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Sample records for buffaloes naturally infected

  1. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  2. Treatment of dairy buffaloes naturally infected with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Asad Irshad; Maqbool, Azhar; Tonio, Muhammad Tariq; Naureen, Abeera; Ajmal, Adeela; Anwar, Muhammad Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Therapeutic trials of sarcoptic mange in buffaloes were studied at local Livestock farms, Lahore (Pakistan). A total of 600 buffaloes were examined over 1 year period (August 2006 to July 2007) for prevalence study, while 60 buffaloes were selected for therapeutic trial. Sarcoptic mange was recorded in 66 (11%) animals. The highest monthly prevalence was reported during the months of January and February (18%) followed by December and March (16%) whereas lowest during the month of July (2%). Over all highest seasonally prevalence was recorded during winter (16.5%) and lowest during summer (5%). Moreover, highest infestation rate was recorded among young (<3 months) buffaloes than with age >3 months. Sex-wise prevalence indicated more prevalence in buffalo bulls (13.15%) than female buffaloes (9.28%). Therapeutic trials were carried out by using ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorphon as per manufacturer's recommendations for a period of 10 days, while one group was kept as untreated control. Negative skin scraping, disappearance of gross lesions, stoppage of itching and regrowth of normal hair were taken as the criterion to assess the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23129889

  3. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes. PMID:26242833

  4. Metaphylactic treatment strategies with toltrazuril and diclazuril and growth performance of buffalo calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Antonio; Rinaldi, Laura; Cappelli, Giovanna; Saratsis, Anastasios; Nisoli, Lucio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2015-09-15

    Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no. 2) the calves were bred in groups on concrete based pens from the birth. On each farm, 36 calves aged 5 weeks were divided at random into three similar groups of 12. One group was treated with toltrazuril (TOL), the second group was treated with diclazuril (DIC) and the third group was remained as untreated control group (CONT). On each farm the calves were weighed weekly and clinically examined. In the 5 buffalo farms the average oocyst excretion decreased significantly in both the treated groups (TOL and DIC), however the TOL groups had significantly low counts than the DIC groups. The body-weight gains recorded fortnightly were significantly higher in the TOL groups (range=5.4-8.1 kg) compared to the DIC (range=1.7-3.1 kg). PMID:26215929

  5. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis. PMID:12760663

  6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively. PMID:26688653

  7. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. PMID:27317318

  8. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  9. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  10. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  11. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  12. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  13. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes(DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  15. Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Claveria, F G; Cruz, M J

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts obtained from Philippine water buffaloes revealed the presence of the commonly reported macroscopic species, Sarcocystis fusiformis, and the microscopic species Sarcocystis levinei (Dissanaike A, Kan S. Studies on Sarcocystis in Malaysia. I: Sarcocystis levinei n.sp. from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Z Parasitenkd 1978;55:127-38), (Huong L, Dubey J, Uggla A. Redescription of Sarcocystis levinei Dissanaike and Kan, 1978 (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol 1997;83:1148-52). The globular to oval microscopic cysts commonly observed in the muscles of the diaphragm and neck exhibit compartmentalized arrangement of zoites with septal partitions and measure 13-48 microns in diameter. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of sarcocyst bears minute and hair-like villar protrusions measuring 2.3-2.75 microns long emanating at certain distances from the primary cyst wall and lack microfilaments. Villar protrusions have expanded to dome-shaped base measuring 0.33-1.6 microns long by 0.22-1.0 micron wide, and intermediate and tapering distal segments bent approximately 90 degrees and run parallel to the cyst surface. The distal segments at some areas join to form conical tufts. The primary cyst wall bears numerous prominent undulations that are arranged in small clusters. The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. PMID:11227764

  16. Development of cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anju; Raina, O K; Nagar, Gaurav; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Maharana, B R; Kollannur, Justin D

    2012-02-10

    Native cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase (28 kDa) was purified from the excretory secretory products of Fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes by Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA). The test detected F. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ∼ 90%. No specific IgG antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be Fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of faeces and necropsy examination of liver, rumen and intestine. Additionally, sera from 156 Fasciola-free buffaloes, yet infected with Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum, Gastrothylax spp., Strongyloides papillosus and hydatid cyst were all negative, indicating that F. gigantica cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase does not cross-react with these helminth parasites in natural infection of the host. The data indicated that cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-ELISA reached ∼ 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity with relation to above parasites in the detection of bubaline fasciolosis. The present Dot-ELISA diagnostic assay is relevant to the field diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. PMID:22055612

  17. Trypanosomiasis in Venezuelan water buffaloes: association of packed-cell volumes with seroprevalence and current trypanosome infection.

    PubMed

    García, H; García, M-E; Pérez, G; Bethencourt, A; Zerpa, E; Pérez, H; Mendoza-León, A

    2006-06-01

    The seroprevalence of trypanosomiasis and the prevalence of current trypanosome infection in water buffaloes from the most important livestock areas of Venezuela were evaluated by IFAT and the microhaematocrit centrifugation technique, respectively. The usefulness of a PCR-based assay for identifying the trypanosome species in the buffaloes was also evaluated. Of the 644 animals investigated, 40 (6.2%) were found infected with trypanosomes by blood centrifugation, and 196 (30.4%) were found positive for anti-trypanosome antibodies, by IFAT. The results of the PCR-based assay indicated that 92.5% of the animals with current infections were infected with Trypanosoma vivax and the rest with T. theileri (the first molecular confirmation of T. theileri in Venezuelan water buffaloes). The national programme to treat and prevent trypanosome infections in the buffaloes does not appear to be meeting with great success, even though it is focused on T. vivax. Although the level of parasitaemia was categorized as low for 28 (70%) of the infections detected (and packed-cell volumes appeared to be unassociated with IFAT result, and uncorrelated, in the infected animals, with level of parasitaemia), the 40 infected buffaloes had a significantly lower mean packed-cell volume than the uninfected animals (P<0.05). Farmers should therefore be made aware of the probability of trypanosome-attributable losses in buffalo productivity. PMID:16762110

  18. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785

  19. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  20. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (< 1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry. PMID:27348885

  1. Potential association of reduced cholinesterase activity with Trypanosoma evansi pathogenesis in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K

    2016-07-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (P<0.001) lower. However, no significant difference was observed in cholinesterase activity between the T. evansi-infected buffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders. PMID:27369572

  2. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  3. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs) do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery. Results The valid response rate was 34% (47/140). Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23), chemical disinfection (14), boiling water (7), and steam autoclave (2). Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47%) used a hand rub. Sixteen (35%) GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50%) had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80%) expressed interest in a seminar on infection control. Conclusions Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  4. The bacteriological prevalence of leptospiral infection in cattle and buffaloes in West Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Bahaman, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Stallman, N. D.; Tinniswood, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional bacteriological survey of cattle in West Malaysia revealed 14.4% (32/222) had leptospiral infection. Isolates were obtained from all except one herd with prevalence of infection in herds ranging from 0-44.8%. A small number of buffalo urine samples were examined and all of them were found to be negative. A leptospiral isolate obtained from a bovine kidney proved to be a new serovar of Leptospira interrogans and the name unipertama was assigned to it. Six other leptospiral serovars were isolated, namely canicola, australis, javanica, ballum, pomona and hardjo. All six serovars were isolated for the first time in cattle in Malaysia. Cattle in Malaysia appear to be the maintenance host for serovar hardjo. The presence of the other serovars in cattle was probably due to contact with the maintenance hosts, pigs for serovar pomona and rodents for the other three serovars. It appears that the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in cattle in Malaysia is similar to that reported overseas. PMID:3356222

  5. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Fengcai; YU, Xin; YANG, Yan; HU, Shuang; CHANG, Hua; YANG, Jianfa; DUAN, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013. Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats) serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and examined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Some risk factors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high exposure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health. PMID:26811733

  6. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus. PMID:27154321

  7. Infection of cattle with Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison in Wood Buffalo National Park.

    PubMed

    Forbes, L B; Tessaro, S V

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if cattle could be infected with a strain of Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison in Wood Buffalo National Park. Three pregnant cows inoculated conjunctivally with 5.7 x 10(8) cfu of the bacterium, and their subsequent calves, showed seroconversion on standard serological tests for bovine brucellosis, and large numbers of the bacterium were isolated from numerous tissues at necropsy. A 4th cow that was moved into the pen that previously contained the inoculated cows subsequently showed seroconversion, and the same strain of B. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from numerous tissues. Although this strain from bison in Wood Buffalo National Park has existed in isolation from cattle for over 60 years, it remains infectious and contagious for cattle. PMID:8809394

