In recent years, the frequency of injection practices and sharing of injecting equipment has decreased, while injecting drug use is a more hidden practice in a context of increasing impact of the disease in the injecting drug use social networks and changes in the price and quality of drugs. Knowledge about these changes helps build harm reduction activities oriented to IDUs in their particular social context. PMID:16612428

  15. [Neurocysticercosis in a hospital of the city of Buenos Aires: study of 11 cases].

    PubMed

    Villa, A M; Monteverde, D A; Rodriguez, W; Boero, A; Sica, R E

    1993-09-01

    Eleven patients with diagnosis of possible neurocistycercosis were studied in our Department since 1986. All of them were adults. Eight were Bolivian citizens. The commonest neurological clinical manifestation were seizures and/or headache. Brain CT scans showed cystic lesions and calcifications in 5 patients, only calcifications in 3, enlarged ventricles in 2 and an isolated frontal cystic lesion in 1. Six out of 7 patients who were submitted to spinal fluid ELISA test showed positive response for cysticercosis. Patients were put on praziquantel (50 mg/Kg/d) or albendazol (15 mg/Kg/d) with good outcome for all them. Surgery was carried on for treatment of enlarged ventricles (2 patients) and for a like-expansive lesion (1 patient). The aim of this work is to underscore the fact that in Buenos Aires city, which previously was not within the endemic latin american area for cysticercosis, is now possible to find patients with the neurological manifestations of this parasitosis, most probably due to migration of people coming from the north provinces or from countries situated at its border where the disease is endemic. PMID:8297236

  16. Endoparasitic infections in dogs from rural areas in the Lobos District, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, Marcela Cecilia; Lavallén, Carla Mariela; Bongiovanni, Roberto; Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Elissondo, Celina; Yannarella, Francisco; Denegri, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are definite hosts for several zoonotic helminthes and protozoan. Rural areas from the Lobos District in the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are mainly used for livestock activity, increasing in this way the number of dogs on farms as well as the human risk of parasitic infections. The aims of this research were to evaluate the endoparasitic infections in dogs from farms in the Lobos District and analyze their zoonotic importance as well as several risk practices and habits of the rural population. Forty-two dog fecal samples obtained in 21 farms were analyzed through coproparasitological methods and coproantigen tests, which resulted in an overall parasite prevalence of 69.05% and 80.95% of the parasitized farms. The most frequent parasites were Trichuris vulpis and Eucoleus aerophila (26.19%), Echinococcus granulosus (19.05%), Uncinaria stenocephala and coccids (14.29%). The analysis of epidemiological files showed several habits of the rural population considered as risk factors associated with the presence of fecal samples parasitized and the presence of E. granulosus on the farms. It is clear that people involved with the farms studied were exposed to several helminthes that could cause serious diseases like cystic echinococcosis, which can become an important public health issue and affect the economy worldwide. PMID:23538502

  17. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  18. [Landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Rojas, M C; Vázquez, P M; Verdier, M; Noseda, R

    2011-12-01

    The authors studied the landscape components that favour the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. As variables for study, they differentiated areas that are flooded for 20% of the time or more from primary and secondary runoff channels. They also identified areas with low-productivity pasture. Logistic regression analysis of farm populations revealed that landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks are shared runoff channels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; confidence interval (CI) = 1.2; 4.7) and > or = 40% low-productivity pasture (OR = 5.4; CI = 3.5; 8.3). Contrary to initial assumptions, susceptibility to flooding was not a significant variable (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.5; 2.1). The authors concluded that the first step in decision-making and ensuring more efficient implementation of future anthrax control and eradication plans was to identify risk variables. PMID:22435200

  19. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context. PMID:25555005

  20. Pediatric hydatidosis in the south-east of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, M C; Elissondo, M C; Andresiuk, M V; Maiorini, E; Gutiérrez, A M; Muzulin, P M; Rosenzvit, M C; Lavallén, C M; Denegri, G

    2009-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis produced by the metacestode Echinococcus spp. The aims of this research are: to contribute to the knowledge of pediatric hydatidosis in the south-east of Buenos Aires province, to study its evolution from 1993 to 2002 at the Regional Maternity and Pediatric Hospital "Dr. Victorio Tetamanti", to determine the strains involved and to discuss the importance of the disease. The clinical records of diagnosed and/or operated patients were reviewed with regard to the hydatid disease. The strain was determined by using PCRs with Eg1 121a/122a primers. Forty-four cases were analyzed. Fifty nine point one per cent of the patients were boys. The mean age was 8 SD=3.8 years. Sixty one point four per cent had urban residence. Ultrasonography was used in 61% of the cases. The hepatic location was most frequently seen and the liver/lung ratio was 1.25. Ninety point nine per cent of patients received surgical treatment. Albendazole was used in 52% of cases. The average hospitalization time was 11 days. The G1/G2 strain group was determined. This report is the first one of its kind in the studied region. The permanence of hydatidosis in the region depends on the natural transmission of the parasite in the absence of control and prevention measures. The health authorities should implement strategies of prevention and control in the study area. PMID:19623901

  1. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. PMID:25444128

  2. Infection levels of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta in rat populations from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hancke, D; Suárez, O V

    2016-03-01

    Ecological studies on zoonotic parasites are crucial for the design and implementation of effective measures to prevent parasite transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors such as season, landscape unit, rat sex and rat body length, affecting the abundance of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta, a parasite of synanthropic rats, within an urban environment. A parasitological survey was undertaken on 169 rats from landscape units such as shantytowns, parklands, industrial-residential areas and scrap-metal yards in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 21.3%, although the occurrence of this species in rats was not homogeneous. The abundance of H. diminuta, using a zero-inflated negative binomial model, was correlated with rat body length. In shantytowns, abundance levels were higher than other landscape units, largely due to differences in individual environmental characteristics and rat assemblages. The populations of arthropod intermediate hosts could be subjected to seasonal fluctuations and the degree of urbanization. Shantytowns are overcrowded urban marginal settlements with most inhabitants living in precarious conditions and supporting large populations of rats, thereby increasing the risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:25869333

  3. Ecotoxicological and genotoxic evaluation of Buenos Aires city (Argentina) hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Juárez, Angela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  4. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  5. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  6. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia; Barrado, Andrés; Janjetic, Mariana; Balcarce, Norma; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; Oshiro, Masaru; Calcagno, María L; Sarrasague, Margarita Martinez; Fuda, Julián; Weill, Ricardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Boccio, José

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity. METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroente-rology Unit of the Children Hospital “Sor Maria Ludovica” were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population. RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in this population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03) and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori. PMID:16981273

  7. Sea level oscillations in coastal waters of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, W. C.; Mazio, C. A.; Nuñez, M. N.

    2002-03-01

    Sea level oscillations, with periods ranging from a few minutes to almost 2 h, have been observed at various tide stations located on the coast of Buenos Aires. Simultaneous records of sea level elevation measured in Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata during 1982 have been spectrally analyzed. Significant spectral energy has been detected between 0.85 and 4.69 cycles per hour (cph) and the most energetic peaks have frequencies between 1.17 and 1.49 cph. Spectra, coherence, and phase difference have been analyzed for the most energetic event of the year. During that event, the most intensive spectral peak is at 1.17 cph for Mar de Ajó and Pinamar, and at 1.49 cph for Mar del Plata. Simultaneous total energy peaks at Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata, and the coherence function estimated between Mar de Ajó and Pinamar suggests that sea level oscillations could be a regional phenomenon. The analyzed data suggest that sea level oscillations could be forced by atmospheric gravity waves associated with frontal passages.

  8. [Sanitary conditions of community dining halls in greater Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Arango, J; Agostini, A; Silvestre, A; Yaafar, M; López, C; Fishmann, H

    1997-10-01

    Because of the importance of food safety for public health, a study was done to determine the microbiologic quality of foods provided to patrons of community dining halls in greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study was descriptive and was conducted in three municipalities with intermediate or high poverty indices; a sample of 52 dining halls was selected randomly from those municipalities. Information was collected from April 1994 through April 1995 by means of surveys, direct observations, and microbiologic analyses of the water and food served. Water and food analysis followed the recommendations of the Argentine Food Code and the International Commission on Microbiologic Specifications for Foods, respectively. The results were interpreted according to the values for cooked foods agreed upon by the Working Group on Food Monitoring. The microbiologic analysis revealed that 28 (54%) of the dining halls had food or water of inadequate quality and 11 (21%) had inadequacies in both. Bacillus cereus was the most commonly found pathogenic bacterium in the food samples analyzed. The factors that were significantly associated with unsatisfactory microbiologic conditions in the food and water were lack of disinfection of the water (P = 0.009), lack of hygiene in the environment (P = 0.03), the presence of rodents and insects (P = 0.05), the supply system for raw materials (P = 0.01), and a relatively small number of users, i.e., fewer than 100 (P = 0.0008). It was concluded that water disinfection and general clean-up of the dining halls were measures that could be put in place by providing education in the areas of hygiene and food handling to supervisors and employees. The results obtained also indicate the need to include a food safety evaluation among the general evaluation criteria for food assistance programs. PMID:9445768

  9. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  10. Magnetic Characterization of Stream-Sediments From Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, Affected by Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.; Bidegain, J. C.; Gogorza, C. S.; Jurado, S.

    2001-12-01

    A wide urban area from Northeast of Buenos Aires Province is exposed to an important anthropogenic influence, mainly due to industrial activity. In this two water streams were chosen: one of them (Del Gato stream, G) next to La Plata City and the another one (El Pescado stream, P) on the outskirts of the city. Both streams have similar characteristics, although the first one (G) has a higher input of pollutants (fluvial effluents, fly ashes, solid wastes, etc.) than the last one (P). Sediments analyzed in this work are limes from continental origin of PostPampeano (Holocene). Although, some cores were affected by sandy-limy sediments with mollusc valves from Querandino Sea (Pleistocene - later Holocene) and limy sediments of chestnut color with calcareous concretions from the Ensenadense. Magnetic measurements and geochemical studies were carried out on the samples. Among the magnetic parameters, specific susceptibility (X), X frequency-dependence (Xfd%), X temperature-dependence, Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), Saturation IRM (SIRM), coercivity of remanence (Bcr), S ratio and SIRM/X ratio, Anhysteric Remanent Magnetization (ARM), Magnetic and Thermal Demagnetization were studied. The magnetic characteristics for both sites indicate the predominance of magnetically soft minerals on G site and relatively hard minerals on P site. Magnetite is the main magnetic carrier, Pseudo Single Domain and Single Domain grains were found. Chemical studies show (in some cases) a high concentration for some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) on the upper 22-cm. Contents of heavy metals and ARM were correlated. Very good correlation (R> 0.81) is found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and the sum (of Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni), and a weaker correlation for Pb.

  11. ['Fueguinos', Robert Lehmann-Nitsche, and the study of the Ona at the Buenos Aires National Exhibit (1898)].

    PubMed

    Ballestero, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    Among the first projects of German anthropologist Robert Lehmann-Nitsche as head of the Museum de La Plata's Department of Anthropology in Argentina was his research on the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, deemed evolutionary 'relics' of humanity. The article explores the role of shows and exhibits as spaces where science was popularized and where late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century scholars could do field work. The focus is on the presentation of 'fueguinos' at European shows and exhibits, debates, and studies, especially the work of Robert Lehmann-Nitsche at the National Exhibit of Argentinean Industry, held in Buenos Aires, 1898. PMID:22012098

  12. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  13. "We talk of AIDS because we love life": a stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS organizations in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R

    This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines. PMID:18573753

  14. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested. PMID:26914081

  15. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  16. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  17. Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziugis, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

  18. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  19. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  20. The Moral Dimension of Class and Gender Identity-Making: Poverty and Aggression in a Secondary School in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some results of a qualitative study carried out in a secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It examines how two students from poor families responded to, and viewed, aggression by peers at their school. This paper argues that the examination of students' narratives about aggression (based on classism and…

  1. Prosodic Transfer in Learner and Contact Varieties: Speech Rhythm and Intonation of Buenos Aires Spanish and L2 Castilian Spanish Produced by Italian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Christoph; Kireva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable example of Spanish-Italian contact is the Spanish variety spoken in Buenos Aires (Porteño), which is said to be prosodically "Italianized" due to migration-induced contact. The change in Porteño prosody has been interpreted as a result of transfer from the first language (L1) that occurred when Italian immigrants learned…

  2. Insights into Pleistocene palaeoenvironments and biostratigraphy in southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from continental deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Soibelzon, L. H.; Soibelzon, E.

