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Sample records for buffalo bubalus bubalus

  1. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  2. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis. PMID:12760663

  3. Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Claveria, F G; Cruz, M J

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts obtained from Philippine water buffaloes revealed the presence of the commonly reported macroscopic species, Sarcocystis fusiformis, and the microscopic species Sarcocystis levinei (Dissanaike A, Kan S. Studies on Sarcocystis in Malaysia. I: Sarcocystis levinei n.sp. from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Z Parasitenkd 1978;55:127-38), (Huong L, Dubey J, Uggla A. Redescription of Sarcocystis levinei Dissanaike and Kan, 1978 (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol 1997;83:1148-52). The globular to oval microscopic cysts commonly observed in the muscles of the diaphragm and neck exhibit compartmentalized arrangement of zoites with septal partitions and measure 13-48 microns in diameter. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of sarcocyst bears minute and hair-like villar protrusions measuring 2.3-2.75 microns long emanating at certain distances from the primary cyst wall and lack microfilaments. Villar protrusions have expanded to dome-shaped base measuring 0.33-1.6 microns long by 0.22-1.0 micron wide, and intermediate and tapering distal segments bent approximately 90 degrees and run parallel to the cyst surface. The distal segments at some areas join to form conical tufts. The primary cyst wall bears numerous prominent undulations that are arranged in small clusters. The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. PMID:11227764

  4. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  5. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation. PMID:26298507

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ashmawy, Karam I; Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ghashir, Mohamed Bn

    2014-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among slaughtered water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at Alexandria province, Egypt. Three hundred blood samples were collected from slaughtered buffaloes (5-7 years old). Two techniques were used to evaluate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). It was revealed that 203 (67.6 %) and 191 (63.6 %) of the tested serum samples were seropositive to Sarcocystis spp. by ELISA and IHA, respectively. The results of sensitivity and specificity of IHA relative to ELISA were 94 and 100 %, respectively. For molecular characterization of inter- and intra-species genetic polymorphism within Egyptian isolates of Sarcocystis spp. of water buffaloes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) were performed on four macroscopic isolates. The isolates represented two different geographical regions of Egypt, Alexandria and Assuit provinces. Alexandria isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) and Assuit isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) were used. The 18S rDNA of the macroscopic cysts were characterized, in tandem, by four restriction endonucleases, RsaI, MboI, SspI and DraI. RsaI and MboI enzymes did not show any restriction sites for all isolates, leaving the amplified fragments without cutting. SspI showed two fragments in Alexandria and Assuit small-sized isolates cut by the enzyme at 600-700-bp fragments, while Alexandria and Assuit large-sized cysts amplicons were not digested by this enzyme. The fourth enzyme, DraI, cut the PCR product of Alexandria large-sized cysts into two fragments (420-780 bp), while Assuit large-sized amplicon was not cut. It could be concluded that there was a far distance between the two local isolates (small and large sized), but there were no differences between the large-sized isolates. PMID

  7. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be

  8. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  9. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  10. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  11. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (< 1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes.

  12. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E

    2014-05-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-05-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  16. Buffalo (Bubalus bubali) Late Embryo and Foetus Development: A Morphological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morini, A C; Pieri, Ncg; Roballo, Kcs; Martins, D S; Ambrósio, C E; Morini Junior, J C; Favaron, P O; Minervino, Ahh; Pereira, Fvt; Miglino, M A

    2016-08-01

    Many researches describe the embryonic developmental features in domestic animals; however, in farm animals, they are scarce. Most farm animal studies are related to assisted reproduction and embryos transfer techniques. But, morphological features and size measure to estimate the age gestation are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in this study, we described the developmental changes in the bubaline (Bubalus bubali) concepts from 21 to 60 days of gestation. Our results revealed that buffalo embryos similar morphological characteristics similar to other mammalian species. Also, similarities between bovine and bubaline persist; except on foetal stages when buffalos have a faster development than bovine. Therefore, buffalo's gestation period exhibits some varieties and accurate embryo age is more difficult. Yet, when we use a combination of the crown-rump, macroscopic analysis and alizarin red, it is possible to describe better the whole embryogenesis stages of the buffalo and which can contribute for future reproduction researches and applications in veterinary practice. PMID:27272250

  17. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis among buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Namakkal, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, P; Jagadeswaran, D; Manoharan, R; Giri, T; Balasubramaniam, G A; Balachandran, P

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from 206 apparently healthy buffaloes of marginal farmers maintained under the prevailing field conditions were screened for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) to determine its prevalence and etiology by White Side Test (WST), California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Bacteriological examination. 26.20% of animals were positive for SCM in SCC and bacteriological examination. Prevalence in graded Murrah buffaloes were found to be higher compared to graded Surti and Non-descript breeds. The prevalence of SCM was highest in above 6th stage of lactation. Single quarter infection (51.85%) was more common compared to multiple quarter infection. Hind (83.34%) and left side (57.41%) quarters were more prone to SCM. The indirect tests such as WST and CMT were found to be closely agreement with SCC and bacteriological examination. Due to their efficacious, easy to perform and interpret, these tests can effectively be employed to detect SCM under field conditions. Somatic cell count of = 3,00,000/mL of milk was regarded as the upper limit for normal buffaloes. The SCC of = 3,00,000/mL of milk with positive bacterial growth were used to diagnose SCM in the present study. Staphylococcus sp. 25 (46.30%) was the most common pathogens isolated from SCM followed by Streptococcus sp. 11 (20.37%) and E. coli 06 (11.11%) of the 54 bacterial isolates. Monobacterial and mixed bacterial infections were observed in 47 (87.04%) and 7 (12.96%) cases respectively. PMID:24506047

  18. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  19. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  20. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M

    1999-01-01

    Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926

  1. Detection of prion gene promoter and intron1 indel polymorphisms in Anatolian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oztabak, K; Ozkan, E; Soysal, I; Paya, I; Un, C

    2009-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disease caused by miss folded prion protein. Studies in the cattle, comparing genetic data from BSE diseased and healthy animals have shown that indel polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of PRNP gene were associated with disease susceptibility. Several studies were conducted to find out allele and genotypic frequencies of indel polymorphisms in promoter and intron 1 of the cattle PRNP gene. Unlike domestic cattle and bison, no indel polymorphisms of the PRNP promoter and intron 1 were examined in any population of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Aim of this study was to analyse frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms (23 bp indel in promoter and 12 bp indel in intron 1) in prion protein coding gene (PRNP) of water buffalo. Therefore a PCR based procedure, previously used in cattle to detect indel polymorphisms of PRNP promoter and intron 1 locus, was applied to 106 Anatolian water buffalo DNAs. Our results have revealed high frequency of in variants and in23/in12 haplotype for PRNP promoter and intron 1 indel polymorphisms in water buffalo. The results of the study have demonstrated that frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms in PRNP gene of the Anatolian water buffalo are significantly different those from cattle and bison PRNP indel polymorphisms. PMID:19912420

  2. Analysis of rumen methanogen diversity in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) under three different diets.

    PubMed

    Franzolin, Raul; St-Pierre, Benoit; Northwood, Korinne; Wright, André-Denis G

    2012-07-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a prominent livestock species for the production of milk and meat in many countries. We investigated the diversity of rumen methanogens in Mediterranean water buffaloes maintained in Brazil under different diets: corn silage, grazing pasture, or sugar cane. A total of 467 clones were isolated from three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries that each represented a distinct feed type. The 467 clones were assigned to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Four OTUs were represented in all three libraries, eight OTUs were library-specific, six OTUs were found in only the corn silage and pasture grazing libraries, and one OTU was shared only between pasture grazing and sugar cane libraries. We found that Methanobrevibacter-related sequences were the most abundant in the water buffaloes sampled for our analysis, in contrast to previously reported studies showing that Methanomicrobium mobile-like methanogens were the most abundant methanogens in water buffaloes of Murrah and Surti breeds sampled in India. Considering the worldwide distribution of water buffaloes and the likely wide variety of diets provided, our results combined with studies from other groups support that larger scope analyses of microbiomes for this livestock species would provide great insight into the contribution of geographical location, breed, and diet in determining the population structure of rumen microorganisms. PMID:22286379

  3. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  4. Clinical and ultrasonographic observations of functional and mechanical intestinal obstruction in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Khalphallah, Arafat; Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; Elmeligy, Enas; El-Hawari, Sayed F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed for clinical and laboratory evaluation of intestinal obstruction (IO) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of ultrasonographic findings. Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into 2 groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased group (n=20). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, abdominal pain, various degrees of abdominal distention, and absence or presence of scanty mucoid faces. These animals were subjected to clinical and ultrasonographic as well as laboratory examinations. Results: Based on ultrasonographic findings, various forms of IO were diagnosed. Functional obstruction, paralytic ileus, was diagnosed in 17 cases (85%) while mechanical IO was diagnosed only in 3 cases (15%). Out of 17 cases of paralytic ileus, both proximal and distal ileuses were successfully imaged in 8 and 9 cases, respectively. Proximal ileus was imaged from the right dorsal flank region as a single dilated loop of diameter >6 cm, while distal ileus was imaged as multiple dilated loops of diameter <6 cm. Mechanical obstruction due to duodenal intussusception was visualized as two concentric rings with outer echogenic wall and hypoechoic lumen. All cases of IO showed leukocytosis, hypoproteinemia, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusion: Ultrasonography proved to be an essential tool for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various forms of IO in buffaloes. PMID:27284223

  5. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  6. Embryonic and fetal mortality in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    River buffalo are able to adapt to diverse climatic zones and are widespread globally. The resource use efficiency of buffalo is highly relevant in a resource-constrained world and the increasing requirement to produce more food. Buffalo clearly have an important role in meeting the growing demand for animal protein. In the Mediterranean and higher latitudes, buffalo show annual cycles of ovarian activity, embryonic development, and pregnancy rate. In buffalo, the CL starts to develop early in the cycle, and there is also an early increase in concentrations of progesterone (P4) in circulation. This appears to be necessary for optimal embryonic development. The failure to establish a pregnancy in buffalo can occur before Day 21 (early embryonic mortality), from Day 21 to 45 (late embryonic mortality), and from Day 46 to 90 (fetal mortality) after mating. Treatment with P4, hCG, and GnRH on Day 5 after mating increases P4 in circulation and reduces early embryonic mortality in circumstances where concentrations of P4 are relatively low. The same treatments applied on Day 20 to 25 after mating can lower the occurrence of late embryonic mortality and fetal mortality. PMID:27142486

  7. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  8. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration. PMID:18422253

  9. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  10. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  11. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. PMID:23886616

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium after administration to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Nie, Haiying; Feng, Xin; Peng, Jianbo; Liang, Liu; Lu, Chunyan; Tiwari, Roshan V; Tang, Shusheng; He, Jiakang

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). ANIMALS 5 healthy adult water buffalo (3 males and 2 nonlactating females). PROCEDURES All animals received a dose (2.2 mg/kg) of 3 ceftiofur products (2 commercially available suspensions of ceftiofur hydrochloride [CEF1 and CEF2, IM] and ceftiofur sodium [CEF3, IV]). Blood samples were collected for up to 196 hours. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated on the basis of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters, except for bioavailability and the area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, were significantly different between the 2 products administered IM. Mean ± SD bioavailability of CEF1 and CEF2 was 89.57 ± 32.84% and 86.28 ± 11.49%, respectively, which indicated good absorption of both products. In addition, there was a longer drug residence time for CEF1 than for CEF2. Data analysis for CEF1 revealed a flip-flop phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was good absorption of CEF1, and CEF1 had a longer drug residence time in vivo than did CEF2. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, a dosage regimen of 2.2 mg/kg administered at 48- and 36-hour intervals for CEF1 and CEF2, respectively, could be an appropriate choice for the treatment of buffalo with infectious diseases. PMID:27227504

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S; Khan, M A; Wilson, D B; Akhtar, M W

    2007-02-01

    Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described. Coding, non-coding, and promoter regions of BbST were amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed several silent and two interesting point mutations on comparison with STs of other vertebrate species. One interesting variation in the BbST sequence was the replacement of a conserved glutamine residue by arginine. A plasmid was also constructed for the production of BbST in Escherichia coli BL21 (RIPL) CodonPlus, under the control of IPTG-inducible T7-lac promoter. High-level expression could be obtained by synthesizing a codon-optimized ST gene and expressing it in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies represented over 20% of the E. coli cellular proteins. The biologically active conformation of purified BbST was confirmed by its efficient growth promoting activity in Nb2 cell proliferation assay. The expression system and purification strategy employed promise to be a useful approach to produce BbST for further use in structure-function studies and livestock industry. PMID:17367293

  14. Transcriptional Dynamics of Homeobox C11 Gene in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Leena; Pathak, Deepali; Sehgal, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    The Hox complex contains 39 genes clustered into four groups involved in cell differentiation and development. We cloned full-length sequence of Hoxc11 gene from water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, assessed its copy number, localized the same onto the chromosome 5, and studied its evolutionary conservation across the species. Northern hybridization of Hoxc11 showed a 2.2 kb band in the tissues analyzed. Real-Time PCR showed highest expression of Hoxc11 gene in lung followed by spleen, spermatozoa, and testis. Six interacting partners of this gene showed higher expression in spleen, lung, testis, and spermatozoa. During the early stages of development, Hoxc11 and its interacting partners both showed lower expression, which then became prominent during the age of 1–3 years, regressed drastically thereafter, and remained so until the animal's life time (∼20 years). The high expression of Hoxc11 and its interacting partners in spermatozoa and testis during the onset of puberty suggests its likely role in the differentiation of gonads and subsequent reproductive activities. Additional work on Hoxc11 especially, in the context of respiratory, immunological, and in/fertility in other species, including humans would be useful for establishing its broader biological significance towards the enrichment of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:25760398

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Fang; Huang, Yu-Lin; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP), N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2), and gem-associated protein (GEMIN)8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1), heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71), hemoglobin subunit α (HBA), and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K), were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes. PMID:26784167

  16. Saliva ferning, an unorthodox estrus detection method in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ravinder, R; Kaipa, Onnureddy; Baddela, Vijay Simha; Singhal Sinha, Eshu; Singh, Prashant; Nayan, Varij; Velagala, Chandra Sekhar Naidu; Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2016-09-15

    Estrus detection is a major problem in buffalo husbandry because of inconsistent expression of estrous signs at different seasons, and a high prevalence of the silent heat and postpartum anestrus in this species. Around 50% of the estrus events in buffaloes are currently undetected in the field conditions, resulting in a huge economic loss. Although the cervicovaginal fluid fern patterns confirm the estrus for a breeding decision, the fluid discharge is absent during the silent-heat condition. Therefore, the present study focused on the crystallization patterns of the saliva as an alternative method for estrus detection in buffaloes. Saliva is a body fluid available regularly, and its ferning ability before ovulation was established in women. In this study, eight female nonpregnant Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were considered during two experimental periods of 3 months each. One period was in summer with five animals, and another period was in rainy season with three animals. Estrus was determined by the estrus symptoms, ovarian ultrasonography, and salivary estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) ratio. A total of 450 saliva samples were collected from these animals on the daily basis. The salivary smear was prepared with 20 μL of the cell-free saliva on a clean glass slide, and its microscopic images were captured at a magnification of × 200. The images were used for fractal analysis as the salivary crystallization or fern patterns follow the fractal geometry. Saliva at estrus showed a typical symmetrical fern-like crystallization patterns with significantly (P < 0.05) lower fractal dimension values. Salivary estradiol levels and E2/P4 ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the estrus stage than those at the diestrus stage. An average period of an estrous cycle was 21.7 ± 2.7 days (n = 18 estrous cycles) in buffaloes on the basis of distinct salivary crystallization patterns. The proportion of estrus detection by the salivary fern patterns

  17. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  18. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hilali, M; Van Wilpe, E; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Abdel-Wahab, A

    2015-02-01

    Four valid species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis buffalonis, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis dubeyi. Here, we redescribe structure of S. fusiformis sarcocysts by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Twenty-one macroscopic sarcocysts from oesophagus of the water buffalo in Egypt were examined by light microscopy, SEM and TEM. The sarcocyst wall was up to 9 μm thick, depending on the section and the technique. In 5 μm paraffin-embedded sections, the sarcocyst wall was indistinct, 2-5 μm thick and appeared smooth. In 1 μm plastic-embedded sections stained with toluidine blue, the sarcocyst wall was 2.5-5.2 μm thick and had branched villar protrusions (vp)-like branches of a dead tree. By SEM, the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped vp that were folded over the sarcocyst wall. On each vp there were uniform papillomatous structures that were 100 nm wide. By TEM, vp were up to 6 μm long and contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections; granules were absent from these tubules. By TEM, bradyzoites within the same cyst varied from 11.2 to 16.8 μm in length. By TEM, bradyzoites had a very long (10 μm) convoluted mitochondrion, up to 12 dense granules, but only 2 rhoptries. This redescription should help to differentiate the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis from similar sarcocysts in domestic and wild ruminants. PMID:25111676

  19. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  20. Plasma and milk kinetic of eprinomectin and moxidectin in lactating water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes. PMID:18774650

  1. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  2. The use of crossreactive monoclonal antibodies to characterize the immune system of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Davis, W C; Khalid, A M; Hamilton, M J; Ahn, J S; Park, Y H; Cantor, G H

    2001-08-01

    One of the major difficulties in studying the mechanisms of host defense in economically important species indigenous to Asia and the Middle East is the lack of monoclonal antibody (mAb) reagents that define the immune systems of species other than cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs. One strategy that could obviate this problem at minimal cost is to identify existing mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and leukocyte differentiation molecules. To explore the potential of this approach, we screened a large set of mAbs that recognize bovine MHC class I and II molecules and leukocyte differentiation molecules to identify mAbs that react with orthologous molecules in water buffalo. One hundred thirty eight were found that recognize conserved determinants on orthologous molecules. In addition to identifying a useful set of reagents, the study has provided insight into the composition of the immune system of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). PMID:14614279

  3. Pathogenic 'Bison-type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, D; Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Sevilla, I; Juste, R A; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2008-07-01

    Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and large intestine) by culture and IS 900 PCR, in 50 sacrificed buffaloes. Indigenous ELISA kit originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in buffaloes and used to estimate sero-presence of Map in 167 serum samples representing population of buffaloes in Agra region of North India. In culture, 48.0% buffaloes were positive from 50 tissues each from mesenteric lymph nodes (34.0%) and large intestine (36.0%). IS 900 PCR was standardized using specific primers (150 C and 921) and 229 bp-amplified product was characteristic for Map. Of the 25 mesenteric lymph nodes, 40.0% were positive in IS 900 PCR. Genomic DNA from Map cultures was successfully amplified from all the 24 isolates (100.0%). Map was further genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Culture of tissues showed high presence of Map in target tissues, despite high culling rate in buffalos in view of high demand of buffalo meat. Specific tissue-PCR provided rapid confirmation of Map infection in sacrificed buffaloes. In tissue-PCR, all the cultures were positive as compared to 40.0% detected directly from tissues. ELISA kit using indigenous protoplasmic antigen was highly sensitive as compared to commercial antigen in detecting Map infection therefore, could be used as 'Herd Screening Test' in buffaloes against Johne's disease. This pilot study first time reports a highly pathogenic 'Bison-type' genotype of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of Agra region in North India. PMID:17804069

  4. Identification and genetic characterization of rabies virus from Egyptian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox.

    PubMed

    El-Tholoth, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Hamed, Mohamed F

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is caused by negative strand RNA-virus classified in the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze nucleotides sequence of nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus (RABV) from two cases of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox in Egypt, 2013. The diseased buffaloes showed nervous manifestations with fever. Specimens from brains of the buffaloes with suspected rabies were collected. RABV in collected samples was identified using direct fluorescent antibody (dFA) technique, histopathological examination and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, nucleotides sequence of partially amplified nucleoprotein (N) gene was compared with the other street strains of RABV available on GenBank. The results revealed that RABV antigen was identified in the brains of diseased buffaloes by dFA technique and the characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies) and RABV nucleic acid were detected by histopathology and RT-PCR, respectively. The identified virus showed close genetic relationship with street strains identified previously from dogs in different Governorates in Egypt and with strains identified in Israel and Jordan indicating transmission of the virus between Egyptian Governorates with a potential transmission from and/or to our neighboring countries. PMID:26396980

  5. Isolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Barbato, O; Sousa, N M; Klisch, K; Clerget, E; Debenedetti, A; Barile, V L; Malfatti, A; Beckers, J F

    2008-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As determined by western blotting with anti-PAG sera, the apparent molecular masses of the immunoreactive bands from the VVA peaks range from 59.5 to 75.8kDa and from 57.8 to 73.3kDa in the midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas, respectively. Amino-terminal microsequencing of the immunoreactive proteins has allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences, which have been deposited in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYVG (acc. no. P85048), RGSXLTILPLRNIID (acc. no. P85049), and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (acc. no. P85050). Their comparison to previously identified proteins has shown that two of them are new because they have not been described before. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography for the enrichment of the multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. PMID:18308351

  6. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines

  7. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetal fibroblasts with buffalo defined factors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanfei; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Chen, Shibei; Li, Xiangping; Wang, Caizhu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lei, Xiaocan; Zhang, Huina; Sun, Hongliang; Lu, Fenghua; Jiang, Jianrong; Shi, Deshun

    2012-09-01

    Ectopically, expression of defined factors could reprogram mammalian somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which initiates a new strategy to obtain pluripotent stem cell lines. Attempts have been made to generate buffalo pluripotent stem cells by culturing primary germ cells or inner cell mass, but the efficiency is extremely low. Here, we report a successful method to reprogram buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) into pluripotent stem cells [buffalo induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSCs)] by transduction of buffalo defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) using retroviral vectors. The established biPSCs displayed typical morphological characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, normal karyotype, positive staining of alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, E-Cadherin, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, STAT3, and FOXD3. They could form embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas after injecting into the nude BALB/C mice, and 3 germ layers were identified in the EBs and teratomas. Methylation assay revealed that the promoters of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated in biPSCs compared with BFFs and pre-biPSCs, while the promoters of Sox2 and E-Cadherin were hypomethylated in both BFFs and biPSCs. Further, inhibiting p53 expression by coexpression of SV40 large T antigen and buffalo defined factors in BFFs or treating BFFs with p53 inhibitor pifithrin-a (PFT) could increase the efficiency of biPSCs generation up to 3-fold, and nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with biPSCs could develop to blastocysts. These results indicate that BFFs can be reprogrammed into biPSCs by buffalo defined factors, and the generation efficiency of biPSCs can be increased by inhibition of p53 expression. These efforts will provide a feasible approach for investigating buffalo stem cell signal pathways, establishing buffalo stem cell lines, and producing genetic modification buffaloes in the future. PMID:22420535

  8. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive performance and blood biochemical profile in lactating Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P < 0.05) in T(3) (14.21) than that of T(1) (9.83) and similar with T(2) (11.05). Feed efficiency (milk yield/kg DMI) was higher (P < 0.05) in group T(3) (0.51) than that of T(1) (0.38) and T(2) (0.41) indicating that buffaloes fed with bypass fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P < 0.01) in bypass fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P < 0.05) than LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes. PMID:22373930

  9. Efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of ovulation and fixed-time artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Prakash, B S

    2005-09-15

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the timing and synchrony of ovulation, plasma LH concentrations, and pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) treated with the Ovsynch (GnRH-PGF(2 alpha)-GnRH) protocol. In Experiment 1, 10 non-lactating cycling buffaloes received 10 microg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (buserelin acetate) without regard to the stage of the estrous cycle (day of treatment, day 0), followed by 25mg of PGF(2 alpha) i.m. (dinoprost thromethamine) 7 days later. A second-treatment of the same GnRH analogue (10 microg, i.m.) was given 48 h after PGF(2 alpha). Ovulation was confirmed by transrectal palpation (at 2-h intervals) from the second-GnRH treatment to detection of ovulation or up to 96 h after the second-GnRH treatment. Plasma LH concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 15-min intervals for 6h, starting at the second-GnRH treatment, and thereafter at 2-h intervals until 2h after detection of ovulation. Ovulation occurred in 9/10 buffalo (90%) 23.3+/-1.3h (mean+/-S.E.M.; range 20--32 h) after the second-GnRH treatment. Peak LH concentrations 13.5+/-3.5 ng/mL (range 3.9--40.0 ng/mL) occurred 2.1+/-0.1h (range 1.2-3.0 h) after the second-GnRH treatment. In Experiment 2, 15 lactating, cycling buffaloes were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol, with fixed-time AI 12 and 24h after the second-GnRH treatment and 75 lactating buffaloes were inseminated, approximately 12h after detection of spontaneous estrus. Pregnancy rates were 33.3% for TAI and were 30.7% for buffaloes inseminated following spontaneous estrus (P=0.84). In conclusion, the Ovsynch protocol effectively synchronized ovulation in Murrah buffaloes and resulted in conception rates (to two fixed-time inseminations) that were comparable to those achieved with a single AI after detection of spontaneous estrus. PMID:16125551

  10. Genetic differentiation of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations in China, Nepal and south-east Asia: inferences on the region of domestication of the swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Vankan, D; Zhang, Y; Barker, J S F

    2011-08-01

    Data from three published studies of genetic variation at 18 microsatellite loci in water buffalo populations in China (18 swamp type, two river type), Nepal (one wild, one domestic river, one hybrid) and south-east Asia (eight swamp, three river) were combined so as to gain a broader understanding of genetic relationships among the populations and their demographic history. Mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities were significantly different among populations. Estimates of θ (a measure of population differentiation) were significant among the swamp populations for all loci and among the river populations for most loci. Differentiation among the Chinese swamp populations (which was due primarily to just one population) was much less than among the south-east Asian. The Nepal wild animals, phenotypically swamp type but genetically like river type, are significantly different from all the domestic river populations and presumably represent the ancestral Bubalus arnee (possibly with some river-type introgression). Relationships among the swamp populations (D(A) genetic distances, principal component analysis and structure analyses) show the south-east Asian populations separated into two groups by the Chinese populations. Given these relationships and the patterns of genetic variability, we postulate that the swamp buffalo was domesticated in the region of the far south of China, northern Thailand and Indochina. Following domestication, it spread south through peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, and north through China, and then to Taiwan, the Philippines and Borneo. PMID:21749419

  11. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  12. High genetic diversity and distribution of Bubu-DQA alleles in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis carabanesis): identification of new Bubu-DQA loci and haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S K; Niranjan, S K; Banerjee, B; Dubey, P K; Gonge, D S; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S