  8. First Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Infecting Buffalo Calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Monally C C; Widmer, Giovanni; Zucatto, Anaiza S; Viol, Milena A; Inácio, Sandra V; Nakamura, Alex A; Coelho, Willian M D; Perri, Silvia H V; Meireles, Marcelo V; Bresciani, Katia D S

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., 222 fecal samples were collected from Murrah buffalo calves aged up to 6 mo. Fecal DNA was genotyped with a nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing of the amplified fragment. Nested 18S PCR was positive for 48.2% of the samples. Sequence analysis showed that the most frequent species in these animals was Cryptosporidium ryanae, which was present in buffalo calves as young as 5 d. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in one animal. An uncommon Cryptosporidium 18S genotype was found in buffaloes. PMID:25941018

  9. In-Vitro Indicators of Natural Resistance and Milk-Producing Ability in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Miarelli, Maria; Signorelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of detecting novel phenotypes of natural resistance at the molecular level through the in-vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This study was conducted with 16 healthy buffaloes who were reared for milk production and for whom data on milk-producing ability were available for several lactations. MDMs from circulating monocytes were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The response was evaluated using Western blotting to detect the presence of 2 types of proteins separated by electrophoresis: tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are indicators of the dynamic control of biochemical pathways, and IkB-alpha (Kappa light polipeptide gene enhancer in B-cells Inhibitor, alpha) protein, which controls the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells—a transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the buffaloes who were positive for IkB-alpha proteins had a significantly higher milk-producing ability than the buffaloes who did not express IkB-alpha. On the contrary, no significant difference was detected between the high and low milk-producing buffaloes with regard to the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This preliminary study indicated that it may be possible to identify the more disease-resistant nonhuman animals on a molecular level. The results, therefore, indicate that an intense selection toward the increase of milk yield could impair natural disease resistance in future dairy buffalo generations. PMID:25111879

  10. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  11. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  12. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocara vitulorum Infections in Buffalo and Cattle Calves in Three Provinces of Central Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Sothy, Meas; Chea, Rortana; Chea, Bunthon; Sourloing, Hor; Samuth, Sum; Kong, Seth; Nguong, Koemseang; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo and cattle calves was studied in 3 provinces in central Cambodia. Fecal samples were collected from 517 calves between the age of 1-15 weeks and processed for nematode egg counts by a modified McMaster method. A total of 64 calves were found to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in their feces (12.4%; 95% exact CI: 9.7-15.5). The mean fecal egg count was 2,798 EPG (SD=16,351; range=0-224,400). A multivariable generalized linear mixed model showed higher odds of T. vitulorum infection for buffalo versus cattle, for animals aged 4-8 weeks versus younger and older ones, and for animals with strongyle infection. There was no association with fecal consistency. Farmers should be aware of the potential impact of T. vitulorum, and treat their calves at the age of 2-3 weeks with anthelmintics such as benzimidazoles or pyrantel. PMID:25925178

  13. Evaluation of an Indirect-ELISA Test for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra) in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Arthur; Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Yangtara, Sarawut; Leboucher, Emilye; Rodtian, Pranee; Dargantes, Alan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-01-01

    Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an indirect-ELISA test for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC) was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2-14.5%). Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia. PMID:26101772

  14. Evaluation of an Indirect-ELISA Test for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra) in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Arthur; Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Yangtara, Sarawut; Leboucher, Emilye; Rodtian, Pranee; Dargantes, Alan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-01-01

    Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an indirect-ELISA test for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC) was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.5%). Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia. PMID:26101772

  15. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  16. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, E M D L; Jenkins, A O; Cooper, D V; Rutten, V P M G; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an alternative, the BOVIGAM® 1G, an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay, is frequently used. The test performance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI-) and humoral immunity (HI-) based assays for the detection of M. bovis infections in buffaloes was compared to identify the test or test combination that provided the highest sensitivity in the study. Buffaloes were sampled during the annual BTB SICTT testing in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi-Park (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) during June 2013. A total of 35 animals were subjected to the SICTT, 13 of these tested positive and one showed an inconclusive reaction. CMI-based assays (BOVIGAM® 1G (B1G) and BOVIGAM® 2G (B2G)) as well as a serological assay (IDEXX TB ELISA) were used to further investigate and compare immune responsiveness. Thirteen SICTT positive buffaloes and one inconclusive reactor were slaughtered and a post-mortem (PM) examination was conducted to confirm BTB. Lesions characteristic of BTB were found in 8/14 animals (57.1%). Test results of individual assays were compared with serial and parallel test interpretation and the sensitivity was calculated as a percentage of test positives out of the number of SICTT positive animals with granulomatous lesions (relative sensitivity). The B1G assay showed the highest individual sensitivity (100%; 8/8) followed by the B2G assay (75%; 6/8) and the IDEXX TB ELISA (37.5%; 3/8). Therefore, using in parallel interpretation, any combination with the B1G showed a sensitivity of 100% (8/8), whereas combinations with the B2G showed a 75% sensitivity (6/8). Out of the 21 SICTT negative animals, 7 animals showed responsiveness in the B2G or IDEXX TB ELISA. In conclusion, this study has shown

  17. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the

  18. Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Hosamani, M; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the HA gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of 96.2-99.8 and 94.6-98.7% at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, with VACVs, particularly with VACV-MVA, a vaccine strain. Further, C18L (ankyrin repeat protein)-gene-based BPXV-specific PCR confirmed them as BPXV. It is apparent from this study that pox-like outbreaks in cows and buffaloes in India are caused, in most cases, by BPXV. Considering the zoonotic implications of buffalopox, such outbreaks involving both buffaloes and cows in a mixed flock may pose a significant public health threat. Transmissibility of BPXV between different species including cows, buffaloes and human beings implies the potential reemergence of the virus in the subcontinent, similar to vaccinia-like outbreaks witnessed recently in other countries. PMID:19956986

  19. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  20. Infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) by oryx bacillus, a rare member of the antelope clade of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Perrett, Keith D; Michel, Anita L; Keet, Dewald F; Hlokwe, Tiny; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species cause tuberculosis disease in animals and humans. Although they share 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level, several host-adapted ecotypes of the tubercule bacilli have been identified. In the wildlife setting, probably the most well-known member of this complex is Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. The recently described oryx bacillus is an extremely rare slow-growing member of the antelope clade of the M. tuberculosis complex and is closely related to the dassie bacillus, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium microti. The antelope clade is a group of strains apparently host adapted to antelopes, as most described infections were associated with deer and antelope, most specifically the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). In this study, oryx bacillus was isolated from a free-ranging adult female African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), in good physical condition, which tested strongly positive on three consecutive comparative intradermal tuberculin tests. Upon necropsy, a single pulmonary granuloma and an active retropharyngeal lymph node was found. Comprehensive molecular genetic assays were performed, which confirmed that the causative microorganism was not M. bovis but oryx bacillus. Oryx bacillus has never been reported in Southern Africa and has never been found to infect African buffalo. The identification of this microorganism in buffalo is an important observation in view of the large and ever-increasing epidemic of the closely related M. tuberculosis complex species M. bovis in some African buffalo populations in South Africa. PMID:23060486

  1. Transformation of Theileria parva derived from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) by tick passage in cattle and its use in infection and treatment immunization.

    PubMed

    Maritim, A C; Young, A S; Lesan, A C; Ndungu, S G; Stagg, D A; Ngumi, P N

    1992-06-01

    A sporozoite stabilate (St. 199) of Theileria parva was obtained by feeding nymphal Rhipicephalus appendiculatus on an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and was used to immunize cattle by the infection and treatment method. Nymphal ticks were applied to one of the steers 90 days later and it was shown that the resultant adult tick had become infected. Using tick/cattle passage, two passage lines of T. parva were established. By the fifth tick/cattle passage, the parasite stocks had changed their behaviour to that of T. parva derived from cattle as the parasite produced relatively high schizont parasitosis and piroplasm parasitaemia in cattle, and had become highly infective to ticks. At various passage levels the parasite populations were characterized by behaviour and by monoclonal antibodies against T. parva schizonts using infected cell culture isolates from cattle during acute infections. The monoclonal antibody profile showed little evidence of antigen change of the parasite during passage through cattle, which was confirmed in a two-way cross-immunity experiment using sporozoite stabilate derived from ticks obtained from the buffalo and fourth passage in cattle. The implication of these results, particularly in relationship to immunization of cattle against T. parva derived from buffalo, is discussed. PMID:1496792

  2. Molecular and serological detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field.

    PubMed

    Romero-Salas, Dora; Mira, Anabela; Mosqueda, Juan; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Hidalgo-Ruiz, Mario; Vela, Noot Aditya Ortiz; de León, Adalberto Angel Perez; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-02-15

    Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. In addition to bovines, also water buffaloes are infected by both Babesia spp. commonly leading to a subclinical infection. The infection rate (by nPCR) and herd exposure (by IFAT) of bovines and water buffaloes reared under similar field conditions in an area of endemic stability were determined and compared. In order to optimize direct parasite detection, highly sensitive nPCR assays were developed and applied, allowing the detection of as little as 0.1 fg DNA of each Babesia pathogen. Significantly lower percentages (p<0.001) of seropositive water buffaloes compared to bovines were observed for B. bovis (71.4% vs. 98%) and B. bigemina (85% vs. 100%). Interestingly, in comparison, differences noticed between water buffaloes and bovines were considerably larger with direct parasite detection by nPCR (16.2% vs. 82.3% and 24% vs. 94.1% for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively). As expected, bovines subjected to monthly acaricide applications exhibited a significant lower infection rate as determined by nPCR than bovines not subjected to these measures (B. bovis 33.3% vs. 90.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 80% vs. 96.5%, p<0.001, for treated vs. untreated animals). Interestingly no differences between these groups were observed with respect to seropositivity, suggesting similar rates of parasite exposure (B. bovis 100% vs. 97.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 100% vs. 100%, p<0.001). Importantly, a significantly higher number of water buffaloes as determined by nPCR were infected when reared jointly with bovines not subjected

  3. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  4. Systems biology of natural SIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Bosinger, Steven E.; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Benecke, Arndt; Silvestri, Guido; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review A key factor driving AIDS-associated immunopathogenesis is chronic immune activation. SIV infection of African natural host species leads to high viremia, but low immune activation and absence of disease. Considerable progress in our understanding of pathological immune activation have come from comparative studies of SIV infection in pathogenic Asian macaque species and natural hosts. The focus of this review is to highlight recent work on the natural host model using high throughput genomics. Recent findings Several groups have independently conducted microarray gene expression profiling comparing in vivo SIV infection in natural and non-natural hosts. A consistent finding between these studies is that both pathogenic SIV infection of macaques and nonpathogenic infections of natural hosts have strong induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) early on, but a key difference was that natural hosts downmodulated the interferon response rapidly after acute infection. The development of new genome-based resources for further study of the natural host model is discussed. Summary Initial efforts using high throughput biology to study SIV infection of natural hosts have effectively identified the ability of natural hosts to resolve interferon responses and immune activation. Further application of ‘omic’-based technologies coupled with integrative systems-based analysis should continue to yield progress. PMID:22134342

  5. Serological & molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggest increased levels of infection & hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in Egypt and improved control is needed. The main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in Egypt using novel molecular and pr...

  6. IP-10 Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Antigen Recognition in Whole-Blood Stimulation Assays Used for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Cooper, David; Miller, Michele A; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2015-08-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. They act as reservoirs of this infection for a wide range of wildlife and domestic species, and the detection of infected animals is important to control the geographic spread and transmission of the disease. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) utilizing pathogen-derived peptide antigens are highly specific tests of M. bovis infection; however, the diagnostic sensitivities of these assays are suboptimal. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of measuring antigen-dependent interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) release as an alternative to measuring IFN-γ levels. M. bovis-exposed buffaloes were tested using the Bovigam PC-EC and Bovigam PC-HP assays and a modified QuantiFERON TB-Gold (mQFT) assay. IP-10 was measured in the harvested plasma and was produced in significantly greater abundance in response to M. bovis antigens in Bovigam-positive than in Bovigam-negative animals. For each assay, using the Bovigam results as a reference, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to determine diagnostically relevant cutoff values for IP-10. Thereafter, mQFT test results derived from measurement of IP-10 and IFN-γ were compared and a larger number of Bovigam-positive animals were detected using IP-10 as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, using IP-10, agreement between the mQFT assay and the Bovigam assays was increased, while the excellent agreement between the Bovigam assays was retained. We conclude that IP-10 is a sensitive marker of antigen recognition and that measurement of this cytokine in antigen-stimulated whole blood might increase the sensitivity of conventional IGRAs in African buffaloes. PMID:26108287

  7. IP-10 Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Antigen Recognition in Whole-Blood Stimulation Assays Used for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, Wynand J.; Cooper, David; Miller, Michele A.; van Helden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. They act as reservoirs of this infection for a wide range of wildlife and domestic species, and the detection of infected animals is important to control the geographic spread and transmission of the disease. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) utilizing pathogen-derived peptide antigens are highly specific tests of M. bovis infection; however, the diagnostic sensitivities of these assays are suboptimal. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of measuring antigen-dependent interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) release as an alternative to measuring IFN-γ levels. M. bovis-exposed buffaloes were tested using the Bovigam PC-EC and Bovigam PC-HP assays and a modified QuantiFERON TB-Gold (mQFT) assay. IP-10 was measured in the harvested plasma and was produced in significantly greater abundance in response to M. bovis antigens in Bovigam-positive than in Bovigam-negative animals. For each assay, using the Bovigam results as a reference, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to determine diagnostically relevant cutoff values for IP-10. Thereafter, mQFT test results derived from measurement of IP-10 and IFN-γ were compared and a larger number of Bovigam-positive animals were detected using IP-10 as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, using IP-10, agreement between the mQFT assay and the Bovigam assays was increased, while the excellent agreement between the Bovigam assays was retained. We conclude that IP-10 is a sensitive marker of antigen recognition and that measurement of this cytokine in antigen-stimulated whole blood might increase the sensitivity of conventional IGRAs in African buffaloes. PMID:26108287

  8. Effect of induced Fasciola gigantica infection during pre-patency on the performance of buffalo calves fed on different percentage of protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Verma, A K; Gupta, S C; Mehra, U R

    2016-09-01

    Thirty growing Murrah buffalo calves (8-12 months of age, 109.85 ± 2.43) were reared in parasite free conditions and randomly divided into three equal groups as per CRD. They were fed on iso-caloric (2.01 ME Mcal/Kg diet) diets containing standard protein (SP) diet at 100 %, 90 % of SP (medium protein, MP) and 80 % of SP (low protein, LP) of the protein requirements (Kearl 1982). After 21 days of feeding, each group was further subdivided into two sub-groups (A & B). Animals in sub-groups 'A' served as non-infected control, while in sub group 'B' were orally infected with Fasciola gigantica metacercarie (mc; 1,000 each). A metabolic trial of 40 days post infection was carried out in control and parasitized animals. Intake of digestible dry matter, organic matter and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SP group compared to LP group. The digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ADF was significantly higher in SP group compared to MP and LP groups. The digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) intakes (g/kgW(0.75)) were also significantly (P < 0.001) higher in SP than MP and LP groups. However, DCP intake was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in infected subgroups compared to control subgroups. Intake and balance (g/d) of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in SP than MP and LP groups. The average daily gain of buffalo calves fed on SP Uninfected (SPU), SP Infected (SPI), MPU, MPI and LPU, LPI groups was 333, 178, 356, 144, 222 and 144 g and was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in animals fed LP ration. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also significantly (P < 0.01) higher in infected sub-groups as compared to respective control groups. The results showed that a SP diet substantially improved the overall performance of buffalo calves in control and infected groups and reduced adverse effect of F. gigantica infection. PMID:27605773

  9. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  10. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Beechler, B. R.; Manore, C. A.; Reininghaus, B.; O'Neal, D.; Gorsich, E. E.; Ezenwa, V. O.; Jolles, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB− buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  11. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Clinico-pathology, hematology and biochemistry responses in buffaloes towards Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 immunogen lypopolysaccharide via oral and intravenous routes of infection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2016-02-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in temperature between the control, intravenous and oral group. In hematology and biochemistry findings, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in erythrocytes, haemoglobin, PCV, MCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, GGT and albumin between the control, intravenous and oral group. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; and

  13. The stability of plasma IP-10 enhances its utility for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M; Miller, Michele A; Parsons, Sven D C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) in antigen-stimulated whole blood is a sensitive biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). However, this species often occurs in remote locations and diagnostic samples must be transported to centralised laboratories for processing. In humans, plasma IP-10 is highly stable and this feature contributes to its diagnostic utility; for this reason we aimed to characterize the stability of this molecule in buffaloes. Blood from M. bovis-infected and -uninfected animals was incubated with pathogen-specific peptides, saline and phytohaemagglutinin, respectively. Plasma fractions were harvested and aliquots of selected samples were: (i) stored at different temperatures for various times; (ii) heat treated before storage at RT, and (iii) stored on Protein Saver Cards (PSCs) at RT for either 2 or 8 weeks before measurement of IP-10. Incubation of plasma at 65°C for 20min caused no loss of IP-10 and this protein could be quantified in plasma stored on PSCs for 2 and 8 weeks. Moreover, for all storage conditions, IP-10 retained its excellent diagnostic characteristics. These features of IP-10 might allow for the heat inactivation of potentially infectious plasma which would facilitate the safe and simple transport of samples. PMID:27090621