    2015-07-01

    The coastal cliffs of the Buenos Aires province (Argentina) have been the subject of intense paleontological studies since the XIX century. Therefore, many of the type localities in which is based the late Cenozoic Pampean biostratigraphic/chronostratigraphic scheme are located in this area. In this context, the sedimentites that crop out near the mouth of the Chocorí Creek contain a set of palaeontological sites that, because of their richness and well-preserved fossil content, hold high national and international importance. The aims of the present contribution are: 1) to make a stratigraphic and sedimentological characterization of the study area; 2) to list the fauna outcropped at these palaeontological sites and establish a biostratigraphic framework; 3) to elaborate a palaeoenvironmental model for the area. The study interval was informally subdivided into a lower, middle and upper interval. Interpretation was based on the presence of a number of key features such as architectural elements; channel:overbank ratio and palaeosol occurrence. The first two intervals were interpreted as continental deposits of a fluvio-alluvial nature and are the focus of this paper. The upper interval was related to foreshore marine deposits and will be studied in a future contribution. The lower interval is characterized mainly by overbank architectural elements in which calcisols and argillic protosols were identified. Channel-fill deposits are isolated and surrounded by fine-grained overbank successions and sedimentary structures are suggestive of mixed-load transport. The contact between the lower and middle intervals is an irregular, highly erosive surface characterized by a significant vertical change in the facies. This surface defines the base of multistorey sandbodies which's internal arrangement alongside with the low participation of overbank deposits suggests deposition by a braided fluvial system. Palaeosols and vertebrate fossils were used as palaeoclimatic

  3. Late Quaternary marginal marine deposits and palaeoenvironments from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. L.; Whatley, R. C.

    The late Quaternary marginal marine deposits along eastern Argentina (Southwestern Atlantic) are reviewed according to our present knowledge. In the northeastern coastal area of Buenos Aires Province they have been assigned to a series of transgressions and regressions ranging from the late Pliocene to the late Quaternary. The most widely accepted model is Frenguelli's (1957) classical chronostratigraphical scheme of: 'Belgranense', late Pleistocene marine sediments at 3-6 m above m.s.l. and ca. 26,000->35,000 14C years BP, the 'Querandinense', Pleistocene-Holocene estuarine sediments below or at present m.s.l., and the most extensive 'Platense', mid-Holocene marine deposits at 4.5-2 m above m.s.l. dated at ca. 8000-1340 14C years BP. The restricted 'Belgranense' deposits, recorded in Samborombon Bay, in Magdalena at ca. 32,000 BP, near Mar Chiquita at ca. 24,900 and 30,500 BP and southwards in Bahía Blanca at ca. 26,000-35,500 BP, may belong to an interstadial (González et al., 1986). The molluscan composition suggests a marine invasion of the area but not a typical interglacial cycle characterized by euhaline and warm water elements. However, the oxygen isotope record argues against an interstadial during the interval 34-27 ka and the chronological control for these deposits is very poor, suggesting that they most probably have been elevated neotectonically. The Pleistocene-Holocene 'Querandinense' deposits, extensively distributed along the Bonaerensian coastal plain and continental shelf (ca. 11,000 14C years BP), with very low faunal diversity, abundance of freshwater ostracods and absence of the warm water molluscs characteristic of the Holocene ridges, indicate low salinity and cool water conditions. Further dating and isotope analysis of these deposits are required for a better understanding of the chronology of climatic events by the end of the Pleistocene in this area and to establish whether or not they could correspond to the Younger Dryas event of

  4. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  5. Three new species and one new record of Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) from Argentine coasts (Buenos Aires and Santa Cruz, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Villares, Gabriela; Martelli, Antonela; Russo, Virginia Lo; Pastor, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Two new Campylaimus species from Arroyo Pareja, Buenos Aires province and one new species and one new record of Campylaimus from Puerto San Julián, Chubut province are described. The three species are characterized by the shape of the copulatory apparatus of the male and the presence of precloacal papillae. Campylaimus bonariensis sp. nov. has slender and arcuate spicules, with well-developed cephalization at the proximal end, tubular gubernaculum and three precloacal papillae; Campylaimus arcuatus sp. nov. has curved spicules, with well-developed cephalization at the proximal end, gubernaculum with dorso-caudally directed apophysis and five precloacal papillae; Campylaimus patagonicus sp. nov. has slender and arcuate spicules without proximal cephalization, gubernaculum with dorso-caudally directed apophysis and two precloacal papillae. An emended diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus and an identification key to species based on male characters are given. PMID:24698903

  6. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11-12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  7. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments. PMID:26625926

  8. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  9. ["I was like a ticking bomb": Experiences of severe maternal morbidity in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Szulik, Dalia; Szwarc, Lucila

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of recording and analyzing women's experiences with severe maternal morbidity from their perspective, between February and May 2011, 16 semi-structured interviews with women treated in the public hospitals of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area who suffered from severe maternal morbidity were carried out. In their testimonies, women report a number of delays in care, such as difficulties in identifying the problem on time, obstacles in accessing health centers and important faults in the management of obstetric emergencies. They describe the event as surprising, distressing and painful, a perception reinforced by the violation of their rights and significant communication problems. These findings are meant as a step towards the holistic and comprehensive study of severe maternal morbidity, as well as to confirm the urgent need for further research from a gender and humans rights perspective. PMID:26676597

  10. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  11. [Correlation between results of the residency admission test and of pediatric certification test in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Hamui, Magali; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando A; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the city of Buenos Aires (CABA), pediatric residents enter the residency program after taking a unified admission test. After completion of the program and passing a final test, the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) provides a professional certification. The objective of this study is to determine if the results obtained in the residency admission test (RAT) and those of the professional certification test (PCT) correlated. This is a cross-sectional study, that included all subjects who passed the pediatrics RAT in CABA in 2004-2009, and that attended the pediatric PCT of the UBA. The score for each subject in both tests was obtained and the corresponding correlation was calculated. Results were divided in quintiles, and the proportion of subjects who improved their position in the PCT with respect to the RAT was calculated. Data from 303 subjects was obtained. The RAT showed a median of 45.0 (over 60 maximum) (IC-range: 43.0-48.7), and the PCT showed a median of 6 points (over 10 max.)(IC-range: 6-8). A significative correlation between results in RAT and PCT was observed (r = 0.37, p < 0.001). Based on their position in the RAT, 43.8% of subjects improved their position in the PCT, without differences between residents attending pediatric and general hospitals (45.6 vs. 31.5%; p = 0.1). In the case of pediatric residents, results of the residency admission test correlate with those obtained in the professional certification test. PMID:27295703

  12. High rates of serum Se deficiency among HIV and HCV infected and uninfected drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Heidi B; Benetucci, Jorge; Muzzio, Estela; Redini, Liliana; Naveira, Jorge; Segura, Marcela; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Tang, Alice M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of low serum Se and determine whether HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or types of drugs used are associated with serum Se in a cohort of infected and uninfected drug users. Design Independent correlates of low serum Se levels based on data collected from food recalls, physical exams, and clinical status questionnaires were identified using multivariate analysis. Setting Buenos Aires, Argentina Subjects A total of 205 (25 females and 180 males) former and current drug users Results Drug users had an average serum Se level of 69.8±32.8 μg/dl, and 82% were considered deficient (< 85μg/l). Multivariate analyses found that HIV and/or HCV infection had lower mean Se compared to healthy, uninfected drug users (HIV/HCV co-infection: −25.3 μg/l (SE =7.6, p=0.001); HIV alone: −28.9 μg/l (SE=6.9, p<0.001); HCV alone −19.4 μg/l (SE = 7.1, p=0.006). Current and previous drug use was associated with higher serum Se. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with Se status. Conclusions Low serum Se levels are highly prevalent among drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se supplementation and/or dietary interventions may be warranted in drug users who are at high risk of HIV and/or HCV infection. PMID:21740621

  13. Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Pierangeli, Nora; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In Argentina, hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is widespread. The south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is one of the three regions where hydatidosis is endemic. Although domestic dogs and sheep are considered to be the main hosts for E. granulosus, the potential role of wildlife in the local transmission of E. granulosus has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the hydatidosis/echinococcosis prevalence in European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), two abundant species with a strong predator-prey relationship in rural areas of Buenos Aires province using different diagnostic tests. A total of 61 fox intestines were examined, finding that 52 (85.2%) harbored at least one helminth species. However, no adult or immature form of Echinococcus sp. was found in the intestinal contents. Coproparasitological analysis and Copro-ELISA followed by Copro-PCR were used as supplementary diagnostic tests. Only one (1.7%) of 59 fecal samples was positive to Taeniidae eggs by coproparasitological analysis, but this same sample was negative by the Copro-ELISA test. The analysis by Copro-ELISA showed 6 of 57 (10.6%) positive samples, but the Copro-PCR tests carried out on these samples were negative to E. granulosus. A total of 6,808 lungs, 3,576 livers, and 3,542 hearts of hunted hares were examined and palpated, but no structure resembling hydatid cysts were detected. Our results suggest that hares and Pampas foxes are not currently important wild reservoirs of E. granulosus in the studied area. PMID:23892482

  14. Assessment of the possible drought impact on farm production in the SE of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Tomas; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio

    The extended drought situation in the southeast of Buenos Aires during the second half of year 2000 caused the government to invoke emergency laws. This action allowed farmers in the area to receive waivers for taxes and loans. The emergency laws remained in force during 2001, without further verification of environmental conditions for agriculture. Developing an assessment of the actual drought situation was relevant for taxing and national credit institutions. An assessment was performed of the actual drought situation of farms during the spring of 2001 in seven counties in Buenos Aires Province area. The assessment was done by comparing vegetation index values (NDVI)—as measured from NOAA-AVHRR satellite data—of September 2001 against NDVI time series values from previous years. Five categories were established to describe the relationship between the present index and the average of the time series. Farms within the area covered by the study were assigned to the appropriate category using GIS tools. It was confirmed that most of the area had NDVI values that were similar to the average values, or even higher. It was found that there were subareas where the vegetation index had decreased. For those cases, LANDSAT TM images of the area of September and October of 2001 were used for a detailed inspection. The study included rainfall data as well, confirming a normal regional situation. Both low and high-resolution satellite images were found to be useful tools for obtaining fast, economic, objective and conclusive results about the production capability of individual farms as well as the region as a whole.