    2016-07-01

    In this study, genetic diversity analysis of MHC class II-DQA locus helped in identification of 25 new Bubu-DQA nucleotide sequences in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis carabanesis, Bubu). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the distribution of the buffalo DQA sequences in two major clusters of DQA1 and DQA2 genes, sharing common lineages with corresponding cattle alleles, possibly due to trans-species evolution. However, a highly divergent sequence, Bubu-DQA*2501, homologous to cattle (BoLA) DQA3 allele, was identified, indicating the existence of an additional locus; putative DQA3 in buffalo. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed extensive duplication of DQA locus in swamp buffaloes, sharing DQA1, DQA2, and DQA3 alleles in different combinations in duplicated haplotypes. Higher dN than dS values and Wu-Kabat variability at peptide-binding regions in Bubu-DQA indicated high polymorphism with balancing selection. Levels of genetic diversity within DQA sequences and duplication in a small population of swamp buffalo indicate the genetic richness of the species, important for fitness. PMID:27177904

  13. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  14. Identification of novel allelic variants of integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) gene and screening for Bubaline leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in Indian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Subodh; Deb, Sitangsu M; Mitra, Abhijit; Niranjan, Saket K; Naskar, Soumen; Sharma, Arjava

    2009-01-01

    A fragment of 570 bp corresponding to exon 5 and 6 of integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) gene was amplified for screening D128G mutation in one hundred and fifty two buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) which causes bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome (BLAD) in cattle, as well as to ascertain polymorphism. TaqI PCR-RFLP revealed no such mutation thus indicating the absence of bubaline leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BuLAD) allele in animals under study. However, the polymorphism studies using MspI restriction enzyme revealed two genotypic patterns viz. AA pattern (bands of 293, 141, 105, and 31 bp) and BB pattern (bands of 293, 105, 77, 64, and 31 bp). The sequences of A and B alleles were submitted to the GenBank (EU853307 and AY821799). PMID:19544212

  15. Normal haematological and biochemical values for the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Best, F G; Fairburn, A J; Purdie, J; Gilham, M

    1984-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 24 immature male, 55 immature female and 99 mature female water buffalo kept at an experimental farm in the Northern Territory. Haematological analysis was performed on blood collected in dipotassium--ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid while biochemical analysis was performed on serum and plasma (for glucose) samples. Haematological values of mature buffalo were similar to those recorded for swamp buffalo in Malaysia. Blood cell appearances were similar to those reported for adult Indian river buffalo though values recorded for red cell components were higher. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between immature male and female buffalo. Red cell components, eosinophils, total plasma and serum proteins, albumin, gamma globulins, inorganic phosphate and the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher for mature female buffalo when compared to immature females. Reasons for the differences were not fully determined but the effect of age and nutritional status in combination with a variable period of domestication were considered. PMID:6743148

  16. The complete coding region sequence of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Parma, Pietro; Feligini, Maria; Greppi, Gianfranco; Enne, Giuseppe

    2004-02-01

    The Y-linked SRY gene is responsible for testis determination in mammals. Mutations in this gene can lead to XY Gonadal Dysgenesis, an abnormal sexual phenotype described in humans, cattle, horses and river buffalo. We report here the complete river buffalo SRY sequence in order to enable the genetic diagnosis of this disease. The SRY sequence was also used to confirm the evolutionary divergence time between cattle and river buffalo 10 million years ago. PMID:15354359

  17. Isolation and Identification of Prepubertal Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanyou; Chen, Shibei; Do, Dagiang; Liu, Qinyou; Deng, Yanfei; Lei, Xiaocan; Luo, Chan; Huang, Ben; Shi, Deshun

    2016-10-01

    Isolation and culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are attractive for production of genetic modified offspring. In the present study, buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells were isolated, cultured and expression pattern of different germ cell marker genes were determined. To recover spermatogonia, testes from age 3 to 7 months of buffalo were decapsulated, and seminiferous tubules were enzymatically dissociated. Two types of cells, immature sertoli cell and type A spermatogonia were observed in buffalo testes in this stage. Germ cell marker genes, OCT3/4 (Pou5f1), THY-1, c-kit, PGP9.5 (UCHL-1) and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, were determined to be expressed both in mRNA and protein level by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining in buffalo testes and buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells, respectively. In the following, when the isolated buffalo buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells were cultured in the medium supplemented 2.5% fetal bovine serum and 40 ng/mL glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor medium, SSCs proliferation efficiency and colony number were significantly improved than those of other groups (p<0.05). These findings may help in isolation and establishing long term in vitro culture system for buffalo spermatogonial stem-like cells, and accelerating the generation of genetic modified buffaloes. PMID:26954139

  18. No change in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with Theileria annulata in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amod; Bhushan, Bharat; Ghosh, Srikant; Saravanan, B C; Sulabh, Sourabh; Parida, Subhashree; Gaur, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) act as carrier to Theileria annulata and show less clinical sign of tropical theileriosis as compared to indigenous and exotic cattle. Differential expression of immune-related genes such as major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (MHC-DQα), signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA), prion protein (PRNP), Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10), c-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (cMAF) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB) genes influence host resistance to this disease in exotic, crossbred and indigenous cattle. In the present study we examined the differential mRNA expression of the abovesaid immune-related genes in response to T. annulata infection in buffaloes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested from blood samples of buffaloes were challenged with ground-up tick supernatant carrying T. annulata sporozoites in vitro. After 48h of in vitro challenge qPCR was employed to measure the relative mRNA expression of MHC-DQα, SIRPA, PRNP, TLR10, cMAF and MAFB genes in infected and control PBMCs. In the current study, the selected genes showed no change in mRNA expression after T.annulata infection which indicates that they have little role in providing host resistance to theileriosis in buffaloes. PMID:26997138

  19. Role of linker histone H1c during the reprogramming of Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gao-Bo; Quan, Li; Zeng, Yong-Lian; Yang, Jian; Lu, Ke-Huan; Lu, Sheng-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    During reprogramming, there is exchange of histone H1c and the oocyte-specific linker histone, and H1c may play a critically important role in the reprogramming process of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the H1c gene in SCNT reprogramming in Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using RNA interference (RNAi). Chinese swamp buffalo H1c gene sequences were obtained and H1c-RNAi vectors were designed, synthesised and then transfected into a buffalo fetal skin fibroblast cell line. Expression of H1c was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine the efficiency of vector interference. These cells were then used as a nuclear donor for SCNT so as to observe the further development of SCNT embryos. Inhibition of H1c gene expression in donor cells significantly improved the developmental speed of embryos from the 1-cell to 8-cell stage. Furthermore, compared with the control group, inhibition of H1c gene expression significantly reduced the blastocyst formation rate. It is concluded that linker histone H1c is very important in SCNT reprogramming in Chinese swamp buffalo. Correct expression of the H1c gene plays a significant role in preimplantation embryonic development in B. bubalis. PMID:25145348

  20. Structural Modeling and Analysis of Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein-1 of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Andonissamy, Jerome; Singh, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to design and analyze the structural model of buffalo pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (PAG-1) using bioinformatics. Structural modeling of the deduced buffalo PAG-1 protein was done using PHYRE, CONSURF servers and its structure was subsequently constructed using MODELLER 9.9 and PyMOL softwares Buffalo PAG-1 structural conformity was analyzed using PROSA, WHATIF, and 3D-PSSM servers. Designed buffalo PAG-1 protein structure on BLAST analysis retrieved protein structures belonging to aspartic proteinase family. Moreover in silico analysis revealed buffalo PAG-1 protein retained bilobed structure with pepstatin-binding clefts near the active sites by docking studies with pepstatin A using PatchDock server. Structural studies revealed that the amino and carboxy terminal containing aspartic residues are highly conserved and buried within the protein structure. Structural conformity studies showed that more than 90% of the residues lie inside favored and allowed regions. It was also deduced that buffalo PAG-1 possesses low and high energy zones with a very low threshold for proteolysis ascertaining the stableness of the buffalo PAG-1 protein structure. This study depicts the structural conformity and stability of buffalo PAG-1 protein.

  1. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Malik, V; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Pawde, A M; Surbhi

    2011-03-01

    Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) 2-3 years of age and weighing 290-325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 and H2). The animals of group H1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg,i.v.) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.), while in group H2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg) were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5% thiopental sodium in H1 (3.85 +/- 0.63 mg/kg) and H2 (6.96 +/- 0.45 mg/kg) groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2, whereas no significant (P > 0.05) difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P < 0.01) after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) fallin RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05) fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) after premedication and a significant (P < 0.05) occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) increase in CVP and a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P < 0.01) decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groups H1 and H2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in PR interval in group H2, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in T wave amplitude

  2. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  3. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  4. Identification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins by peptide mass fingerprinting in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saxena, Abhishake; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, I; Agarwal, S K

    2014-08-01

    Ruminant placentas synthesize pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) during pregnancy, which serve as biomarkers of pregnancy. The present study was conducted to verify, whether PAGs are expressed in buffalo placenta by using lectin-based affinity chromatography and peptide mass finger printing (PMF). Fetal cotyledonary tissues were collected from gravid uteri procured from slaughtered house. Proteins were extracted and subjected to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin affinity chromatography to isolate the PAGs. The isolated glycoproteins were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. PMF results of the 75 kDa protein revealed presence of two PAGs (PAG-7 and -11). The PAG-7 consisted of about 170 mass signals, of which 16 were assigned to corresponding/translated cDNA sequences of buffalo PAG-7, leading to sequence coverage of 40%. PMF result of PAG-11 showed 170 mass signals, of which 15 were assigned to buffalo PAG-11, leading to sequence coverage of 34%. In conclusion, the glycoprotein isolated from placental extract corresponding to 75 kDa band on SDS PAGE gel was a mixture of PAG-7 and -11, which may help in development of suitable diagnostics for pregnancy in buffalo. PMID:25296505

  5. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  6. Fertility response in postpartum anoestrus buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using modified Ovsynch based timed insemination protocols

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, K. K.; Shukla, S. N.; Inwati, P.; Shrivastava, O. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Suboestrus constitutes the largest factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Therefore, oestrus synchronization (OS) and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) is considered an alternative approach to enhance reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. Thus, the present study was carried out to study the efficacy of modified Ovsynch protocol with fixed time insemination in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Total 50 post-partum anoestrus dairy buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into 5 Groups, each comprising ten animals (n=10). Animals of Group I received buserelin acetate 10 μg(GnRH) at day 0 and 9, and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at day 7; in Group II similar to Group I except double dose of Gn RH (20 μg) at day 0; in Group III, similar to Group I plus additional administration of insulin on day 0, 1 and 2; in Group IV, similar to Group II plus additional administration of insulin on day 0,1 and 2; in Group V similar to Group I except replacement of first Gn RH with insulin on day 0,1 and 2. Animal of all groups were inseminated at fixed time using frozen semen at 60 h and 72 h after PGF2α administration and confirmed for pregnancy at day 60 post-insemination. Results: The results revealed satisfactory and comparable synchronization of oestrus (60-80%) and conception rate (20-40%) among the various treatment groups in the present study. The better synchronization was observed in modified protocols. However, non-significantly higher conception rate was recorded in modified Ovsynch protocol (40% each in Group II-V) as compared to 20% in Group-I (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study comparatively higher OS and conception following insulin modified Ovsynch based timed AI protocols in post-partum anoestrus buffaloes was found satisfactory and comparable. PMID:27047090

  7. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  8. Seasonal variations in developmental competence and relative abundance of gene transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoon, Ahmed S; Gabler, Christoph; Holder, Christoph; Kandil, Omaima M; Einspanier, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected during cold season (CS, autumn and winter) and hot season (HS, spring and summer), and the number of antral follicles was recorded. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated and evaluated according to their morphology into four Grades. In experiment 2, Grade A and B COCs collected during CS and HS were in vitro matured (IVM) for 24 hours under standard conditions at 38.5 °C in a humidified air of 5% CO2. After IVM, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein, and evaluated for nuclear configuration. In vitro matured buffalo oocytes harvested during CS or HS were in vitro fertilized (IVF) using frozen-thawed buffalo semen and cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, buffalo COCs and in vitro matured oocytes were collected during CS and HS, and then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis. Total RNA was extracted from COCs and in vitro matured oocytes, and complementary DNA was synthesized; quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for eight candidate genes including GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, GDF9, BMP15, HSP70, and SOD2. The results indicated that HS significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the number of antral follicles and the number of COCs recovered per ovary. The number of Grade A, B, and C COCs was lower (P < 0.05) during HS than CS. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the number of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage and increased the percentage of degenerated oocytes compared with CS. Oocytes collected during HS also showed signs of cytoplasmic degeneration. After IVF

  9. Molecular characterization and expression profile of ghrelin gene during different reproductive phases in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, S; Jain, A; Baviskar, P; Kumar, R; Joshi, P; Agarwal, S K; Mitra, A

    2013-08-01

    Ghrelin, a novel motilin-related endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagouge receptor, is implicated in various biological functions, including regulation of female reproduction. But the presence of ghrelin and its role in reproductive functions in buffalo, a species with poor reproductive efficiency, is not known. In the present study full-length ghrelin cDNA was isolated from bubaline abomasum, which encodes the entire prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of ghrelin of buffalo showed >95% and 31% identity with that of ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goat) and humans, respectively. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of ghrelin indicated that these sequences of different species have been under purifying selection. The 3995-bp amplicon of ghrelin gene consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns was cloned with genomic DNA from buffalo. Further, ghrelin expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bubaline endometrial tissues at different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Our results indicated the persistent expression of ghrelin mRNA and protein in the endometrium during stage I (day 3-5), stage II (day 6-15), and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle and also during early (~day 30-40) pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated the relatively higher expression of ghrelin in the endometrium during stage II (day 6-15) of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy than during stage I (day 3-5) and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle, but no statistically significant difference in ghrelin expression was observed among stages. To conclude, the results of the present study indicate the persistent expression of ghrelin in the uterine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy which might be helpful in determining its role in buffalo reproduction. PMID

  10. Hemato-biochemical and hormonal profiles in post-partum water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Balhara, A. K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Naresh; Buragohain, Lukumoni; Baro, Daoharu; Sharma, R. K.; Phulia, S. K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to compare serum as well as follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and hormonal profiles along with hematological parameters in postpartum estrus, anestrus, and cystic buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Postpartum buffaloes were selected in three different groups (within 40-60 days of parturition at estrus-Group-I, postpartum >90 days at anestrum-Group-II, and postpartum cystic buffaloes in Group III). The animals selected were examined for follicular wave dynamics by routine trans-rectal ultrasonography and FF was collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick up technique. All hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by automatic analyzers while hormonal profiles analyzed by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: In the present investigation, estrum and anestrum animal differ significantly in hemoglobin levels. Serum estradiol differs significantly in estrus and anestrus while no significant difference in progesterone concentration was noted among all three stages. The results of our study suggest that significant higher increase in total protein (TP), calcium and glucose values in estrum while urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase significantly higher in anestrum animals. Conclusion: The conclusion of the present study is that TP and albumin, calcium, urea, glucose affects oocyte development and quality. PMID:27047125

  11. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  12. Oocyte recovery by ovum pick up and embryo production in river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Ravindra, J P; Gupta, P S P; Devaraj, M; Nandi, S

    2008-08-01

    Ovum pick up (OPU) was conducted twice a week for 12 weeks in six cycling, non-descriptive (local breed), Indian buffaloes to study the efficiency of OPU on recovery of oocytes for embryo production. OPU was performed using an ultrasound equipment with a 5-MHz transvaginal transducer, a single-lumen, 18-gauge, 55-cm-long needle and a constant vacuum pressure of 110 mmHg. The number and size of follicles were determined before puncture. The recovered oocytes were graded, washed, matured for 24 h and then fertilized with frozen-thawed semen, followed by embryo culture on the oviductal monolayer. The mean number of follicles observed per animal per session did not differ between animals or between puncture sessions. A mean number of 3.62 +/- 0.32 mm follicles were observed, 2.90 +/- 0.15 mm follicles were punctured and 1.21 +/- 0.07 oocytes were recovered per animal per session, with an average recovery rate of 42%. Of the total oocytes recovered, 64% were suitable for in vitro embryo production (grade A + B) whereas 36% were classified to be of grades C + D. A mean number of 0.25 +/- 0.2 transferable embryos was produced in vitro per buffalo per session with a transferable embryo production rate of 32%. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that twice-a-week OPU could be applied repeatedly, without any adverse effects on the follicular growth and oocyte recovery and that recovered oocytes could be used for in vitro embryo production in buffaloes. PMID:18282214

  13. Effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin treated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Das, G. K.; Balamurugan, B.; Katiyar, R.; Verma, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) treated buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Semen samples with mass motility of 3+ and greater, collected from Murrah buffalo bulls were utilized. Immediately after collection, four equal groups of semen sample were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml, where as Groups II, III, and IV were treated with CLC at 3 mg/120× 106 spermatozoa, incubated at 37°C for action of CLC for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively, and diluted with tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml. All groups were subjected to equilibration and freezing. The evaluation of semen samples from all groups was carried out at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage for progressive motility, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response (HOS response). Results: At the pre-freeze stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility and viability was observed in treatment groups as compared to control with no significant difference among treatment groups. HOS response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment groups as compared to control at pre-freeze stage. At post-thaw stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility, viability and HOS response was recorded in Group II as compared to control and other treatment groups (III and IV). Group II retained significant post-thaw motility and viability at various post-thaw incubation periods. Conclusion: Incubation period of 10 min for CLC treated buffalo spermatozoa yielded significantly higher results in terms of freezability as compared to incubation for 15 and 20 min. PMID:27051205

  14. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  15. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pre-antral follicle population and ultrastructural characterization of antral follicle oocyte.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, R G; Santin, T R; Fidelis, A A G; Porfírio, E P; Báo, S N

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the ultrastructural modifications occurring in the oocyte during late folliculogenesis and to estimate pre-antral follicle population in buffalo. Half the collected ovaries were fixed and prepared for optic microscopy; the antral follicles from the other ovaries were measured and individually punctured. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The number of pre-antral follicles in buffalo ovaries was estimated at 19 819 structures. Cumulus-oocyte complexes derived from 1-mm antral follicle had an eccentrical nucleus and compact corona radiata, ooplasm vilosities were fully embedded in zona pellucida (ZP) and a well-defined junction could be observed. Mitochondria were predominantly round and well distributed in ooplasm, as were small lipid vacuoles. In COCs derived from 2-mm antral follicles, the initial formation of perivitelline space was observed. The nucleus was peripherally located and the number of pleomorphic mitochondria increased. Cortical granules were clustered at oocyte periphery and lipid vacuoles increased in number and size. In COCs derived from 6-mm antral follicles, the organelles were located mainly in the perinuclear region. Golgi complexes and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were more developed. Mitochondria migrated to the cortical region and lipid vacuoles migrated to the medullar region. In COCs derived from 10-mm antral follicles, the lipid vacuoles coalesced and occupied the medullar region of the oocyte, together with a well-developed SER. Mitochondria were pleomorphic and located at the oocyte periphery. In conclusion, the morphological differences described in this paper could be responsible for some functional differences observed in in vitro embryo production and follicular dynamics for buffalo, when compared with cattle. PMID:19055556

  16. Carbonic anhydrase and acid base balance in relation to thermal stress in buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S. N.; Gangwar, P. C.

    1983-03-01

    The blood samples from fifteen normal lactating buffaloes were taken from December 15th 1978 to 31st August, 1979. Depending upon the climatic conditions, the whole period of study was divided into four seasons. The mean values of carbonic anhydrase (moles CO2/l/sec×10-5) were 3.08±0.26, 4.94±0.44, 5.23±0.35, 6.44±0.32 in pregnant and 4.87±0.27, 4.53±0.41, 4.74±0.45, 6.36±0.40 in non-pregnant animals during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid seasons. Mean values of pO2 (mm Hg) were 31.26±1.41, 31.92±0.61, 35.90±0.59, 33.80 ±0.67 in pregnant and 31.89±0.44, 31.53±0.54, 35.52±0.69, 31.65±0.95 in non-pregnant buffaloes during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid periods, respectively. There were highly significant (P< 0.01) differences between seasons with respect to pO2, pCO2, actual HCO3 and heamoglobin. However, PCV changed significantly (P<0.01) with the physiological status of the animal. Different correlation of biochemical parameters with climatic elements were discussed. Thus, the shifts in the levels of carbonic anhydrase, HCO3 and heamoglobin may prove to be a better tool/index for thermal stress in buffaloes.

  17. In vivo differentiation potential of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Verma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, G Sai; Sharma, G Taru

    2012-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of mammalian blastocyst are having indefinite proliferation and differentiation capability for any type of cell lineages. In the present study, ICMs of in vitro-derived buffalo blastocysts were cultured into two different culture systems using buffalo fetal fibroblast as somatic cell support and Matrigel as synthetic support to obtain pluripotent buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) colonies. Pluripotency of the ESCs were characterised through pluripotency markers whereas, their differentiation capability was assessed by teratoma assay using immuno-compromised mice. Cumulus ooccyte complexes from slaughter house-derived ovaries were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture to generate blastocysts. Total 262 blastocysts were derived through IVEP with 11.83 % (31/262) hatching rate. To generate buESCs, 15 ICMs from hatched blastocysts were cultured on mitomycin-C-treated homologous fetal fibroblast feeder layer, whereas the leftover 16 ICMs were cultured on extra-cellular matrix (Matrigel). No significant differences were observed for primary ESCs colony formation between two culture systems. Primary colonies as well as passaged ESCs were characterised by alkaline phosphatase staining, karyotyping and expression of transcription-based stem cell markers, OCT-4 and cell surface antigens SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60. Batch of ESCs found positive for pluripotency markers and showing normal karyotype after fifteenth passage were inoculated into eight immuno-compromised mice through subcutaneous and intramuscular route. Subcutaneous route of inoculation was found to be better than intramuscular route. Developed teratomas were excised surgically and subjected to histological analysis. Histological findings revealed presence of all the three germinal layer derivatives in teratoma sections. Presence of germinal layer derivatives were further confirmed by reverse transcriptase

  18. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    GJERDE, Bjørn; HILALI, Mosaad

    2016-01-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8–10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3–100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  19. Seasonal variations of the ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in the Egyptian buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of season on the follicular and luteal dynamics and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffaloes. A total of 327 genital tracts and 596 animals were used. The genital tracts were examined in winter (n = 58), spring (n = 179), summer (n = 49), and autumn (n = 41) for follicular population, incidence of presence of developed or mature corpus luteum (CL), and diameters of the preovulatory follicle (OF) and the mature CL. Buffaloes were mated in winter (n = 297) and summer (n = 299) and examined for pregnancy rate. Results showed that the mean number of the large follicles was higher in winter (1.21 ± 0.08 mm) and spring (1.04 ± 0.05 mm) than in summer (0.64 ± 0.1 mm) and autumn (0.78 ± 0.1 mm) (P = 0.0001). Likewise, the mean diameter of the OF was greater in winter (14.71 ± 0.7 mm) and spring (14.36 ± 0.5 mm) than in summer (12.4 ± 0.8 mm) and autumn (12 ± 0.8 mm) (P = 0.02). In addition, the mean diameter of the mature CL was higher in winter (15.8 ± 0.4 mm) and spring (15.5 ± 1.1 mm) than in summer (14.2 ± 1 mm) and autumn (13.2 ± 0.7 mm) (P = 0.003). The incidence of presence of developed or mature CL was lower in summer (69.4 %) than in winter (74.1 %), spring (87.2 %), or autumn (85.4 %) (P = 0.01). Double CLs (0.9 %) were observed only in spring. Ovarian cysts (2.5 %) were detected in winter and spring. The pregnancy rate was higher in buffaloes mated in winter (75.4 %) than in those mated in summer (61.9 %) (P = 0.0004). In conclusion, season affects the ovarian activity and reproductive efficiency of buffaloes, where winter and spring are the optimum seasons for breeding. PMID:25778728

  20. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to investigate rumen adaptation of urea on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum for a period of 2 weeks and then were shifted to a step-up diet regimen by supplementation of concentrate containing 20 and 40 g/kg urea at 5 g/kg BW for a period of 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that feed intake and nutrient digestibility were increased by urea supplementation (P < 0.05) both at two and four period of consumption. However, ruminal pH, temperature, and protozoal population were neither affected by urea nor adaptation period (P > 0.05) while bacterial and fungal zoospores were increased especially at 40 g/kg urea. Data from real-time PCR further showed that total bacteria and the three predominant cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were increased by urea supplementation both at 2 and 4 weeks of urea feeding. Furthermore, methane production was similar among treatments while microbial protein synthesis was enhanced when buffaloes were fed with urea after a period of 2 weeks especially at 40 g/kg urea (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that urea supplementation could increase feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and fermentation efficiency of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. It is suggested that buffaloes could adapt well and utilize urea as a N source effectively within a period of 2 weeks uptake without adverse effect. PMID:27107749

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) β-casein promoter for driving mammary epithelial cell-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nirmalya; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Usmani, Abul; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2015-03-20

    Therapeutic proteins are produced in microbes, mammalian cell lines, and body fluids by applying recombinant DNA technology. They are required for compensating the deficiency of essential proteins in patients. Animal bioreactors producing such valuable bio-pharmaceuticals in body fluids have lately emerged as efficient and cost-effective expression systems. Promoters, along with other regulatory elements of genes coding for milk proteins, have been cloned from few species for directing the expression of desired proteins in the milk of farm animals. However, buffaloes, which are the second largest source of milk production in the world, have remained unexplored for such use. Since mammary epithelial cell-specific β-casein is the most abundantly expressed protein found in buffalo milk, we have isolated the promoter region and the transcriptional regulatory element along with exon 1, Intron 1 and partial exon 2 of the β-casein gene from the genome of the Indian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and have characterized the same (GenBank accession no. KF612339). Mammary epithelial cells of buffalo and human (MCF7) expressed Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) upon transfection with the construct where egfp was cloned under the β-casein promoter. Transfected HEK-293 cells failed to express EGFP. Transgenic female mice generated using this construct expressed EGFP in the milk gland during lactation, without leaky expression in any other organs. This promoter also drove expression of recombinant human Interferonγ suggesting its use for expressing recombinant bio-pharmaceuticals in the milk of buffalo or other farm animals. Additionally, this may also allow breast gland-specific gene expression for remediation of breast gland-associated diseases. PMID:25678138

  2. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nagina, G.; Asima, A.; Nemat, U.; Shamim, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  3. Inhibitory potential of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum immunoglobulin G on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    L S, Mamatha Bhanu; Nishimura, S-I; H S, Aparna

    2016-07-01

    The unique components of colostrum like free oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are known to offer resistance to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to inhibit the localized adherence of enteropathogens to the digestive tract of the neonates. In this context, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G on human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant multidrug resistant pathogen associated with nasocomial infections. The investigation revealed growth inhibitory potential of immunoglobulin G in a dose dependent manner supported by scanning electron microscopic studies. The N-glycan enriched fraction of immunoglobulin G after PNGase treatment was found more effective, comparable to ampicillin than native immunoglobulin G supporting the fact that colostrum derived oligosaccharides is crucial and act as ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. The MALDI TOF/TOF analysis confirmed the glycostructures of abundant N-glycans of immunoglobulin G exerting antibacterial activity. The proteomic analysis revealed variations between control and treated cells and expression of chemotaxis-CheY protein (14kDa) was evidenced in response to immunoglobulin G treatment. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the mode of inhibition of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae by buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G with the identification of a newly expressed signalling protein. PMID:27017977

  4. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagina, G; Asima, A; Nemat, U; Shamim, A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  5. Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a spontaneous animal model of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Motiani, Rajender K; Singh, Archana; Malik, Garima; Aggarwal, Rangoli; Pratap, Kunal; Wani, Mohan R; Gokhale, Suresh B; Natarajan, Vivek T; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2016-07-01

    Vitiligo is a multifactorial acquired depigmenting disorder. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms driving the gradual destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo will likely lead to the discovery of novel therapies, which need to be evaluated in animal models that closely recapitulate the pathogenesis of human vitiligo. In humans, vitiligo is characterized by a spontaneous loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis, but most animal models of vitiligo are either inducible or genetically programmed. Here, we report that acquired depigmentation in water buffalo recapitulates molecular, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural changes observed in human vitiligo and hence could be used as a model to study vitiligo pathogenesis and facilitate the discovery and evaluation of therapeutic interventions for vitiligo. PMID:27124831

  6. Comparative efficacies of six different media for cryopreservation of immature buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf testis.