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  15. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  16. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  17. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  18. Natural Burkholderia mallei Infection in Dromedary, Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Marina; Al-Salloom, Fajer; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Jose, Sherry; Tappendorf, Britta; Hornstra, Heidie

    2011-01-01

    We confirm a natural infection of dromedaries with glanders. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004. PMID:21762586

  19. The Dynamics of Natural Plasmodium falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Ingrid; Maire, Martin; Bretscher, Michael T.; Falk, Nicole; Tiaden, André; Sama, Wilson; Beck, Hans-Peter; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Smith, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. Methods An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI) and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. Results Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5–9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320). Conclusions The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections. PMID:23029082

  20. Trichinella zimbabwensis in a naturally infected mammal.

    PubMed

    La Grange, L J; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2010-03-01

    Trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) of several African countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. The aim of this work was to describe the first detection of T. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (Panthera leo) of the Kruger National Park (KNP) of South Africa. The sequence of the expansion segment V, a highly variable non-coding sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA of the genus Trichinella, of larvae from the lion was identical to that of larvae of T. zimbabwensis collected from a Nile crocodile originating from the same locality as the lion, suggesting a possible transmission of this parasite between mammals and reptiles. The KNP proves to be a very interesting area for parasites of the genus Trichinella since three taxa (Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella T8 and T. zimbabwensis) circulate among the wildlife of this protected area. PMID:19580688

  1. Some parasitic flukes infecting farm animals in Al-Santa Center, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Sherbiny, Gehad T; Morsy, Tosson A

    2006-04-01

    A total of 213 farm animals in the vicinity of Al-Santa Center (73 cattle, 90 buffaloes and 50 sheep) were coprologic examined for natural infection with trematod-parasites. The results showed that cattle were infected with Fasciola sp (21.8%) and Paramphistomum sp. (7.3%), buffaloes were infected with Fasciola sp. (17.7%) and Paramphistomum sp. (10%), while sheep were infected with Fasciola sp. (30%), D. dendriticum (5%) and Paramphistomum sp. (4%). The three animal species were treated for paramphistomiasis with a total dose of 1800, 6000 and 7500 mgm of Oleo-resin solution of Commiphora molmol (dose of 6 ml of 10gm% equal to 2 Mirazid. The cure was 100% in sheep 80% in cattle and 44.4% in buffaloes. High dose for both cattle and buffaloes to reach 100% cure rate was not tried. PMID:16605115

  2. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  3. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  4. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  5. A Buffalo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Eugene T.

    The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…

  6. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar′s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  7. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  8. Constructing the Average Natural History of HIV-1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diambra, L.; Capurro, A.; Malta, C. P.

    2007-05-01

    Many aspects of the natural course of the HIV-1 infection remains unclear, despite important efforts towards understanding its long-term dynamics. Using a scaling approach that places progression markers (viral load, CD4+, CD8+) of many individuals on a single average natural course of disease progression, we introduce the concept of inter-individual scaling and time scaling. Our quantitative assessment of the natural course of HIV-1 infection indicates that the dynamics of the evolution for the individual that developed AIDS (opportunistic infections) is different from that of the individual that did not develop AIDS. This means that the rate of progression is not relevant for the infection evolution.

  9. Natural history of human rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R F

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus infections occur repeatedly in humans from birth to old age. Most are asymptomatic or are associated with mild enteric symptoms. Infection in young children can be accompanied by severe life-threatening diarrhea, most commonly after primary infection. Annual childhood morbidity rates for severe diarrhea are similar worldwide. Mortality rates are low in developed countries but approach 1,000,000 annually in young children in developing countries. Rotaviruses can be classified into Groups A-E according to antigenic groups on VP6, the major capsid antigen. Only Group A,B and C rotaviruses have been shown to infect humans, and most human rotavirus disease is caused by Group A viruses. These are further classified into G and P types based on identification of antigens on the outer capsid proteins VP7 and VP4 respectively. Most severe infections in young children are caused by serotypes G1-4, and during the last two decades, G1 infections appear to have predominated worldwide. In general the more densely populated countries show the most complex patterns of occurrence of serotypes. Clinical rotavirus disease can be accompanied by shedding of > 10(12) rotavirus particles/gm feces. The virus is highly infectious and appears to retain infectivity over many months. In temperate climates, disease is most common during the colder months, when it is likely that rapid spread within families and communities occurs. Nosocomial infections are frequent, and rotaviruses can become endemic within obstetric hospital nurseries for the newborn. Few (if any) human rotavirus infections appear to be zoonoses, even though Group A rotaviruses are widespread in the young of all mammalian species. However infection of humans with reassortant rotavirus strains derived from human-animal sources can occur. The extent to which this contributes to new epidemic strains within particular countries (or worldwide) remains to be determined. PMID:9015109

  10. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines

  11. Study on hematological alterations induced by amphistomosis in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vandip. D.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Pandey, Sunanda; Pansuriya, Dhaval V.; Choudhary, Vijayata

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to compare the alterations in the hematological parameters in buffaloes suffering from Amphistomosis with normal buffaloes and to correlate it with the subclinical infection that is hard to diagnose. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 50 amphistomes infected as well as 50 non-infected buffaloes from slaughter houses were taken into vacutainer tubes containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid for estimation of various hematological parameters by Automatic Analyzer Hema-2062 manufactured by Analytical Technologies Ltd. Result: There was a significant reduction in the mean hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume and significant increase in the neutrophils count and eosinophil count of infected buffaloes as compared to the non-infected buffaloes respectively. Conclusion: Amphistomosis is characterized by severe neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and anemia. Anemia of high intensity along with hepatic damage can lead to the death of the animal in severe cases. Alterations in the Hematological parameters can be used as an indicator to diagnose and check the severity of amphistomosis especially in young ones and in subclinical infection. PMID:27047107

  12. [Natural history of the infection for human papillomavirus: an actualization].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gerardo González; Troconis, José Núñez

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the biology and natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Most papillomavirus infections are transmitted by close contact of either skin to skin or mucosa to mucosa. Sexual intercourse is not a requirement for genital HPV infection. Digital-oral infections occur and there is evidence that digital-genital and oral-genital contacts can result in the transmission of HPV, although in a relatively low percentage. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus is a common route of infection; in fact, it is recognized that more than 80% of infants born from mothers infected with genital HPV will be positive for HPV DNA determination in the nasal-pharyngeal region and oral mucosa. Women with transient infections often develop cytological abnormalities that take place while there is active HPV replication. This occurs because productive HPV infections result in cytological abnormalities in infected epithelial cells. The strong association between the risk of HPV infection and increased immune suppression, supports a direct biological effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on the natural history of HPV. PMID:24758104

  13. Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Taeho; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Hyosun; Lieberman, Paul M; Kang, Hyojeung

    2013-10-01

    More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies. PMID:24173639

  14. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Dewals, Benjamin; Gillet, Laurent; Gerdes, Truuske; Taracha, Evans L N; Thiry, Etienne; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2005-10-31

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, P.A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal AlHV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and AlHV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in AlHV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against AlHV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response. PMID:16153785

  15. Natural Norovirus Infections in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using a recently developed real-time reverse transcription PCR, I retested 500 fecal samples from rhesus macaques collected in 2008. Previous conventional reverse transcription PCR testing identified 1 isolate of GII norovirus; retesting found GI, GII, and possible GIV noroviruses in the samples, indicating the natural circulation of noroviruses in nonhuman primate colonies. PMID:27314565

  16. Natural Norovirus Infections in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor

    2016-07-01

    Using a recently developed real-time reverse transcription PCR, I retested 500 fecal samples from rhesus macaques collected in 2008. Previous conventional reverse transcription PCR testing identified 1 isolate of GII norovirus; retesting found GI, GII, and possible GIV noroviruses in the samples, indicating the natural circulation of noroviruses in nonhuman primate colonies. PMID:27314565