  15. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L; Venegas, Laura E

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NOx and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NOx and VOC. PMID:23246369

  16. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care. PMID:25237803

  17. Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Picollo, M I; Vassena, C V; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Vernetti, M; Zerba, E N

    2000-09-01

    Permethrin-resistant colonies of Pediculus capitis (De Geer) from Buenos Aires were used to establish a resistance profile and to examine resistance mechanisms. All permethrin-resistant head lice (resistance ratio from 52.8 to > 88.7) were also resistant to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio from 40.86 to > 48.39) and deltamethrin (resistance ratio from 16.24 to 38.06). No cross-resistance to carbaryl was found in any of the pyrethroid-resistant P. capitis tested. Otherwise, all resistant colonies showed low to high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. This pyrethroid had never been applied as a pediculicide in Argentina; however, the high level of resistance found in these permethrin-resistant colonies (resistance ratio from 9.74 to 50.97) demonstrated that pyrethroid cross-resistance occurred to this novel insecticide. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triphenylphosphate (TPP) significantly decreased the toxicity of permethrin in the four colonies tested. The esterase inhibitor TPP produced lower enhancement of toxicity than the multifunction oxidase inhibitor PBO in the colonies having the highest resistance levels. Results presented here concerning the cross-resistance profile and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in permethrin-resistant head lice demonstrated that enhanced metabolism was involved in the pyrethroid resistance. However, the substantial degree of resistance that remained after synergism suggested the presence of another resistance mechanism. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and susceptibility to the carbamate carbaryl suggested a common action mechanism. PMID:11004784

  18. Environmental health education in schools as strategy for rodent control: an experience in a shantytown of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Diego; Suárez, Olga Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to assess the possibility of including elements of environmental health education within the curriculum of a school located in a shantytown of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. An environmental health education campaign was designed to introduce school-aged children to the problems posed by the lack of environmental sanitation, by using rodents as indicators of environmental disorder. The methodology implemented consisted of a lecture and two practical activities where the participating children were the evaluators of their neighborhood environment, recording the environmental factors that indicate direct or indirect presence of rodents and carrying out a survey about rodents among their neighbors. To assess the impact of the activities, an anonymous questionnaire was performed with the students before and after the campaign. The results showed that students were able to identify the man-made factors which favor the presence of rodents and were encouraged to propose strategies related to environmental sanitation to reduce rodent proliferation and the transmission of their parasites. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing environmental health education campaigns in school-aged children by using practical activities to stimulate observation, participation, and comprehensive understanding of the problems posed by urban pests. PMID:24136385

  19. Factors associated with infection by Campylobacter fetus in beef herds in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, D F; Perez, A M; Carpenter, T E; Martinez, A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a major venereal pathogen of cattle that is considered to be widespread among the livestock population of Argentina. The disease accounts for a 10% reduction in the weaning rate of Argentine infected herds and annual losses of $165 million. A case-control, questionnaire-based study was developed with the objective of quantifying the association between C. fetus infection and demographic, husbandry, and sanitary factors in 196 herds located in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Abortions observed in the herd (OR=3.08, 95% CI=1.52, 6.23), and trespassing of bulls from neighboring herds (OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.98, 4.20), were positively associated with the risk of finding C. fetus-infected bulls, whereas buying bulls was a protective factor for the disease (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.26, 1.08). Results presented here will help to develop and implement actions aimed at preventing the spread and reducing the incidence of C. fetus infection in the beef cattle population of Argentina. PMID:21737166

  20. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  1. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  2. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings. PMID:21707470

  3. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother. PMID:25949207

  4. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks. PMID:23989624

  5. [Young killers: study of distinctive features with youth that have committed other crimes in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Wiese, Renata; Folino, Jorge O

    2009-01-01

    The violence in its different forms, is a social problem that calls for multidisciplinary approaches in actions aimed at prevention. Among the skills needed to guide preventive policies, the highlights are risk and protective factors for violent behavior. This study aims to contribute, from the psychiatric perspective, in exploring factors influencing the behavior of homicidal adolescents. We studied a group of cases (n = 15) of young killers and a control group (n = 35) of juveniles who committed other crimes (simple or qualified theft or rape), all of them institutionalized by court order in La Plata city, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In both groups were evaluated sociodemographic, criminological and psychosocial characteristics through ad hoc questionnaire, as well as psychiatric clinical variables through the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The results showed that the multiple factors studied were not significantly associated with the condition of being young murderer. The findings aim to sustain that, in this vulnerable population of youth, homicidal behavior depends more on the circumstances than of personal peculiarities. The authors suggest that preventive actions in adolescents with these risk factors could have an effect on criminal behavior in general, as in homicidal behavior in particular. PMID:19434297

  6. Social perceptions about community life with people with mental illness: study of a discharge program in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Gómez, Sara; Ares-Lavalle, Guadalupe; Fernández, Marina; Hartfiel, María Isabel; Borelli, Mariana; Canales, Valeria; Stolkiner, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Effects of living near people with mental illness in community settings have been researched as part of psychiatric reform evaluation. However, these studies have been carried out mostly in industrialized countries, where social contexts differ from those in which psychiatric reform is now being implemented. To analyze the effects of community life with people with mental illness in the neighborhoods in which they live, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A questionnaire was administered to randomly-selected neighbors of group homes of a discharge program and an equivalent control area (n = 236). Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Significant differences were found between being a neighbor and having a high degree of acceptance toward people with mental illness. In addition, significant associations were found between neighbors having a high-perceived social cohesion and having a high level of acceptance toward the mentally ill. Living near people with mental illness is associated with better acceptance toward them; these results are congruent with those results found in other cultural contexts. PMID:24965092

  7. The glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Puerreydón ice lobes, Central Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, Jacob; Thorndycraft, Varyl; Palmer, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Patagonia is ideally located for reconstructions of late Quaternary ice-climate interaction(s) in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, yet many questions remain concerning post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics across the region. While modern-day glaciation is restricted to three small icefields (the North and South Patagonian and Cordillera Darwin icefields), during the Quaternary, and at the LGM, episodes of significant ice advance culminated in an expansive Patagonian ice sheet (PIS) centered over the southern Andes, for which a long and well-preserved landform record exists. Previous mapping in the region has either aimed to achieve regional coverage, necessarily omitting more subtle/complex features suggestive of certain ice-marginal processes, or has focused on the identification of palaeo-ice limits (e.g. moraine ridges) for geochronological applications, with little attention given to other (e.g. glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine) features that are significant for understanding post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics. This poster presents a comprehensive and highly detailed (<30m spatial resolution) map of the glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires (46.4°S) and Lago Puerreydón (47.2°S) ice lobes, major outlet glaciers of the central sector of the former PIS. The map allows refined reconstructions of glacial and, in particular, deglacial ice-marginal processes, and will underpin further analysis on the retreat history of the palaeo-ice lobes using high-resolution lithostratigraphic (varve) analyses.

  8. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  9. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  10. An Assessment of Spontaneous Vegetation Recovery in Aggregate Quarries in Coastal Sand Dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  11. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  12. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  13. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen emitted in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires to coastal waters of de la Plata River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) is the third mega-city in Latin America. Atmospheric N emitted in the area deposits to coastal waters of de la Plata River. This study describes the parameterizations included in DAUMOD-RD (v.3) model to evaluate concentrations of nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitric acid and nitrate aerosol) and their total (dry and wet) deposition to a water surface. This model is applied to area sources and CALPUFF model to point sources of NO x in the MABA. The models are run for 3 years of hourly meteorological data, with a spatial resolution of 1 km 2. Mean annual deposition is 69, 728 kg-N year -1 over 2 339 km 2 of river. Dry deposition contributions of N-NO 2, N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- to this value are 44%, 22% and 20%, respectively. Wet deposition of N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- represents 3% and 11% of total annual value, respectively. This very low contribution results from the rare occurrence of rainy hours with wind blowing from the city to the river. Monthly dry deposition flux estimated for coastal waters of MABA varies between 7 and 13 kg-N km -2 month -1. These results are comparable to values reported for other coastal zones in the world.

  14. Functional Analysis of the 60-Nucleotide Duplication in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Buenos Aires Strain Attachment Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hotard, Anne L.; Laikhter, Elizabeth; Brooks, Kelsie; Hartert, Tina V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are two subgroups of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), A and B, and within each subgroup, isolates are further divided into clades. Several years ago, multiple subgroup B isolates which contained a duplication of 60 nucleotides in the glycoprotein (G) gene were described. These isolates were given a new clade designation of BA based on the site of isolation, Buenos Aires, Argentina. BA RSV strains have since become the predominant circulating clade of RSV B viruses. We hypothesized that the duplicated region in G serves to enhance the function of G in the virus life cycle. We generated recombinant viruses that express a consensus BA G gene or a consensus BA G gene lacking the duplication (GΔdup). We determined that the duplicated region functions during virus attachment to cells. Additionally, we showed that in vitro, the virus containing the duplication has a fitness advantage compared to the virus without the duplication. Our data demonstrate that the duplicated region in the BA strain G protein augments virus attachment and fitness. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen for infants for which there is no vaccine. Different strains of RSV circulate from year to year, and the predominating strains change over time. Subgroup B RSV strains with a duplication in the attachment glycoprotein (G) emerged and then became the dominant B genotype. We found that a recombinant virus harboring the duplication bound more efficiently to cells and was more fit than a recombinant strain lacking the duplication. Our work advances a mechanism for an important natural RSV mutation. PMID:26018171

  15. Healthcare personnel infected with novel influenza A H1N1 virus in university hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Querci, Marcia; Stryjewski, Martin E; Herrera, Fabián; Temporiti, Elena; Alcalá, Wanda; Chavez, Natalia; Figueras, Laura; Barberis, Fernanda; Echavarría, Marcela; Videla, Cristina; Martínez, Alfredo; Carballal, Guadalupe; Bonvehí, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Data on the clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes for healthcare personnel (HCP) infected with influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1) are limited. From June to July 2009, a prospective study was conducted among HCP with influenza-like illness (ILI) at university hospitals in Buenos Aires. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to diagnose H1N1. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with H1N1. Among 1519 HCP, 96 (6.3%) were diagnosed with an ILI. Of these, 85 (88.5%) were swabbed for H1N1 detection, with 43 positive cases (2.8%). Seasonal influenza immunization was recorded in 76%. Comparison of H1N1-positive vs. H1N1-negative cases showed that H1N1-positive cases more frequently had asthenia (72% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) and cough (79% vs. 43%, p = 0.008) and less frequently had diarrhoea (9% vs. 29%, p = 0.03) and prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (5% vs. 31%, p = 0.002). The logistic regression model showed that presence of cough (odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24, 21.4) was associated with an increased risk of H1N1. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.43) was associated with a lower probability of H1N1 infection. A high proportion of HCP with an ILI were infected with H1N1. Complication rates were relatively low. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir was associated with a lower risk of developing H1N1. PMID:20854220

  16. Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Pando, María A; Mabragaña, Marina; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to describe childhood sexual experiences with older partners (CSEOP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MSM were recruited through respondent driven sampling. They responded to a computer administered self-interview with questions on CSEOP, operationalized as manual, oral, genital, or anal contact prior to age 13 with a partner at least 4 years older. Of the 500 respondents, only 25% identified as gay. Eighteen percent of the respondents reported CSEOP, the majority of whom did not feel they were hurt by the experience and did not consider it to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Over two-thirds of MSM who reported CSEOP said that their older partner was a female. Only 4% of those with a female partner felt their experience was CSA compared to 44% of those who had a male partner. Among all men reporting CSEOP, those who felt sexually abused were more likely to have been physically forced or threatened, physically hurt, and emotionally hurt than those who did not feel sexually abused. Having CSEOP, being hurt by the experiences, and perceiving the experiences as sexual abuse were not associated with current HIV sexual risk or substance use behavior. In this sample of MSM in Argentina, a substantial minority reported CSEOP. Those who felt they had been sexually abused were much more likely to have had an older male partner than an older female partner, and were more likely to report having been physically forced and threatened by their older partner. PMID:24210270

  17. U-Th and 10Be constraints on sediment recycling in proglacial settings, Lago Buenos Aires, Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogez, Antoine; Herman, Frédéric; Pelt, Eric; Norton, Kevin; Darvill, Christopher; Christl, Marcus; Morvan, Gilles; Reuschlé, Thierry; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    The sedimentary cycle includes the formation by erosion of rocks, transport and deposition. While erosion and deposition can be documented, the history of sediments between the time it is extracted from the rocks and ultimately deposited into basins remains a major challenge. However, the mechanism of transfer and alteration of the sediments during transport plays a key role in the evolution of basins, feedbacks between erosion and climate, and glacial-interglacial variability of sediment transport and weathering. This is particularly true in proglacial settings because large overdeepenings, in particular, are potential sediment traps for which the efficiency at evacuating those sediments is largely unknown. The Lago Buenos Aires moraines in Patagonia are particularly interesting because they are imbricated from the older in the outer part to the younger in the inner part of the system. We sampled fine grained sediments from these moraines and measured U-Th isotopes in the 4-50 μm silicate fraction. Deposition ages were refined using 10Be exposure ages. We show first that the comminution ages model can be improved by measuring also Th isotopes, from which weathering rates can be deduced. Moreover we show from our data that there is a time lag of 300 kyr on average between erosion and deposition in the moraine. This could be attributed to the long residence time of sediments in the lake overdeepening. This conclusion raises perspectives about the transport times and dynamic of the sediments during a whole sedimentary cycle, and the subsequent effect on weathering. This conclusion could also contradict some assumptions commonly made for our erosion rates/sediment fluxes reconstructions based on river sediments analysis, in recently deglaciated catchments.