    PubMed

    Devi, Lalitha; Makala, Himesh; Pothana, Lavanya; Nirmalkar, Khemlal; Goel, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    Buffalo calves have a high mortality rate (~80%) in commercial dairies and testis cryopreservation can provide a feasible option for the preservation of germplasm from immature males that die before attaining sexual maturity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate combinations of 10 or 20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with 0, 20 or 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for cryopreservation of immature buffalo testicular tissues, subjected to uncontrolled slow freezing. Tissues cryopreserved in 20% DMSO with 20% FBS (D20S20) showed total, tubular and interstitial cell viability, number of early apoptotic and DNA-damaged cells, surviving germ and proliferating cells and expression of testicular cell-specific proteins (POU class 5 homeobox (POU5F1), vimentin (VIM) and actin ?2 (ACTA2)) similar to that of fresh cultured control (FCC; P>0.05). Expression of cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A (CYP11A1) protein and testosterone assay showed that only tissues cryopreserved in D20S20 had Leydig cells and secretory functions identical to that of FCC (P>0.05). High expression of superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2), cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding motif protein3 (RBM3) proteins in cryopreserved tissues indicated involvement of cell signalling pathways regulating cellular protective mechanisms. Similarity in expression of pro-apoptosis proteins transcription factor tumour protein P53 (TP53) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) in D20S20 cryopreserved tissues to that of FCC (P>0.05) suggested lower apoptosis and DNA damage as key reasons for superior cryopreservation. PMID:25482277

  7. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, <24 months; n=26, >24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  8. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. D.; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (88th day) to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs) at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day). The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day); however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day) of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day), both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs) were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape. PMID:27057120

  9. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  10. Zearalenone is bioactivated in the river Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): hepatic biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Malekinejad; Fatemeh, Rahmani; Kobra, Bahrampour

    2010-08-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) as a mycoestrogen is found frequently in human foods and animal feeds. Its estrogenic effects depend on its biotransformation fate including both first- and second-phase reactions, which are predominantly governed by hydroxylation and glucuronidation, respectively. In this study, we investigate the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA in river buffalo. To evaluate the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA, both subcellular fractions of the liver were prepared. ZEA was incubated with intracellular subfractions in the presence of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, and the products were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, in the same frame of experiment and in the presence of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid, the rate of glucuronidation for substrate and products were estimated as well. We found that alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) is the major hydroxylated hepatic metabolite of ZEA produced by both studied subcellular fractions. The enzymatic kinetics analyses indicated that the alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL production by microsomal fraction were two- and three-fold higher than those by postmitochondrial fraction, respectively. The calculated data showed that alpha-ZOL is conjugated with glucuronic acid more than ZEA and beta-ZOL, especially at the lower concentrations, which seems to be more applicable. Our data suggest that unlike other domestic ruminants including cattle and sheep, the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA in river buffalo results in bioactivation and formation of potent estrogenic metabolite. Moreover, at the relevant concentrations, the produced potent estrogenic metabolite is entirely conjugated with glucuronic acid and, consequently, may cause the prolongation of presence of the compound in the body due to enterohepatic cycle. PMID:20361255

  11. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  12. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1 leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL-1 leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes. PMID:25593679

  13. Use of peripheral blood for production of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos by handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Nala, Narendra; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2016-09-15

    Buffalo embryos were produced by handmade cloning using peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes as donor cells. Although the blastocyst rate was lower (P < 0.01) for lymphocyte- than control skin fibroblast-derived embryos (6.6 ± 0.84% vs. 31.15 ± 2.97%), the total cell number (152.6 ± 23.06 vs. 160.1 ± 13.25) and apoptotic index (6.54 ± 0.95 vs. 8.45 ± 1.32) were similar. The global level of H3K9ac was higher (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte- than that in skin-derived blastocysts; whereas in IVF blastocysts, the level was not significantly different from the two cloned groups. The level of H3K27me3 was similar among the three groups. The expression level of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1, and IGF-1R was higher (P < 0.01) in lymphocytes than that in skin fibroblasts. The expression level of CDX2 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of DNMT3a, IGF-1R, OCT4, and NANOG was lower (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte-derived than in IVF blastocysts; that of DNMT1 and HDAC1 was similar in the two groups. The expression level of all these genes, except that of NANOG, was lower (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte- than in skin fibroblast-derived blastocysts. It is concluded that, peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes can be used for producing handmade cloning embryos in bubaline buffaloes. PMID:27242179

  14. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Jan, M. H.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%). PMID:27397983

  15. Evidence of Fasciola spp. resistance to albendazole, triclabendazole and bromofenofos in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Venturina, Virginia M; Alejandro, Ma Antonette F; Baltazar, Cyril P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries. Anthelmintic resistance has become a global concern. This study compared the efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics, determined the toxicity level and any indication of resistance. Thirty two water buffaloes naturally-infected with Fasciola spp. were used to determine the efficacy of triclabendazole (TBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and bromofenofos (BRO) using Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). To test the toxicity of the drugs given, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) was evaluated before and within one week after treatment. One dose administration of ABZ registered an efficacy of 79.17%, 73.33% for TBZ and 70.83% for BRO. Efficacy in two dose- treatment group was 83.33% for both BRO and ABZ, and 90.00% for TBZ. Two dose-treatment was effective for TBZ (90%), ineffective for BRO and ABZ. SGPT levels were not significantly different between pre-treatment and post- treatment across all treatments. Giving one or two doses of anthelmintics, at one month interval, does not increase the efficacy of the three drugs tested. The study also implies that anthelmintic resistance may have developed in the animals. PMID:26878627

  16. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food. PMID:26187844

  17. Metagenomic analysis of Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Krishna M; Ahir, Viral B; Tripathi, Ajai K; Ramani, Umed V; Sajnani, Manisha; Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash; Pandya, Paresh R; Rank, Dharamsi N; Murty, Duggirala S; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2012-04-01

    The complex microbiome of the rumen functions as an effective system for the conversion of plant cell wall biomass to microbial proteins, short chain fatty acids and gases. In this study, metagenomic approaches were used to study the microbial populations and metabolic potential of the microbial community. DNA was extracted from Surti Buffalo rumen samples (four treatments diet) and sequenced separately using a 454 GS FLX Titanium system. We used comparative metagenomics to examine metabolic potential and phylogenetic composition from pyrosequence data generated in four samples, considering phylogenetic composition and metabolic potentials in the rumen may remarkably be different with respect to nutrient utilization. Assignment of metagenomic sequences to SEED categories of the Metagenome Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) server revealed a genetic profile characteristic of fermentation of carbohydrates in a high roughage diet. The distribution of phylotypes and environmental gene tags (EGTs) detected within each rumen sample were dominated by Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in all the samples. The results of this study could help to determine the role of rumen microbes and their enzymes in plant polysaccharide breakdown is fundamental to understanding digestion and maximising productivity in ruminant animals. PMID:21947953

  18. Short communication: Role of Streptococcus pluranimalium in Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with different udder health statuses.

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Perreten, V; Steiner, A; Thomann, A; Pesce, A; Ciaramella, P; Bodmer, M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the current study were to describe presence and clinical role over time of Streptococcus pluranimalium isolated in milk samples of Mediterranean buffalo (MB). Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous MB were collected at 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150d in milk (DIM) and from 20 pluriparous MB at 77 to 120 DIM. Milk samples were used for analysis of somatic cell counts, bacteriological cultures, and identification (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Nine of 200 (4.5%) samples of primiparous MB and 3 of 20 (15%) samples of pluriparous MB were positive for Strep. pluranimalium. The prevalence of the bacterium in primipari was 0% (0/40) at 10, 30, and 150 DIM, whereas it was 5 (2/40) and 17.5% (7/40) at 60 and 90 DIM, respectively. Eight primipari were positive only once, whereas 1 was positive at 2 different samplings. Mono-infection was not detected in any of the age categories or udder health status. Infections were transient in primipari. Clinical mastitis was observed in primipari once at 90 DIM, subclinical mastitis detected twice in the same animals at 60 and 90 DIM, and intramammary infections were diagnosed 1 and 5 times at 60 and 90 DIM in primipari, respectively, whereas 3 infections were diagnosed in pluripari. The clinical reflections demonstrate for the first time the presence of Strep. pluranimalium in MB and its association with different udder health status. Nevertheless, it cannot be excluded that the bacterium may simply follow a pattern of commensal or opportunistic behavior, taking advantage of a preexisting bacterial udder infection. PMID:26805969

  19. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  20. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R

    2015-06-01

    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (μmol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P < 0.05) increasing trend, whereas MDA and NO revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decline. Serum MDA and NO were higher in control compared with those of treatment group. Moreover, buffaloes in the treatment group showed 90% estrus induction with 18.06 ± 1.57 days mean interval from treatment to the onset of estrus. These results report that melatonin has a protective effect by elevating antioxidant status and reducing oxidative stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes. PMID:25805692

  1. Effect of breeding season on in vivo oocyte recovery and embryo production in non-descriptive Indian river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Ravindra, J P; Gupta, P S P; Devaraj, M; Nandi, S

    2009-04-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effect of season on in vivo oocyte recovery and embryo production in non-descriptive, Indian river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Ovum pick up (OPU) was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks during peak (October-March) and low (April-September) breeding season in live buffaloes (n=6). OPU was performed using ultrasound equipment with a 5MHz transvaginal transducer, a single lumen 18-gauge, 55-cm long needle and a constant vacuum pressure of 110mmHg. The number and size of follicles was determined before puncture. The recovered oocytes were graded and only grade A and grade B oocytes were used for in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. The mean number of follicles observed per animal per session did not differed (P<0.05) between animals or between puncture sessions in both low and peak breeding seasons. Higher (P<0.05) number of follicles were observed (4.8+/-0.2 versus 3.1+/-0.3) and punctured (4.0+/-0.2 versus 2.4+/-0.2) during peak breeding season when compared to low breeding season. Oocytes recovered (1.6+/-0.1 versus 1.0+/-0.3) per animal per session were higher (P<0.05) in peak breeding season than low breeding season. During the peak breeding season, the blastocyst yield per animal per session (0.3+/-0.4 versus 0.18+/-0.4) was higher (P<0.05) than the low breeding season. However, season did not significantly affect the percentage of oocytes suitable for IVP (grade A+B) and blastocyst production rate. In conclusion, the efficiency of OPU combined with IVP was higher during the peak breeding season than the low breeding season in buffaloes. PMID:18440168

  2. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish. PMID:27307169

  3. Molecular Mining of Alleles in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis and Characterization of the TSPY1 and COL6A1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher

    2011-01-01

    Background Minisatellites are an integral part of eukaryotic genomes and show variation in the complexity of their organization. Besides their presence in non-coding regions, a small fraction of them are part of the transcriptome, possibly participating in gene regulation, expression and silencing. We studied the minisatellite (TGG)n tagged transcriptome in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis across various tissues and the spermatozoa, and characterized the genes TSPY1 and COL6A1 discovered in the process. Results Minisatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) conducted using cDNA and oligonucleotide primer (TGG)5 uncovered 38 different mRNA transcripts from somatic tissues and gonads and 15 from spermatozoa. These mRNA transcripts corresponded to several known and novel genes. The majority of the transcripts showed the highest level of expression either in the testes or spermatozoa with exception of a few showing higher expression levels in the lungs and liver. Transcript SR1, which is expressed in all the somatic tissues and gonads, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus collagen type VI alpha 1 gene (COL6A1). Similarly, SR29, a testis-specific transcript, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus testis-specific Y-encoded protein-1 representing cancer/testis antigen 78 (CT78). Subsequently, full length coding sequences (cds) of these two transcripts were obtained. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed 182-202 copies of theTSPY1 gene in water buffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome. Conclusions The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or

  4. Activation and Inhibition of The Wnt3A Signaling Pathway in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells: Effects of WNT3A, Bio and Dkk1

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Mohamad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Sham Manik, Radhey; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background This research studies the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. Materials and Methods To carry on this experimental study, the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling in buffalo ES cell-like cells were examined using Bio (0.5 mM) combined with WNT3A (200 ng/ml), as an activator, and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1, 250 ng/ml), as an inhibitor, of the pathway. ES cells were cultured up to three weeks in ES cell medium without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), but in the presence of Bio, WNT3A, Bio+WNT3A and Dkk1. The effects of these supplements were measured on the mean area of ES cell colonies and on the expression levels of a number of important genes related to pluripotency (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc) and the Wnt pathway (β-catenin). ES cell colonies cultured in ES cell medium that contained optimized quantities of LIF and FGF-2 were used as the control. Data were collected for week-1 and week-3 treated cultures. In addition, WNT3A-transfected ES cells were compared with the respective mock-transfected colonies, either alone or in combination with Dkk1 for expression of β-catenin and the pluripotency-related genes. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and statistical significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results Among various examined concentrations of Bio (0.5-5 mM), the optimum effect was observed at the 0.5 mM dose as indicated by colony area and expressions of pluripotency-related genes at both weeks-1 and -3 culture periods. At this concentration,the expressions of Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and β-catenin genes were nonsignificantly higher compared to the controls. Expressions of these genes were highest in the Bio+WNT3A treated group, followed by the WNT3A and Bio-supplemented groups, and lowest in the Dkk1-treated group. The WNT-transfected colonies showed higher expressions compared to both mock and Dkk1-treated mock

  5. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance. PMID:26244580

  6. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  7. An inter-subspecies cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) obtained by transferring of cryopreserved embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah × Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  9. Reticulo-ruminal motility in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed a low quality roughage diet.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Kennedy, P M; John, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of A and B sequence contractions of the reticulo-rumen on passage rate of digesta was compared in buffaloes and cattle fed low quality rhodes grass. 2. Both species ate the same amount per unit body weight but buffaloes spent 53% more time ruminating than cattle. 3. Buffaloes had fewer A and B sequence contractions each day and the rate of these contractions during eating, ruminating and at rest were slower. 4. A larger pool of fine feed particles in the rumen of buffaloes, generated by extra ruminating activity was associated with the 30% shorter mean residence time of particulate matter in the forestomach compared with cattle. 5. It is concluded that the difference in the number and frequency of contractions between the species was insufficient to affect passage rate of digesta from the stomach. PMID:2575949

  10. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  11. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  12. Polymorphism and haplotype structure in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Jones, B C; Womack, J E

    2012-04-01

    Most of the 160 million river buffalo in the world are in Asia where they are used extensively, both as a food source and for draught power. Only recently have investigations begun exploring the buffalo genome for variation that might influence health and productivity of these economically important animals. This paper describes the sequence variability of the toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene, which recognizes bacterial flagellin and is a key player in the immune system. TLR5 is comprised of a single exon that is 2577 bp and codes 858 amino acids. We examined single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the coding region. Overall, 17 SNPs were discovered, seven of which are non-synonymous. Our study population yielded four different haplotypes. We examined predicted protein domain structure and found that river buffalo, swamp buffalo, and African Forest buffalo shared the same protein domain structure and are more similar to each other than they are to cattle and American bison, which are similar to each other. PolyPhen 2 analysis revealed one amino acid substitution in the river buffalo population with potential functional significance. PMID:22537062

  13. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes. PMID:27600968

  14. Loss of heat shock protein 70 from apical region of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm head after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Tincy; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C; Roy, Kajal S

    2016-03-15

    The post-thaw fertility of frozen-thawed mammalian spermatozoa is substantially low as compared with that of fresh sperm. Furthermore, the post-thaw fertility of the cryopreserved buffalo sperm has been reported to be poor as compared with that of cattle sperm. Recently, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been found to play a critical role in mammalian fertilization and early embryonic development in boar and cattle. However, the presence of such fertility-related HSP70 in buffalo sperm and its status after cryopreservation has not been reported so far. Thus, a study was conducted to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the level and distribution pattern of HSP70 molecule in buffalo sperm after cryopreservation. Buffalo semen samples, after dilution in semen extender, were aliquoted in straws and divided into two groups. One group was not cryopreserved, and the other group was cryopreserved for 60 days. Sperm proteins were extracted from both non-cryopreserved (NC) and cryopreserved (C) sperm and subjected to Western blot analysis for detection of HSP70 using a monoclonal anti-HSP70 antibody. The distribution pattern of these proteins in buffalo sperm was also monitored before and after cryopreservation using indirect immunofluorescence technique. A prominent 70-kDa protein band of HSP70 protein was detected in protein extracts of both NC and C buffalo sperm. Densitometry analysis revealed that the intensity of 70-kDa HSP70 protein band of cryopreserved sperm decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with that of NC sperm. However, the level of HSP70 in cryopreserved extended seminal plasma (ESP) did not change as compared with that of NC samples indicating a possible degradation of HSP70 in the spermatozoa itself rather than leakage of the protein into the ESP. Furthermore, Western blot also confirmed that several HSP70 immunoreactive protein bands detected in the ESP were contributed by the egg yolk that was added to the extender. Immunocytochemistry

  15. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  16. Nucleotide Sequencing and SNP Detection of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Gene in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, M.; Taraphder, S.; Sonawane, G. S.; Verma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has an important pattern recognition receptor that recognizes endotoxins associated with gram negative bacterial infections. The present investigation was carried out to study nucleotide sequencing and SNP detection by PCR-RFLP analysis of the TLR-4 gene in Murrah buffalo. Genomic DNA was isolated from 102 lactating Murrah buffalo from NDRI herd. The amplified PCR fragments of TLR-4 comprised of exon 1, exon 2, exon 3.1, and exon 3.2 were examined to RFLP. PCR products were obtained with sizes of 165, 300, 478, and 409 bp. TLR-4 gene of investigated Murrah buffaloes was highly polymorphic with AA, AB, and BB genotypes as revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis using Dra I, Hae III, and Hinf I REs. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplified fragment of TLR-4 gene of Murrah buffalo was done. Twelve SNPs were identified. Six SNPs were nonsynonymous resulting in change in amino acids. Murrah is an indigenous Buffalo breed and the presence of the nonsynonymous SNP is indicative of its unique genomic architecture. Sequence alignment and homology across species using BLAST analysis revealed 97%, 97%, 99%, 98%, and 80% sequence homology with Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Homo sapiens, respectively.

  17. Methanogen diversity in the rumen of Indian Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), assessed by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2012-06-01

    The methanogenic communities in buffalo rumen were characterized using a culture-independent approach of a pooled sample of rumen fluid from three adult Surti buffaloes. Buffalo rumen is likely to include species of various methanogens, so 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and cloned from the sample. A total of 171 clones were sequenced to examine 16S rDNA sequence similarity. About 52.63% sequences (90 clones) had ≥ 90% similarity, whereas, 46.78% of the sequences (81 clones) were 75-89% similar to 16S rDNA database sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of methanogenic communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. As a result, we distinguished 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on unique 16S rDNA sequences: 12 OTUs (52.17%) affiliated to Methanomicrobiales order, 10 OTUs (43.47%) of the order Methanobacteriales and one OTU (4.34%) of Methanosarcina barkeri like clone, respectively. In addition, the population of Methanomicrobiales and Methabacteriales orders were also observed, accounting 4% and 2.17% of total archea. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens phylotypes ever identified from rumen of Surti buffaloes. PMID:21507441

  18. Seroepidemiology of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhai; Xia, Zhaofei; Liu, Qun; Liu, Jing; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2007-01-19

    A seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the People's Republic of China. Serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in China. All sera were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect agglutination test (IAT), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle was 17.2% (45/262), and the herds seroprevalence of N. caninum was 88.9% (8/9), and antibodies to T. gondii were present in 6 cows (2.3%). None of the cows had antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum. Antibodies to T. gondii or N. caninum were not found in beef cattle or water buffaloes. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in aborting cows (20.2%) was higher than that in non-aborting cows (16.6%) with an odds ratio of 1.26 (95% CI, 0.54-2.95), but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). There was no apparent association of N. caninum seropositivity with age or number of pregnancies. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle and water buffaloes in China. PMID:17010521

  19. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  20. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Indian Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), assessed by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandya, P R; Singh, K M; Parnerkar, S; Tripathi, A K; Mehta, H H; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities in buffalo rumen were characterized using a culture-independent approach for a pooled sample of rumen fluid from 3 adult Surti buffaloes. Buffalo rumen is likely to include species of various bacterial phyla, so 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and cloned from the sample. A total of 191 clones were sequenced and similarities to known 16S rDNA sequences were examined. About 62.82% sequences (120 clones) had >90% similarity to the 16S rDNA database sequences. Furthermore, about 34.03% of the sequences (65 clones) were 85-89% similar to 16S rDNA database sequences. For the remaining 3.14%; the similarity was lower than 85% Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of bacterial communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. As a result, we distinguished 42 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on unique 16S r DNA sequences: 19 OTUs affiliated to an unidentified group (45.23% of total OTUs), 11 OTUs of the phylum Firmicutes, also known as the low G+C group (26.19%), 7 OTUs of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum (16.66%), 4 OTUs of Spirochaetes (9.52%), and 1 OTU of Actinobacteria (2.38%). These include 10 single-clone OTUs, so Good's coverage (94.76%) of 16S rRNA libraries indicated that sequences identified in the libraries represent the majority of bacterial diversity present in rumen. PMID:20720314

  1. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinder; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Malik, V. S.; Dadarwal, D.; Honparkhe, M.; Singhal, S.; Brar, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group) buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m.) and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR) was inserted intravaginally (day=0) at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α) was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group) buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH) 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (<8 mm) was present at the time of initiation of superstimulatory treatment in the estradiol group compared to the conventional group (12.5±0.80 vs. 7.3±1.21, respectively, p=0.019), however, the number of ovulatory size follicles (≥8 mm) did not differ significantly between the respective groups (15.5±1.24 vs. 12.2±1

  2. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and heterologous expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oviduct-specific glycoprotein in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Choudhary, Suman; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kumaresan, A; Das, Subrata K; Kaushik, Jai K; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2012-12-01

    Oviductin is a high molecular weight oviduct-specific glycoprotein secreted by the non-ciliated epithelial cells of oviduct during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin gene from oviductal tissues of buffalo was successfully cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle oviductin share very high homology between their cDNA sequences. The predicted amino acid sequences of the buffalo oviductin exhibited the highest percent of identity of 97 % with bovine followed by 94 % with goat, 93 % with sheep, 78 % with porcine, 72 % with human, 67 % with hamster and rabbit and 65 % with mouse. Oviductin was also observed to share high similarity with the mammalian chitinase, however oviductins do not show chitinase activity due to Glu→Ile mutation in the active site responsible for chitinase activity. The phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of oviductin indicated that buffalo oviductin was closely related to its cattle counterpart, and this clustering is in accordance with the classic taxonomic relationship. Tissue specific expression of the transcripts for buffalo oviductin revealed a high level expression in oviduct and ovary followed by testis, mammary gland, kidney, while in mammary epithelial cells and liver its expression was very low. The full length matured oviductin and its domains constituting chitinase-like domain and mucin-like domain were cloned into pET and pGEX series of expression vectors and over expressed in E. coli. The soluble recombinant oviductin was successfully purified to homogeneity. Full length recombinant oviductin was expressed partially in soluble form, where as the chitinase-like and mucin-like domains of oviductin were expressed in insoluble form and aggregating to form inclusion bodies at both 37 and 16 °C induction temperatures. PMID:22782592

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  4. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  5. Supplementation of Slow-Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Maurya, V P; Narayanan, K; Mahla, A S; Chaudhari, R K; Singh, M; Soni, Y K; Kumawat, B L; Dabas, S K; Srivastava, N

    2016-02-01

    The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow-release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post-AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated group ranging from 14.34 ± 1.72 to 412.31 ± 14.47 pg/ml whereas other two hormones did not show any concentration difference. Melatonin-administered buffaloes showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher (90%) OIR with OII of 18.06 ± 1.57 days. Results showed improvement in conception rate in buffaloes administered with post-insemination melatonin. It can be concluded from the study that slow-release melatonin supplementation restored cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals resulting in improvement in conception rate in buffaloes. PMID:26566713

  6. In-Vitro Indicators of Natural Resistance and Milk-Producing Ability in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Miarelli, Maria; Signorelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of detecting novel phenotypes of natural resistance at the molecular level through the in-vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This study was conducted with 16 healthy buffaloes who were reared for milk production and for whom data on milk-producing ability were available for several lactations. MDMs from circulating monocytes were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The response was evaluated using Western blotting to detect the presence of 2 types of proteins separated by electrophoresis: tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are indicators of the dynamic control of biochemical pathways, and IkB-alpha (Kappa light polipeptide gene enhancer in B-cells Inhibitor, alpha) protein, which controls the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells—a transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the buffaloes who were positive for IkB-alpha proteins had a significantly higher milk-producing ability than the buffaloes who did not express IkB-alpha. On the contrary, no significant difference was detected between the high and low milk-producing buffaloes with regard to the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This preliminary study indicated that it may be possible to identify the more disease-resistant nonhuman animals on a molecular level. The results, therefore, indicate that an intense selection toward the increase of milk yield could impair natural disease resistance in future dairy buffalo generations. PMID:25111879