  17. Natural malaria infection reduces starvation resistance of nutritionally stressed mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lalubin, Fabrice; Delédevant, Aline; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    In disease ecology, there is growing evidence that environmental quality interacts with parasite and host to determine host susceptibility to an infection. Most studies of malaria parasites have focused on the infection costs incurred by the hosts, and few have investigated the costs on mosquito vectors. The interplay between the environment, the vector and the parasite has therefore mostly been ignored and often relied on unnatural or allopatric Plasmodium/vector associations. Here, we investigated the effects of natural avian malaria infection on both fecundity and survival of field-caught female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, individually maintained in laboratory conditions. We manipulated environmental quality by providing mosquitoes with different concentrations of glucose-feeding solution prior to submitting them to a starvation challenge. We used molecular-based methods to assess mosquitoes' infection status. We found that mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium had lower starvation resistance than uninfected ones only under low nutritional conditions. The effect of nutritional stress varied with time, with the difference of starvation resistance between optimally and suboptimally fed mosquitoes increasing from spring to summer, as shown by a significant interaction between diet treatment and months of capture. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes had similar clutch size, indicating no effect of infection on fecundity. Overall, this study suggests that avian malaria vectors may suffer Plasmodium infection costs in their natural habitat, under certain environmental conditions. This may have major implications for disease transmission in the wild. PMID:24286465

  18. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies. PMID:27144565

  19. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D.; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies. PMID:27144565

  20. Colombian Anopheles triannulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected with Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, Doris A.; Naranjo-Diaz, Nelson; Alvarez, Natalí; Cienfuegos, Astrid V.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The role of Anopheles triannulatus as a local vector has not yet been defined for malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this work was to detect An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium spp., as an approximation to determining its importance as malaria vector in the country. A total of 510 An. triannulatus were collected in six malaria-endemic localities of NW and SE Colombia from January 2009 to March 2011. In the NW, two specimens were naturally infected; one with Plasmodium vivax VK247, collected biting on humans and the other with Plasmodium falciparum, collected resting on cattle. In the SE, two specimens were positive for P. falciparum. Although these results show An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium, further studies are recommended to demonstrate the epidemiological importance of this species in malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. PMID:27335865

  1. Wolbachia increases susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in a natural system

    PubMed Central

    Zélé, F.; Nicot, A.; Berthomieu, A.; Weill, M.; Duron, O.; Rivero, A.

    2014-01-01

    Current views about the impact of Wolbachia on Plasmodium infections are almost entirely based on data regarding artificially transfected mosquitoes. This work has shown that Wolbachia reduces the intensity of Plasmodium infections in mosquitoes, raising the exciting possibility of using Wolbachia to control or limit the spread of malaria. Whether natural Wolbachia infections have the same parasite-inhibiting properties is not yet clear. Wolbachia–mosquito combinations with a long evolutionary history are, however, key for understanding what may happen with Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes after several generations of coevolution. We investigate this issue using an entirely natural mosquito–Wolbachia–Plasmodium combination. In contrast to most previous studies, which have been centred on the quantification of the midgut stages of Plasmodium, we obtain a measurement of parasitaemia that relates directly to transmission by following infections to the salivary gland stages. We show that Wolbachia increases the susceptibility of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Plasmodium relictum, significantly increasing the prevalence of salivary gland stage infections. This effect is independent of the density of Wolbachia in the mosquito. These results suggest that naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes may, in fact, be better vectors of malaria than Wolbachia-free ones. PMID:24500167

  2. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  3. Cytokine expression in dogs with natural Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Panaro, M A; Brandonisio, O; Cianciulli, A; Cavallo, P; Lacasella, V; Paradies, P; Testini, G; De Caprariis, D; Mitolo, V; Otranto, D

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine expression in 22 Leishmania infantum naturally infected dogs, in order to correlate this parameter with the clinical status of infected animals. After 4 and 8 months from the first diagnosis of Leishmania infection, clinical and laboratory examination of dogs was performed and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated. The cytokine profile was analysed in terms of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in cultured PBMC by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Thirteen out of 22 Leishmania-infected dogs remained asymptomatic in the follow-up, while 9 showed clinical signs of leishmaniasis. IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA levels were not significantly different in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic animals 4 months from the diagnosis of Leishmania infection, but were significantly higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic dogs after 8 months from diagnosis. In addition, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels significantly increased only in symptomatic dogs at 8 months, in comparison to the levels found at 4 months. These results show a mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response in Leishmania-infected dogs, with higher cytokine expression in dogs with manifest clinical disease, during the second follow-up after 8 months from the first diagnosis of infection. PMID:19490725

  4. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  5. Using the local immune response from the natural buffalo host to generate an antibody fragment library that binds the early larval stages of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; Driguez, Patrick; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Ilag, Leodevico L; Gladman, Simon; Li, Yuesheng; Piedrafita, David; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T; de Veer, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Antibodies isolated from the local draining inguinal lymph node of field exposed-water buffaloes following challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae showed high reactivity towards S. japonicum antigen preparations and bound specifically to formaldehyde-fixed S. japonicum schistosomules. Using this specific local immune response we produced a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain libraries from the same lymph nodes. Removal of phage that cross reacted with epitopes on adult parasites yielded a single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library that specifically bound to whole formaldehyde-fixed and live S. japonicum schistosomules. DNA sequencing indicated clear enrichment of the single-chain antibody Fv domain library for buffalo B-cell complementarity determining regions post-selection for schistosomule binding. This study also revealed that long heavy chain complementarity determining regions appear to be an important factor when selecting for antibody binding fragments against schistosomule proteins. The selected single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage were used to probe a schistosome-specific protein microarray, which resulted in the recognition of many proteins expressed across all schistosome life-cycle stages. Following absorption to adult worms, the single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library showed significantly reduced binding to most proteins, whilst two proteins (NCBI GenBank accession numbers AY915878 and AY815196) showed increased binding. We have thus developed a unique set of host derived single-chain antibody Fv domains comprising buffalo B-cell variable regions that specifically bind to early S. japonicum life-stages. PMID:26116907

  6. Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Alford, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental context strongly affects many host-pathogen interactions, but the underlying causes of these effects at the individual level are usually poorly understood. The amphibian chytrid fungus has caused amphibian population declines and extinctions in many parts of the world. Many amphibian species that have declined or have been extirpated by the pathogen in some environments coexist with it in others. Here we show that in three species of rainforest frogs in nature, individuals' probability of infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus was strongly related to their thermal history. Individuals' probability of infection declined rapidly as they spent more time above the pathogen's upper optimum temperature. This relationship can explain population-level patterns of prevalence in nature, and suggests that natural or artificial selection for higher thermal preferences could reduce susceptibility to this pathogen. Similar individual-level insights could improve our understanding of environmental context-dependence in other diseases. PMID:23519020

  7. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  8. Dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in naturally infected bank voles (Clethrinomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Bernshtein, A D; Apekina, N S; Mikhailova, T V; Myasnikov, Y A; Khlyap, L A; Korotkov, Y S; Gavrilovskaya, I N

    1999-01-01

    Specific features of hantavirus infection in bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied in the endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the foothills of the Ural mountains, using long-term observations on living animals by the capture-mark-recapture (CMR) method. The results demonstrated that the infection naturally circulating in the voles is chronic (lasting for up to 15 months) and asymptomatic, with a peak of Puumala virus accumulation and release from the organism during the first month after infection. It was shown that the bank vole population includes young animals with maternal immunity, which remain resistant to the Puumala virus infection for 3-3.5 months. The infection rate in voles depended on the age and sexual maturity of animals. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was observed among overwintered males. Seroconversion in voles was more frequent during the period of high reproductive activity. PMID:10664394

  9. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats. PMID:21763779

  10. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  11. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  12. Pattern of Circulation of Norovirus GII Strains during Natural Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fobisong, Cajetan; Tah, Ferdinand; Lindh, Magnus; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresia; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis among people of all ages worldwide, but the natural course of infection is incompletely known. In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No difference in the frequency of NoV infection between children and adults was recorded. The same genotype was detected for a maximum of 2 consecutive months in 3 children only, suggesting that a less than 30-day duration of viral shedding in natural infection was common. Reinfection within a year with the same genotype was not observed, consistent with short-term homotypic immune protection. The study revealed that NoV strains are circulating with a limited duration of viral shedding both in the individuals and the population as part of their natural infection. The results also provide evidence of cross-protective immunity of limited duration between genotypes of the same genogroup. PMID:25274996

  13. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  14. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  15. Natural feline coronavirus infection: differences in cytokine patterns in association with the outcome of infection.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Meli, Marina L; Failing, Klaus; Euler, Tatjana; Gomes-Keller, Maria A; Schwartz, Dirk; Lutz, Hans; Reinacher, Manfred