  18. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995–2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998–1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño–La Niña–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods – El Niño (March 1997–January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998–May 1999) – to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K+, dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of

  19. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995-2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998-1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño-La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods - El Niño (March 1997-January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998-May 1999) - to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K(+), dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of stability. PMID

  20. Childhood Sexual Experiences with an Older Partner among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C.; Pando, María A.; Mabragaña, Marina; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to describe childhood sexual experiences with older partners (CSEOP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling. They responded to a computer administered self-interview with questions on CSEOP, operationalized as manual, oral, genital, or anal contact prior to age 13 with a partner at least 4 years older. Of the 500 respondents, only 25% identified as gay. Eighteen percent of the respondents reported CSEOP, the majority of whom did not feel they were hurt by the experience and did not consider it to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Over two-thirds of MSM who reported CSEOP said that their older partner was a female. Only 4% of those with a female partner felt their experience was CSA compared to 44% of those who had a male partner. Among all men reporting CSEOP, those who felt sexually abused were more likely to have been physically forced or threatened, physically hurt, and emotionally hurt than those who did not feel sexually abused. Having CSEOP, being hurt by the experiences, and perceiving the experiences as sexual abuse were not associated with current HIV sexual risk or substance use behavior. In this sample of MSM in Argentina, a substantial minority reported CSEOP. Those who felt they had been sexually abused were much more likely to have had an older male partner than an older female partner, and were more likely to report having been physically forced and threatened by their older partner. PMID:24210270

  1. [Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Duré, R; Ortiz Nareto, A; Arechavala, A I; Maiolo, E I; Santiso, G M; Iovannitti, C; Ibarra-Camou, B; Canteros, C E

    2010-01-01

    A histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies (immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis) and histoplasmin skin tests were positive in all cases. Five soil samples mixed with pigeons and bat droppings were collected from the hangar. Suspensions of these samples were inoculated into 20 hamsters by intraperitoneal injection; mycelial phase of H. capsulatum was isolated from liver and spleen cultures. The genetic profile of this strain was compared with 12 isolates obtained from Argentinean patients, and a great degree of homogeneity was observed (> 96% similarity). Although histoplasmosis is endemic in the wet Pampas, this is the first epidemic outbreak reported south of the 34th parallel. PMID:21229193

  2. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  3. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Diego; Zapiola, Ines; Fernandez Giuliano, Silvina; Martinez, Marina; Rodriguez, Claudia; Belen Bouzas, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs is particularly important in pregnant population, in which infection by drug-resistant HIV has not only implications for maternal treatment, but could also jeopardize the efficacy of neonatal prophylaxis. We aim to describe the prevalence of resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in pregnant women with intrapartum HIV diagnosis in a public hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Materials and Methods Prospective pilot study (period from 2008 to October 2013). Plasma samples were tested for viral load by Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and sequenced using HIV-1 TRUGENE™Genotyping Kit (Siemens). The prevalence of RAMs was analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Of 231 HIV-infected pregnant women assisted, 6% (n=14) had intrapartum diagnosis of HIV infection. 12 patients (85.7%) had previous pregnancies, 10 (71.4%) had inadequate prenatal care and 3 (23.1%) seroconverted during pregnancy. Maternal characteristics (expressed medians and ranges) were: age 25.5 (16–35) years; gestational age at birth: 39 (30–42) weeks; CD4 count: 500 (132–925) cells/µL; viral load: 9418 (1800–55299) copies/mL. No one had hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection; four (33.3%) had syphilis. Eight patients (57.1%) had vaginal delivery and six emergency C-section (42.9%). In six cases (46.2%), membrane rupture was spontaneous; four patients (28.6%) failed to receive intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) infusion. In 12 patients a genotypic resistance test was performed: two (16.7%) had WHO RAMs corresponding to K103N mutation in both cases, conferring high-level resistance to nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz. Two newborns (14.3%) were preterm. All received neonatal prophylaxis: ZDV in 1 case and combined prophylaxis (ZDV/3TC/NVP) in the remaining 13 (92.9%). All newborns were formula-fed. Two (14.3%) had congenital syphilis, one of whom died. One newborn was HIV

  4. Potential drug–drug interactions in HIV-perinatally infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Ezequiel; Cecchini, Diego; Rodriguez, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of treatment-experienced perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHA) are being transitioned from paediatric centres to adult HIV-care [1]. Most of them had been heavily exposed to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), harbour drug-resistant viruses and require non-antiretroviral medication due to comorbidities [2]. This may predispose for clinically significant drug–drug interactions (CSDDIs) [3]. There are no studies concerning CSDDIs in PHA. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of concomitant medications and CSDDIs in PHA who were transitioned for adult HIV-care to the Infectious Diseases Unit, Cosme Argerich Hospital, Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Materials and Methods Descriptive pilot cross-sectional study (March to June 2014). PHA under ARVs at the time of the study were assessed for concomitant medication. CSDDIs were screened and categorized using the University of Liverpool Drug Interactions Program (www.hiv-druginteractions.org) [4]. Results Forty-five patients were included. Female sex: 53%. Median (IQR) age: 20 years (18–22). CDC-stage C was observed in 27 (79%); 50% had ≥1 comorbidities including 3 with HCV co-infection. Drug abuse was observed in 6 (13%). The median of prior ARV regimens was 3 (3–5). Current ARV regimen included: PI: 87%, NNRTI: 27%, INSTI: 20%, enfuvirtide: 7% and CCR5 inhibitor: 4%. Median CD4 T-cell count: 568 cells/mL (279–771). Viral load <50 copies/mL: 80%. Sixty percent (27/45) had ≥1 co-medications (median 1). The most frequent co-medications were NSAIDs (40%), hormonal therapy (19%) and antimicrobials (19%). Use of herbal supplements was observed in 10 (22%). Overall, 23 (51%) had ≥ 1 CSDDIs: 19/27 (70%) with co-medication (orange flag=18 and red flag=1); and 2/10 (20%) with herbal supplements. ARV–ARV interactions were observed in 4/45 (9%): unboosted atazanavir+tenofovir (n=2), unboosted atazanavir+efavirenz (n=1) and lopinavir/ritonavir+efavirenz (n=1) (all orange flag). Considering

  5. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  6. [Endemic goiter in Argentina. Epidemiologic studies before (1968) and during (1986) prophylaxis with iodized salt in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Salvaneschi, J P; Salvaneschi, B G; Moralejo, A B; García, J R

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to their social level in high, middle and low; the prevalence of goiter was 6.8%, 12.2% and 26.4%, respectively. The prevalence was also higher in older ages. In 1986, using the same randomized sample, a second survey was conducted, after 18 years of prophylaxis. Goiter prevalence was 8.5%. Goiter in the low social class was about the same as in the middle class. In randomized samples of 49 urines, iodine concentration was determined yielding an average of 139.6 micrograms/g creatinine (median 120.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Urinary iodine level in 14 children with goiter was 146.1 micrograms/g creatinine and in 12 without goiter was 171.4 micrograms/g. There was no statistical difference between these three groups. Variations in radioiodine uptake, urinary iodine, plasma inorganic iodine levels, and water iodine are discussed. PMID:1820512

  7. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Since 2007, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Urban atmospheres are dominated by pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Transport emissions are an important source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions, species of high interest because of their negative health effects and their contribution to the formation of secondary pollutants responsible for photochemical smog. NMVOCs emissions are generally not very well represented in emission inventories and their speciation presents a high level of uncertainty. In general, emissions from South American countries are still quite unknown for the international community, and usually present a high degree of uncertainty due to the lack of available data to compile emission inventories. Within the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI, www.iai.int) projects, UMESAM (Urban Mobile Emissions in South American Megacities) and SAEMC (South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate, http://saemc.cmm.uchile.cl/), the effort was made to compute on-road transport emission inventories for South American megacities, namely Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Sao Paulo and Santiago de Chile, considering megacities as urban agglomerations with more than 5 million inhabitants. The present work is a continuation of these projects, with the aim to extend the calculated NMVOCs emissions inventory into the individual species required by CTMs. The on-road mobile sector of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, accounted for 70 Gg of NMVOCs emissions for 2006, without considering two-wheelers. Gasoline light-duty vehicles were responsible for 64% of NMVOCs emissions, followed by compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles (22%), diesel heavy-duty vehicles (11%) and diesel light-duty vehicles (7%). NMVOCs emissions were speciated according to fuel and technology, employing the European COPERT (Ntziachristos & Samaras, 2000) VOCs speciation scheme for

  8. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, Gustavo; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2016-05-01

    Heat waves are one of the main concerns related to the impacts of climate change, because their frequency and severity are projected to increase in a future climate. The objectives of this work are to study the long-term variability of heat waves over Argentina and to estimate recurrence probability of the most severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires. We used three definitions of heat waves that were based on (1) daily maximum temperature above the 90th percentile (MaxTHW), (2) daily minimum temperature above the 90th percentile (MinTHW) and (3) both maximum and minimum temperatures above the corresponding 90th percentiles (EHW). The minimum length of a heat wave was 3 days, and the analysis was performed over the October-March period. Decadal values in Buenos Aires experienced clear increases in heat waves according to MinTHW and EHW, with the highest frequency for both in the 2001-2010 decade, but at other stations, combinations of different trends and decadal variability resulted in some cases in a decrease of extreme heat waves. In the north-western part of the country, a strong positive change in the last decade was found, mainly due to the increment in the persistence of MinTHW but also accompanied by increases in MaxTHW. In general, other stations show a clear positive trend in MinTHW and decadal variability in MaxTHW, with the largest EHW cases in the last decade. We also estimated recurrence probability of the longest and most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires (over 1909-2010, according to intensity measured by the cumulative excess of maximum daily temperature above the 90th percentile) that occurred from 3 to 14 November 2008, by means of simulations with a stochastic first-order autoregressive model. The recurrence probability of such long and severe heat wave is small in the present climate but it is likely to increase substantially in the near future even under a moderate warming trend.

  9. [Risk factors for the consumption of illegal drugs. Study in 1904 18-year-old boys in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A

    1996-01-01

    During September 1988 an anonymous, self-administered survey was carried out among a random sample of 18-year-old boys living in Buenos Aires city. The characteristics of 232 boys who reported illegal drug usage during the previous year were compared against those of the 1672 who denied drug consumption during that period. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed strong association between drug use and drug consumption by friends (OR 18.6) or brother/sister (OR 4.3), and consumption of tobacco or alcohol (OR 4.5 and 4.2 respectively). Results show different characteristics that can facilitate the primary care physicians' task of prevention and diagnosis of drug consumption in his/her patients. PMID:8734926

  10. [Brachial indicators of fat and muscle in schoolchildren of a rural community according to social groups (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Bolzán, A G; Guimarey, L M

    1995-12-01

    In order to determinate the body composition in a schoolchildren rural community--General Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina--the arm circumference (AC) and the triceps skinfold (TS) growth were studied by cross-sectionally methods. From those measurements the arm muscle area was calculated. All the data were transformed to "Z" scores. The sample was divided into seven social groups according to the educational and occupational levels of parents. Statistics analysis of variance (ANOVA test) and Tukey test were performed. Statistically significant differences in AC an TS among the social groups were observed (p < 0.001). Two different patterns of brachial composition were observed according to the social group. This composition was different with respect to urban populations. Our findings suggest an environmental adaptation by growth. PMID:9161442

  11. [The Universidad de Buenos Aires in the 1970s: analysis of the press release expressing solidarity with Rodolfo Puiggrós].