  7. Minimum number of spermatozoa per dose in Mediterranean Italian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed frozen semen and conventional artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Gaviraghi, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Bornaghi, V; Bongioni, G; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Lukaj, A; Bonacina, C; Galli, A

    2013-05-01

    In buffaloes, AI with sexed semen is not fully optimized, and the procedure has only been performed using the approach currently in use for cattle. The objective of the present work was to compare the pregnancy rates in Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows inseminated with sexed frozen-thawed semen at 2, 4, 6, and 8 million sperm per dose, using the Ovsynch protocol and conventional AI at a fixed time. Fresh ejaculates from three buffalo bulls were processed according to Beltsville sperm sorting technology, and packaged in 0.25-mL straws with two total concentrations of 2 and 4 million live sorted sperm per straw. After thawing, semen was evaluated for total motility, forward motility, average path velocity, membrane and DNA integrity, and membrane fluidity. Sorting efficiency was estimated using a real time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. The artificial inseminations were conducted during the breeding season on 849 Italian Mediterranean buffalo heifers and cows distributed in 13 farms in northern and central Italy. No significant difference in quality parameters was reported between nonsexed and sexed straws produced with 2 and 4 million sperm. Lower pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) was reported when inseminating doses of sexed semen at 2 million were used (53/170; 31.2%), with respect to conventional nonsexed (78/142; 54.9%), and sexed doses at 4, 6, and 8 million spermatozoa (102/205, 49.8%; 84/175, 48.0%; and 74/157, 47.1%, respectively). No differences were evident using conventional doses and sexed semen with sperm numbers equal or higher than 4 million per dose. Pregnancies were not affected by the sire; 39/82 (47.6%), 120/270 (44.4%), and 151/355 (42.5%), respectively, for the three bulls. Variability in pregnancy rates observed in different herds was not significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was reported between pregnancies obtained with sexed semen in heifers and multiparous, respectively, 179/407 (44

  8. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  9. Repeated ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval from cyclic Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): oocyte recovery and quality.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Manik, R S; Chauhan, M S; Singla, S K; Akshey, Y S; Palta, P

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of the Murrah breed of buffaloes as donors of oocytes and to find out the recovery rate and oocyte quality in cyclic Murrah buffaloes subjected to oocyte recovery once a week. Murrah buffaloes (n = 5) were synchronized for estrus by a single prostaglandin injection schedule. The animals were subjected to transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR) once weekly for 6 weeks, starting from Day 7 of the oestrous cycle (Day 0 = day of oestrus). TVOR was performed using an ultrasound machine with a 5 MHz transvaginal transducer, single lumen 19-gauge, 60 cm long needle and a constant vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg. The number and size of follicles in each ovary was determined before puncture. The follicles were characterized on the basis of their diameter as small (3-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large (> or = 10 mm). The oocytes recovered were classified as grade A, cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) with > or = 5 layers of cumulus cells; grade B, those with two to four layers; grade C, partially denuded oocytes; and grade D, completely denuded oocytes. The mean (+/- S.E.M) number of small, medium and large follicles, and the number of total follicles observed per animal per session, which was 2.2 +/- 0.3, 0.6 +/- 0.2, 0.9 +/- 0.1 and 3.7 +/- 0.3, respectively, did not differ between animals or between puncture sessions. Small follicles constituted a major proportion (59%) of the total observed follicles. A mean (+/- S.E.M) number of 3.0 +/- 0.3 follicles were punctured and 2.0 +/- 0.3 oocytes recovered per animal per session, with a recovery rate of 68%. Out of the total 61 oocytes recovered, 36 (59%) were of grades A + B whereas 25 (41%) were of grades C + D. In conclusion, this study describes the potential of cyclic Murrah buffaloes as donors of oocytes collected by repeated TVOR once a week, without any adverse effects on follicular growth and oocyte recovery. It also describes an efficient system for carrying out TVOR in

  10. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested

  11. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  12. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Atiba, Ayman; Ghazy, Alaa; Gomaa, Naglaa; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick test. Onset time, duration, and degree of analgesia and ataxia were recorded after each treatment. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature, and haematobiochemical parameters were recorded after all treatments. Time to onset and duration of analgesia, respectively, were as follows: tramadol 11 ± 2 min and 208 ± 15 min; tramadol-lidocaine 6 ± 2 min and 168 ± 9 min; lidocaine 4 ± 1 min and 67 ± 13 min. Onset time and duration were significantly longer with tramadol than the other treatments. Duration was significantly longer with tramadol-lidocaine than lidocaine. Ataxia was mildly observed in tramadol-lidocaine and was moderate in lidocaine. HR, RR, and rectal temperature did not differ significantly from baseline after any treatment. Haematobiochemical parameters returned to basal levels by 24 h after all treatments. This combination might be clinically useful to provide analgesia in buffalo for long-duration surgical procedures. PMID:26770870

  13. Metagenomic analysis of virulence-associated and antibiotic resistance genes of microbes in rumen of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Jakhesara, S J; Koringa, P G; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G

    2012-10-10

    A major research goal in rumen microbial ecology is to understand the relationship between community composition and its function, particularly involved in fermentation process is of a potential interest. The buffalo rumen microbiota impacts human food safety as well as animal health. Although the bacteria of bovine rumen have been well characterized, techniques have been lacking to correlate total community structure with gene function. We applied 454 next generations sequencing technology to characterize general microbial diversity present in buffalo rumen metagenome and also identified the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. Results suggest that over six percent (6.44%) of the sequences from our buffalo rumen pool sample could be categorized as virulence genes and genes associated with resistance to antibiotic and toxic compounds (RATC), which is a higher proportion of virulence genes reported from metagenome samples of chicken cecum (5.39%), cow rumen (4.43%) and Sargasso sea (2.95%). However, it was lower than the proportion found in cow milk (11.33%) cattle faeces (8.4%), Antarctic marine derived lake (8.45%), human fecal (7.7%) and farm soil (7.79%). The dynamic nature of metagenomic data, together with the large number of RATC classes observed in samples from widely different ecologies indicates that metagenomic data can be used to track potential targets and relative amounts of antibiotic resistance genes in individual animals. In addition, these data can be also used to generate antibiotic resistance gene profiles to facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the microbial communities in each habitat as well as the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant gene transport between and among habitats. PMID:22850272

  14. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Atiba, Ayman; Ghazy, Alaa; Gomaa, Naglaa; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick test. Onset time, duration, and degree of analgesia and ataxia were recorded after each treatment. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature, and haematobiochemical parameters were recorded after all treatments. Time to onset and duration of analgesia, respectively, were as follows: tramadol 11 ± 2 min and 208 ± 15 min; tramadol-lidocaine 6 ± 2 min and 168 ± 9 min; lidocaine 4 ± 1 min and 67 ± 13 min. Onset time and duration were significantly longer with tramadol than the other treatments. Duration was significantly longer with tramadol-lidocaine than lidocaine. Ataxia was mildly observed in tramadol-lidocaine and was moderate in lidocaine. HR, RR, and rectal temperature did not differ significantly from baseline after any treatment. Haematobiochemical parameters returned to basal levels by 24 h after all treatments. This combination might be clinically useful to provide analgesia in buffalo for long-duration surgical procedures. PMID:26770870

  15. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyan D; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Aithal, Hari P; Pawde, Abhijeet M; Zama, Malik M S; Singh, Jasmeet; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 µg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 µg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg ± 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg ± 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg ± 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL ± 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL ± 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL ± 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I1). Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to

  16. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (p<0.05) in HMC-derived ESCs (6.897±2.3) compared to that in parthenogenesis- and IVF-derived cells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  17. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Tasripoo, Kriengsak; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments) and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P > .05). At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate. PMID:21234419

  18. Occurrence of beta-casein fragments in cold-stored and curdled river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) milk.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, A; Picariello, G; Trani, A; Alviti, G; Loizzo, P; Faccia, M; Addeo, F

    2009-04-01

    The safeguard of river buffalo Mozzarella cheese, a Protected Designation of Origin dairy product, has prompted an analytical study to trace the milk and curd used as raw material in cheesemaking. This is to prevent the illegal use of milk or curd from different geographical areas outside of those indicated in the official production protocol. For this purpose, we studied primary proteolysis occurring in fresh and frozen milk and curd to identify a molecular marker that could indicate the raw material used. Whole casein from frozen river buffalo milk was separated using cation-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and a protein component with an estimated molecular weight of 15.3 kDa was detected. This protein component was revealed in fresh river buffalo milk as a faint electrophoresis band, which drastically increased in intensity in refrigerated and frozen milk as well as in curd and was found to be associated with beta-CN through hydrophobic interaction. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight peptide mass mapping, this component was identified as the C-terminal fragment f(69-209) of beta-CN (expected molecular weight of 15,748.8 Da). beta-Casein f(69-209), originating from the early hydrolysis of Lys(68)-Ser(69) by plasmin, has no counterpart in bovine milk. The increased rate of hydrolysis by plasmin toward the cleavage site Lys(68)-Ser(69) has to be ascribed to the elevated proline content of the peptide 61-73. The favored production of beta-CN f(69-209) has also drawn attention to the complementary proteose peptone beta-CN f(1-68) that is presumed to play a physiological role in inducing milk secretion similar to that of beta-CN f(1-29). The higher in vivo and in vitro production rate, compared with gamma(1)-CN formation, indicates that beta-CN f(69-209) and its complementary fragment are candidate molecular markers to evaluate milk and curd freshness. We suggested [corrected] indirect ELISA analysis based on

  19. Effect of Extender and Equilibration Time on Post Thaw Motility and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Shahverdi, Abdolhossain; Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of four equilibration times (2, 4, 8 and 16 hours) and two extenders (tris or Bioxcell®) on cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, split pooled ejaculates (n=4), possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility were divided in two aliquots and diluted in Bioxcell® and tris-citric egg yolk (TCE) extenders. Semen was cooled to 4°C within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours, then transferred into 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Postthaw motility characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome morphology and DNA integrity of the buffalo sperm were studied after thawing. Results There were significant interactions between equilibration times and extenders for sperm motility and membrane integrity. Post thaw sperm motility (PMOT), progressive motile spermatozoa (PROG), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) measures were lower for sperm equilibrated for 2 hours in both TCE and Bioxcell® extender compared to others equilibration times. PMOT, PMI and NAR for sperm equilibrated for 4, 8 and 16 hours showed no significant differences in either extender, although PROG measures were superior in Bioxcell®compared to TCE at all equilibration times (p<0.05). Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, curvilinear velocity and linearity in the Bioxcell®extender were superior to those in the TCE extender studied. In contrast to motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected by different equilibration times. Conclusion Equilibration time is necessary for preservation of the motility and integrity of buffalo sperm membranes. Equilibration times of over than 2 hours resulted in the greatest preservation of total semen parameters during cryopreservation. There were no significant interactions between

  20. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  1. Effect of equilibration times, freezing, and thawing rates on post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shah, S A H; Andrabi, S M H; Qureshi, I Z

    2016-09-01

    The effects of equilibration times (E1, 2 h; E2, 4 h; E3, 6 h), freezing rates (FR1, manual, 5 cm above liquid nitrogen (LN2 ) for 10 min, plunging in LN2 ; FR2, programmable ultra-fast, holding at +4 °C for 2 min, from 4 to -10 °C at -10 °C/min, from -10 to -20 °C at -15 °C/min, from -20 to -120 °C at -60 °C/min, holding at -120 °C for 30 sec, plunging in LN2 ), and thawing rates (T1, 37 °C for 30 sec; T2, 50 °C for 15 sec; T3, 70 °C for 7 sec) were evaluated on quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (VAP, μm/s), straight line velocity (VSL, μm/s), and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (%) were higher (p < 0.05) with E2, FR2, and T3 compared to other groups. Sperm curved line velocity (VCL, μm/s) was higher (p < 0.05) with E2 and FR2 compared to other groups. Sperm straightness (%) and linearity (LIN, %) were higher (p < 0.05) with E2 compared to other groups. Sperm LIN was affected (p < 0.05) with T3 compared to other groups. Supravital-plasma membrane integrity (%), viability and acrosome integrity (%) of spermatozoa were higher (p < 0.05) with E2 and FR2 compared to other groups. Sperm DNA integrity (%) was higher (p < 0.05) with FR2 and T1 compared to other groups. We concluded that inclusion of 4 h-equilibration time, programmable ultra-fast freezing rate, and rapid thawing at 70 °C for 7 sec in cryopreservation protocol improves the post-thaw quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:27153390

  2. Potential risk factors associated with ill-thrift in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) raised at smallholder farms in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed A.; El-khodery, Sabry A.; El-said, Waleed E.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to grow (ill-thrift) in calves has a negative effect on animal production and health. The present study was carried out from November, 2009 to May, 2013 to investigate the risk factors of ill-thrift in buffalo calves. A total of 344 calves at 78 smallholder farms were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed to include managemental, nutritional and disease risk factors. Serum selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis and results were expressed as p value, odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Fifty-five calves (15.9%) showed ill-thrift. On animal level, the final multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between ill-thrift and early weaning (p < 0.01; OR: 45.755; CI: 4.35–480.25), diarrhea (p < 0.05; OR: 41.315; CI: 1.710–998.0), indoor management (p < 0.05; OR: 63.56; CI: 2.701–14.96) and low serum phosphorus (p < 0.01; 292.0; CI: 5.256–16.23). On farm level, inadequate mineral supplementation (p < 0.001; OR: 18.62; CI: 3.89–88.9) and irregular use of anthelmintics (p < 0.05; OR: 7.95; CI: 1.53–41.23) were the potential factors. Clinically, ill-thrift calves were more likely to have alopecia (p < 0.01), recumbency (p < 0.01), emaciation (p < 0.001), hypothermia (p < 0.01), inappetance (p < 0.001), lacrimation (p < 0.001), hypomotile rumen (p < 0.001), and pale mucous membrane (p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ill-thrift in buffalo calves could occur as a result of interaction between management errors and disease factors. Identification of the risk factors associated with ill-thrift may provide useful information, which assist to construct the suitable preventive measures. PMID:26199751

  3. Potential risk factors associated with ill-thrift in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) raised at smallholder farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry A; El-Said, Waleed E

    2015-07-01

    Failure to grow (ill-thrift) in calves has a negative effect on animal production and health. The present study was carried out from November, 2009 to May, 2013 to investigate the risk factors of ill-thrift in buffalo calves. A total of 344 calves at 78 smallholder farms were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed to include managemental, nutritional and disease risk factors. Serum selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis and results were expressed as p value, odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Fifty-five calves (15.9%) showed ill-thrift. On animal level, the final multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between ill-thrift and early weaning (p < 0.01; OR: 45.755; CI: 4.35-480.25), diarrhea (p < 0.05; OR: 41.315; CI: 1.710-998.0), indoor management (p < 0.05; OR: 63.56; CI: 2.701-14.96) and low serum phosphorus (p < 0.01; 292.0; CI: 5.256-16.23). On farm level, inadequate mineral supplementation (p < 0.001; OR: 18.62; CI: 3.89-88.9) and irregular use of anthelmintics (p < 0.05; OR: 7.95; CI: 1.53-41.23) were the potential factors. Clinically, ill-thrift calves were more likely to have alopecia (p < 0.01), recumbency (p < 0.01), emaciation (p < 0.001), hypothermia (p < 0.01), inappetance (p < 0.001), lacrimation (p < 0.001), hypomotile rumen (p < 0.001), and pale mucous membrane (p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ill-thrift in buffalo calves could occur as a result of interaction between management errors and disease factors. Identification of the risk factors associated with ill-thrift may provide useful information, which assist to construct the suitable preventive measures. PMID:26199751

  4. A comparative study on efficiency of adult fibroblasts and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as donor cells for production of hand-made cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Em, Sadeesh; Kataria, Meena; Shah, Fozia; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of two cell types, namely adult fibroblasts, and amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as nuclear donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer by hand-made cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was compared. The in vitro expanded buffalo adult fibroblast cells showed a typical "S" shape growth curve with a doubling time of 40.8 h and stained positive for vimentin. The in vitro cultured undifferentiated AFS cells showed a doubling time of 33.2 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, these cells were also found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like OCT-4, NANOG and SOX-2, which accentuate their pluripotent property. Further, when AFS cells were exposed to corresponding induction conditions, these cells differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through alizaran, oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. Cultured adult fibroblasts and AFS cells of passages 10-15 and 8-12, respectively, were used as nuclear donors. A total of 94 embryos were reconstructed using adult fibroblast as donor cells with cleavage and blastocyst production rate of 62.8 ± 1.8 and 19.1 ± 1.5, respectively. An overall cleavage and blastocyst formation rate of 71.1 ± 1.2 and 29.9 ± 2.2 was obtained when 97 embryos were reconstructed using AFS cells as donor cells. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in reconstructed efficiency between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cells, whereas the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in cleavage and blastocyst rates between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cell groups. Average total cell numbers for blastocyst generated using AFS cells (172.4 ± 5.8) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than from adult fibroblasts (148.2 ± 6.1). This study suggests that the in vitro developmental potential of the cloned embryos derived from AFS cells were higher than that of the cloned embryos

  5. Characterization of leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis and association analysis with body measurement traits.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catillo, Gennaro; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Grandoni, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Leptin has a pleiotropic effect on regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. This property supports leptin and its receptor as candidate genes for evaluating genetic polymorphisms to associate with growth, milk yield and other economic traits. The aim of this study is to characterize the leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in different coding and non-coding regions and to analyse potential associations between SNPs identified and the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers. A group of 64 animals were genotyped by direct sequencing and twenty-eight SNPs were detected. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of nine interesting SNPs in gene sequence. The association analysis of polymorphisms with the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers shows significant statistical effects on chest depth and sacrum height. Therefore according to the results obtained from this study, the leptin receptor gene appears to have potential effects on the body measurement traits of Bubalus bubalis. PMID:25431006

  6. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  7. Identification of polymorphism in fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene and its association with milk fat traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Arora, Reena; Mukesh, Manishi; Niranjan, Saket Kumar; Kathiravan, Periasamy; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2016-04-01

    The fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene, known to be associated with fat percentage of milk and meat in bovines, was screened among swamp and riverine buffaloes for polymorphism detection and further association with milk fat contents. An SNP g.307C > T was identified in the intron 2 (+53 exon 2) region of FABP3 gene of Indian buffaloes. The SNP identified was genotyped in 692 animals belonging to 15 riverine, swamp and hybrid (riverine × swamp) buffalo populations of diverse phenotypes and utilities, by PCR-RFLP. A marked contrast was observed between the C and T allele frequencies in three types of buffaloes. The frequency of C allele ranged from 0.67 to 0.96 in pure swamp buffalo populations, with the highest in Mizoram (0.96). Whereas the frequency of T allele was high across all the Indian riverine buffalo breeds, ranging from 0.57 to 0.96. None of the genotypes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus was found to have significant association with milk fat and other production traits in Mehsana dairy buffalo breed. Our study revealed marked differences in the allele frequencies between riverine and swamp buffaloes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus, without any significant association with different milk traits in riverine buffaloes. PMID:26894500

  8. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations. PMID:23733232

  9. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Heat-Stressed Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Neha; Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Sharma, Ankita; Kumar, Pawan; Mohanty, A. K.; Jerath, Tanushri; Mukesh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods for proper evaluation of reference genes. To date, not many studies have been reported on the identification of suitable reference genes in buffaloes. The present study was undertaken to determine the panel of suitable reference genes in heat-stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Briefly, MEC culture from buffalo mammary gland was exposed to 42 °C for one hour and subsequently allowed to recover at 37 °C for different time intervals (from 30 m to 48 h). Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares, were used to evaluate the stability of 16 potential reference genes from different functional classes. Our data identified RPL4, EEF1A1, and RPS23 genes to be the most appropriate reference genes that could be utilized for normalization of qPCR data in heat-stressed buffalo MECs. PMID:25937980

  10. Endocrine changes, timing of ovulation, ovarian follicular growth and efficacy of a novel protocol (Estradoublesynch) for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mirmahmoudi, R; Souri, M; Prakash, B S

    2014-01-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) ovarian follicular growth, timing of ovulation and associated endocrine changes (progesterone, estrogen, and LH) in cycling, and (2) efficacy in terms of pregnancy rate in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffaloes subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α] 0, GnRH 2, PGF2α 9, estradiol benzoate, EB 10). Twelve cycling buffaloes were subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol and observed for ovulation, follicle size, and endocrine changes after EB treatment. Ovulation occurred in 12 of 12 buffaloes (100%) at 48.5 ± 1.6 hours (range, 38.0-56.0) after EB treatment. Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in intensive blood samples collected after EB treatment. Peak LH concentration of 34.2 ± 7.7 ng/mL (range, 17.8-178.5) occurred at 18.3 ± 0.8 hours (range, 14.0-22.0) after EB treatment. Peak total estrogen of 50.8 ± 6.9 pg/mL (range, 32.3-82.7) occurred 5.7 ± 1.0 hours (range, 2.0-14.0) after EB treatment. Follicle size was gradually increased from second PGF2α injection (9.7 ± 0.3 mm; range, 8.0-12.0) until ovulation was detected (12.9 ± 0.4 mm; range, 11.0-15.0). Fourteen cycling and 11 anestrus buffaloes were subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol, with timed artificial insemination (TAI) 48 and 60 hours after EB treatment, and 58 cycling buffaloes were inseminated after spontaneous estrus (control group). Pregnancy rates were 62% for TAI of cycling buffaloes, 64% for anestrus buffaloes, and 34.5% for control group. Our observations demonstrated that the Estradoublesynch protocol followed by TAI satisfactory enhanced pregnancy rates in both cycling and anestrus buffaloes. PMID:24125725

  11. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 12 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, S P S; Dhaliwal, G S; Kumar, Ajeet; Agarwal, S K

    2013-01-30

    The present study investigated the impact of gonadotropic hormone administration on day 12 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffaloes. All the buffaloes (n=48) were estrus synchronized by a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)), administered 11 days apart, followed by insemination during mid to late estrus. To examine the effect of mid-luteal phase hormonal treatment, buffaloes were randomly divided into control (normal saline, n=14), d12-BA (buserelin acetate, 20μg, n=17) and d12-hCG (hCG, 3000IU, n=17) groups. Ovaries were scanned on the day of induced estrus to measure the preovulatory follicle (POF) diameter and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to examine the alterations in corpus luteum (CL) diameter. On the day of each sonography, blood samples were collected for the estimation of plasma progesterone. In treatment groups, luteal profile (CL diameter and plasma progesterone) on day 16-21 post-ovulation was better (P<0.05) as well as first service conception rate was higher (52.9% in each treatment group vs. 28.6%, P>0.05) compared to controls. All the pregnant buffaloes exhibited higher (P<0.05) plasma progesterone on various post-ovulation days than their respective non-pregnant counterparts. Treatment-induced accessory corpus luteum (ACL) formation was observed in 58.8 per cent and 70.6 per cent buffaloes of d12-BA and d12-hCG group, respectively, that also had higher (P<0.05) plasma progesterone compared to controls. Compared to the spontaneous CL, the diameter of ACL was less (P<0.05) in the treatment groups. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 12 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation, improves luteal profile and consequently increases conception rate in buffaloes. PMID:23201300

  12. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p < 0.05) in dAI-BA (51.3%) and dAI-hCG (66.7%) groups as compared to their control counterparts (30.8%). Furthermore, the buffalo of dAI-hCG group had improved (p < 0.05) luteal profile, whereas the buffalo of dAI-BA group failed (p > 0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. PMID:27170495

  13. Construction of a recombinant human insulin expression vector for mammary gland-specific expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Kumari, Archana; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was construction of mammary gland specific expression vector for high level of human insulin (hINS) expression in transgenic buffalo for therapeutic use. We have constructed mammary gland specific vector containing human insulin gene and there expression efficiency was checked into in vitro cultured buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). Human pro-insulin coding region was isolated from human genomic DNA by intron skipping PCR primer and furin cleavage site was inserted between B-C and C-A chain of human insulin by overlap extension PCR. A mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter was isolated from buffalo DNA and used for human insulin expression in BuMEC cells. The construct was transfected into BuMECs by lipofection method and positive transgene cell clones were obtained by G418 selection after 3 weeks. Expression of hINS in transfected cells were confirmed by RT-PCR, Immunocytochemistry, Western Blotting and ELISA. The pAcISUBC insulin-expressing clones secreted insulin at varying levels between 0.18 - 1.43 ng/ml/24 h/2.0 × 10(6) cells. PMID:24969480

  14. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797

  15. Effects of climate on the thermoregulatory responses of male buffalo ( Bubalus-bubalis) calves supplemented with different levels of testosterone and TDN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the changes in the thermoregulatory responses due to changing climate, androgen and TDN percent in 12 buffalo male calves from 4 months of age for a period of two years. The results obtained were: (1) The amplitudes of the diurnal cycles in rectal temperature (Tre) in each month of the experiment were very similar but longer in summer months as compared to winter months, (2) The correlation between Tre and ambient temperature (Ta) was high in all months. (3) Buffalo calves without testosterone supplementation on 70% TDN showed maximum rise in Tre by 0.076 0‡C per degree of ambient temperature, indicating more strain, (4) Highest respiratory frequencies occurred at 10:00 h during summer months. Subgroup 2 of group 1 showed the maximum rise by 311% in respiratory frequency in summer over winter due to least acclimatization, (5) The mean daily increase by 9.94‡C in ambient temperature doubled the respiratory frequency of male buffalo calves from January to April, and (6) Androgen therapy and higher TDN percent level helped the male buffalo calves to adjust better and sooner than the other calves to changing climates.