    2006-08-15

    Natural and experimental feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection leads to systemic viral spread via monocyte-associated viraemia and induces systemic proliferation of monocytes/macrophages. In the majority of naturally infected animals, FCoV infection remains subclinical and is associated with generalised B and T cell hyperplasia, but no other pathological findings. A minority of cats, however, develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal systemic granulomatous disease. This is generally accompanied by B and T cell depletion. The obvious functional differences of lymphatic tissues in FCoV-infected cats with and without FIP suggest that they contribute to the outcome of FCoV infection. This study attempted to evaluate the functional changes in haemolymphatic tissues after natural FCoV infection, with special emphasis on the magnitude, phenotype and function of the monocyte/macrophage population. The spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow from naturally FCoV-infected cats with and without FIP and specific pathogen-free (SPF) control cats were examined for the quantity and activation state of monocytes/macrophages both by immunohistology and by quantitative real time PCR for the transcription of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) and GM-CSF. Compared to cats with FIP, FCoV-infected cats without FIP exhibited significantly higher IL-10 levels in the spleen and significantly lower levels of IL-6, G- and M-CSF in mesenteric lymph nodes. In cats with FIP, however, IL-12 p40 levels were significantly lower in lymphatic tissues in comparison to both SPF cats and FCoV-infected cats without FIP. In comparison to SPF cats, FIP cats had significantly higher IL-1beta levels and lower TNF levels in mesenteric lymph nodes and lower M-CSF levels in the spleen. Findings indicate that FCoV-infected cats which do not develop FIP are able to mount an effective

  16. Viraemia in patients with naturally acquired dengue infection*

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, D. J.; Suharyono, W.; Tan, R.; Abidin, M.; Sie, A.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of dengue viraemia were studied in 153 patients with naturally acquired dengue infection in Jakarta, Indonesia. The duration of viraemia ranged from 2 to 12 days, but most patients had detectable circulating virus for 4-5 days. Accurate measurement of peak virus titres was not possible for many patients because of late admission to the hospital. Composite pictures of viraemia for each serotype, however, showed that many patients infected with dengue 1, 2, or 3 had circulating virus titres ranging from barely detectable to over 108 MID50 per ml for 3-5 days. Virus titres in patients infected with dengue 4 were about 100-fold lower. Dengue haemagglutination-inhibition antibody titres of 80 or less had little effect on viraemia, but antibody titres of 160 or greater were associated with a decrease in virus isolation rate and in virus titre. The duration and magnitude of viraemia did not vary significantly with the severity of the disease and was only slightly higher in patients classified as primary dengue infections than in those classified as secondary infections. Measurement of viraemia in fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases showed that these patients had significant quantities of circulating virus at the time of death. PMID:6976230

  17. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation. PMID:26298507

  18. Dynamics of Mycobacterium and bovine tuberculosis in a Human-Buffalo Population

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. S.; Garba, S. M.; Gumel, A. B.; Lubuma, J. M.-S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. This model has a unique endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable for a special case, when the reproduction number exceeds unity. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, using data relevant to the dynamics of the two diseases in the Kruger National Park, show that the distribution of the associated reproduction number is less than unity (hence, the diseases would not persist in the community). Crucial parameters that influence the dynamics of the two diseases are also identified. Both the buffalo-only and the buffalo-human model exhibit the same qualitative dynamics with respect to the local and global asymptotic stability of their respective disease-free equilibrium, as well as with respect to the backward bifurcation phenomenon. Numerical simulations of the buffalo-human model show that the cumulative number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in humans (buffalos) decreases with increasing number of bovine tuberculosis infections in humans (buffalo). PMID:25254065

  19. Thoracic radiology of infections emerging after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Ketai, Loren; Currie, Bart J; Alva Lopez, Luis Felipe

    2006-11-01

    When natural disasters demolish shelter, destroy sources of clean drinking water, and disrupt the availability of medical care, vast numbers of people are placed at increased risk of disease. The infectious diseases that propagate under these conditions are usually common ones. Occasionally, a natural disaster alters the local environment in ways that markedly increase the prevalence of a disease that is endemic to a geographic region, occurring only as isolated cases under normal conditions. Many of these infections may affect the thorax. In this article, we discuss the radiologic findings of 4 infectious diseases, coccidioidomycosis, leptospirosis, melioidosis, and Chagas disease, which may flourish after natural disasters strike areas where they are endemic. PMID:17110850

  20. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding. PMID:24440375

  1. The role of natural killer cells in viral infections.

    PubMed

    See, D M; Khemka, P; Sahl, L; Bui, T; Tilles, J G

    1997-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors for the lysis of both neoplastic and virus-infected cells. Lectin-like receptors on human NK cells, such as NKR-PIA and CD94, bind to target cell carbohydrate ligands and initiate the lytic process. In addition, P58 and P70 bind to major histocompatibility class I antigens on targets and mediate negative signals. Models using NK cell-deficient mice have proven useful in elaborating the role of NK cells in the immune defence against multiple viral agents. In addition, studies in humans have suggested a vital role of NK cells in the host defence against human immunodeficiency virus, herpesviruses, hepatitis B and C and other viruses. Several genetic disorders, chronic illnesses and infections have been associated with decreased NK function. PMID:9315107

  2. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  4. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  5. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  6. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  7. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  8. Natural Bagaza virus infection in game birds in southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In late summer 2010 a mosquito born flavivirus not previously reported in Europe called Bagaza virus (BAGV) caused high mortality in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We studied clinical findings, lesions and viral antigen distribution in naturally BAGV infected game birds in order to understand the apparently higher impact on red-legged partridges. The disease induced neurologic signs in the two galliform species and, to a lesser extent, in common wood pigeons (Columba palumbus). In red-legged partridges infection by BAGV caused severe haemosiderosis in the liver and spleen that was absent in pheasants and less evident in common wood pigeons. Also, BAGV antigen was present in vascular endothelium in multiple organs in red-legged partridges, and in the spleen in common wood pigeons, while in ring-necked pheasants it was only detected in neurons and glial cells in the brain. These findings indicate tropism of BAGV for endothelial cells and a severe haemolytic process in red-legged partridges in addition to the central nervous lesions that were found in all three species. PMID:22966904

  9. Naturally occurring murine norovirus infection in a large research institution.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Kathy A; Green, Kim Y; Copeland, Michelle; Barron, Elyssa; Mandel, Myrna; Faucette, Lawrence J; Williams, Elizabeth M; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Elkins, William R; Ward, Jerrold M

    2007-07-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered infectious agent in mice and may be the most common naturally occurring infection of laboratory mice in North America. In 2005, we surveyed the Swiss Webster female sentinel mice in our institute's research facilities. Of the 4 facilities surveyed, 3 had sentinel mice that were positive for MNV antibodies, whereas our largest facility (which only receives mice directly from select vendors or by embryo rederivation directly into the facility) was apparently MNV-free. However, testing of sentinel mice in this large facility 1 y later found that 2% of the animals had developed MNV-specific antibodies. In a recently opened fifth facility, a serologic survey in 2006 identified MNV-antibody-positive Tac:SW sentinel mice that had received bedding from experimental mice on the same rack quadrant. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction analysis of feces from the cages of these mice showed evidence for shedding of MNV. These sentinel mice were used to study the fecal excretion, antibody development, gross lesions upon necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of the viral infection. None of the MNV-antibody-positive sentinel mice exhibited clinical signs or gross lesions, but these mice excreted virus in feces and developed antibodies to MNV. Histopathologic lesions consisted only of a few hepatic inflammatory foci in each liver section, some of which were immunoreactive with antibodies to MNV. MNV viral antigens also were present in the mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:17645294

  10. Natural Bagaza virus infection in game birds in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Gamino, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Ortíz, José-Antonio; Durán-Martín, Mauricio; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    In late summer 2010 a mosquito born flavivirus not previously reported in Europe called Bagaza virus (BAGV) caused high mortality in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We studied clinical findings, lesions and viral antigen distribution in naturally BAGV infected game birds in order to understand the apparently higher impact on red-legged partridges. The disease induced neurologic signs in the two galliform species and, to a lesser extent, in common wood pigeons (Columba palumbus). In red-legged partridges infection by BAGV caused severe haemosiderosis in the liver and spleen that was absent in pheasants and less evident in common wood pigeons. Also, BAGV antigen was present in vascular endothelium in multiple organs in red-legged partridges, and in the spleen in common wood pigeons, while in ring-necked pheasants it was only detected in neurons and glial cells in the brain. These findings indicate tropism of BAGV for endothelial cells and a severe haemolytic process in red-legged partridges in addition to the central nervous lesions that were found in all three species. PMID:22966904

  11. Vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Parnpai, Rangsun; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Somfai, Tamas; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    During the past decade, vitrification has been acknowledged as an efficient alternative to traditional slow-rate freezing in both human and animal embryology. The buffalo is the major milk and meat producing farm animal in many developing countries. Cryopreservation of buffalo oocytes and embryos is very important in preserving this species for future use. This review discusses the recent buffalo oocytes and embryos vitrification procedures, different types of cryoinjuries, and other factors affecting the vitrification of buffalo oocytes and embryos. PMID:27160442

  12. Molecular and serological detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesiabigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in anendemic field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    tBabesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattlein tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatalresulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditio...