    PubMed

    Recalde, Aritz

    2012-12-01

    This article reconstructs the historical context surrounding the emission of a press release by authorities of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, expressing their solidarity with historian and university rector Rodolfo Puiggrós after his resignation. In his term, Puiggrós attempted to fuse the institution's scientific and technological plans with the new development model initiated by Héctor Cámpora and the Peronist movement in 1973. The article makes reference to the project of university transformation promoted by Puiggrós, combining the ideological traditions of Marxism, reformism, and nationalism. A few key points, useful for analyzing the reasons behind Puiggrós's resignation, are presented, and the arguments highlighted within this press release, published by Office of Media and Communications on October 5, 1973, are discussed. PMID:23681463

  12. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now. PMID:27438734

  13. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

  14. High Prevalence of Substance Use among Men who have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: Implications for HIV Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Dolezal, Curtis; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M

    2012-01-01

    Five hundred gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) from Buenos Aires, Argentina completed an assessment regarding substance use and sexual behavior. During the past two months, 78% of participants consumed alcohol and 61% drugs. Over 20% of participants reporting alcohol, marijuana, cocaine sulfate, or tranquilizer use, did so daily. Heavy alcohol use was more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR = 1.64) and less likely among those who identified as gay (AOR=0.38). Weekly drug use was less likely among older (AOR=0.98), and gay-identified participants (AOR=0.50), but more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR=1.49). Drug use was correlated with unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse with men, women, and transvestites among non-gay identified participants (r= 0.22). Findings highlight the need to reduce substance use and sexual risk behavior in this population. PMID:23196860

  15. Children’s palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children’s palliative care, 18–21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children’s Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children’s palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th–21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was ‘Children’s Palliative Care…. Now!’ emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children’s palliative care, and hidden aspects of children’s palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children’s palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children’s palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children’s palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The ‘Big Debate’ explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children’s palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  16. Children's palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children's palliative care, 18-21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children's palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children's palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children's palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The 'Big Debate' explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children's palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  17. Sixteen years of evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A in Buenos Aires, Argentina: GA2 the prevalent genotype through the years.

    PubMed

    Viegas, M; Goya, S; Mistchenko, A S

    2016-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide. In recent years, several preclinical trials with vaccine candidates have been reported. It is in this sense that molecular epidemiological studies become important. Understanding viral dispersion patterns before and after the implementation of a vaccine can provide insight into the effectiveness of the control strategies. In this work we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of HRSV-A over a period of sixteen years (1999-2014) in Buenos Aires. By bioinformatic tools we analyzed 169 sequences of the G glycoprotein gene from hospitalized pediatric patients with LRTI. We found that GA2 was the most prevalent genotype (73.35%). GA5 genotype co-circulated in our region until 2009 when it was no longer detected, except in 2011. The recently globally emerging ON1 lineage with a 72-nt duplication increased its frequency to become the only lineage detected in Buenos Aires in 2014. By discrete phylogeographic analysis of global ON1 strains we could determine that Panama could be the location of the MRCA dated June 20, 2010; and this lineage could be introduced in Argentina from Spain in April 2011. This analysis also showed temporary and geographical clustering of ON1 strains observed as phylogenetic clades with strains exclusively associated from a single country, nevertheless among our 44 ON1 strains from three outbreaks (2012-2014) we could also detect posterior reintroductions and circulation from United States, Cuba, South Korea, and Spain. The continuous phylogeographic analysis of one sublineage of Argentine ON1 strains allowed us to establish that there could be a local clustering of some strains even in neighborhoods. This work shows the potential of this type of bioinformatic tools in the context of a future vaccine surveillance network to trace the spread of new genetic lineages in human populations. PMID:27154330

  18. Prospective Multicenter Study of Community-Associated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López Furst, María José; de Vedia, Lautaro; Fernández, Silvina; Gardella, Noella; Ganaha, María Cristina; Prieto, Sergio; Carbone, Edith; Lista, Nicolás; Rotryng, Flavio; Morera, Graciana I.; Mollerach, Marta; Stryjewski, Martín E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now the most common cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in several world regions. In Argentina prospective, multicenter clinical studies have only been conducted in pediatric populations. Objective Primary: describe the prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with community acquired SSSI due to MRSA; secondary: molecular evaluation of CA-MRSA strains. Patients with MRSA were compared to those without MRSA. Materials and Methods Prospective, observational, multicenter, epidemiologic study, with molecular analysis, conducted at 19 sites in Argentina (18 in Buenos Aires) between March 2010 and October 2011. Patients were included if they were ≥14 years, were diagnosed with SSSI, a culture was obtained, and there had no significant healthcare contact identified. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA. Pulse field types, SCCmec, and PVL status were also determined. Results A total of 311 patients were included. CA-MRSA was isolated in 70% (218/311) of patients. Clinical variables independently associated with CA-MRSA were: presence of purulent lesion (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.67, 6.49) and age <50 years (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22, 4.70). The vast majority of CA-MRSA strains causing SSSI carried PVL genes (95%) and were SCCmec type IV. The sequence type CA-MRSA ST30 spa t019 was the predominant clone. Conclusions CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of SSSI in our adult patients without healthcare contact. ST30, SCCmec IV, PVL+, spa t019 is the predominant clone in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:24324543

  19. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  20. Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PMID:26892869

  1. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of human parainfluenza type 3 virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 2009 and 2013: The emergence of new genetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Goya, Stephanie; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Despite that human parainfluenza type 3 viruses (HPIV3) are one of the leading causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under five, there is no licensed vaccine and there is limited current information on the molecular characteristics of regional and global circulating strains. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular characterization of HPIV3 circulating in Buenos Aires. We performed a genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HN glycoprotein gene. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 HPIV3-positive samples taken from hospitalized pediatric patients were analyzed. Four new genetic lineages were described. Among them, C1c and C3d lineages showed local circulation patterns, whereas C3e and C3f comprised sequences from very distant countries. Despite the diversity of the described genotypes, C3a and C3d predominated over the others, the latter was present during the first years of the study and it was progressively replaced by C3a. Molecular analyses showed 28 non-synonymous substitutions; of these, 13 were located in potentially predicted B-cell epitopes. Taken together, the emergence of genetic lineages and the information of the molecular characteristics of HN protein may contribute to the general knowledge of HPIV3 molecular epidemiology for future vaccine development and antiviral therapies. PMID:26780643

  2. Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M

    2008-08-01

    The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay river (34 degrees 11' 25" S and 58 degrees 15' 38" W). Monthly collections were made from July 2005 to July 2006 in the eastern part of the island (Arena Beach). The population of H. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. Two cohorts could be detected. The Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and Lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. The reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. Based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied. PMID:18833484

  3. Diversity of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b in Buenos Aires, Argentina: description of a new cluster associated with response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Federico; Garcia, Gabriel; Kott, Verónica; Sookoian, Silvia; Campos, Rodolfo

    2008-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b is the most prevalent in Argentina. As observed in most HCV-genotype 1b described previously worldwide, the population analyzed in this work is growing at exponential rate. Ten out of 22 samples tested comprise a well-defined cluster. This new cluster appears to be highly susceptible to therapy with non-pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (80% rate of sustained response). The comparative analysis of amino acid sequences yielded a characteristic pattern for responder samples defined by amino acids S75, V147, V158 (Core region) and AC2217-8 (NS5A region). In conclusion, this study describes the epidemic spread of genotype 1b in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and shows the emergence of a new cluster that would result from a founder effect of an unusual sequence or a quasispecies variant that evolved through the time. This cluster, which appears to be highly susceptible to therapy, suggests that the virus itself might be more important than individual patient characteristics when responding to treatment. PMID:18297718

  4. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  5. Relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuation in a coastal dune aquifer: northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2012-12-01

    The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method is one of the most widely used means to estimate aquifer recharge. In the northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the geomorphological and climatic characteristics, as well as the presence of a shallow, homogeneous unconfined aquifer, make it possible to apply this methodology. The relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation in a humid climate, considering its seasonal variations, is assessed. Water tables were measured monthly between February 2008 and September 2010 in a monitoring network; rainfall data were analysed. The water table rises when the accumulated precipitation between measurements is more than 53 mm/month in the dry season and more than 97 mm/month in the rainy season. The index, relating water-table fluctuations and precipitation occurring between measurements, shows that values below 0 suggest no increase in the water reserves, whereas higher values entail an increase. In the study area, where there is a lack of historical data, finding out the relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation will constitute a tool for groundwater use and management, and set up an early warning system for dry periods. It could also be extrapolated to other regions with similar hydrological conditions lacking in data.

  6. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed. PMID:16364551

  7. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  8. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population. PMID:25006586

  9. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  10. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies. PMID:23062625

  11. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature. PMID:16188365

  12. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  13. Use of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) Generates a Very Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896

  14. A Series of Stacked and Entrenched Fan Deltas at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina) as Terrestrial Analog to Understand the Entrenchment of Martian Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Achille, G.; Salese, F.

    2014-12-01

    The apparent lack of entrenchment on Martian fan deltas has been hitherto uniquely interpreted as evidence for fast disappearance of water and used to support the hypothesis of an abrupt climate change on Mars around 3.7-3.4 Ga. However, hi-res imagery and topography of several martian fan deltas show evidence of erosion and entrenchment in response to decreasing water level settings. Moreover, the boundary conditions for entrenchment have never been investigated from a quantitative point of view. To gain a quantitative understanding on fan delta entrenchment processes, we are studying (using remote sensing, modeling, and fieldwork campaigns) a series of seven stacked fan deltas formed at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina). The uppermost deposit is located more than 400 m above the lowest delta presently forming at the current lake water level. The six raised deltas formed during highstands punctuating the overall 15000 yrs long retreat of the lake and are entirely entrenched thus allowing potential sampling over the entire thickness of the sedimentary sequences. These windows to the internal outcrops enable the assessment of water and sediment paleo-discharges (based on the analysis of the grain sizes) and to implement numerical simulations to reproduce the sedimentary deposits using numeric code such as Sedflux 2.0 (Hutton and Syvitski, 2008). The studied sedimentary assemblage offers the unique opportunity to place constraints on the fan deltas entrenchment with strong implications for the modeling of martian entrenched fans and thus for the understanding of the paleoclimate and paleohydrology during their terminal activity. We present the results of remote sensing study from satellite hi-res imagery and topography, numerical modeling, and from a survey field campaign. E. W. H. Hutton and J. P. M. Syvitski, Sedflux 2.0: An advanced process-response model that generates three-dimensional stratigraphy, Computers & Geosciences 34 (2008) 1319-1337.