  16. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Dhaliwal, G S; Ghuman, S P S; Agarwal, S K

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to establish the impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo. The buffalo (n=45) were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol (synthetic analog of PGF2α administered, through intramuscular route, 11 days apart), followed by artificial insemination (AI) during mid to late estrus. On day 5 post-ovulation, buffalo were administered (i.m.) normal saline (Control, n=14), buserelin acetate (20μg, d5-BA, n=14) or human chorionic gonadotropin (3000IU, d5-hCG, n=17). Ovarian ultrasonography was conducted on the day of induced estrus and on days 0, 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to assess preovulatory follicle or corpus luteum (CL) diameter. Also, on these days, jugular vein blood sampling was conducted for the estimation of plasma progesterone. First service conception rate was greater (χ(2)=5.18, P>0.05) in d5-BA and d5-hCG groups (71.4% and 47.1%, respectively) as compared to control (28.6%). Both treatment groups had a greater (P<0.05) CL diameter and plasma progesterone during the post-treatment period in comparison to that control treatment group. Treatment-induced accessory CL formation was observed in 92.9% and 76.5% buffalo of d5-BA and d5-hCG groups, respectively. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation that may have a role in enhancing conception rate. PMID:26471839

  17. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

  18. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  19. Assessment of intracellular Ca2+, cAMP and 1,2-diacylglycerol in cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on supplementation of taurine and trehalose in the extender.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Atreja, S K; Kumar, R; Chhillar, S; Singh, A K

    2012-08-01

    In mammalian spermatozoa, intracellular calcium plays a major role in sperm functions like motility and capacitation. Cryopreservation-induced modifications to sperm membrane result in an influx of intracellular calcium affecting calcium-dependent intracellular signalling pathways. Intracellular calcium activates adenyl cyclase to produce cAMP that activates phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ) and phospholipase C (PLC) generating lysophosphatidyl choline, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP(3) , acting as intracellular secondary messengers required for sperm capacitation. Present study was designed to determine levels of intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG in fresh and frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence and absence of taurine or trehalose. A total number of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen buffalo bulls were cryopreserved in Tris-based egg yolk extender and thawed in warm water at 37°C. The cAMP was measured by enzyme immuno assay, and intracellular calcium was quantified using fluorescent dye FURA 2-AM. Total lipid was extracted from spermatozoa, and DAG was estimated using thin layer chromatography followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG levels in spermatozoa were significantly (p < 0.01) increased following cryopreservation as compared to fresh ejaculate. Addition of taurine or trehalose to the freezing medium significantly decreased (p < 0.01) the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. 1,2-diacylglycerol content was also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in spermatozoa cryopreserved in presence of additives. Moreover, significant (p < 0.01) improvement in post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of taurine or trehalose clearly indicated the reduced level of capacitation-like changes in buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:21988572

  20. Seasonal and Ageing-Depending Changes of Aquaporins 1 and 9 Expression in the Genital Tract of Buffalo Bulls (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S; Bosi, G; Accogli, G; Desantis, S

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels. In the efferent ducts, AQP1 immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non-ciliated cells and weakly along the basal membrane of the epithelial cells. The latter reactivity disappeared during the non-mating season. No AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of epididymis and vas deferens, whereas AQP1 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. Aquaporin 1 was present in the blood vessels and in small nerve bundles all along the genital tract. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9 immunoreactive, limited to the corpus and cauda regions, and vas deferens. The samples collected in the two reproductive seasons showed a weaker AQP9 immunoreactivity during the non-mating season. A typical AQP9 immunoreactivity was noticed in the old buffalo examined. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates, equine, dog and cat. In addition, seasonal differences were noticed which are possibly useful in regard to the comprehension of the morphophysiology of reproduction in the bubaline species, which are still a matter of debate. PMID:27260501

  1. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Nathani, Neelam M.; Patel, Namrata V.; Shah, Tejash M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  4. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  5. Expression Pattern of Pluripotent Markers in Different Embryonic Developmental Stages of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos and Putative Embryonic Stem Cells Generated by Parthenogenetic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karn P.; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K.; Manik, Radhey S.; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos. PMID:23194456

  6. Serological profile of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) female calves vaccinated with standard Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine using rose bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol and complement fixation tests.

    PubMed

    Nardi, G Júnior; Ribeiro, M G; Jorge, A M; Megid, J; Silva, L M P

    2012-03-01

    The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal showed reaction in day zero. In 15th day above 95% of animals revealed reaction in all tests. All the animals presented absence of reactions in CFT, RBT and 2ME tests at 270, 300 and 360 days after vaccination, respectively. Our finding highlighted early response in CFT compared than other conventional agglutination tests. None of animals presented oscillation of titers or reactions in any test after 360 day of study, which enables the use of these tests after this period without interference of antibodies from S19 vaccine origin between 3 and 8 months in buffalo heifers. PMID:22284623

  7. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.

    PubMed

    Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

  8. Comparison of endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy associated with Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in Murrah buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mirmahmoudi, R; Souri, M; Prakash, B S

    2014-10-15

    Poor estrus expression and the difficulty encountered in predicting the time of ovulation compromise the reproductive efficiency of Murrah buffalo cows. Synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination are able to precisely control the time of ovulation and thus avoid the need for estrus detection. Recently, the Estradoublesynch protocol (administration of a PGF2α injection 2 days before Heatsynch protocol; GnRH 0, PGF2α 7, estradiol benzoate [EB] 8) was developed that precisely synchronized ovulation twice, i.e., after GnRH and EB injections and resulted in satisfactory pregnancy rates in Murrah buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 104 cycling and 31 anestrus buffaloes to compare (1) the endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in cycling and (2) the efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols for the improvement of fertility in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffalo cows. Ovulation was confirmed after all GnRH and EB treatments by ultrasonographic examination at 2-hour intervals. Plasma progesterone and total estrogen concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at daily intervals, beginning 2 days before the onset of protocols until the day of second ovulation detection. Ovulatory follicle size was measured by ultrasonography at six time points (first PGF2α administration of Estradoublesynch protocol every 2 days before the onset of Heatsynch protocol, GnRH administration of both protocols, 2 hours before ovulation detection after GnRH administration of both protocols, second PGF2α injection of Estradoublesynch protocol, PGF2α injection of Heatsynch protocol, EB injection of both protocols and, 2 hours before ovulation detection after EB administration of both protocols). Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 30-minute intervals for 8 hours, beginning GnRH and EB

  9. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  10. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  11. IGF1 stabilizes sperm membrane proteins to reduce cryoinjury and maintain post-thaw sperm motility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Krishnan, Binsila B; Archana, Santhanahalli Siddalingappa; Ravindra, Janivara Parameshwaraiah

    2016-08-01

    Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the seminal plasma is reported to improve sperm motility by reducing oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of addition of IGF1 on sperm function and protein composition during cryopreservation process. Semen samples were collected from six Murrah buffaloes (2 ejaculates from each animal) and diluted (80 million/ml) in tris egg yolk extender and divided into control, T1, T2 and T3, groups supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ng of IGF1/mL, respectively. The semen was filled in straws (250 μL) and straws from each group were divided into two batches. One batch was processed for freezing and another batch was incubated at 4 °C for 4 h. The sperm kinematic and functional parameters were studied in both the batches. A significant (P < 0.05) positive effect of IGF1 was observed on functional membrane integrity (%) during incubation at 4 °C for 4 h in T3 as compared to control group. The spermatozoa (%) positive for structural membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and the metabolic activity in post-thaw semen were significantly (P < 0.05) high in T3 than the control group. The acrosomal integrity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T2 group as compared to control. The proteins (kDa) of 17.3 with pI 4.2 (calmodulin), 11.3 with pI 6.5 (dermcidin) and 18.1 with pI 5.5 (sperm acrosome membrane associated protein3) were protected in IGF1 group. The study suggests that IGF1 can be added to the extender for improving cryosurvial of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:27256665

  12. Birth of cloned calves from vitrified-warmed zona-free buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced by hand-made cloning.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ambikaprasanna; Panda, Sudeepta K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    The availability of techniques for the vitrification of cloned blastocysts can improve their effective use. The present study compared the developmental competence of buffalo cloned embryos derived from adult (BAF), newborn (BNF) and fetal fibroblast (BFF) before and after vitrification. Despite similar cleavage rates among the three groups, the blastocyst rate was lower for BAF- than BNF- and BFF-derived embryos (30.2±2.2% vs 41.7±1.7% and 39.1±2.1%, respectively; P<0.01). The total cell number of BNF-derived blastocysts was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of BFF-derived blastocysts, which, in turn, was higher (P<0.01) than that of BAF-derived blastocysts. Following transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts to recipients, no pregnancy was obtained with fresh (n=8) or vitrified-warmed (n=18) BAF-derived blastocysts, whereas transfer of fresh BNF- (n=53) and BFF-derived (n=32) blastocysts resulted in four and three pregnancies, respectively, which aborted within 90 days of gestation. The transfer of vitrified-warmed BNF-derived blastocysts (n=39) resulted in the live birth of a calf weighing 41kg, which is now 23 months old and has no apparent abnormality, whereas the transfer of vitrified-warmed BFF-derived blastocysts (n=18) resulted in one live birth of a calf that died within 6h. These results demonstrate that cloned buffalo embryos cryopreserved by vitrification can be used to obtain live offspring. PMID:22950886

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 directly affects corpora lutea lifespan in Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during diestrus: presence and in vitro effects on enzymatic and hormonal activities.

    PubMed

    Zerani, Massimo; Catone, Giuseppe; Maranesi, Margherita; Gobbetti, Anna; Boiti, Cristiano; Parillo, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    The expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) receptor (GNRHR) and the direct role of GNRH1 on corpora lutea function were studied in Mediterranean buffalo during diestrus. Immunohistochemistry evidenced at early, mid, and late luteal stages the presence of GNRHR only in large luteal cells and GNRH1 in both small and large luteal cells. Real-time PCR revealed GNRHR and GNRH1 mRNA at the three luteal stages, with lowest values in late corpora lutea. In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and lesser in late luteal phases, whereas prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) increased from early to late stages, and PGE2 was greater in the earlier-luteal phase. Cyclooxygenase 1 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1; PTGS1) activity did not change during diestrus, whereas PTGS2 increased from early to late stages, and PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) was greater in late corpora lutea. PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and lesser in late luteal phase. In corpora lutea cultured in vitro, the GNRH1 analog (buserelin) reduced progesterone secretion and increased PGF2alpha secretion as well as PTGS2 and PGE2-9-K activities at mid and late stages. PGE2 release and PTGS1 activity were increased by buserelin only in late corpora lutea. These results suggest that GNRH is expressed in all luteal cells of buffalo, whereas GNRHR is only expressed in large luteal phase. Additionally, GNRH directly down-regulates corpora lutea progesterone release, with the concomitant increases of PGF2alpha production and PTGS2 and PGE2-9-K enzymatic activities. PMID:22592497

  14. Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Mawgood, Sahar Abdel

    2015-09-01

    A total of 33 macroscopically visible (3-11 × 1-5 mm) sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis were excised from the oesophagus of 12 freshly slaughtered water buffalos in Giza, Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were characterised at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing, whereas a few selected isolates were characterised at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit following cloning. Among the 33 cox1 sequences (1,038-bp long), there was a total of 13 haplotypes, differing from each other by one to seven substitutions and sharing an identity of 99.3-99.9 %. In comparison, the sequence identity was 98.8-99.0 % among eight complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (1,873-1,879-bp long), 98.1-100 % among 28 complete ITS1 sequences (853-864-bp long) and 97.4-99.6 % among five partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (1,607-1,622 bp). At the three nuclear loci, the intraspecific (and intra-isolate) sequence variation was due to both substitutions and indels, which necessitated cloning of the PCR products before sequencing. Some additional clones of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were highly divergent from the more typical clones, but the true nature of these aberrant clones could not be determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on either 18S rRNA gene or cox1 nucleotide sequences, placed S. fusiformis closest to Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo, but only the analyses based on cox1 data separated the two taxa clearly from each other and showed that they were separate species (monophyletic clusters and 93 % sequence identity at cox1 versus interleaved sequences and 98.7-99.1 % sequence identity at the 18S rRNA gene). Two cats experimentally infected with sarcocysts of S. fusiformis started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post-infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15

  15. Effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with or without HCl on blood biochemical parameters in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Usha Rani; Sahu, Dev Sharan; Naik, Prafulla Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-four growing male buffalo calves (one year of age; 88.54 +/- 3.81 kg average body weight) were divided into three comparable groups (I, II and III) on the basis of their body weight (BW) in a completely randomised design to study the effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) and hydrochloric acid treated ammoniated wheat straw (HCl-AWS) on blood biochemical changes. The animals were offered a concentrate mixture (CM) along with wheat straw (WS), ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) (4% urea at a 50% moisture level) and hydrochloric acid treated ammoniated wheat straw (HCI-AWS) (4% urea at a 50% moisture level and HCI added to trap 30% of NH3 evolved) in groups I, II and III, respectively for an average daily gain (ADG) of 500 g. All the diets were made iso-nitrogenous by preparing three types of concentrate mixtures of different CP levels. The blood was collected from the jugular vein randomly from three animals of each group initially after 8 months post feeding and subsequently after two months interval up to 14 months of experimental feeding. Due to urea ammoniation, the CP content of WS increased from 3.66 to 8.51 and was further increased to 11.35 due to the addition of HCl during urea-ammoniation of wheat straw. The cumulative period mean plasma glucose values (mg %), in group II (53.13) were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those in groups I (48.44) and III (50.60). The cumulative period mean values of serum albumin and globulin (g %) were not significantly different and were comparable among the groups I (3.33 and 3.06), II (3.53 and 2.97) and III (3.49 and 2.94). The cumulative period mean values of serum albumin: globulin ratio and total protein values were not significantly different among the different groups. Serum urea and creatinine values were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in group III (58.66 and 2.24) as compared to groups I and II. The cumulative period mean values of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (KA units) did not

  16. Development, Characterization, and Pluripotency Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from In Vitro–Fertilized, Hand-Guided Cloned, and Parthenogenetic Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Zandi, Mohammad; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present the derivation, characterization, and pluripotency analysis of three buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) lines, from in vitro–fertilized, somatic cell nuclear–transferred, and parthenogenetic blastocysts. These cell lines were developed for later differentiation into germ lineage cells and elucidation of the signaling pathways involved. The cell lines were established from inner cell masses (ICMs) that were isolated manually from the in vitro–produced blastocysts. Most of the ICMs (45–55%) resulted in formation of primary colonies that were subcultured after 8–10 days, leading subsequently to the formation of three buESC lines, one from each blastocyst type. All the cell lines expressed stem cell markers, such as Alkaline Phosphatase, OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SOX2, REX1, CD-90, STAT3, and TELOMERASE. They differentiated into all three germ layers as determined by ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal RNA and protein markers. All of the cell lines showed equal expression of pluripotency markers as well as equivalent differentiation potential into all the three germ layers. The static suspension culture–derived embryoid bodies (EBs) showed greater expression of all the three germ layer markers as compared to hanging drop culture–derived EBs. When analyzed for germ layer marker expression, EBs derived from 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based spontaneous differentiation medium showed greater differentiation across all the three germ layers as compared to those derived from Knock-Out Serum Replacement (KoSR)-based differentiation medium. PMID:26168169

  17. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and

  18. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma β-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  19. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  20. Temporal leakage of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and loss of two low-molecular-weight forms of glutathione peroxidase-1 from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Kar, Senjuti; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C

    2015-03-01

    The postthaw motility and fertility of frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa are substantially low as compared with those of cattle sperm. The sperm motility and fertility have been positively correlated with the antioxidant enzyme activities of human and canine sperm. However, the extent of antioxidant enzyme loss during cryopreservation, although reported for human and cattle sperm, is still not clear for buffalo sperm. Thus, in the present study, an attempt was made to determine the activities of various antioxidant enzymes in buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved for various durations (0, 30, and 60 days) and the mechanism of antioxidant enzyme loss, if any, during the process. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of cryopreserved sperm decreased and that of extended seminal plasma increased progressively with the increase in duration of cryopreservation indicating the possible time-dependent leakage of these enzymes from cryopreserved sperm into the extended seminal plasmas. The catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities could not be detected in buffalo sperm but could be detected in fresh and extended seminal plasmas. Total GPx activities of extended seminal plasma decreased progressively with the increase in duration of cryopreservation. To confirm the presence of these enzymes at protein levels, specific antioxidant enzymes such as Cu,Zn SOD of 16 kDa and three molecular weight forms (57.7, 40.9, and 26.05 kDa) of GPx-1 were detected in buffalo sperm by Western blot. Furthermore, the intensities of 16-kDa Cu,Zn SOD in 60-day cryopreserved sperm and those of two low-molecular-weight forms of GPx-1 (40.9 and 26.05 kDa) in 30-day cryopreserved sperm decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compared with those of noncryopreserved (0-day cryopreserved) sperm indicating selective and temporal leakage of only low-molecular-weight antioxidant proteins in the initial phase. However, all the mentioned GPx-1 forms disappeared in 60-day

  1. Comparative efficacy of E-17β and GnRH administration on day 0 of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocol on synchrony of wave emergence, ovulation and conception rates in Murrah buffalos (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, G. R.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Ghuman, S.; Honparkhe, M.

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of an estradiol-17β + CIDR based protocol with the conventional ovsynch + CIDR based protocol for synchrony of wave emergence and ovulation in Murrah buffalos. In group I (n=25), on day 0 (beginning of experiment), buffaloes were administered a CIDR device (1.38 g P4) and concurrently received 1.5 mg E-17β. On day 9, the CIDR was removed and a prostaglandin (PG) F2α analogue (500 µg) was administered. On day 11, buffaloes were administered a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue (20 µg) and inseminated twice at 12 h and 24 h following GnRH injections. Group II (n=25) protocol was based on an ovsynch regimen plus CIDR for 7 days followed by double insemination at induced estrus. Group III (n=10) served as control and was not given any hormone on day 0 of the protocol. In groups I, II and III, the duration of new follicular wave emergences were observed on days 4.22 ± 0.12, 3.12 ± 0.33 and 5.14 ± 0.42, respectively. In group I, synchrony of wave emergence was more and the diameter of pre-ovulatory follicles was larger (P<0.05) compared to groups II and III. The first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher (P<0.05) in group I while ovulation rates were not different between groups I and II. In conclusion, more synchrony of wave emergence, larger diameter of dominant follicles and higher first service conception rate was observed following the E-17β + CIDR based protocol in buffalos. PMID:27175151

  2. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentration in follicular fluid and mRNA expression of AMH receptor type II and LH receptor in granulosa cells as predictive markers of good buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) donors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Aixin; Salzano, Angela; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Comin, Antonella; Montillo, Marta; Yang, Liguo; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2016-09-01

    High individual variability in follicular recruitment and hence in the number of embryos produced is a major factor limiting the application of reproductive technologies in buffalo. Therefore, the identification of reliable markers to select embryo donors is critical to enroll buffaloes in embryo production programs. Better understanding of factors involved in follicular growth is also necessary to improve the response to superovulation in this species. The aim of this work was thus to determine the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentration in follicular fluid (FF) recovered from different size follicles and evaluate the mRNA expression profiles of development-related (AMHR2, CYP19A1, FSHR, and LHR) and apoptosis-related genes (TP53INP1 and CASP3) in the corresponding granulosa cells (GCs) in buffalo. Another objective was to evaluate whether the AMH concentration in FF and gene expression of GCs is associated with the antral follicular count. Ovaries were collected at the slaughterhouse, and all follicles were counted and classified as small (3-5 mm), medium (5-8 mm), and large (>8 mm). Follicular fluid was recovered for AMH determination, and the mRNA expression of AMHR2, FSHR, LHR, CYP19A1, TP53INP1, and CASP3 was analyzed in GCs. The AMH concentration in FF decreased (P < 0.01) at increasing follicular diameter. The mRNA expression of AMHR2 and FSHR was higher (P < 0.05) in small follicles, whereas that of LHR and CYP19A1 was higher (P < 0.05) in large follicles. The intrafollicular AMH concentration was positively correlated with the antral follicular count (r = 0.31; P < 0.05). Interestingly, good donors (≥12 follicles) had a higher (P < 0.05) concentration of AMH and AMHR2 levels in small follicles and higher (P < 0.05) LHR levels in large follicles than bad donors (<12 follicles). These results suggest a potential use of AMH to select buffalo donors to enroll in embryo production programs, laying the basis for further investigations

  3. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) SCNT embryos produced from somatic cells isolated from frozen-thawed semen: effect of trichostatin A on the in vitro and in vivo developmental potential, quality and epigenetic status.

    PubMed

    Selokar, Naresh L; Saini, Monika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment of reconstructed buffalo embryos, produced by hand-made cloning using somatic cells isolated from over a decade old frozen-thawed semen, on their in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, quality and epigenetic status. Following treatment of reconstructed embryos with TSA (0, 50 or 75 nM) for 10 h prior to culture, the cleavage (100.0 ± 0, 94.5 ± 2.3 and 96.1 ± 1.2%, respectively) and blastocyst rate (50.6 ± 2.3, 48.4 ± 2.7 and 48.1 ± 2.6%, respectively), total cell number (275 ± 17.4, 289 ± 30.1 and 317 ± 24.2, respectively) and apoptotic index (5.6 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 4.5 ± 1.4, respectively) were not significantly different among the three groups. However, TSA treatment increased (P < 0.05) the global level of H4K5ac and decreased (P < 0.05) that of H3K27me3 in blastocysts whereas the global level of H3K18ac was not affected significantly. Transfer of embryos treated with 75 nM TSA (n = 10) to recipients resulted in two pregnancies (20%), one out of which was aborted in the second and the other in the third trimester whereas transfer of control embryos (n = 20) or those treated with 50 nM TSA (n = 12) did not result in any pregnancy. In conclusion, these results suggest that TSA treatment of cloned buffalo embryos produced using somatic cells isolated from frozen-thawed semen improved their epigenetic status but not the in vitro developmental potential and offspring rate. PMID:26503476

  4. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sushil Kumar; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Karn Pratap; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1%) live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE) cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF) and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC), and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF. PMID:26053554

  5. 2D-PAGE analysis of the soluble proteins of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica and biliary amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum, concurrently infecting Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir A; Khan, Mohd Abdul Hannan; Abidi, S M A

    2016-09-01

    The digenetic trematodes, Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum, belonging to the family Fasciolidae and Paramphistomidae respectively, have been often found to concurrently infect the liver of Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, causing serious pathological damage to the vital organ, incurring huge economic losses. In the present study the soluble gene products of both F. gigantica and G. explanatum were analyzed by 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble proteomic profile revealed considerable similarity as well as differences in the size, distribution pattern, total number, the isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mr) of the resolved polypeptide spots. The maximum number of polypeptide spots with a molecular weight range of >10 to 160 kDa were recorded with a pI range of 7-9 followed by pI range of 5-7, 9-10 and 3-5 in both the parasites. However, considerable variation was recorded in the Mr of the polypeptides belonging to each pI range. The genetic heterogeneity could be an obvious contributing factor for such differences but some polypeptides appeared to be conserved in the two species. The molecular similarities and the habitat preference by these worms may be a consequence of microenvironmental cues that guide these flukes to reach their habitat through different routes and establish a successful host-parasite relationship. PMID:27605808

  6. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  7. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  8. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n = 340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n = 297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ≥6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n = 1), C. bovis (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 3) and C. suis (n = 1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  10. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26. PMID:27274850

  11. Insights into resistome and stress responses genes in Bubalus bubalis rumen through metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Bhaskar; Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Antony, Ancy; Panchasara, Harshad J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiota experience variety of diets and represents a huge reservoir of mobilome, resistome and stress responses. However, knowledge of metagenomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of buffalo rumen in the liquid and solid phase of the rumen biomaterial from river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages, using high-throughput sequencing to know the occurrence of antibiotics resistance genes, genetic exchange between bacterial population and environmental reservoirs. A total of 3914.94 MB data were generated from all three treatments group. The data were analysed with Metagenome rapid annotation system tools. At phyla level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all the treatments followed by Firmicutes. Genes coding for functional responses to stress (oxidative stress and heat shock proteins) and resistome genes (resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, phages, transposable elements and pathogenicity islands) were prevalent in similar proportion in liquid and solid fraction of rumen metagenomes. The fluoroquinolone resistance, MDR efflux pumps and Methicillin resistance genes were broadly distributed across 11, 9, and 14 bacterial classes, respectively. Bacteria responsible for phages replication and prophages and phage packaging and rlt-like streptococcal phage genes were mostly assigned to phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and proteaobacteria. Also, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the buffalo rumen. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to different diet, antibiotics and other stresses in buffalo rumen, reflecting the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. PMID:24985977

  12. Ontogeny, postnatal development and ageing of endocrine pancreas in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    LUCINI, C.; CASTALDO, L.; LAI, O.; DE VICO, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ontogenesis, postnatal development and ageing of the endocrine pancreas in mammals have not been extensively studied. In order to improve understanding of this organ, we studied the buffalo pancreas during fetal and postnatal development. Glucagon, insulin and somatostatin immunoreactive cells (i.c.) were first seen in 2-mo-old embryos. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) i.c. were observed during the 3rd month of gestation. The early embryo pancreas was almost totally composed of endocrine tissue. The endocrine portion only slightly increased in mass with animal growth, whereas the exocrine portion noticeably increased in mass during the late fetal and postnatal periods. In adults, therefore, the exocrine portion was more evident than the endocrine portion. Three types of islet were observed in fetal and young buffalos: small, large and PP-islets. The small islets were composed of insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and PP i.c. The large islets were primarily composed of insulin i.c. and a few glucagon, somatostatin and PP i.c. The PP islets were mostly composed of PP i.c. with a few somatostatin, insulin and glucagon i.c. The number of large islets greatly diminished by adulthood. Glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and PP i.c. were also seen scattered in the exocrine parenchyma and along the duct epithelium. In the duct epithelium, these cells were either single or grouped, and they sometimes formed a protrusion projecting towards the connective tissue. These morphological features were primarily observed in fetuses and young buffalos. PMID:9688507

  13. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of full length p53 cDNA from Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2015-09-01

    p53 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the genomic integrity of the cell and has an important role in cellular transformation. We isolated and cloned a full length p53 cDNA (Bp53) from water buffalo in expression vectors designed to generate tagged proteins with FLAG or GFP. Bp53 was found to be 1161 nucleotide long and codes for 386 amino acid residues with 79% homology with human p53 containing 393 amino acids. Although Bp53 has some inherent differences in amino acid composition in different functional domains as compared to human p53 but the total electrostatic charge of amino acids has been maintained. Bp53 cDNA was transiently transfected in a p53 null human NSCLC cell line and as expected, it was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Besides, Bp53 effectively transactivates a number of target genes similar to human p53 and exerts most of its anti-tumorigenic potential in culture as observed in clonogenic and cell viability assays. Like human p53 mutants, core domain mutant version of Bp53 was found to be mis-localized to cytoplasm with diminished tumor suppressor activity. However, Bp53 appeared to be more sensitive to mdm2 mediated degradation and as a result, this protein was less stable as compared to human p53. For the first time we have characterized a functionally efficient wild-type p53 from buffalo having lower stability than human p53 and thus, buffalo p53 could be used as a model system for further insight to the molecular basis of wild-type p53 instability. PMID:26003295