  13. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  14. Homogeneity of Powassan virus populations in naturally infected Ixodes scapularis

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Doug E.; Brown, Ivy K.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2010-07-05

    Powassan virus (POWV, Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is the sole North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis complex and consists of two distinct lineages that are maintained in ecologically discrete enzootic transmission cycles. The underlying genetic mechanisms that lead to niche partitioning in arboviruses are poorly understood. Therefore, intra- and interhost genetic diversity was analyzed to determine if POWV exists as a quasispecies in nature and quantify selective pressures within and between hosts. In contrast to previous reports for West Nile virus (WNV), significant intrahost genetic diversity was not observed. However, pN (0.238) and d{sub N}/d{sub S} ratios (0.092) for interhost diversity were similar to those of WNV. Combined, these data suggest that purifying selection and/or population bottlenecks constrain quasispecies diversity within ticks. These same selective and stochastic mechanisms appear to drive minor sequence changes between ticks. Moreover, Powassan virus populations seem not to be structured as quasispecies in naturally infected adult deer ticks.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    PubMed Central

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  16. Pathogenic 'Bison-type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, D; Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Sevilla, I; Juste, R A; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2008-07-01

    Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and large intestine) by culture and IS 900 PCR, in 50 sacrificed buffaloes. Indigenous ELISA kit originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in buffaloes and used to estimate sero-presence of Map in 167 serum samples representing population of buffaloes in Agra region of North India. In culture, 48.0% buffaloes were positive from 50 tissues each from mesenteric lymph nodes (34.0%) and large intestine (36.0%). IS 900 PCR was standardized using specific primers (150 C and 921) and 229 bp-amplified product was characteristic for Map. Of the 25 mesenteric lymph nodes, 40.0% were positive in IS 900 PCR. Genomic DNA from Map cultures was successfully amplified from all the 24 isolates (100.0%). Map was further genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Culture of tissues showed high presence of Map in target tissues, despite high culling rate in buffalos in view of high demand of buffalo meat. Specific tissue-PCR provided rapid confirmation of Map infection in sacrificed buffaloes. In tissue-PCR, all the cultures were positive as compared to 40.0% detected directly from tissues. ELISA kit using indigenous protoplasmic antigen was highly sensitive as compared to commercial antigen in detecting Map infection therefore, could be used as 'Herd Screening Test' in buffaloes against Johne's disease. This pilot study first time reports a highly pathogenic 'Bison-type' genotype of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of Agra region in North India. PMID:17804069

  17. Naturally acquired Pasteurella multocida infection in rabbits: clinicopathological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, R F; Xu, Y M; Allen, V; Hinton, M H; Pearson, G R

    1991-01-01

    A cohort of 41 New Zealand White rabbits, 35 to 60 days old, from twelve litters were followed for twelve weeks for development of pasteurellosis. Eleven of 19 rabbits in five litters acquired Pasteurella multocida infection. The incubation period was difficult to determine as P. multocida infection was detected both before and after the onset of rhinitis. The response of rabbits to infection varied from subclinical infection to death from systemic pasteurellosis. Atrophy of the maxilloturbinates of the nares was detected in rabbits with chronic rhinitis associated with P. multocida infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1889034

  18. Fetal infections and antibody profiles in pigs naturally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Garrocho, Flávia M; Lana, Angela M Q; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe early infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in naturally infected piglets and the piglets' serologic profiles. A total of 20 sows (15 PCV2-vaccinated and 5 unvaccinated) and 100 newborn piglets were studied. Colostrum and serum of the sows and serum of the presuckling piglets were obtained on the day of parturition. Milk samples were collected on day 20 postpartum. Blood samples were taken and the piglets weighed on days 1, 20, 42, 63, and 84 postpartum. Colostrum and milk were evaluated for infectious PCV2 and for PCV2 total antibody (TA), neutralizing antibody (NA), and IgA. Serum samples were evaluated for PCV2 TA, NA, IgA, IgM, and DNA. The sows had high levels of TA and NA in serum and colostrum; however, 11 and 5, respectively, of the 20 colostrum and milk samples contained infectious PCV2. In the serum, PCV2 DNA and IgM were detected in 17 and 5, respectively, of the 20 sows. Nine piglets were born with PCV2 antibodies, which indicates in utero transmission of PCV2 after the period of immunocompetence (> 70 d of gestation). On day 1 postpartum, PCV2 DNA was detected in 29 of the 100 serum samples from the piglets. There was no difference between the weights of viremic and nonviremic piglets throughout the study. In conclusion, even on farms with sows that have high PCV2 antibody titers, vertical transmission of PCV2 may occur, resulting in piglet infection. PMID:22754093

  19. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  20. Natural and induced B-1 cell immunity to infections raises questions of nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Baumgarth, Nicole; Waffarn, Elizabeth E; Nguyen, Trang T T

    2015-12-01

    Mouse B-1 cells are not only major producers of steady-state natural antibodies but also rapid responders to infections and inflammation. These discrete functions may be the outcomes of distinct environmental or developmental triggers that drive B-1 cells toward IgM production or an effector cell fate. Alternatively, distinct B-1 cell subsets may exist, which differ in their functional plasticity. In this paper, we summarize existing data suggesting that B-1 cells form a heterogeneous group of cells with distinct developmental requirements and nonoverlapping functions. Most spleen B-1 cells differ in development from that of bone marrow and peritoneal cavity B-1 cells, in that they develop in the absence of natural IgM. Functional heterogeneity is revealed by findings that B-1 cells in the bone marrow and spleen, but not the peritoneal cavity, generate natural serum IgM, while the latter are rapid responders to inflammatory and infectious insults, resulting in their relocation to secondary lymphoid tissues. A clearer understanding of the developmental and functional differences within the B-1 cell pool may reveal how they might be harnessed for prophylaxis or therapy. PMID:26060895

  1. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas

  2. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

  3. Natural History of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Children of Mothers Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Hal; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pitt, Jane; Husak, Scott; Tan, Ming; Bryson, Yvonne; Easley, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in 556 infants born to 517 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected mothers was studied in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. HIV-1–infected children had a cumulative EBV infection rate similar to HIV-1–uninfected children at age 3 years (77.8% vs. 84.9%) but had more frequent oropharyngeal EBV shedding (50.4% vs. 28.2%; P < .001). The probability of shedding decreased with longer time from EBV seroconversion and was similar to that of HIV-1–uninfected children 3 years after seroconversion. HIV-1–infected children identified as rapid progressors shed EBV more frequently than nonrapid progressors (69.4% vs.41.0%; P = .01). HIV-1–infected children with EBV infection had higher mean CD8 cell counts. EBV infection did not have an independent effect on mean CD4 cell counts, percent CD4, IgG levels, HIV-1 RNA levels, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly. Early EBV infection is common in children born to HIV-1–infected mothers. Children with rapidly progressive HIV-1 disease have more frequent EBV shedding. PMID:10228060

  4. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  5. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  6. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  7. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  8. Wolbachia Infection in a Natural Parasitoid Wasp Population

    PubMed Central

    Duplouy, Anne; Couchoux, Christelle; Hanski, Ilkka; van Nouhuys, Saskya

    2015-01-01

    The maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is well known for spreading and persisting in insect populations through manipulation of the fitness of its host. Here, we identify three new Wolbachia pipientis strains, wHho, wHho2 and wHho3, infecting Hyposoter horticola, a specialist wasp parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. The wHho strain (ST435) infects about 50% of the individuals in the Åland islands in Finland, with a different infection rate in the two mitochondrial (COI) haplotypes of the wasp. The vertical transmission rate of Wolbachia is imperfect, and lower in the haplotype with lower infection rate, suggesting a fitness trade-off. We found no association of the wHho infection with fecundity, longevity or dispersal ability of the parasitoid host. However, preliminary results convey spatial associations between Wolbachia infection, host mitochondrial haplotype and parasitism of H. horticola by its hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus cf. stigmaticus. We discuss the possibility that Wolbachia infection protects H. horticola against hyperparasitism. PMID:26244782

  9. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  10. Natural FCoV infection: cats with FIP exhibit significantly higher viral loads than healthy infected cats.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Baptiste, Keith; Barth, Andreas; Reinacher, Manfred

    2006-02-01

    Natural feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection has been shown to not only induce intestinal infection with viral shedding, but also systemic infection which either remains without clinical signs or leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). As systemic infection is not the key event in the development of FIP, the question arises as to whether a potential difference in viral load might be of importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA loads in haemolymphatic tissues of healthy, long-term FCoV-infected cats and cats with FIP. In cats that died from FIP, viral loads were significantly higher, indicating a higher rate of viral replication or a reduced capacity for viral clearance in cats developing and/or suffering from FIP. PMID:16213766

  11. Morphological evidence for natural poxvirus infection in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Dantoni Damelio, E.; Damelio, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Focal inflammatory and desquamating lesions were seen in the nasal mucosa of rats that were flown aboard the Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1129, in 1979 and in the ground based controls. The infection was clinically inapparent. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of poxvirus virions in desquamating cells. The specific poxvirus involved could not be identified. The lesions appeared to be similar to those described by others in rats experimentally infected with mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus by the intranasal route.