  15. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Squiquera, Luis; Barreda, Victoria; Rodriguez Fermepín, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Rey, Jorge; Picconi, María; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, among MSM from Buenos Aires (2007–2009). Methods Responding Driven Sampling was used for recruitment of MSM. Participants completed a structured web-based survey and provided biological samples. Results A total of 496 MSM were studied for HIV, HBV, HCV, and T pallidum infections. Chlamydia and HPV diagnoses were only performed in 98 and 109 participants, respectively. Prevalence of HIV was 17.3%, HBV 22.9%, HCV 7.5%, T pallidum 20.5%, HPV 83.5%, and C trachomatis 1.7%. In the year prior to the evaluation, 71% of the participants had had sex with men and/or trans and women (MMW) while 29% had not had sex with women (MM). Comparing MM to MMW, prevalence of HIV (30.7% vs. 11.9%, p<0.001), HBV (36.4% vs. 17.8%, p<0.001), T pallidum (32.1% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001), and HPV (88.3% vs. 70.4%, p = 0.039) were significantly higher among MM, whereas no significant differences were found for HCV and C trachomatis. The MM group had also significantly higher HIV incidence (5.60 vs. 4.28 per 100 persons-year, p = 0.032). HPV genotypes 16, 6, and 11 were the most frequently found; 40.7% of the MSM had more than one genotype and one high risk genotype was detected in 43.6% of participants. Conclusions Both MM and MMW are at high risk of infection for HIV and other STIs. Rates of HIV, HBV, T pallidum and HPV infections are higher in the MM group. PMID:22768137

  16. [The case of the 'lowlife': perceptions of danger and the prevention of disreputable behaviors in theRevista de Criminología, Psiquiatría, Medicina Legal y Ciencias Afinesin Buenos Aires, 1914-1923].

    PubMed

    Dovio, Mariana

    2013-11-30

    We analyze the construction of the notion of the 'lowlife' in the city of Buenos Aires in the Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal, from 1914-1923. We shall analyze the notion of 'lowlife', meaning behaviors situated in a border zone between crime and madness, from the point of view of prevention and perception of danger. The first way of analyzing the 'lowlife' examines institutional projects that were related to eugenics and that advocated preventive detention of dangerous people, 'alcoholists' and vagrants. The second involves identifying in moral and physical terms the kind of people who were targeted in the creation of intervention projects for those considered to be 'lowlifes', who could potentially damage the fabric of society in some way. PMID:24346199

  17. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  18. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  19. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  20. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  1. Subduction of the South-Chile active spreading ridge: a 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Arnaud, Nicolas; Guivel, Christèle; Lagabrielle, Yves; Scalabrino, Bruno; Espinoza, Felipe

    2010-05-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4- 3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  2. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  5. [Alcohol and drug consumption by adolescents in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H H; Pecci, M C

    1994-09-01

    In a group of 4800 young man--sample--who were called on to the Military Service Medical Examination in 1992, was investigated the legal and illegal psychoactive drugs using in. Findings show that: a) 42% were alcohol abusers during last 30 days; b) more than 17% have used marihuana once in their lives; c) 9.7% have used cocaine and d) 1 of each 10 have recognized use psychoactive drugs without medical prescription. Cultural practices linked to excessive alcohol abuse and the present increase use of other psychoactive drugs by young people are discussed. PMID:7872028

  6. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  7. Rembrandt’s Jewish Physician—Dr Ephraim Bueno (1599–1665): A Brief Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.; Albury, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Medicine in the Middle Ages was, and ever since remained, one of the main preoccupations of the professionally restricted Jews. One of the medical dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula was the Bueno (Bonus) family. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their spread in Europe, these Iberian physicians became successful everywhere—just as the Buenos were in the Netherlands. PMID:23908860

  8. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field, Rondônia, Brazil: Tuffisitic kimberlite and transitional textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masun, K. M.; Scott Smith, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Rondônia State, Brazil is located near the edge of the Amazon Craton and contains more than thirty bodies. A late to mid-Triassic emplacement age has been obtained for two kimberlites. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field includes pipes of up to 15 ha and a few apparently flat-lying hypabyssal kimberlite sills. In the three pipes and one sill examined, three textural end member types of kimberlite are recognized: hypabyssal kimberlite (HK), tuffisitic kimberlite (TK), and resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite (RVK). There are gradations in textures between the three types. The overall gradation with depth is VKB, VK, TK, TKt, HKt to HK (where "t" denotes transitional varieties), and the textural gradations are apparent at all scales, megascopically to microscopically. Importantly, these gradations appear to occur within single phases of kimberlite. TK and the associated transitional varieties observed in the Pimenta Bueno field have striking similarities to those of many kimberlites of southern Africa and Canada. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field thus represents a newly recognized example of southern-African-style kimberlite pipes occurring on a third continent. The TK-bearing pipes of Pimenta Bueno, southern Africa, and Canada are markedly different from those found in the Canadian Prairies and Lac de Gras, Northwest Territories, which indicates that pipes containing TK and related textures are repeated in space and time but only form in certain circumstances. There is an apparent correlation between kimberlite texture and pipe size. In the larger pipes (> 5 ha), the TK is overlain by VKB. In the small pipes (< 3 ha) there is a textural gradation with depth from TK to HK and VKB is not present. One TKt-HKt transition appears to be ~ 60 m thick. The nature of the TK-TKt-HKt-HK textural transition suggests that TK developed by the textural modification of magmatic kimberlite within the pipe. The textures may reflect increased

  9. Hospital capacity during an influenza pandemic-Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009.

    PubMed

    Meites, Elissa; Farias, Daniel; Raffo, Lucrecia; Albalak, Rachel; Carlino, Oreste Luis; McDonald, L Clifford; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2011-01-01

    At a major referral hospital in the Southern Hemisphere, the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic brought increased critical care demand and more unscheduled nursing absences. Because of careful preparedness planning, including rapid expansion and redistribution of the numbers of available beds and staff, hospital surge capacity was not exceeded. PMID:21087127

  10. Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Cirelli, Alicia Fernández

    2004-11-01

    Heavy metal removal from water has been approached by using different technologies. Phytotechnologies, with an increasing development during the last two decades, involve using plants for metal removal. Three autochthonous floating macrophytes, common in pampean shallow lakes (Argentina), Pista stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia and Lemna minor were used in laboratory experiences for the simultaneously removal of several heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Pb) resulting from anthropogenic activity, in order to simulate a naturally polluted environment. The experiences were performed for different concentrations of metals along 15 days. High metal removal percentages were obtained for the 3 species and metals. L. minor did not survive the conditions of the experiment. High correlation between the final water and the macrophytes metal concentration was obtained, deviations were due to PbCrO(4) precipitation. The rate of metal uptake was dependent on the metal concentration for the 3 species studied. PMID:15488590

  11. Abnormalities in amphibian populations inhabiting agroecosystems in Northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M G; Kacoliris, F; Demetrio, P; Natale, G S; Bonetto, C; Ronco, A E

    2013-05-27

    The occurrence of abnormalities in amphibians has been reported in many populations, and its increase could be related to environmental pollution and habitat degradation. We evaluated the type and prevalence of abnormalities in 5 amphibian populations from agroecosystems with different degrees of agricultural disturbance (cultivated and reference areas). We detected 9 types of abnormalities, of which the most frequent were those occurring in limbs. The observed prevalence of abnormality in assessed populations from cultivated and reference areas was as follows: Rhinella fernandezae (37.1 and 10.2%, respectively), Leptodactylus latrans adults (28.1 and 9.2%) and juveniles (32.9 and 15.3%), and Hypsiboas pulchellus (11.6 and 2.8%). Scinax granulatus populations did not show abnormalities. Pseudis minuta, which was only detected in the reference area, exhibited a prevalence of 13.3%. For R. fernandezae, L. latrans, and H. pulchellus, generalized linear mixed models showed that prevalence of abnormalities was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultivated than in reference areas. L. latrans juveniles were more vulnerable to abnormalities than adults (p < 0.05). The presence of abnormalities in some species inhabiting different agroecosystems suggests that environmental stress factors might be responsible for their occurrence. While we detected pesticides (endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) and lower dissolved oxygen levels in ponds of the cultivated area, no data are currently available on how other factors, such as injuries from predators and parasite infections, vary by land use. Further research will be necessary to evaluate possible causes of abnormalities detected in the present study mainly in the context of factor interactions. PMID:23709469

  12. School Autonomy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Evidence from Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence of policy adoption, outcomes and consequences of decentralization and school autonomy initiatives enacted in Argentina during the 1990s. The study examines what school autonomy meant in Argentina and how it was adopted at the provincial and school levels. Using qualitative data on school districts of the…

  13. SPIRE, the ``Spin Triangle'': Athens, Hamburg, Buenos Aires: Advancing Nanospintronics and Nanomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-02-01

    Future technological advances at the frontier of `elec'tronics will increasingly rely on the use of the spin property of the electron at ever smaller length scales. As a result, it is critical to make substantial efforts towards understanding and ultimately controlling spin and magnetism at the nanoscale. In SPIRE, the goal is to achieve these important scientific advancements through a unique combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as complementary expertise and coherent efforts across three continents. The key experimental tool of choice is spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy -- the premier method for accessing the spin structure of surfaces and nanostructures with resolution down to the atomic scale. At the same time, atom and molecule deposition and manipulation schemes are added in order to both atomically engineer, and precisely investigate, novel nanoscale spin structures. These efforts are being applied to an array of physical systems, including single magnetic atomic layers, self-assembled 2-D molecular arrays, single adatoms and molecules, and alloyed spintronic materials. Efforts are aimed at exploring complex spin structures and phenomena occurring in these systems. At the same time, the problems are approached, and in some cases guided, by the use of leading theoretical tools, including analytical approaches such as renormalization group theory, and computational approaches such as first principles density functional theory. The scientific goals of the project are achieved by a collaborative effort with the international partners, engaging students at all levels who, through their research experiences both at home and abroad, gain international research outlooks as well as understandings of cultural differences, by working on intriguing problems of mutual interest. A novel scientific journalism internship program based at Ohio University furthers the project's broader impacts.

  14. A new species of Tullbergia (Collembola, Tullbergiidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Martínez, Ana E. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Tullbergia from Argentina is described and illustrated; it is differentiated from Tullbergia paranensis by the number of vesicles of postantennal organ, pseudocelli shape and its formulae and the number of dorsal sensilla on Ant. IV. In addition a key for the identification of the members of the family from Argentina is included. PMID:25061344

  15. [Poverty, child malnutrition and morbidity in urban area families from Gran La Plata, Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1998-06-01

    A comparative study was carried out over two samples of 50 families each. Both groups belong to the low income social level from Gran La Plata. One of the groups was made up of families in which at least one child suffer malnutrition. The other group of families did not present children under malnutrition conditions. Differences sociodemographic, economic and environmental factors are identified. At the same time, a strong link between primary malnutrition and an increase in children morbility and mortality was found. The results obtained demonstrate that the lack of programmes that these cases deserve, have a high social and economic cost, as malnutrition treatment demand a higher budget than its prevention. PMID:9830490

  16. [Tertiary syphilis diagnosed in a psychiatric unit in Buenos Aires, XXI century].