  14. Evaluation of biochemical alterations produced by acetaminophen overdose in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Daundkar, Prashant Sudamrao; Sharma, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the effect of acetaminophen (APAP) overdose on biochemical parameters in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on six healthy male buffalo calves of 6-12 months age. The APAP was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 250 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) on day 0, followed by two subsequent doses at the dose rate of 50 mg/kg B.W. on day 2 and 4, respectively. Biochemical parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and total acid phosphate were estimated in the plasma samples collected on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6th day from the start of treatment. Results: Significant increase in the plasma levels of ALT (446.0%), ALP (137%), BUN (216.8%) and creatinine (149.2%) was recorded on day 3, 4, 3, and 4, respectively, after the start of APAP dosing. However, a significant decrease was observed in amylase activity with a maximum decline of 48.3% on 6th day after the start of treatment. No significant alteration was observed in ACP activity after APAP overdose. Conclusion: Administration of APAP in overdose produced hepatic dysfunction as evidenced by a significant increase in the activities of ALT and ALP, whereas reduced amylase may indicate acute pancreatitis in buffalo calves. In addition, repeated dosing also resulted in renal impairment in these animals as seen by a significant elevation in BUN and creatinine levels, whereas negligible effect on prostatic function. PMID:27047122

  15. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  16. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389

  17. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  18. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348

  19. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on fenvalerate, nitrate and their co-exposure in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Sandhu, Harpal Singh; Kaur, Rajdeep

    2015-09-01

    The toxic effects of pesticides and minerals have been explored in different species, but still there is paucity of information regarding their combined toxicological effects. The present investigation reports oxidative stress induced by oral subacute exposure to fenvalerate (1 mg/kg) and sodium nitrate (20 mg/kg) alone, as well as in combination daily for 21 days in buffalo calves. Fenvalerate exposure produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while it produced significant decline in blood glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). No significant alteration was evidenced in nitric oxide (NOx) levels. Oral exposure to sodium nitrate produced significant inclination in LPO and NOx, while on the other hand significant depreciation in SOD and CAT with no significant change in GPx activity. Combined exposure to fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced severe effects with an appreciably more prominent elevation in extent of LPO and decline in blood GSH levels. PMID:26267048

  20. Evaluation of leptin receptor expression on buffalo leukocytes.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Grandoni, Francesco; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catizone, Angela; Reale, Anna; Crisà, Alessandra; Moioli, Bianca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidences support a direct role for leptin in immunity. Besides controlling food intake and energy expenditure, leptin was reported to be involved in the regulation of the immune system in ruminants. The aim of this work was to highlight the expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) on Bubalus bubalis immune cells using a multi-approach assessment: flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of LEPR expression showed that peripheral blood monocytes were the predominant cells expressing LEPR. This result was corroborated by confocal microscopy and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, among lymphocytes, LEPR was mainly expressed by B lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Evidence of LEPR expression on buffalo blood leukocytes showed to be a good indicator of the responsivity of these cells to leptin, so confirming the involvement of leptin in buffalo immune response. PMID:27436440

  1. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  2. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  3. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  4. Comparative analysis of SNP candidates in disparate milk yielding river buffaloes using targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk plays an important role in economy and nutritious diet in several developing countries. However, reliable milk-yield genomic markers and their functional insights remain unexposed. Here, we have used a target capture sequencing approach in three economically important buffalo breeds namely: Banni, Jafrabadi and Mehsani, belonging to either high or low milk-yield group. Blood samples were collected from the milk-yield/breed balanced group of 12 buffaloes, and whole exome sequencing was performed using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Using an innovative approach namely, MultiCom; we have identified high-quality SNPs specific for high and low-milk yield buffaloes. Almost 70% of the reported genes in QTL regions of milk-yield and milk-fat in cattle were present among the buffalo milk-yield gene candidates. Functional analysis highlighted transcriptional regulation category in the low milk-yield group, and several new pathways in the two groups. Further, the discovered SNP candidates may account for more than half of mammary transcriptome changes in high versus low-milk yielding cattle. Thus, starting from the design of a reliable strategy, we identified reliable genomic markers specific for high and low-milk yield buffalo breeds and addressed possible downstream effects. PMID:27441113

  5. Comparative analysis of the river buffalo somatostatin gene.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Borges, M M; Amaral, M E J

    2014-01-01

    The somatostatin protein plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple biological functions, such as growth, fat deposition, and nutrient absorption in vertebrates. Polymorphisms in the somatostatin gene have been associated with growth traits in livestock species, including cattle and goat. In this study, we conducted complete molecular characterization of the somatostatin gene in Bubalus bubalis (Murrah breed) by sequencing a Murrah BAC clone spanning 72,489 base pairs (bp) in length. The buffalo somatostatin gene contains 1481 bp organized into a 5'-untranslated region (135 bp), exon 1 (139 bp), intron 1 (839 bp), exon 2 (212 bp), and 3'UTR (156 bp). Comparative analysis between the buffalo somatostatin DNA coding sequence and the amino acid sequence with other bovids (cattle, goat, and sheep), horse, pig, human, rodents (mouse and rat), and chicken. Identity varied from 83-99% on the DNA sequence level and 88-100% on the protein level. In addition, a comparison of gene sequences between Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed 6 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1 in exon 1 and 5 in intron 1), which were validated in different buffalo populations. This comparative analysis provides basic information for future studies of different buffalo herds using the position candidate gene approach, quantitative trait loci analysis, and polymorphisms associated with growth traits. PMID:25501213

  6. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  7. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327

  8. Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control. PMID:14986894

  9. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  10. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions. PMID:25447149

  11. The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Nanda, A S; Adams, G P

    2000-07-01

    Buffaloes play a prominent role in rural livestock production, particularly in Asia. Reproductive efficiency is the primary factor affecting productivity and is hampered in female buffalo by (i) inherent late maturity, (ii) poor estrus expression in summer, (iii) distinct seasonal reproductive patterns, and (iv) prolonged intercalving intervals. Ovarian function is central to these issues; hence, the focal point of this review is ovarian function in Bubalus bubalis, particularly, in relation to seasonal changes. Ovarian anatomy, follicular and luteal development development, and hormonal profiles during the estrous cycle are discussed. Review of the literature revealed a paucity of critically derived information on follicular and ovulatory patterns in buffalo, particularly, in relation to seasonal estrus/birthing. Efforts may be directed at understanding the process (recruitment, development, atresia) and temporal pattern (follicle selection, dominance, subordinate follicle suppression, follicle numbers, and, preovulatory changes) of follicular dynamics using techniques which permit serial assessment of changes occurring over time. Emphasis may be directed towards investigating follicular "waves" as a functional unit, rather than the estrous cycle, in the context of whole animal endocrinology. The data obtained from such basic studies may then be used to develop and test models for enhancing reproductive efficiency. PMID:10844227

  12. Cloning and expression of buffalo active chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan Andres; Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomas G

    2008-11-26

    To date, only recombinant chymosin has been obtained in its active form from supernatants of filamentous fungi, which are not as good candidates as yeasts for large-scale fermentations. Since Bos taurus chymosin was cloned and expressed, the world demand for this protease has increased to such an extent that the cheesemaking industry has been looking for novel sources of chymosin. In this sense because buffalo chymosin has properties that are more stable than those of B. taurus chymosin, it may occupy a space of its own in the chymosin market. The main objective of the present work was the production of active recombinant buffalo chymosin in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris . This yeast has demonstrated its usefulness as an excellent large-scale fermentation tool for the secretion of recombinant foreign proteins. RNA was extracted from the abomasum of a suckling calf water buffalo ( Bubalus arnee bubalis ). Preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin DNA sequences were isolated and expressed into P. pastoris. Only the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the prochymosin sequence gene were able to secrete the active form of the chymosin to the culture supernatant. This paper describes for the first time the production of active recombinant chymosin in P. pastoris without the need of a previous in vitro activation. The new recombinant yeast strain could represent a novel and excellent source of rennet for the cheesemaking industry. PMID:18975968

  13. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P < 0.05) in C (28.00%) and SC (55.56%) compared with W (69.57%) on Day 25 after first AI. Pregnancy rates reduced to 60.87%, 44.45%, and 16.00% in W, SC, and C, respectively, at Day 45 after insemination. Thus, the embryonic loss was 8.7%, 11.11%, and 12.00 % in W, SC, and C cows, respectively. Pregnancy rates decreased between 44.32% and 50.51% when mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P < 0.05) in W than SC and C cows starting at Day 9 postbreeding onward. Likewise, P4 concentrations on Days 9 through 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.05) in W cows as compared to SC and C cows. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) were found on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after AI between CL diameter and P4 concentrations. Similar trend was found among CL diameter, P4 concentrations, and pregnancy rate. Accordingly, incidence of mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. PMID:27177967

  14. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Voloski, F L S; Tonello, L; Ramires, T; Reta, G G; Dewes, C; Iglesias, M; Mondadori, R G; Gandra, E A; da Silva, W P; Duval, E H

    2016-06-01

    Considering the specific biochemical composition of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat (high iron content, high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids, low amounts of fat and cholesterol), we evaluated the influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. On the processing day, samples were collected from carcass, deboning room surfaces and meat cuts. Samples from meat cuts were evaluated weekly for two months. On the processing day, higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. were observed in samples from meat cuts compared with the hindquarters and the processing surfaces. For thermotolerant coliform scores, the averages were -0.5 log MPN·cm(-2), -0.4 log MPN·cm(-2) and 0.9 log MPN·g(-1), respectively. Higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. and LAB in meat cuts were observed on the processing day and after the first week of storage, respectively, remaining constant during shelf life. Listeria grayi was identified in two samples of hindquarters and meat cuts during storage. Listeria innocua was identified in one meat cut. In conclusion, cutting and deboning operations influence the microbiological quality and shelf life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. PMID:26897086

  15. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  16. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities. PMID:19036494

  17. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor mutations are associated with white-spotted coat color in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yusnizar, Y; Wilbe, M; Herlino, A O; Sumantri, C; Noor, R Rachman; Boediono, A; Andersson, L; Andersson, G

    2015-12-01

    A candidate gene analysis of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene was used in an attempt to identify the genetic basis for a white-spotted coat color phenotype in the Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis). Ninety-three buffaloes-32 solid, 38 spotted and 23 white individuals-were Sanger-sequenced for all MITF exons as well as highly conserved intronic and flanking regions. MITF cDNA representing skin and iris tissue from six spotted, nine solid and one white buffaloes was also Sanger-sequenced to confirm detected mutations. Two independent loss-of-function mutations, a premature stop codon (c.328C>T, p.Arg110*) and a donor splice-site mutation (c.840+2T>A, p.Glu281_Leu282Ins8), both of which cause white-spotted coat color in swamp buffaloes, were identified. The nonsense mutation leads to a premature stop codon in exon 3, and likely removal of the resulting mRNA via nonsense-mediated decay pathway, whereas the donor splice-site mutation leads to aberrant splicing of exon 8 that encodes part of a highly conserved region of MITF. The resulting insertion of eight amino acid residues is expected to perturb the leucine zipper part in the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and will most likely influence dimerization and DNA binding capacity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed using mutant and wild-type MITF proteins and showed that the mutant MITF protein resulting from the splice-site mutation decreased in vitro DNA binding capacity compared to wild-type MITF. White-spotted buffalo bulls are sacrificed in funeral ceremonies in Tana Toraja, Indonesia, because they are considered holy, and our results show that genetic variation causes a tie to the cultural use of these buffaloes. PMID:26417640

  18. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group. PMID:20391363

  19. Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

    2007-01-01

    BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

  20. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    RUENNARONG, Nitwarat; WONGPANIT, Kannika; SAKULTHAEW, Chainarong; GIORGI, Mario; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  1. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ruennarong, Nitwarat; Wongpanit, Kannika; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Giorgi, Mario; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Poapolathep, Saranya

    2016-04-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  2. Flow cytometric and near-infrared Raman spectroscopic investigation of quality in stained, sorted, and frozen-thawed buffalo sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Meng; Chen, Huan-Hua; Li, Qing-Yang; Yang, Huan; Xu, Hui-Yan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2016-07-01

    Flow cytometry and Laser Tweezers Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm from different samples (fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed) of the flow-sorting process to optimize sperm sex sorting procedures. During the sorting and freezing-thawing processes, the two detection methods both indicated there were differences in mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity. Moreover, a dispersive-type NIR (Near Infrared Reflection) use of the Raman system resulted in the ability to detect a variety of sperm components, including relative DNA, lipid, carbohydrates and protein contents. The use of the Raman system allowed for PCA (principal components analysis) and DFA (discriminant function analysis) of fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed sperm. The methodology, therefore, allows for distinguishing sperm from different samples (fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed), and demonstrated the great discriminative power of ANN (artificial neural network) classification models for the differentiating sperm from different phases of the flow-sorting process. In conclusion, the damage induced by sperm sorting and freezing-thawing procedures can be quantified, and in the present research it is demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is a valuable technology for assessing sperm quality. PMID:27095613

  3. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P < 0.05). RR, HR, and BTCI significantly increased over the months and were different between the periods of the day (P > 0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P < 0.05). Thus, buffalo bulls reared under a humid tropical climate may have variations in thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels. PMID:25801015

  4. Long term effect of Ovum Pick-up in buffalo species.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Vecchio, Domenico; Boccia, Lucia; Varricchio, Ettore; Di Palo, Rossella; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Ovum Pick-up (OPU) treatment carried out for 9 months in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) species. Eight pluriparous non-lactating buffalo cows underwent OPU for 9 months. Recovered cumulus enclosed oocytes (COCs) were classified and COCs suitable for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) were in vitro matured (IVM), fertilized (IVF) and cultured (IVC) to the blastocyst (Bl) stage. Animals were monitored for a total period of 270 days, but at the summer solstice, follicular turnover decreased and at the 68-day of the trial, we decided to increase the OPU sampling interval from 3-4 to 7 days. It was therefore possible to distinguish two phases: a first phase (18 sessions), during which OPU was carried out twice weekly and a second phase (16 sessions) during which OPU sessions were performed weekly. This reduction did not modify the percentage of good quality COCs, while the incidence of grade D COCs decreased (P<0.01). Furthermore, embryo production was higher in the second phase, either if embryos were calculated on the total recovered COCs (8.3% vs. 21.4%; P<0.01) and on grade A+B COCs (13.0% vs. 32.1%; P<0.01), that supposedly should have given similar blastocyst yield. During the total period of the trial it was possible to distinguish a first period of 6 months (34 sessions) characterized by blastocyst production (0.36 blastocyst/buffalo/session), followed by an unproductive period of 3 months (12 sessions), during which embryos were not produced. During the first 6 months a higher (P<0.01) number of follicles (5.06 vs. 3.71), small follicles (3.38 vs. 2.07), total COCs (2.58 vs. 1.56) and good quality (A+B) COCs (1.51 vs. 0.94) per subject/session were recorded compared to the last 3 months. No Blastocyst were produced during the second period, even if the percentage of grade A+B COCs was similar to that recorded during the first period. In conclusion, buffalo cows submitted to repeated OPU sampling for a 9-month

  5. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  6. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. PMID:20070582

  7. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  8. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  9. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  10. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  11. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-Ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T Sridhar; Chauhan, M S; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-09-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS. PMID:26781547

  12. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  13. Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent Gongylonema spp. (G. aegypti and G. neoplasticum), with the proposal of G. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Setsuda, Aogu; Da, Nengtai; Hasegawa, Hideo; Behnke, Jerzy M; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. In an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (Bos taurus) and wild mammals in Japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) region of mitochondrial DNA of multiple isolates of different origins. Our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of G. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in Japan. In the present study, we collected G. pulchrum from cattle and goats (Capra hircus) in Alashan League, Inner Mongolia, China; Gongylonema aegypti from spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; and Gongylonema neoplasticum from a black rat (Rattus rattus) in Okinawa Island, Japan, to analyze their genetic relationships with G. pulchrum in Japan. The gullet worms from Alashan League had almost identical rDNA nucleotide sequences and two cox-1 haplotypes as seen in G. pulchrum from the cattle in Japan. The two rodent Gongylonema spp. had distinct rDNA nucleotide sequences compared with those of G. pulchrum; only the 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences showed high identities at 97.2-98.7%, while the remaining sequences were less than 75% identical. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequences of the two rodent Gongylonema spp. showed nucleotide identities of 99.8% (1811/1814), 100% (158/158), and 98.9% (3550/3590), respectively. The cox-1 regions showed 91.6% (338/369)-92.1% (340/369) identities, with completely identical amino acid sequences. The genetic diversities of three distinct Gongylonema spp. and their possible intraspecific genetic variation may allow us to resolve the taxonomic position of Gongylonema spp. which display few obvious morphological differences from their congeners. Consequently, the Gongylonema isolate from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal reported in our previous study is concluded to be a new species, and Gongylonema nepalensis n

  14. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  15. A Buffalo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Eugene T.

    The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…

  16. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Foster, Jeffrey T; Drees, Kevin; Zilli, Katiuscia; Platone, Ilenia; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy. PMID:26679575

  17. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  19. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  20. Vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Parnpai, Rangsun; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Somfai, Tamas; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    During the past decade, vitrification has been acknowledged as an efficient alternative to traditional slow-rate freezing in both human and animal embryology. The buffalo is the major milk and meat producing farm animal in many developing countries. Cryopreservation of buffalo oocytes and embryos is very important in preserving this species for future use. This review discusses the recent buffalo oocytes and embryos vitrification procedures, different types of cryoinjuries, and other factors affecting the vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos. PMID:27160442

  1. An experimental trap net fishery, Lake Oahe, South Dakota, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabel, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Large trap nets were evaluated as a commercial gear for capturing buffalo fish during July-September 1965. During the 72-day fishing period, 13,171 fish weighing 21,669 kg were taken. Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) and smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) dominated the catch (78.2% by weight). Eight sport species accounted for 3.6% of the total catch. Both 7.0-cm and 12.7-cm mesh (extended measure) were used in the back of the bailing crib of the nets to determine the effect of the 12.7-cm mesh in reducing the catch of sport species and nonmarketable size groups of commercial species. The 12.7-cm mesh reduced the catch of nonmarketable bigmouth buffalo 29%, smallmouth buffalo 11%, river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) 18%, carp (Cyprinus carpio) 8%, freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) 35%, and sport species 68%.

  2. Pineal proteins upregulate specific antioxidant defense systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Srivastava, R S

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day), control (28 day), vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 μg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases. PMID:20357930

  3. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  8. In Buffalo, Opening Doors for the Overlooked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…

  9. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  10. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  11. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H.; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  12. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H; Abidi, Syed M A

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  13. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  14. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat...

  15. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  16. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  17. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  18. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  20. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  1. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  2. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents. PMID:21086160

  3. Bryant and Stratton Business Institute, Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attmore, Robert H.

    In June 1992, the New York State Office of the Comptroller performed an audit of Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) awards at Bryant and Stratton Business Institute's Buffalo Campus (BC). TAP, the largest student grant and scholarship program administered by the Higher Education Services Corporation…

  4. Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoer, Wanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

  5. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Echinococcus ortleppi and E. granulosus G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in Italian bovines.

    PubMed

    Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Cerbo, Anna Rita Di; Genchi, Claudio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2008-08-01

    To increase the knowledge on Echinococcus genotypes infesting cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) born and bred in Italy, the germinal layer of hydatid cysts was collected from the liver and the lungs of 80 animals slaughtered in 2007. Two mitochondrial genes (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the NADH subunit I) were tested by PCR. Four genotypes were identified: G1 (sheep strain), G2 (Tasmanian sheep strain), G3 (buffalo strain), and G5 (cattle strain). Fertile cysts were detected only in the lungs of 4.5% of the total G1 lung cysts, of 9.4% of the total G3 lung cysts, and in the only G5 infected animal. This is the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5) in Italy. PMID:18514422

  8. The Buffalo Medical Journal: 1845-1919.

    PubMed Central

    Sentz, L

    1985-01-01

    Fielding H. Garrison's paper "The medical periodical and the scientific society" cited the Buffalo Medical Journal in the company of eminent periodicals published in Berlin, Boston, and Edinburgh. This article provides an overview of the Journal and places it in context of 19th-century medical journalism. The Journal is assessed in terms of original scientific contributions and as a source of social and local history. Images PMID:3896357

  9. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  10. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  11. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives Anchorage A. Inside the south...

  12. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  13. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  14. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  15. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  16. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...

  17. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...

  18. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  2. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  3. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  4. A framework radiation hybrid map of buffalo chromosome 1 ordering scaffolds from buffalo genome sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Yang, E; Cai, J J; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo chromosome 1 (BBU1) is a sub-metacentric chromosome homologous to bovine chromosomes 1 and 27. In this study, we constructed a new framework radiation hybrid (RH) map from BBU1 using BBURH5000 panel adding nine new genes (ADRB3, ATP2C1, COPB2, CRYGS, P2RY1, SLC5A3, SLC20A2, SST, and ZDHHC2) and one microsatellite (CSSM043) to the set of markers previously mapped on BBU1. The new framework RH map of BBU1 contained 141 markers (55 genes, 2 ESTs, 10 microsatellites, and 74 SNPs) distributed within one linkage group spanning 2832.62 centirays. Comparison of the RH map to sequences from bovine chromosomes 1 and 27 revealed an inversion close to the telomeric region. In addition, we ordered a set of 34 scaffolds from the buffalo genome assembly UMD_CASPUR_WB_2.0. The RH map could provide a valuable tool to order scaffolds from the buffalo genome sequence, contributing to its annotation. PMID:26535622

  5. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  7. 16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING SOUTH - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  8. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  9. Species identification of cattle and buffalo fat through PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, V V

    2016-04-01

    A method was standardized to isolate quality DNA from cattle and buffalo fat for species identification using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit. The quality of the DNA was sufficient enough to amplify universal primers viz., mt 12S rRNA and mt 16S rRNA, and species specific D loop primers for cattle and buffalo. The sensitivity of the PCR assay in the species specific D loop primer amplification was with a detection level of 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.23 ng buffalo DNA in simplex and, 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.12 ng buffalo DNA in duplex PCR. It is a potentially reliable method for DNA detection to authenticate animal fat. PMID:27413237

  10. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  11. Separation and quantification of milk casein from different buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production. PMID:27600966

  12. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  13. Treatment of dairy buffaloes naturally infected with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Asad Irshad; Maqbool, Azhar; Tonio, Muhammad Tariq; Naureen, Abeera; Ajmal, Adeela; Anwar, Muhammad Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Therapeutic trials of sarcoptic mange in buffaloes were studied at local Livestock farms, Lahore (Pakistan). A total of 600 buffaloes were examined over 1 year period (August 2006 to July 2007) for prevalence study, while 60 buffaloes were selected for therapeutic trial. Sarcoptic mange was recorded in 66 (11%) animals. The highest monthly prevalence was reported during the months of January and February (18%) followed by December and March (16%) whereas lowest during the month of July (2%). Over all highest seasonally prevalence was recorded during winter (16.5%) and lowest during summer (5%). Moreover, highest infestation rate was recorded among young (<3 months) buffaloes than with age >3 months. Sex-wise prevalence indicated more prevalence in buffalo bulls (13.15%) than female buffaloes (9.28%). Therapeutic trials were carried out by using ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorphon as per manufacturer's recommendations for a period of 10 days, while one group was kept as untreated control. Negative skin scraping, disappearance of gross lesions, stoppage of itching and regrowth of normal hair were taken as the criterion to assess the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23129889

  14. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  15. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  16. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Service and Research--Present Status and Future Goals at SUNY-Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koup, Jeffrey R.

    1976-01-01

    Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)

  17. Quantitative studies on acetylcholinesterase in seven species of digenetic trematodes.

    PubMed

    Nizami, W A; Siddiqi, A H; Islam, M W

    1977-07-29

    Quantitative estimation of absolute levels and in vitro release of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in seven species of digenetic trematodes: Isoparorchis hypselobagri from the swim bladder of catfish, Wallago attu; Srivastavaia indica and Gastrothylax crumenifer from the rumen, and Gigantocotyle explanatum from the liver of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis; Fasciolopsis buski, Echinostoma malayanum from the small intestine and Gastrodiscoides hominis from the caecum of the pig, Sus scrofa revealed that the enzyme is present in remarkably high quantities in species which inhibit gastrointestinal tract compared with those that parasitize liver and swim bladder. The rate of in vitro release of AChE also varies with the species which supports the view that such differential secretion probably takes place in situ as well to counteract peristalsis and it is a biochemical adaptation on the part of these trematodes. PMID:562036

  18. Five Year Financial and Management Assessment of the Buffalo Public Schools. Addendum: Detailed Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Financial Plan Commission, NY.

    In February 1993 the Buffalo Financial Plan Commission was asked to conduct a financial and management assessment of the Buffalo (New York) public schools. The effort involved the work of 115 volunteers from 75 businesses and community organizations in the Buffalo area. Thirty-four recommendations were produced, which were expected to yield annual…

  19. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo..., Buffalo District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood...

  20. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the... Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.939 will be enforced on the dates and times listed in...

  1. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  2. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  3. Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the

  4. Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia.

    PubMed

    Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-02-01

    We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The 'Stone Country' of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social-ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of

  5. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the

  6. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.; Kumar, H.; Bag, S.; Majumdar, A. C.; Singh, G.; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Brown, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. PMID:24790596

  7. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  8. Study on hematological alterations induced by amphistomosis in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vandip. D.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Pandey, Sunanda; Pansuriya, Dhaval V.; Choudhary, Vijayata

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to compare the alterations in the hematological parameters in buffaloes suffering from Amphistomosis with normal buffaloes and to correlate it with the subclinical infection that is hard to diagnose. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 50 amphistomes infected as well as 50 non-infected buffaloes from slaughter houses were taken into vacutainer tubes containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid for estimation of various hematological parameters by Automatic Analyzer Hema-2062 manufactured by Analytical Technologies Ltd. Result: There was a significant reduction in the mean hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume and significant increase in the neutrophils count and eosinophil count of infected buffaloes as compared to the non-infected buffaloes respectively. Conclusion: Amphistomosis is characterized by severe neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and anemia. Anemia of high intensity along with hepatic damage can lead to the death of the animal in severe cases. Alterations in the Hematological parameters can be used as an indicator to diagnose and check the severity of amphistomosis especially in young ones and in subclinical infection. PMID:27047107

  9. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  10. Hepatogenous photosensitization associated with liver copper accumulation in buffalos.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio H H; Júnior, Raimundo A Barrêto; Rodrigues, Frederico A M L; Ferreira, Rodrigo N F; Reis, Leonardo F; Headley, Selwyn A; Ortolani, Enrico L

    2010-06-01

    Four 1.5-year-old, male, Murrah buffalos were maintained during eight months without direct solar exposure during a study of copper toxicosis. Four days after solar exposure, all buffalos presented clinical manifestations consistent with acute photosensitization, including anorexia, apathy, loss of body weight, and generalized cutaneous lesions. Gross lesions were characterized by severe erythema, localized edema, fissures, tissue necrosis, gangrene and crust formation with serous exudation. Liver copper concentration was evaluated, and cutaneous biopsies were taken when clinical signs were evident. The liver copper concentration before solar exposure was increased in all animals. Histopathologic examination of the skin revealed hepatogenous photosensitization characterized by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, acantholysis, degeneration of squamous epithelial cells, epidermal necrosis with atrophy of sweat glands, and multifocal superficial and deep dermal edema. These findings suggest that asymptomatic accumulation of copper within the liver might have induced hepatic insufficiency thereby resulting in secondary photosensitization when these buffalos were exposed to sunlight. PMID:20064649

  11. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  12. Potential association of reduced cholinesterase activity with Trypanosoma evansi pathogenesis in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K

    2016-07-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (P<0.001) lower. However, no significant difference was observed in cholinesterase activity between the T. evansi-infected buffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders. PMID:27369572

  13. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  14. AROMATIC AMINES IN AND NEAR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...

  15. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  16. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

  17. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. PMID:25985909

  18. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405

  19. Development and quality evaluation of cooked buffalo tripe rolls.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V; Mendiratta, S K

    2008-12-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls (BTRs) were prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe (75%) and buffalo meat (25%) by using mincing (M-BTR) and blade tenderization (BT-BTR). They were stored at 4±1°C and studied for various physico-chemical, sensory and microbial qualities. Significantly (P<0.01) higher pH, shear force value, diameter shrinkage and fat percentage were observed in M-BTR and BT-BTR than control product (100% minced buffalo meat). The product yield and drip loss percentage were significantly (P<0.01) lower in BT-BTR, whereas drip loss percentage was significantly higher in M-BTR compared to controls and BT-BTR. No significant change was noticed in protein and moisture content between the different products. All physico-chemical parameters and sensory evaluation scores of M-BTR were comparable with control. Significant (P<0.01) increases were noticed in pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid and tyrosine values with increasing storage period, whereas the extract release volume decreased significantly. All microbial counts and sensory evaluation scores were within the acceptable limits until 15 days of storage at 4±1°C in low-density polyethylene pouches stored aerobically. PMID:22063856

  20. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  1. Comparison of CNVs in Buffalo with other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...

  2. Teat anatomy affects requirements for udder preparation in Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ambord, Sarah; Stoffel, Michael H; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelation between teat anatomy and machine milking in dairy buffaloes raised in Switzerland. A 3-min pre-stimulation induced milk ejection before cluster attachment in most cases and caused an optimal milk removal during machine milking. In an additional experiment, longitudinal cross-section ultrasound was obtained before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation. Teat wall thickness, teat diameter, cisternal diameter and teat canal length were evaluated. It was observed that 3-min pre-stimulation dramatically reduced teat canal length whereas all the other anatomical parameters remained unchanged. The vacuum needed to open the teat canal was also measured before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation by using a special teat cup with only the mouthpiece of the liner remaining on the top of the teat cup (no liner, no pulsation). Without pre-stimulation but after wetting the teat canal by stripping one squirt of milk out of the teat, no milk could be withdrawn with a vacuum up to 39 kPa. However, after pre-stimulation, milk flow occurred in all buffaloes at a vacuum between 16 and 38 kPa. In the last experiment, the teat tissue was examined in slaughtered buffaloes and compared with teat tissue of cows. No difference was noted in histological sections and teat canal length was similar in cows and buffaloes. Proximal to the teat canal, the teat did not pass into an open cistern but the lumen was collapsed. In conclusion, buffaloes need to be well pre-stimulated because the tissue above the teat canal provides additional teat closure before milk ejection. Therefore, milk can only be obtained after pre-stimulation. PMID:20822559

  3. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  4. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  5. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. PMID:27155729

  7. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27357943

  8. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  9. The Buffalo/Spey jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittley, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The program to design and build a Buffalo/Spey Augmentor-Wing research aircraft is presented. The development of an internally blown flap system for the generation of powered lift is discussed. Modification, development, and testing of the Rolls-Royce Spey engine are reported. The ground tests and first flights of the aircraft are described and the application of the internally blown flap concept for short takeoff military transport aircraft is proposed.

  10. Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Vohra, Vikas; Ratwan, Poonam; Valsalan, Jamuna; Patil, C. S.; Chakravarty, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY) and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY) in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups. Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11) to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3). The h2 estimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057114

  11. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  12. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Pranjali; Mahapatra, P S; Kumar, Ajay; Malakar, Dhruba; Bag, Sadhan

    2014-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are primordial, uncommitted cells postulated to give rise to the array of more specialized cells of the central nervous system (CNS). NSCs can self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs are found in the CNS of mammalian organisms, and represent a promising resource for both fundamental research and CNS repair. Animal models of CNS damage have highlighted the potential benefit of NSC-based approaches. Present study described that buffalo neural stem cells (Bu-NSCs) were isolated and expanded rapidly from buffalo fetal brain in adherent culture. They were capable of multidifferentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Bu-NSCs were morphologically homogeneous and possessed high proliferation ability. The population doubled every 128.16 h. Normal buffalo karyotype was unchanged throughout the in vitro culture period. Together, we have isolated and cultured Bu-NSC from fetal brain that showed self-renewal, rapid proliferation and ability to differentiate into cells of nervous system. The availability of such cells may hold great interest for basic and applied neuroscience. PMID:24094244

  13. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula. PMID:485984

  14. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  15. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  16. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  17. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...

  18. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, Lander and Humboldt Counties, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze and disclose impacts associated with the Buffalo Valley Mine Project,...

  19. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  20. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  1. Racism, Capitalism, and the Schools: Understanding Demographic Data and Educational Change in Buffalo, New York (1930-1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Describes, in terms of concepts such as racism and capitalism, the bank policies, real estate strategies, and decisions of the city of Buffalo and the Buffalo School Board. Argues that such policies have affected the quality of education and neighborhood change in Buffalo, especially from 1930 to 1977. (CMG)

  2. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through July 31, 2010. This action is necessary to protect the safety of... vessel may enter the safety zones without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES:...

  3. Return of the Buffalo: The Efforts to Restore Bison to Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (ITBC), a nonprofit group founded to help tribes return buffalo to Indian reservations. Describes the cultural and economic motives behind the movement. Indicates that the ITBC has grown to 40 member tribes and utilizes a consensus-building approach to rebuilding buffalo herds. (MAB)

  4. Dynamics of Mycobacterium and bovine tuberculosis in a Human-Buffalo Population

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. S.; Garba, S. M.; Gumel, A. B.; Lubuma, J. M.-S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. This model has a unique endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable for a special case, when the reproduction number exceeds unity. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, using data relevant to the dynamics of the two diseases in the Kruger National Park, show that the distribution of the associated reproduction number is less than unity (hence, the diseases would not persist in the community). Crucial parameters that influence the dynamics of the two diseases are also identified. Both the buffalo-only and the buffalo-human model exhibit the same qualitative dynamics with respect to the local and global asymptotic stability of their respective disease-free equilibrium, as well as with respect to the backward bifurcation phenomenon. Numerical simulations of the buffalo-human model show that the cumulative number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in humans (buffalos) decreases with increasing number of bovine tuberculosis infections in humans (buffalo). PMID:25254065

  5. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically, twenty-six permanent safety zones... the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone in the Federal Register (78 FR 11798). We received 0 comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  6. 75 FR 61099 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone... Buffalo has previously established a security zone in the vicinity of Moses-Saunders Power Dam and the... the Supervisor, Marine Safety Detachment Massena. Discussion of Rule The Captain of the Port...

  7. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake... FR 33693). Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) was formally invited to participate in the... Fish and Wildlife Service Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX;...

  8. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  9. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  10. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  11. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  12. 76 FR 16294 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3... removing the existing drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3... provide the 30 day notice period before its effective date. This rule removes the draw...

  13. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  14. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  15. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  16. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  17. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of αS1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when β-CN content increased. Milk with low κ-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of κ-CN. Increased content of glycosylated κ-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020

  18. Enriching membrane cholesterol improves stability and cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/120×10(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942

  19. Test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, K. K.; Brahmkshtri, B. P.; Ramani, U. V.; Kharadi, V. B.; Pandaya, G. M.; Janmeda, M.; Ankuya, K. J.; Patel, M. D.; Sorathiya, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition variability between these two breeds. Buffaloes were categorized for the ease of data analysis and comparisons into four groups, viz., S15 (Surti buffaloes 15th day pp), S60 (Surti buffaloes 60th day pp), M15 (Mehsani buffaloes 15th day pp), and M60 (Mehsani buffaloes 60th day pp). Results: There were 37.20% and 25.03% significant (p≤0.05) increase in mean test day milk yield (TDMY) of S60 and M60 as compared to S15 and M15 groups, respectively. The mean TDMY of Mehsani buffalo was 99.19% and 81.53% significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. The mean fat and protein corrected test day milk yield (FPCTDMY) of all the groups was found to be significantly different (p≤0.05) from each other. There was significant (p≤0.05) increase of 1.94 and 3.45 kg in mean FPCTDMY with the progression of lactation between day 15 and 60 pp in Surti and Mehsani buffaloes, respectively. Similarly, the mean FPCTDMY of Mehsani buffaloes were approximately double with 103.27% and 96.36% higher yield as compared to Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. Among milk composition, significant differences were observed for solid not fat (SNF) and protein%, whereas fat and lactose% were steady among four groups. The only significant (p≤0.05) difference was observed for SNF in M60 group, which was 8.29%, 6.85%, and 10.70% higher as compared to S15, S60, and M15 groups, respectively. The mean protein% in milk of Mehsani buffaloes was 21.01% and 33

  20. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively. PMID:26688653

  2. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  3. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. PMID:27317318

  4. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651

  5. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  6. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with

  7. First Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Infecting Buffalo Calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Monally C C; Widmer, Giovanni; Zucatto, Anaiza S; Viol, Milena A; Inácio, Sandra V; Nakamura, Alex A; Coelho, Willian M D; Perri, Silvia H V; Meireles, Marcelo V; Bresciani, Katia D S

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., 222 fecal samples were collected from Murrah buffalo calves aged up to 6 mo. Fecal DNA was genotyped with a nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing of the amplified fragment. Nested 18S PCR was positive for 48.2% of the samples. Sequence analysis showed that the most frequent species in these animals was Cryptosporidium ryanae, which was present in buffalo calves as young as 5 d. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in one animal. An uncommon Cryptosporidium 18S genotype was found in buffaloes. PMID:25941018

  8. Analysis of chromatin integrity and DNA damage of buffalo spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, K. Gh. M.; El-Sokary, A. A. E.; Abdel-Ghaffar, A. E.; Abou El-Roos, M. E. A.; Ahmed, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) in chromatin integrity were observed between fresh and frozen semen. For the fresh semen, there was no significant difference between the bulls for chromatin integrity; however, a significant variation (P<0.05) was detected in their frozen semen. No DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of sperm with damaged DNA detected by comet assay differed significantly between fresh and frozen semen. A significant negative correlation was recorded between motility and DNA damage (r=-0.68, P<0.05). Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation were significantly positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.05). In conclusion, DNA damage evaluation can provide reassurance about genomic normalcy and guide the development of improved methods of selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA to be used in artificial insemination. PMID:27175169

  9. Malignant schwannoma in an American buffalo (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Kim, Y S; Choi, C; Lee, J H; Masangkay, J S; Park, N Y

    2006-10-01

    A case of a malignant schwannoma in a 20-year-old male American buffalo (Bison bison bison) from the Grand Park Zoo, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea is reported. The animal showed no apparent clinical signs before death except for wound on the neck. Grossly, neoplastic nodules of various sizes were observed on the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, mesentery and kidney. Histologically, the neoplastic nodules were composed of fusiform cells that formed multidirectional bundles. The tumour cells were arranged in interlacing bands and bundles. The nuclei were atypical, hyperchromatic, with blunt or round ends. In addition, few mitotic figures were observed in the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, intestine and kidney. Several immunohistochemical stains, e.g. vimentin, cytokeratin (CK), smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and HMB45, were used in an attempt to differentially diagnose the tumour. The neoplastic cells tested positive to S-100, but negative to vimentin, CK, SMA and HMB45. Based on the above findings, this case was diagnosed as a malignant schwannoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a schwannoma in an American buffalo (B. b. bison). PMID:16970634

  10. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  11. Analysis of chromatin integrity and DNA damage of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Gh M; El-Sokary, A A E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Abou El-Roos, M E A; Ahmed, Y F

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) in chromatin integrity were observed between fresh and frozen semen. For the fresh semen, there was no significant difference between the bulls for chromatin integrity; however, a significant variation (P<0.05) was detected in their frozen semen. No DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of sperm with damaged DNA detected by comet assay differed significantly between fresh and frozen semen. A significant negative correlation was recorded between motility and DNA damage (r=-0.68, P<0.05). Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation were significantly positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.05). In conclusion, DNA damage evaluation can provide reassurance about genomic normalcy and guide the development of improved methods of selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA to be used in artificial insemination. PMID:27175169

  12. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

    2005-06-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132

  13. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of

  14. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  15. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites. PMID:27444556

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries. PMID:27266482

  17. Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

  18. High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

  19. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Seerapu, Sandeep Reddy; Kancharana, Ananda Rao; Chappidi, Venkata Seshaiah; Bandi, Eswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI), milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control) was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), total solids (TS), specific gravity. Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001) decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers), GroupIII (fans), and GroupIV (foggers and fans) compared to GroupI (control). Significant (p<0.001) decrease in average rectal temperature (°F), respiration rate (breaths/min) and pulse rate (beats/min) values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk yield (kg/day) was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo houses

  20. Molecular Characterization of Buffalo Haptoglobin: Sequence Based Structural Comparison Indicates Convergent Evolution Between Ruminants and Human.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Vohra, V; Singh, S; Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) protein has high affinity for hemoglobin (Hb) binding during intravascular hemolysis and scavenges the hemoglobin induced free radicals. Earlier reports indicate about uniqueness of Hp molecule in human and cattle, but in other animals, it is not much studied. In this paper, we characterized buffalo Hp molecule and determined its molecular structure, evolutionary importance, and tissue expression. Comparative analysis and predicted domain structure indicated that the buffalo Hp has an internal duplicated region in α-chain only similar to an alternate Hp2 allele in human. This duplicated part encoded for an extra complement control protein CCP domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that buffalo and other ruminants were found to group together separated from all other non-ruminants, including human. The key amino acid residues involved in Hp and Hb as well as Hp and macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163 interactions in buffalo, depicted a significant variation in comparison to other non-ruminant species. Constitutive expression of Hp was also confirmed across all the vital tissues of buffalo, for the first time. Results revealed that buffalo Hp is both structurally and functionally conserved, having internal duplication in α-chain similar to human Hp2 and other ruminant species, which might have evolved separately as a convergent evolutionary process. Furthermore, the presence of extra Hp CCP domain possibly in all ruminants may have an effect during dimerization of molecule in these species. PMID:26646629

  1. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

  2. Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P

    2009-10-01

    The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

  3. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. PMID:27270385

  4. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

    1982-08-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  5. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  6. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes and meat cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Laura M J de F; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; Farias, Nara Amélia da R; Ruas, Jerônimo L

    2013-09-01

    Serum samples from 169 water buffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of water buffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant. PMID:23990431

  7. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  8. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

  9. Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Hosamani, M; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the HA gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of 96.2-99.8 and 94.6-98.7% at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, with VACVs, particularly with VACV-MVA, a vaccine strain. Further, C18L (ankyrin repeat protein)-gene-based BPXV-specific PCR confirmed them as BPXV. It is apparent from this study that pox-like outbreaks in cows and buffaloes in India are caused, in most cases, by BPXV. Considering the zoonotic implications of buffalopox, such outbreaks involving both buffaloes and cows in a mixed flock may pose a significant public health threat. Transmissibility of BPXV between different species including cows, buffaloes and human beings implies the potential reemergence of the virus in the subcontinent, similar to vaccinia-like outbreaks witnessed recently in other countries. PMID:19956986

  10. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae)

    PubMed Central

    MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA). Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in

  11. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 8945 Proclamation 8945 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013 Proc. 8945 Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National MonumentBy the President...

  12. 78 FR 59923 - Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...

  13. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request...

  14. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  15. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries.

  16. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  17. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  18. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo Oocytes Matured in vitro Using iTRAQ Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Sheng; Wu, Feilin; Qi, Yingzi; Lu, Fenghua; Xu, Ping; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protein profiling of buffalo oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and metaphase II (MII) stage, an iTRAQ-based strategy was applied. A total of 3,763 proteins were identified, which representing the largest buffalo oocytes proteome dataset to date. Among these proteins identified, 173 proteins were differentially expressed in GV oocytes and competent MII oocytes, and 146 proteins were differentially abundant in competent and incompetent matured oocytes. Functional and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the up-regulated proteins in competent MII oocytes were related to chromosome segregation, microtubule-based process, protein transport, oxidation reduction, ribosome, and oxidative phosphorylation, etc., in comparison with GV and incompetent MII oocytes. This is the first proteomic report on buffalo oocytes from different maturation stages and developmental competent status. These data will provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying buffalo oocyte maturation, and these proteins may potentially act as markers to predict developmental competence of buffalo oocyte during in vitro maturation. PMID:27561356

  20. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  1. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973

  2. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  3. A LC-MS-MS method to detect recombinant bovine somatotropin misuse in buffalos.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Mazzi, Marco; Boselli, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandra; Donzelli, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a peptide hormone used to increase milk yield in cows and buffalos. In Europe, its use has been banned. However, rbST is sometimes illegally included in zootechnical practices for profit purposes, undermining the fair trade and the law prescriptions. For this reason, efficient and reliable analytical techniques are required to contrast rbST misuse. A few LC-MS-MS methods have been developed to detect, in cow serum, methyonil-rbST, one of the two main rbST forms available on the market. The other form, which is widespread, is identical to the most abundant variant of bovine somatotropin (bST) and differs from the buffalo somatotropin for one amino acid in the N-terminus. For this reason, it is technically possible to distinguish both rbST forms in serum of buffalos. In this work, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS-based method, capable to quantify, with a high sensitivity and selectivity, the methyonil-rbST and the other bST-identical recombinant form in buffalo serum, previously purified using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The method was internally validated and used to analyse 152 serum samples, collected from eight buffalos administered with rbST for a period of 3 months, according to conventional protocols. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of the method in the detection of illegal hormonal treatments. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27146507

  4. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  5. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  6. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  7. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene of buffaloes by PCR-SSCP

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Ashwin A.; Kumar, Anil; Kala, Sheo N.; Chhokar, Vinod; Rana, Neeraj; Beniwal, Vikas; Jaglan, Sundeep; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Singh, Jitender K.; Mishra, Anamika

    2012-01-01

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo. PMID:23055800

  8. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (< 1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry. PMID:27348885

  9. Storage stability of smoked buffalo rumen meat product treated with ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-06-01

    Smoked buffalo rumen meat products were prepared from 3 times blade tenderized buffalo tripe with 5.0% ginger extract and were subjected to various physico-chemical parameters, microbial profile and sensory quality at 25 ± 1 °C under aerobic packaging. All physico-chemical parameters, microbial counts and sensory evaluation score of ginger extract treated buffalo rumen meat product were higher compared to control. pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, total plate, yeast and mould and staphylococcal counts were increased and extract release volume were decreased significantly with increasing storage period. Throughout the storage period, all microbial counts and sensory evaluation score were within the acceptable limits up to storage period of 15 days at 25 ± 1 °C in LDPE pouches under aerobic packaging. PMID:24876655

  10. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  11. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  12. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India. PMID:27447215

  13. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 μm and wall thickness of 2.47 μm in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 μm cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 μm in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 μm in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 μm in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. PMID:24479882

  16. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  17. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  18. Phylogeny of Theileria buffeli genotypes identified in the South African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2014-08-29

    Theileria buffeli/orientalis is a group of benign and mildly pathogenic species of cattle and buffalo in various parts of the world. In a previous study, we identified T. buffeli in blood samples originating from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Park (HIP) and the Addo Elephant Game Park (AEGP) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to characterise the 18S rRNA gene and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region of T. buffeli samples, and to establish the phylogenetic position of this species based on these loci. The 18S rRNA gene and the complete ITS region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples originating from buffalo in HIP and AEGP. The PCR products were cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. We identified novel T. buffeli-like 18S rRNA and ITS genotypes from buffalo in the AEGP, and novel Theileria sinensis-like 18S rRNA genotypes from buffalo in the HIP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the T. buffeli-like sequences were similar to T. buffeli sequences from cattle and buffalo in China and India, and the T. sinensis-like sequences were similar to T. sinensis 18S rRNA sequences of cattle and yak in China. There was extensive sequence variation between the novel T. buffeli genotypes of the African buffalo and previously described T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes. The presence of organisms with T. buffeli-like and T. sinensis-like genotypes in the African buffalo could be of significant importance, particularly to the cattle industry in South Africa as these animals might act as sources of infections to naïve cattle. This is the first report on the characterisation of the full-length 18S rRNA gene and ITS region of T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes in South Africa. Our study provides invaluable information towards the classification of this complex group of benign and mildly pathogenic species. PMID:25002308

  19. A study of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling iraqi buffalo cows.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the non-specific aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling Iraqi buffalo cows at Nineveh province, validate diagnostic criteria for endometritis and to evaluate the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics for the treatment of endometritis. Data were collected from 60 buffalo cows with history of repeat breeding in different herds. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement. Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline with tylosin in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment. The most pre-disposing factor for uterine infection was retained placenta (13.3%). The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were E. coli (23%), Archanobacterium pyogenes (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%) were mostly isolated from buffaloes with repeat breeding. Vaginal mucus character score was associated with the bacterial growth density score. The difference in PMN was highly significant (p < 0.01) in animals with repeat breeding than control groups. In addition, PMNs was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated r = 0.894 with the character of vaginal discharge. High level of PMNs observed in buffaloes infected with A. pyogenes. Buffalo cows with endometritis had higher CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 162.01 +/- 16.41 U/l) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 97.01 +/- 6.86 U/l) activities (p < 0.05) than control-heifers, but no significant difference was observed between buffalo cows with endometritis in CK (321

  20. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  1. Critical and Demographic Effective Population Size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aremu, O. T.; Onadeko, S. A.; Ola-Adams, B. A.; Inah, E. I.

    Effective population size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was estimated using Franklin and Frankham model. Buffalo relative abundance was calculated using a 4x4 km transect constructed in each of the identified six vegetation communities in the Park, which were traversed once a month for a period of 24 months. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Buffalo in the Park was 0.372±0.03 groups km-2 consisting of 51±5.827 groups representing 242±16.309 individuals which consist of 30 adult males and 70 adult females representing 12.40 and 28.93%, respectively of the total Buffalo population in the Park which was considered to be the effective breeding population size. The composition of the population structure was significantly different (p< 0.05). The effective population size of Buffalo in the Park was estimated to be 581.34±4.91 which was above the recommended value of 100 which shows that the Buffalo population in the Park was not threatened by demographic stochasticity factors but rather by illegal human activities in the Park. Measures to improve conservation and management of the existing Buffalo population in the Park are also discussed.

  2. Sequence characterization of river buffalo Toll-like receptor genes 1-10 reveals distinct relationship with cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Ritz, L R; Glowatzki-Mullis, M L; MacHugh, D E; Gaillard, C

    2000-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. This study comprises 17 representative populations: eight Bos taurus, two Bos indicus, one Poëphagus, one Bibos, one Bison, three Bubalus and one Syncerus. Phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (DC) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. Neighbor-joining trees with both distance measures showed only minor differences. Bos taurus and Bos indicus grouped first, followed by Bos frontalis (Mithan) and Bos grunniens (Yak), Bison bison branched off next and Bubalus bubalis and Syncerus caffer emerged as the two most divergent species from the Bos clade. These findings would suggest that Bos, Poëphagus, and Bibos should be integrated into the Bos genus with each group classified as a subgenus. On the other hand, Bison, Bubalus and Syncerus should each be considered a separate genus. Direct estimates of the divergence times were calculated using the (delta mu)2 genetic distance. Bos taurus and Bos indicus were estimated to have diverged 0.31-0.82 MYA, Bos and Poëphagus: 0.57-1.53 MYA, Bos and Bibos: 0.57-1.52 MYA, Bos and Bison: 0.46-1.23 MYA, Bos and Bubalus: 1.85-4.93 MYA and Bos and Syncerus: 0.98-2.61 MYA. PMID:10895308

  4. Degnala disease in buffaloes and cattle: epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Kalra, D S; Bhatia, K C

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify the epizootiological features associated with Degnala disease occurring in the rice-growing areas of the Indian subcontinent and believed to be associated with mycotoxins. Epizootiological studies were made on disease outbreaks involving 370 herds from 136 villages of Haryana, India, during the years 1968 to 1978. They revealed that the disease, besides being seasonal and regional in occurrence, has a tendency to confine itself to a particular herd or field. All the disease outbreaks occurred during the winter and were associated with the feeding of rice straw. The incidence of the disease, varied from year to year, assuming serious proportions in certain years. The morbidity and mortality rates were 61.61% and 13.93%, respectively, in buffaloes and 13.49% and 2.41% in cattle, with no sex and age differences. Factors such as housing conditions of animals, shape of rice straw stacks, feeding practices, and use of pesticides and fertilizers had no bearing on the occurrence of the disease. Inadequate postharvest drying of rice plants before stacking and stacking at low-lying places or near water channels were the factors identified with occurrence of the disease. In the case of affected herds, 72.07% of the owners stacked rice straw immediately after harvesting, without allowing the plants to dry adequately, versus 10.60% of the owners of unaffected herds. Similarly, 72.97% of the farmers owning affected herds were found to stack rice straw either in low-lying areas or near canals and other water channels, versus 22.73% of the farmers of control herds. PMID:2254859

  5. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  6. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  7. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  8. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  9. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  10. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  11. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  12. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  13. Library Skills Workbook. Featuring: BISON--Buffalo Information System ONline. 14th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Jeannie L.