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Omar A; Calicchio, Ada D; Loidl, Fabián; Presas, Lina

    2012-01-01

    It is a common belief that syphilis, since its effective treatment, is eradicated. However, because of failure prevention and control it is still present. Therefore, we describe what happened in our service with a young patient who was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of delusional syndrome with a history of multiple symptoms and signs that led him to wander around different specialties in many hospitals. Semiology led us to think of neurosyphilis which was confirmed by laboratory tests on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Due was then applied in addition to psychiatric treatment for syphilis, but despite this, the patient had a torpid evolution given the lateness of his picture. In this paper we wish to make a warning to doctors about the need to consider when framing neurosyphilis differential diagnosis and thus avoid the progression of the disease. PMID:23979549

  17. Land use effect on invertebrate assemblages in Pampasic streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solis, Marina; Mugni, Hernán; Hunt, Lisa; Marrochi, Natalia; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock may contribute to water quality degradation in adjacent waterbodies and produce changes in the resident invertebrate composition. The objective of the present study was to assess land use effects on the stream invertebrate assemblages in rural areas of the Argentine Pampa. The four sampling events were performed at six sites in four streams of the Pampa plain; two streams were sampled inside a biosphere reserve, and another one was surrounded by extensive livestock fields. The fourth stream was sampled at three sites; the upstream site was adjacent to agricultural plots, the following site was adjacent to an intensive livestock plot and the downstream site was adjacent to extensive breeding cattle plots. Higher pesticide concentrations were found at the site adjacent to agricultural plots and higher nutrient concentrations at the sites adjacent to agricultural and intensive breeding cattle plots. The invertebrate fauna were also different at these sites. Multivariate analysis showed a relationship between nutrient concentrations and taxonomic composition. Amphipoda (Hyalella curvispina) was the dominant group in the reserve and extensive breeding cattle sites, but was not present in the agricultural site. Also, Chironomidae were absent from the agricultural site while present at other sites. Gasteropoda (Biomphalaria peregrina), Zygoptera, and Hirudinea were dominant at the most impacted agricultural and intensive breeding cattle sites. PMID:27581006

  18. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect. PMID:23677681

  19. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  20. Knowing the enemy: ant behavior and control in a pediatric hospital of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Josens, Roxana; Sola, Francisco J; Marchisio, Nahuel; Di Renzo, María Agostina; Giacometti, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Ant control is difficult in systems even where a variety of control strategies and compounds are allowed; in sensitive places such as hospitals, where there are often restrictions on the methods and toxicants to be applied, the challenge is even greater. Here we report the methods and results of how we faced this challenge of controlling ants in a pediatric hospital using baits. Our strategy was based on identifying the species present and analyzing their behavior. On the one hand, we evaluated outdoors in the green areas of the hospital, the relative abundance of ant genera, their food preferences and the behavioral dominances. On the other hand, control treatments were performed using separately two boron compounds added to sucrose solution which was not highly concentrated to avoid constrains due to the viscosity. Most of the species in the food preference test accepted sugary food; only one species was recorded to visit it less than the protein foods. This result was consistent with the efficacy of control treatments by sugary baits within the rooms. For species that showed good acceptance of sugar solutions in the preference test outdoors, sugar bait control indoors was 100& effective. Conversely, for the only species that foraged significantly less on sugar food, the bait treatment was ineffective. This work reveals the importance of considering the behavior and feeding preferences of the species to be controlled by toxic baits. PMID:24855592

  1. [Amputations. A five-year epidemiological study in Buenos Aires City].

    PubMed

    Mendelevich, Alejandro; Kramer, Marcia; Maiarú, Mariano; Módica, Mariela; Ostolaza, Marco; Peralta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    An amputation is the removal of a limb by surgery or accident. The aim of this paper was to carry out an epidemiological analysis on patients with amputations treated at the Instituto de Rehabilitación Psicofísica between 2009 and 2013. This is a retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study. The analyzed data included a total of 262 patients: 180 men (68.7%) and 82 women (31.3%). Our population mainly included subjects with only one amputated lower limb (83.6%), of vascular etiology (mostly diabetics) and with an average age of 63.5 years. The second sample group comprised traumatic amputees (29.8%), with an average age of 37 years and with a higher frequency of phantom pain. The characteristics of these groups can make them to behave differently during rehabilitation. PMID:26707661

  2. Comparing International Student Friendship Networks in Buenos Aires: Direct Enrollment Programs vs. Study Abroad Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Blake

    2016-01-01

    In March of 2011 Unite States president Barack Obama announced the "100,000 strong in the Americas" program during his visit to Chile (U.S. State Department, 2011). The initiative's goal is to reach 100,000 U.S. students studying in Latin America and 100,000 Latin American students studying in the United States. This interchange of…

  3. [Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae) of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa) in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Armendano, Andrea; González, Alda

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species). Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%), Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33%) and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%). The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10%) and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%). Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32.99%); stalkers (11.77%) and ground-runners (10.84%) were less common. The most abundant web building spiders were the orb weavers (27.56%). The diversity indexes were: H'=2.97, Dsp=0.11 and J=0.79, evidencing a moderately diverse spider community with predominance of Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. The spiders were present throughout the phenological development of the crop with abundance peaks in spring and summer. PMID:20527473

  4. The importance of fracturing in the structure of the Pimenta-Bueno Basin (RO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouzapontes, Clayton; Veneziani, Paulo; Demattos, Juercio T.; Jimenezrueda, J. R.

    1990-05-01

    The Pimenta Bueno Sedimentary Basin is located in the Rondonia State, and is characterized as a graben. Although this tectonic configuration is accepted in the geological community, there is not much knowledge about the stratigraphy, structural patterns, and economic potential of the basin. The objective is to identify old crustal weakness lines which would have acted significantly during the subsidence and sedimentation processes. They could also have been responsible for the paleogeographic, sedimentologic, and tectono/structural controls of this basin. This research was carried out by the use of remote sensing products, in the scale of 1:250,000 (Radar mosaic and LANDSAT-TM images), as well as by the use of digital analysis techniques. According to the first results, the EW-N65W, N40-50W, NS-N10E, and N40-45E fracture trends are the main controlling structural features in the Pimenta Bueno Basin.

  5. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT STREET. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  6. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE WITH DOME OF THE INTERNATIONAL HOUSE AT 2299 PIEDMONT AVENUE. BY GEORGE W. KELHAM, 1929, SEEN FROM SW CORNER LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  7. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  8. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AT INTERSECTION OF DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  9. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  10. Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

  11. Reef facies distribution patterns, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation, Rio Bueno, Jamaica, W. I

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F. ); Hoyt, W.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed paleoecologic and sedimentologic studies of the well-exposed, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation from Rio Bueno, Jamaica, where undertaken to define both temporal and spatial changes in reef architecture. Analyses of samples reveal an overall shallowing - upwards motif and a distinct lateral zonation of reefal facies similar to those observed in Recent fringing-reef and bank-barrier reef complexes from the eastern and western sides of Discovery Bay, Jamaica, respectively. The Falmouth Formation that crops out on the eastern shore of Rio Bueno Harbor is continually exposed (north-south) for approximately 0.5 km in length. The top of the reef exposure is approximately +4.5 m above MSL. This height correlates directly with sea level maxima for the Sangamon in Jamaica based upon a wavecut notch in the Hopegate Formation at the top of the Falmouth onlap surface. Interpretation of these deposits indicates that no lagoon or back-reef facies were present and that there was a gradation of energy regimes from high-to-low, north-to-south within this true fringing reef complex. Detailed sedimentologic analysis of thin-sections from all the above lithologies confirms the aforementioned paleoenvironmental interpretations. This study emphasizes the usefulness of modern counterparts in Pleistocene reef analysis and interpretation, and allows for an understanding of temporal (vertical) and spatial (horizontal) variations due to both physical disturbance and local sea level history that are preserved in these reefal deposits.

  12. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of influenza A H1N1pdm virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrero, P R; Viegas, M; Valinotto, L E; Mistchenko, A S

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  16. Host plant selection of two Mansonia blanchard species (Diptera: Culicidae) in a heterogeneous habitat of Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo R; Torretta, Juan P; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2005-12-01

    Larvae and pupae of the genus Mansonia Blanchard attach to the roots of aquatic plants by means of modified structures to obtain oxygen. A study of the association of larval Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans with floating macrophytes was conducted at Macies Pond, Argentina. Fifty-four sampling units were taken from January to May 2003. Three genera of host plants were considered: Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia. A total of 402 immatures of Ma. indubitans and 217 of Ma. titillans were captured and associations between Mansonia immatures and roots of each genera were assesed. Significant association was noted between Ma. indubitans and certain host plant species (K-W H=42.74, df=2, p<0.001). The same result was observed for Ma. titillans (K-W H=23.42, df=2, p<0.001). Both Mansonia species utilized roots of P. stratiotes in significantly higher proportions than expected by random selection. Both species showed significant negative association with Salvinia spp., while no clear relationships were detected with L. laevigatum. PMID:16599153

  17. [The foundational myth of Argentinian homeopathy. The journal "Homeopatía," Buenos Aires (1933-1940)].

    PubMed

    González Korzeniewski, Manuel A

    2010-01-01

    The present article analyzes the historical-identitary construction in the older and most important institution of Homeopathy in Argentina. Two analytical axes are constructed: on the one hand, the construction of a foundational myth that outlines a genealogical thread between the "divinities" of the medicine, and on the other hand, the mitification of Hahnemann, founding father of the discipline. Using both axes we explain how the discourses of the journal were creating a symbolic support for the weak conjuncture in which they tried to be consolidated legally as an institution. PMID:21186698

  18. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  19. Something Old, Something New. Educational Inclusion and Head Teachers as Policy Actors and Subjects in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analía Inés

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, "'inclusion" has become a central target of national and provincial educational policy since the mid-2000s. Unlike in other countries, inclusion has been associated with the transformation of upper secondary schooling into a compulsory level of education, together with the effective integration of pupils from…

  20. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes. PMID:25586510

  1. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; García Martí, Sebastián; Souto, Alberto; Ferrante, Daniel; Augustovski, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE) is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk) and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity) were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years). To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod). Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$) per DALY for the different interventions were: (i) less salt in bread $151; (ii) mass media campaign $547; (iii) combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv) high blood pressure (HBP) lowering therapy $7,716; (v) tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv) high-cholesterol lowering therapy with statins $ 70,994. Conclusion Against a threshold of average per capita income in Argentina, the two selected population-based interventions (lowering salt intake and health education through mass-media campaigns) plus the modified polypill strategy targeting people with a 20% or greater risk were cost-effective. Use of this methodology in developing countries can make resource-allocation decisions less intuitive and more driven by evidence. PMID:19419570

  2. [Ultraviolet radiation impact on seasonal variations of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy young adults in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Constanzo, Pablo R; Elías, Natalia O; Kleiman Rubinsztein, Jessica; García Basavilbaso, Natalia X; Piacentini, Rubén; Salerni, Helena H

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight (ES) is the main source of vitamin D. There are few reports regarding the seasonal variations of serum 25(OH) vitamin D in young adults and its correlation with ultraviolet radiation dose (UVRd). Our aims were to determine 25OHD variations in young adults and assess the correlation between 25OHD levels, dietary calcium intake (DCI) and the UVRd. Eighty two healthy volunteers were prospectively studied: 42 women and 40 men. Serum 25OHD, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured at the end of winter and at the end of summer. ES and UVRd were determined hourly in winter and summer. Seasonal variation in serum 25OHD levels was observed with significantly higher levels in summer in both gender. Serum 25OHD <20 ng/ml was more frequently found in winter (42.6% in women and 50% in men). The ES and UVRd were significantly lower in winter vs. summer. ES and UVRd positively correlated with 25OHD only in winter in both men and women. DCI was lower than recommended and did not correlate with 25OHD levels. PMID:21893446

  3. [Biocultural study of infant malnutrition of primary cause in the urban setting of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1996-06-01

    The present study, of microsocial nature, attempts to recover the biology-culture unity in the analysis of child undernutrition. A sample was selected of 52 children with primary undernutrition and their families, from the population attending the Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit of La Plata Children Hospital. The specific index was used to measure the low socioeconomic level in families with undernourished children. The mothers were interviewed to obtain information on the perception and recognition of undernutrition. Observation and interviews to the medical staff were performed in ten centers of primary health care (PHC), in order to reveal the medical practices related to this problem. The results obtained showed that the studied families conjugated the most unfavorable life conditions within poverty. Children with adequate weight at birth were nutritionally affected between 3 and 18 months of age, leading to height disorders. The representations and practices sustained by the mothers, relating undernutrition to a popular disease named "pata de cabra" lead to limitations in treatment. In PHC centers, conceptual and operative limitations are recorded for its detection and early treatment. It is concluded that cultural factors present in the two most directly related agents to child health (the mother and the PHC center) do not allow to modify the environmental effects that prematurely affect the children of poverty. PMID:9239292

  4. Spatial and temporal trends of physicochemical parameters in the water of the Reconquista river (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Castañé, Patricia M; Rovedatti, María G; Topalián, Mirta L; Salibián, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    The Reconquista river is one of the most polluted watercourses in Argentina. More than 3 million people and over 10,000 industries are settled on its basin. The available data show that pollution is mainly related to the discharge of domestic and industrial liquid wastes that are poured into the river almost untreated. At present no site of the river can be characterized as free of pollutants. Samples were taken monthly from 5 sites of the river; some 18-20 physicochemical parameters were determined in each sample. Analyses revealed significant differences in the degree of deterioration between sites. Two of them, close to the source of the river (Cascallares-S(1) and Paso del Rey-S(2)) resulted less polluted than the two points located close to the mouth of the river (San Martin-S(4) and Bancalari-S(5)). The worsening of the water quality in S(4)-S(5) was attributed to the discharges of the Moron stream, a tributary that flows into the main course of the river a complex mixture of non treated waste waters. PCA was used in the ordination of samples (sites, season and physicochemical parameters). In the PCA performed using all variables, the first principal component showed positive correlation with N-NH(4) (+), conductivity, orthophosphate, BOD(5), COD and alkalinity, and negative correlation with DO. The second principal component was positively correlated with pH, temperature and chlorophyll a and negatively with phenols and hardness. In respect to the spatial distribution, the plot of the scores for the first two components of samples taken in each sampling station showed S(1) and S(2) values displayed farthest at the left side of the X axis with high DO. In contrast, S(4) and S(5) values stayed at the right side of this axis with high N-NH(4) (+), conductivity, orthophosphate, BOD(5), COD and alkalinity; data of S(3) were "intermediate". In order to identify seasonal trends in the concentration of contaminants scores of cases labeled by season were plotted. The line drawn on the ordination plane showed that summer samples tended to converge to the upper right portion of the graph where pollution variables had more importance on the first axis, and along the second axis with high correlation with pH, temperature and chlorophyll a. Winter scores were settled in the left lower part of the plot with minor contribution of pollution parameters and more importance of DO on the first axis. Samples of autumn and spring did not fit a clear cut pattern. PMID:16917703

  5. Commensal Rodents in the City of Buenos Aires: A Temporal, Spatial, and Environmental Analysis at the Whole City Level.

    PubMed

    Cavia, Regino; Muschetto, Emiliano; Cueto, Gerardo Rubén; Suárez, Olga Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Commensal rodents are some of the main vertebrate pests in urban areas; however, knowledge about factors that favor them at large scales is scarce. We studied spatial and temporal variations in rodent infestation levels at the whole city scale using the complaints of rodent sightings and questionnaire surveys to city neighbors. Demographic, socio-economic, and environmental characteristics handled with a geographic information system were evaluated as possible indicators of rodent infestation. The number of rodent sightings was lower in months with low mean temperature with two months time lag and higher in areas with high number of meat and metal industries. Rodent infestation estimated by the questionnaire survey showed spatial autocorrelation defining large areas with similar infestation levels. It decreased when the apartment density increased, while increased when the proportion of area occupied by shantytowns, the density of meat industries, and the proportion of area occupied by moderate urban development increased. Rodent control programs at the whole city level would have better results if public health pest agencies and/or governments will focus the efforts on areas with more precarious conditions as well as the industrial areas in the cold season when have lower rodent abundances. PMID:25681115

  6. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological based assessment of bottom sediments from the Luján River basin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Leticia; Bulus Rossini, Gustavo; Salibián, Alfredo; Ronco, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The physicochemical analysis of bottom sediments of the Lujan River was done on samples from 14 sites situated along its course and covered grain size and organic matter, total N and P, sulfides, heavy metals, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides. In addition, acute 10-day whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were carried with each sample, using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina as test organism. In order to correlate both types of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA). The physicochemical profile of samples resulted similar along the river course, though several anomalous data were registered in the middle course of the river, mainly in samples taken downstream a large industrial complex; with a few exceptions in upper basin sites characterized by the dominance of agricultural activities, the pesticides concentration were consistently below the analytical detection limits. Almost 50% of the samples induced adverse effects on the amphipod when testing sublethal and lethal end points. The toxicity of the samples in terms of survival rate was extremely high in two sites, in particular in samples taken downstream the Pilar industrial complex. The integration of a selection of physicochemical and toxicological parameters of the sediments by PCA allowed discriminating areas of the river basin according the type and intensity of their particular pollution condition. PMID:23179726

  7. The Linguistic Experience of Italians in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1890-1914: Language Shift as Seen through Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano-McGreevy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    From 1890-1914, Argentina received a large influx of Italian immigrants who wanted to "hacer la América," or live the American dream of economic prosperity. With Italian immigrants representing nearly half of all immigrants entering Argentina, the government strived to create a new sense of Argentine pride and nationalism. The objective…

  8. Water quality of the Luján river, a lowland watercourse near the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Castañé, Patricia M; Sánchez-Caro, Aníbal; Salibián, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Luján river is a lowland watercourse which runs 130 km before flowing into the Río de la Plata Estuary, and receives a mixture of domestic and industrial wastewaters originating at its margins. In order to know the physicochemical profile of its surface water, 36 physical-chemical variables were analyzed in samples collected seasonally between 2004 and 2006 at three sampling stations. The results obtained through the principal component analysis (PCA) suggest that the variations in water quality are explained by natural components (soluble salts; metals), nonpoint inputs (nutrients), and anthropogenic (organic and bacterial) and industrial (toxic heavy metals) pollutants. The cases did not fit a clear spatial or seasonal pattern when plotted against the first two PCA axes. The three water quality indices calculated gave middle scores; Sampling station 1 gave a baseline for the comparison of the river's water quality along its course while Sampling station 3 (downriver) was the most degraded. A variety of pollution pulses reach and affect the watercourse downstream. Cities' sewage discharges into the river seem to be the major polluting factor, together with natural metals and other solutes loads that are present from the headwaters. The results may be useful for the development of local and regional mitigation and remediation programs regarding toxic and eutrophying loads in the upper basin of the river. PMID:26407859

  9. Atmospherically-induced water oscillations detected in the port of Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, Walter C.; D'Onofrio, Enrique E.; Grismeyer, Walter; Fiore, Monica M. E.; Campos, María Inés

    Sea level data gathered at Quequén, corresponding to the four most energetic events detected in 1982, are analyzed and compared with simultaneous sea level data recorded at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations at these locations are generally superposed to low-amplitude oscillations (“background”) which are one or two order of magnitude lower than the first ones. Background at Quequén is characterized by a broadband energy spectrum with maximum energy around 17-35 min. During energetic events at Quequén, the spectral peaks are situated between 0.8 and 4.0 cph (15-75 min) and wavelet analysis shows intermittent activity of large-amplitude waves (they show up irregularly during short lapses of 100-200 min long, approximately). The computed ratios between sea level variances of the active event and the preceding background at Quequén, Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata apparently do not have a relationship among locations nor events. Such noticeable variability in the spectral peak positions, variances and ratios could likely be related to the celerity, amplitude, direction and period of atmospheric gravity waves in the region. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations are always firstly observed at Quequén and, subsequently further north, at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, respectively. Maximum amplitudes detected for each event at these different locations are very similar. These results support that atmospherically-induced large-amplitude sea-level oscillations (generated on the continental shelf) would enter the port of Quequén through its narrow mouth while they propagate towards Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, where they show up in tidal records some hours later.

  10. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  11. Calcium carbonate budgets for two coral reefs affected by different terrestrial runoff regimes, Rio Bueno, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallela, J.; Perry, C. T.

    2007-03-01

    A process-based carbonate budget was used to compare carbonate framework production at two reef sites subject to varying degrees of fluvial influence in Rio Bueno, Jamaica. The turbid, central embayment was subjected to high rates of fluvial sediment input, framework accretion was restricted to ≤30 m, and net carbonate production was 1,887 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1. Gross carbonate production (GCP) was dominated by scleractinians (97%), particularly by sediment-resistant species, e.g. Diploria strigosa on the reef flat (<2 m). Calcareous encrusters contributed very little carbonate. Total bioerosion removed 265 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 and was dominated by microborers. At the clear-water site, net carbonate production was 1,236 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1; the most productive zone was on the fore-reef (10 m). Corals accounted for 82% of GCP, and encrusting organisms 16%. Bioerosion removed 126 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 and was dominated by macroborers. Total fish and urchin grazing was limited throughout (≤20 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1). The study demonstrates that: (1) carbonate production and net reef accretion can occur where environmental conditions approach or exceed perceived threshold levels for coral survival; and (2) although live coral cover (and carbonate production rates) were reduced on reef-front sites along the North Jamaican coast, low population densities of grazing fish and echinoids to some extent offset this, thus maintaining positive carbonate budgets.

  12. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  15. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  17. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  18. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  19. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  1. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  2. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  3. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  4. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  5. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  6. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  7. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  8. [Quali-quantitative study of the social variables defining transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Andrea; Tagliabue, Paula; Berro, Lorena; De Carolis, Darío; Sinchi, Anabel; Digilio, Clara; Enria, Delia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the post-vaccination period (2001-2010). The study was made up of three phases. The first consisted of a quantitative analysis using the database of the Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui National Institute of Human Viral Diseases [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas] regarding the confirmed cases in the period of study (221 cases). Taking into account the transmission site and the known endemic area, cases were grouped into three hypothetical transmission scenarios, identified as: a) classical, b) emerging-reemerging, c) traveling. In the second phase, in order to test these hypotheses, in-depth interviews were carried out from August to September 2011 within an intentionally selected sample of patients distributed proportionally among the three hypotheses. Finally, in the third stage, the data obtained for each hypothetical scenario were grouped into three spatiotemporal scales: the microscale (subject), the mesoscale (locality) and macroscale (region). The results show that new transmission sites are associated with the social dynamics of cereal production and port-bound routes. PMID:25237798

  9. Constraints and changes in the development of science and technology policies in Argentina's University of Buenos Aires and the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Armando

    1999-06-01

    This dissertation is a comparison of the effects of structural adjustment on scientific and technological policies in two of the largest and most important universities of Latin America, UBA and UNAM. In its broadest sense, scientific and technological policies encompass a set of interventions, decisions, and activities of different institutions within a given society aimed to hinder or stimulate the progress of scientific research, and the application of its products to socioeconomic, political, cultural or military objectives. The methodological approach for this dissertation aimed to combine data collected at both the macro and micro levels. First, a profound examination of different bibliographical sources such as books, articles, and documents of different kinds (policy papers, national plans, and working papers), was carried out. Secondly, a series of interviews were conducted with scientists in some of the natural sciences' research centers and institutes, academic administrators and top officials of the S&T government agencies, in Argentina and Mexico, The main goal of these interviews was to understand the institutional dynamics as it was shaped by actors and processes, outside and within the two universities. This study found that the structural adjustment process in Argentina and Mexico has negatively affected the S&T policies in both UBA and UNAM. Local S&T played a original role in the two universities under scrutiny. Investments in science and technology have remained significantly low in Argentina and Mexico. In addition to this, the small amount of scientific personnel, the predominantly public characteristic of S&T funds, and the reduced number of doctoral graduates resulted in low levels of scientific output as compared with the number of publications in international scientific literature. A predominant academic orientation with few contributions to societal needs, either related to the productive sectors or to social problems such as pollution, energy, food, and health, among others, was also seen. A coherent and articulated S&T policy linking the university, the state, and the productive sectors, could only be achieved if it is included in a different economic strategy that would go beyond the limitations of the neoliberal model.

  10. Atomic and molecular data for space astronomy - Needs, analysis, and availability; 21st IAU General Assembly, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 23-Aug. 1, 1991, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L. (Editor); Wiese, Wolfgang L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on atomic and molecular spectroscopic data for space astrophysics discusses scientific problems and laboratory data needs associated with the Hubble Space Telescope, atomic data needed for far ultraviolet astronomy with HUT and FUSE and for analysis of EUV and X-ray spectra, and data for observations of interstellar medium with the Hubble Space Telescope. Attention is also given to atomic and molecular data for analysis of IR spectra from ISO and SIRTF, atomic data from the opacity project, sources of atomic spectroscopic data for astrophysics, and summary of current molecular data bases.