    The workbook is designed to give students the basic information needed to conduct effective library research. It helps familiarize students with the Buffalo Information System ONline (BISON), as well as other sources, in print and online, that can be used to search for information. A worksheet is included for students to mark their answers to the…

  14. LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

  15. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following BiV ICD Placement: A Case of Buffalo Chest Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rali, Aniket S.; Manyam, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Buffalo chest syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bi-ventricular ICD Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Contralateral pneumothorax following device implantation on the left side has been reported in a few cases. The majority of contralateral pneumothoraces showed evidence of atrial perforation on computed tomography (CT), echocardiography, or chest x-rays and required lead revision. To the best of our knowledge there is only 1 other reported case of contralateral pneumothorax without evidence of macro-displacement of the atrial lead. In that case the patient experienced a right-sided pneumothorax on day 1 after undergoing repositioning of the atrial lead. Case Report: The current case is unique on several accounts, including timing of the contralateral pneumothorax and no evidence of associated atrial lead perforation on device interrogation or CT imaging. Furthermore, the appearance of contralateral pneumothorax within 8 hours of clamping of the ipsilateral chest tube argues in favor of a pleuro-pleural fistula. Conclusions: The term ‘buffalo chest’ refers to a single pleural space, with no anatomical separation of the 2 hemithoraces, as seen in an American buffalo or bison. We believe this to be a case of buffalo chest syndrome. PMID:26431396

  16. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  18. Rumen fermentation and degradability in buffalo and cattle using the in vitro gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Moniello, G; Piccolo, V; Bovera, F; Infascelli, F; Tudisco, R; Cutrignelli, M I

    2008-06-01

    An in vitro trial was conducted to investigate the effect of different inoculum sources (buffalo vs. cattle) on rumen fermentation and degradability. Incubations were carried out using rumen fluid obtained from buffalo or cattle fed the same diet [60% grass hay and 40% concentrate; 18 kg dry matter (DM)/day]. The fermentation kinetics of eight feeds commonly used in ruminant nutrition (alfalfa hay, barley meal, beet pulp, corn meal and silage, ryegrass hay and silage and soya bean meal s.e.) were studied with the in vitro gas production technique and rumen fermentation parameters (substrate disappearance, pH and volatile fatty acids production) were determined after 120 h of incubation. The linear relationship indicates that the microbial metabolic pathways of the two inocula for all the substrates were qualitatively similar, albeit often quantitatively different. In this in vitro study, a significant influence of rumen inoculum (buffalo vs. cow) on fermentation and degradability of the examined substrates was found. The differences in buffalo and cattle rumen fermentation can be explained with a different microbial activity of the two ruminant species, because of different amount of microbial population or microbial population constituted by different species of bacteria and protozoa. PMID:18477317

  19. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes. PMID:26242833

  20. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW.; Washington, DC 20220;...

  1. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  2. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  3. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  4. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  5. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  6. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a... of Transportation, will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with...

  7. The Self as Cultural Metaphor in Acosta's Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Genaro M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the personal life of Oscar Zeta Acosta as revealed in his work "The Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo," tracing Acosta's involvement in the Chicano social movement in Los Angeles in the late 1960s and his development of cultural identity and political consciousness. (DMM)

  8. A new species of trichostrongyloid in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Artiodactyla: Bovinae) from Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africanastrongylus giganticus n. sp. is described based on large ostertagiine nematodes occurring in the abomasum of African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, from Uganda; this represents the second species recognized in the genus. Specimens of A. giganticus are characterized by large size (15-19 mm in tot...

  9. Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium bovis skin positivity in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Irfan; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Ahmad, Mansur Ud Din; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Chaudhry, Mamoona; Sadique, Umer

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and associated risk factors in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan. Cattle and buffalo, randomly selected from all four towns of District Peshawar, were screened for bovine tuberculosis using comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT). For obtaining data on risk factors, sociodemographic condition, animal characteristics, and management, interviewer administered pretested questionnaire to animal owners. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure association between risk factors and comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin reactors. A total of 556 cattle and buffalo were screened for bovine tuberculosis. Out of 556 animals screened, 5.75 % (3.9-8.0 %) were found positive. The prevalence was higher in old animals (p = 0.001) as compared to younger animals. Prevalence also varied with source of animal (either raised on farm or purchased), stay of animals at night (indoor or outdoor), and herd size. Farmer's knowledge about transmission of TB from animals to human as well as signs and symptoms of TB was extremely low. Only 3.6 % farmers correctly stated the combination of three major symptoms of TB. Results of the study call for immediate intervention to control bTB in animals as well as its transmission to human population. Furthermore, it is suggested to emphasize on local epidemiology of bTB and husbandry practices of cattle and buffalo during the control program. PMID:26754290

  10. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles...

  11. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  12. State University of New York College at Buffalo: Selected Financial Management Practices. Report 95-S-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An audit of selected financial management procedures at the State University of New York College at Buffalo is reported. The audit addressed two issues: (1) whether the college's academic departments maintain an adequate time and attendance control system for faculty members and (2) whether the college has established an adequate system of…

  13. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to amend and establish regulations requiring safety zones for firework events that take place annually within the Captain of the Port Zone Buffalo. This proposed rule is intended to amend and establish restrictions on vessel access to designated areas on U.S. navigable waterways during certain fireworks displays. The safety zones amended and established by this......

  14. Identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalo calves in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Feng, Yaoyu; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-01-16

    Little is known about the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in water buffaloes. In this study, we examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalo calves in Egypt. Rectal fecal specimens from 179 calves and 359 adults were screened microscopically for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 microscopy-positive specimens from calves were genotyped by DNA sequence analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and Cryptosporidium parvum was subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium ryanae was found in 10 specimens and C. parvum in 7 specimens, with the former belonging to the newly identified C. ryanae buffalo variant and the latter belonging to the subtypes IIdA20G1 (in 5 specimens) and IIaA15G1R1 (in 2 specimens). The prevailing occurrence of C. ryanae and the subtype family IId of C. parvum and the absence of C. bovis and C. andersoni represent some features of Cryptosporidium transmission in water buffaloes in Egypt. PMID:22963712

  15. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  16. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  17. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165...

  18. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  19. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  20. Evaluation of tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists on buffalo uterus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satish K; Garg, K M; Sabir, M

    2004-09-01

    Present study was conducted on prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), oxytocin, (OT), potassium chloride (KCI) and barium chloride (BaCl2) pre-contracted perimetrial uterine strips of dioestrus and pregnant buffaloes to evaluate the tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-albuterol (salbutamol) and terbutaline. Cumulative concentration-response curves of both the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists were constructed and the mean effective concentration (EC50) values determined and compared statistically. Based on the comparative EC50 values in relaxing the pre-contracted uterine strips with different spasmogens, the rank order potency of albuterol was found to be--PGF2alpha > BaCl2 > OT > KCl on uterine strips from dioestrus animals, while OT> BaCl2> PGF2alpha >KCl on the uterine strips of pregnant buffaloes. The rank order potency of terbutaline on uterine strips from dioestrus stage animals was- BaCl2 > OT > KCl > PGF2alpha, while BaCl2 > PGF2alpha > KCl > OT on uterine tissues of pregnant animals. Thus, irrespective of the state of uterus, whether gravid or non-gravid, KCl-depolarized uterine tissues required comparatively higher concentrations of albuterol or terbutaline to produce tocolytic effect. High concentrations of K+ in biophase may have interfered with the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-induced outward K+ current and hyperpolarization. From the results of present study, it was evident that selective beta2 adrenergic agonists had good tocolytic efficacy on the uterus of buffaloes. Further, indirectly the possibility of existence and activation of K(Ca) channels by selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists in mediating tocolysis of buffalo myometrium can not be ruled out, however, detailed studies using specific K(Ca) channel blockers are required for characterizing the nature of such channels in buffalo uterus. PMID:15462186

  1. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick

    2015-01-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  3. Evaluation of hematologic values in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Jolles, A E; Ezenwa, V O

    2009-01-01

    As part of a large-scale disease screening program, blood samples were collected from 534 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa's Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in October 2005 and May 2006 to establish age- and sex-specific reference intervals for erythrogram and leukogram values. Sixty-seven of the animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB), allowing for comparisons between TB-positive and TB-negative groups. Positive animals had basopenia and slight lymphopenia compared to TB-negative animals. Blood values were compared to those reported for captive African buffalo, American bison (Bos bison), and cattle (Bos taurus). The free-ranging buffalo sampled in this study had higher white blood cell counts than captive buffalo, and this difference was driven by lymphocytes. Free-ranging buffalo also had higher red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell counts, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and lower mean corpuscular volume (MCV) than cattle. Demographic and environmental factors strongly affected hematologic values in the study population. Older animals had significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while younger animals had a higher red blood cell count, red cell distribution width (RDW), and white blood cell count, which was due to lymphocytes and basophils. Females had a higher hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and basophils than males. At the end of the wet season, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, MCHC, RDW, white blood cell count, and neutrophils were all significantly higher, while basophils and MCV were lower, than at the end of the dry season. Our results emphasize the need to use species-specific data when interpreting hematologic values and point to important differences in hematology between captive and free-ranging animals of the same species. Strong variability in hematologic values with animal age and sex, season, and herd

  4. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  5. Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Winnie, John A; Cross, Paul; Getz, Wayne

    2008-05-01

    Top-down effects of predators on prey behavior and population dynamics have been extensively studied. However, some populations of very large herbivores appear to be regulated primarily from the bottom up. Given the importance of food resources to these large herbivores, it is reasonable to expect that forage heterogeneity (variation in quality and quantity) affects individual and group behaviors as well as distribution on the landscape. Forage heterogeneity is often strongly driven by underlying soils, so substrate characteristics may indirectly drive herbivore behavior and distribution. Forage heterogeneity may further interact with predation risk to influence prey behavior and distribution. Here we examine differences in spatial distribution, home range size, and grouping behaviors of African buffalo as they relate to geologic substrate (granite and basalt) and variation in food quality and quantity. In this study, we use satellite imagery, forage quantity data, and three years of radio-tracking data to assess how forage quality, quantity, and heterogeneity affect the distribution and individual and herd behavior of African buffalo. We found that buffalo in an overall poorer foraging environment keyed-in on exceptionally high-quality areas, whereas those foraging in a more uniform, higher-quality area used areas of below-average quality. Buffalo foraging in the poorer-quality environment had smaller home range sizes, were in smaller groups, and tended to be farther from water sources than those foraging in the higher-quality environment. These differences may be due to buffalo creating or maintaining nutrient hotspots (small, high-quality foraging areas) in otherwise low-quality foraging areas, and the location of these hotspots may in part be determined by patterns of predation risk. PMID:18543637

  6. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  7. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Varshney, J P; Naresh, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at 526 million US dollars annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed--40, nonfibrosed--62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed. Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21-42 days (fibrosed) and 4-15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2-5 days. Cost of treatment was 0.07 US dollars per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group. PMID:14960098

  8. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  9. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  10. 76 FR 6134 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice of termination of...

  11. Structural and Functional Insights into the Catalytic Inactivity of the Major Fraction of Buffalo Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Gadave, Kaustubh S.; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Methods and Findings Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 0.11 sec−1 µM−1 of buffalo XO was 8–10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm) of 46,000 M−1 cm−1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. Conclusion A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way. PMID:24498153

  12. Non-specific alkaline phosphomonoesterases of eight species of digenetic trematodes.

    PubMed

    Nizami, W A; Siddiqi, A H; Yusufi, A N

    1975-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatases from different trematodes occupying the same habitat have identical pH otima but different levels of enzyme activities. Isoparorchis hypselobagri, from the fish Wallago attu, shows four to six times more enzyme activity than Fasciolopsis buski, Gastrodiscoides hominis and Echinostoma malayanum, from the pig Sus scrofa, and Fasciola gigantica, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum and Gastrothylax crumenifer, from the buffalo Bubalus bubalis. At least two peaks of activity at different levels of pH were obtained for each trematode examined. Both Gastrodiscoides hominis and Isoparorchis hypselobagri enzymes had three peaks of alkaline phosphatase activity. The optimum temperature for maximum enzyme activity was 40 degrees C, above which rapid inactivation occurred. At temperatures below 40 degrees C, the enzymes of fish and mammalian trematodes did not behave similarly; I. hypselobagri enzyme being active over a wider range of temperature (20 degrees-40 degrees C. Various concentrations of KCN and arsenate proportionately inhibited enzyme activity. NaF Did not significantly influence enzyme activity, while Mg++ and Co++ acted as activators. The extent of inhibition or activation of enzyme activity of different trematodes varied, probably due to species differences. Both inhibition and activation of I. hypselobagri enzyme was higher than in the case of other trematodes. PMID:1442

  13. Mitochondrial gene sequences and the molecular systematics of the artiodactyl subfamily bovinae.

    PubMed

    Janecek, L L; Honeycutt, R L; Adkins, R M; Davis, S K

    1996-08-01

    Nucleotide sequence evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene was used to examine the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of the Bovinae, a subfamily within the mammalian order Artiodactyla. The COII gene was sequenced in representatives of three bovine tribes (Bovini, Boselaphini, and Tragelaphini) and the outgroup taxon Capra (subfamily Caprinae). Although the phylogenetic analyses grouped Bison as sister to Bos, the genus Bison was paraphyletic, with the American bison being most closely related to species of Bos rather than to the European bison. COII data also supported a close relationship between African (Syncerus) and Asian (bubalus) buffaloes, the monophyly of the tribe Bovini, and a sister-group relationship between the tribes Bovini and Boselaphini. Analysis of nucleotide substitutions in the COII gene prompted a system of differential weighting of nucleotide substitutions for inferring phylogenetic relationships across the range of divergence times examined here (2-20 million years). Rates of evolution in the COII gene are examined and compared to evolutionary rates in mtDNA tRNA/rRNA genes and the D-loop among other artiodactyl taxa. PMID:8812311

  14. The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

    1999-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been determined and compared for 51 species of the family Bovidae and 10 potential pecoran and tragulid outgroups. A detailed saturation analysis at each codon position relative to the maximum parsimony procedure indicates that all transitions on third codon positions do not accumulate in a similar fashion: C-T are more saturated than A-G substitutions. The same trend is observed for second positions but not for first positions where A-G and C-T transitions exhibit roughly the same levels of saturation. Maximum parsimony reconstructions were weighted according to these observations. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and distance phylogenetic reconstructions all depict a major split within Bovidae. The subfamily Bovinae includes four multifurcating tribes and subtribes: Boselaphini, Tragelaphini, cattle-Bovini (Bos and Bison), and buffalo-Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus). Its sister group is the subfamily Antilopinae, i.e., all non-Bovinae taxa, represented by seven lineages: Antilopini (including Saiga), Caprini sensu lato (i. e., Caprinae including Pantholops), Hippotragini, Alcelaphini, Reduncini (including Pelea), Aepyceros possibly linked to Neotragus, and Cephalophini possibly linked to Oreotragus (the suni and the klipspringer being members of a polyphyletic Neotragini). These various tribes and major lineages were produced by two noteworthy explosive radiations, which occurred simultaneously between 12.0 and 15.3 MY (Middle Miocene) in the subfamilies Bovinae and Antilopinae. PMID:10603253

  15. Phylogenetic position of the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) inferred from cytogenetic analysis of eleven species of Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Aniskin, V M; Gerbault-Seureau, M; Planton, H; Renard, J P; Nguyen, B X; Hassanin, A; Volobouev, V T

    2008-01-01

    Previous morphological and molecular analyses failed to resolve the phylogenetic position of the critically endangered saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) with respect to its placement in Bovina (cattle, bison, and yak) or Bubalina (Asian and African buffaloes). In the present study, G- and C-banding, Ag-staining and FISH with 28S and telomeric probes was undertaken for 17 bovid species. An analysis of these data allowed us to identify 49 structural rearrangements that included autosomes, gonosomes and 17 different NOR sites. The combined data set was subjected to a cladistic analysis aimed at: (i) providing new insights on phylogenetic relationships of the saola and other species within the subfamily Bovinae, and (ii) testing the suitability of different classes of chromosomal characters for phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Bovidae. The study revealed that nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are phylogenetically informative. It was shown that at least one, or sometimes two of these characters punctuate divergences that include nodes that are the most basal in the tree, to those that are the most recent. In this context, the shared presence of three NORs in saola and species of Syncerus and Bubalus strongly suggests the saola's placement within the subtribe Bubalina. This contrasts with Robertsonian rearrangements which are informative only at the generic level. These findings suggest that NORs are an important and frequently overlooked source of additional phylogenetic information within the Bovidae that may also have applicability at higher taxonomic levels, possibly even for Pecora. PMID:18931485

  16. Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

    1999-05-01

    To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

  17. Differentiated evolutionary relationships among chordates from comparative alignments of multiple sequences of MyoD and MyoG myogenic regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Oliani, L C; Lidani, K C F; Gabriel, J E

    2015-01-01

    MyoD and MyoG are transcription factors that have essential roles in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple amino acid sequences of myogenic regulatory proteins to infer evolutionary relationships among chordates. Protein sequences from Mus musculus (P10085 and P12979), human Homo sapiens (P15172 and P15173), bovine Bos taurus (Q7YS82 and Q7YS81), wild pig Sus scrofa (P49811 and P49812), quail Coturnix coturnix (P21572 and P34060), chicken Gallus gallus (P16075 and P17920), rat Rattus norvegicus (Q02346 and P20428), domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (D2SP11 and A7L034), and sheep Ovis aries (Q90477 and D3YKV7) were searched from a non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and subsequently analyzed using the Mega6.0 software. MyoD evolutionary analyses revealed the presence of three main clusters with all mammals branched in one cluster, members of the order Rodentia (mouse and rat) in a second branch linked to the first, and birds of the order Galliformes (chicken and quail) remaining isolated in a third. MyoG evolutionary analyses aligned sequences in two main clusters, all mammalian specimens grouped in different sub-branches, and birds clustered in a second branch. These analyses suggest that the evolution of MyoD and MyoG was driven by different pathways. PMID:26505406

  18. Physical organization of the 1.709 satellite IV DNA family in Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes of the Bovidae: sequence and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Adega, F; Chaves, R; Guedes-Pinto, H; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive DNA in the mammalian genome is a valuable record and marker for evolution, providing information about the order and driving forces related to evolutionary events. The evolutionarily young 1.709 satellite IV DNA family is present near the centromeres of many chromosomes in the Bovidae. Here, we isolated 1.709 satellite DNA sequences from five Bovidae species belonging to Bovini: Bos taurus (BTA, cattle), Bos indicus (BIN, zebu), Bubalus bubalis (BBU, water buffalo) and Tragelaphini tribes: Taurotragus oryx (TOR, eland) and Tragelaphus euryceros (TEU, bongo). Its presence in both tribes shows the sequence predates the evolutionary separation of the two tribes (more than 10 million years ago), and primary sequence shows increasing divergence with evolutionary distance. Genome organization (Southern hybridization) and physical distribution (in situ hybridization) revealed differences in the molecular organization of these satellite DNA sequences. The data suggest that the sequences on the sex chromosomes and the autosomes evolve as relatively independent groups, with the repetitive sequences suggesting that Bovini autosomes and the Tragelaphini sex chromosomes represent the more primitive chromosome forms. PMID:16825766

  19. Lights and shadows in the evolutionary patterns of insular bovids.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Roberto; Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-03-01

    Endemic bovids are intriguing elements of insular faunas. The living species include the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and the Formosan serow (C. swinhoei), the tamaraw from Mindoro, Philippines, (Bubalus mindorensis) and the anoas (B. depressicornis and B. quarlesi), 2 species of dwarf buffalos endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fossil endemic bovids are only recorded in some Asian, North American and Western Mediterranean islands. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the changes in body size and evolutionary patterns exhibited by both extant and extinct insular bovids. Our appraisal indicates that each insular representative of Bovidae shows its own peculiar evolutionary model, albeit some parallel trends exist (e.g. reduction in body size, allometric changes in limb bones, alteration of the life history traits). Some changes in morphology (e.g. the simplification of horn cores, the increase in hypsodonty, the acquisition of a 'low-gear' locomotion), for instance, appear as common, albeit not general, patterns triggered by a combination of selective forces. Body size patterns support the 'generality of the island rule' and suggest that biotic interaction had/have a major role in influencing body size evolution in these species, although in different ways on different islands. All things considered, available evidence suggest that a major role in the evolution of insular bovids is played by the structure of the insular community, the nature of available niches and by the dynamics of ecological interactions. PMID:24673764

  20. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  1. Fermentation kinetics of sainfoin hay with and without PEG.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Guglielmelli, A; Iannaccone, F; Danieli, P P; Tudisco, R; Ruggiero, C; Piccolo, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro gas production technique was applied to evaluate the biological activity of tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay cut at four progressive phenological stages. The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen fluid was used as inoculum, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as specific binding agent and an alfalfa hay (AH) was used as control. All samples were analysed for chemical composition and condensed tannin (CTs). According to the phenological stage of sainfoin, crude protein gradually decreased [from 219 to 122 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (from 391 to 514 g/kg DM). Condensed tannins showed the highest value at the first phenological stage [31.5 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DM], and their level significantly decreased at the subsequent growth stages. Gas production and fermentation rate were significantly affected by substrate type and PEG addition. The first stage of sainfoin showed the lowest value of gas and volatile fatty acids production and the slowest fermentation kinetics compared with the other samples, when incubated without PEG, because of the CTs effect. The incubation with PEG improved the fermentation process of the first stage of sainfoin, but no effect was registered on AH, where CTs were not detected. Among the sainfoin samples, the slowest kinetics with PEG was observed in the hay harvested at the fourth stage, probably due to its chemical composition. The use of PEG allowed to verify the effect of tannins on the in vitro fermentation characteristics of sainfoin hay. PMID:22168179

  2. Seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in domesticated and wildlife species during epidemic and inter-epidemic periods (2000-2009) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Boaron, O; Brettschneider, S; King, R; Gelman, B; Klement, E

    2015-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an economically important vector-borne viral disease of cattle and buffalo. It has been reported from most of the world's tropical and subtropical regions. In the last few decades, outbreaks of BEF have occurred in Israel almost every other year. Several serological studies have demonstrated a wide range of wild animal species that are positive for BEF virus (BEFV) antibodies. However, the question of whether wild animals and domesticated species other than cattle also play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of BEFV in Israel remains. Here, we examined the prevalence of anti-BEFV antibodies in 942 samples collected from various wild, semi-captive and domesticated animal species during the years 2000-2009 using the serum neutralization (SN) method. SN test revealed the presence of BEFV-neutralizing antibodies in nine samples (0.96%), from three species: Bubalus bubalis (4/29, 13.79%), Gazella g. gazella (3/68, 4.44%) and Dama d. mesopotamica (2/296, 0.68%). All positive samples were collected in areas of earlier outbreaks. The low prevalence of positive animals and the solid correlation with prior outbreaks indicate that the tested species probably do not serve as virus reservoirs and may play only a minor role in the maintenance of BEFV in the Middle East. PMID:23675891

  3. Trypanosomiasis in Venezuelan water buffaloes: association of packed-cell volumes with seroprevalence and current trypanosome infection.

    PubMed

    García, H; García, M-E; Pérez, G; Bethencourt, A; Zerpa, E; Pérez, H; Mendoza-León, A

    2006-06-01

    The seroprevalence of trypanosomiasis and the prevalence of current trypanosome infection in water buffaloes from the most important livestock areas of Venezuela were evaluated by IFAT and the microhaematocrit centrifugation technique, respectively. The usefulness of a PCR-based assay for identifying the trypanosome species in the buffaloes was also evaluated. Of the 644 animals investigated, 40 (6.2%) were found infected with trypanosomes by blood centrifugation, and 196 (30.4%) were found positive for anti-trypanosome antibodies, by IFAT. The results of the PCR-based assay indicated that 92.5% of the animals with current infections were infected with Trypanosoma vivax and the rest with T. theileri (the first molecular confirmation of T. theileri in Venezuelan water buffaloes). The national programme to treat and prevent trypanosome infections in the buffaloes does not appear to be meeting with great success, even though it is focused on T. vivax. Although the level of parasitaemia was categorized as low for 28 (70%) of the infections detected (and packed-cell volumes appeared to be unassociated with IFAT result, and uncorrelated, in the infected animals, with level of parasitaemia), the 40 infected buffaloes had a significantly lower mean packed-cell volume than the uninfected animals (P<0.05). Farmers should therefore be made aware of the probability of trypanosome-attributable losses in buffalo productivity. PMID:16762110

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingrong; Zhu, Peng; Duan, Anqin; Tan, Zhengzhun; Huang, Jian; Li, Hui; Chen, Mingtan; Liang, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35%) and 23,232 (37.27%) unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5), respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO) categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG) cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65%) yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00%) presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead molecular

  5. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  6. Effects of eucalyptus crude oils supplementation on rumen fermentation, microorganism and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Kang, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  7. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive

  8. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results. PMID:27260805

  9. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  10. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  11. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  12. Case of the month: Buffalo chest: a case of bilateral pneumothoraces due to pleuropleural communication.

    PubMed

    Hartin, D J; Kendall, R; Boyle, A A; Atkinson, P R T

    2006-06-01

    Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces, the presentation of separate right and left pneumothoraces together, is a rare event. The pleural cavities in humans are separated completely and the only previous reports of pleuropleural communication have been associated with major invasive thoracic procedures, specifically mediastinal surgery. The term "buffalo chest" has been coined for the condition on the basis that the buffalo or bison has a single pleural cavity, one of the few mammals to do so. We present the case of a woman with a past history of a single right sided spontaneous pneumothorax but no major thoracic surgery, who presented to the emergency department with a second spontaneous right pneumothorax that was under tension. After thoracostomy, she was found to have bilateral pneumothoraces which resolved with a unilateral chest drain demonstrating pleuropleural communication. We believe this to be the first reported case of such a presentation in the literature. The case demonstrates an unusual emergency presentation of a rare anatomical anomaly. PMID:16714521

  13. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  14. Polymorphism in the melatonin receptor gene in buffalo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Machado, E B; Souza, B B; Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Gonçalves, E C; Ribeiro, H F L; Rolim Filho, S T; Silva Filho, E

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo farming in Brazil is increasing, as is the challenge of identifying molecular markers that will improve productivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of the receptor gene for the hormone melatonin in buffaloes from northern Brazil by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The PCR products exhibited a cutting point for HpaI at the 318th position of the gene, indicating a transition substitution (T↔C). This substitution was synonymic, and did not alter the stability of the mRNA structure. Allelic and genotypic frequencies differed between the populations studied, and all of the populations demonstrated endogamy and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Therefore, the HpaI restriction marker in the melatonin receptor gene cannot be used for genetic improvement, but is an excellent marker for population genetic studies. PMID:27173294

  15. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of Schistosoma japonicum DNA vaccines in sheep and water buffalo in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, F; Zhang, Y; Ye, P; Lin, J; Cai, Y; Shen, W; Bickle, Q D; Taylor, M G

    2001-11-12

    Vaccines are needed to control zoonotic Schistosoma japonicum infection and several vaccine candidates have now been identified. Two of these (Sj28GST and Sj23) have shown particular promise in sheep when injected with Freund's adjuvants. The objective of the present work was to find a vaccine formulation which may have potential for widespread use in the field. DNA vaccine formulations of these antigens were produced and tested first in sheep under laboratory conditions and then in both the laboratory and the field in water buffalo. In both host species partial protection as evidenced by a reduction in parasite counts in vaccinated compared with control animals was induced by both vaccines, and in water buffalo the vaccines were shown to be partially protective in the field as well as in the laboratory. These results suggest that the two DNA vaccines tested here may have potential for large-scale field use. PMID:11672910

  17. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  18. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  19. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected. PMID:27044415

  20. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be