  12. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  13. Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in Nature and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Peter J.; Fish, Durland; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Barbour, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete that is transmitted by the same hard-bodied (ixodid) tick species that transmit the agents of Lyme disease. It was discovered in 1994 in Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Japan. B. miyamotoi species phylogenetically cluster with the relapsing fever group spirochetes, which usually are transmitted by soft-bodied (argasid) ticks or lice. B. miyamotoi infects at least six Ixodes tick species in North America and Eurasia that transmit Lyme disease group spirochetes and may use small rodents and birds as reservoirs. Human cases of B. miyamotoi infection were first reported in 2011 in Russia and subsequently in the United States, Europe, and Japan. These reports document the public health importance of B. miyamotoi, as human B. miyamotoi infection appears to be comparable in frequency to babesiosis or human granulocytic anaplasmosis in some areas and may cause severe disease, including meningoencephalitis. The most common clinical manifestations of B. miyamotoi infection are fever, fatigue, headache, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, and nausea. Symptoms of B. miyamotoi infection generally resolve within a week of the start of antibiotic therapy. B. miyamotoi infection should be considered in patients with acute febrile illness who have been exposed to Ixodes ticks in a region where Lyme disease occurs. Because clinical manifestations are non-specific, etiologic diagnosis requires confirmation by blood smear examination, PCR, antibody assay, in vitro cultivation, and/or isolation by animal inoculation. Antibiotics that have been used effectively include doxycycline for uncomplicated B. miyamotoi infection in adults and ceftriaxone or penicillin G for meningoencephalitis. PMID:25700888

  14. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  15. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  16. Evidence of natural Wolbachia infections in field populations of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Segata, Nicola; Pompon, Julien; Marcenac, Perrine; Robert Shaw, W.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that invade insect populations by manipulating their reproduction and immunity and thus limiting the spread of numerous human pathogens. Experimental Wolbachia infections can reduce Plasmodium numbers in Anopheles mosquitoes in the laboratory, however, natural Wolbachia infections in field anophelines have never been reported. Here we show evidence of Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Wolbachia sequences in both female and male germlines across two seasons, and determined that these sequences are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. Whole-genome sequencing of positive samples suggests that the genetic material identified in An. gambiae belongs to a novel Wolbachia strain, related to but distinct from strains infecting other arthropods. The evidence of Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations promotes further investigations on the possible use of natural Wolbachia–Anopheles associations to limit malaria transmission. PMID:24905191

  17. The natural alternative: protozoa as cellular models for Legionella infection.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease occurs following infection by the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Normally resident in fresh-water sources, Legionella are subject to predation by eukaryotic phagocytes such as amoeba and ciliates. To counter this, L. pneumophila has evolved a complex system of effector proteins which allow the bacteria to hijack the phagocytic vacuole, hiding and replicating within their erstwhile killers. These same mechanisms allow L. pneumophila to hijack another phagocyte, lung-based macrophages, which thus avoids a vital part of the immune system and leads to infection. The course of infection can be divided into five main categories: pathogen uptake, formation of the replication-permissive vacuole, intracellular replication, host cell response, and bacterial exit. L. pneumophila effector proteins target every stage of this process, interacting with secretory, endosomal, lysosomal, retrograde and autophagy pathways, as well as with mitochondria. Each of these steps can be studied in protozoa or mammalian cells, and the knowledge gained can be readily applied to human pathogenicity. Here we describe the manner whereby L. pneumophila infects host protozoa, the various techniques which are available to analyse these processes and the implications of this model for Legionella virulence and the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:24168696

  18. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT /=1:25) were...

  19. Evaluation of leptin receptor expression on buffalo leukocytes.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Grandoni, Francesco; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catizone, Angela; Reale, Anna; Crisà, Alessandra; Moioli, Bianca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidences support a direct role for leptin in immunity. Besides controlling food intake and energy expenditure, leptin was reported to be involved in the regulation of the immune system in ruminants. The aim of this work was to highlight the expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) on Bubalus bubalis immune cells using a multi-approach assessment: flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of LEPR expression showed that peripheral blood monocytes were the predominant cells expressing LEPR. This result was corroborated by confocal microscopy and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, among lymphocytes, LEPR was mainly expressed by B lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Evidence of LEPR expression on buffalo blood leukocytes showed to be a good indicator of the responsivity of these cells to leptin, so confirming the involvement of leptin in buffalo immune response. PMID:27436440

  20. Killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts during latent infection by activated natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Nick C; Goodier, Martin R; Robey, Rebecca C; Bower, Mark; Gotch, Frances M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long infection by evading clearance by the host immune system. In de novo infection and lytic replication, KSHV escapes cytotoxic T cells and NK cells through downregulation of MHC class-I and ICAM-1 molecules and associated antigens involved in forming and sustaining the immunological synapse. However, the efficacy of such mechanisms in the context of the predominantly latent KSHV infection reported in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions is unclear. Using primary dermal fibroblasts in a novel in vitro model of chronic latent KSHV infection, we generated target cells with viral loads similar to those in spindle cells extracted from KS lesions. We show that latently KSHV-infected fibroblasts had normal levels of MHC-class I, ICAM-1, HLA-E and NKG2D ligand expression, were resistant to NK-cell natural cytotoxicity and were highly susceptible to killing by cytokine-activated immunocompetent NK cells. KSHV-infected fibroblasts expressed normal levels of IFN-γR1 and responded to exogenous IFN-γ by upregulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and HLA-E and resisting activated NK-cell killing. These data demonstrate that physiologically relevant levels of latent KSHV infection in primary cells cause limited activation of resting NK cells and confer little specific resistance to control by activated NK cells. PMID:21509779

  1. Density dynamics of diverse Spiroplasma strains naturally infecting different species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Haselkorn, Tamara S; Watts, Thomas D; Markow, Therese A

    2013-01-01

    Facultative heritable bacterial endosymbionts can have dramatic effects on their hosts, ranging from mutualistic to parasitic. Within-host bacterial endosymbiont density plays a critical role in maintenance of a symbiotic relationship, as it can affect levels of vertical transmission and expression of phenotypic effects, both of which influence the infection prevalence in host populations. Species of genus Drosophila are infected with Spiroplasma, whose characterized phenotypic effects range from that of a male-killing reproductive parasite to beneficial defensive endosymbiont. For many strains of Spiroplasma infecting at least 17 species of Drosophila, however, the phenotypic effects are obscure. The infection prevalence of these Spiroplasma vary within and among Drosophila species, and little is known about the within-host density dynamics of these diverse strains. To characterize the patterns of Spiroplasma density variation among Drosophila we used quantitative PCR to assess bacterial titer at various life stages of three species of Drosophila naturally-infected with two different types of Spiroplasma. For naturally infected Drosophila species we found that non-male-killing infections had consistently lower densities than the male-killing infection. The patterns of Spiroplasma titer change during aging varied among Drosophila species infected with different Spiroplasma strains. Bacterial density varied within and among populations of Drosophila, with individuals from the population with the highest prevalence of infection having the highest density. This density variation underscores the complex interaction of Spiroplasma strain and host genetic background in determining endosymbiont density. PMID:23846301

  2. Modelling the role of multi-transmission routes in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and buffalo populations.

    PubMed

    Phepa, Patrick B; Chirove, Faraimunashe; Govinder, Keshlan S

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both buffalo and cattle populations is proposed. The model incorporates cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. A full analysis of the model is undertaken. The reproduction number of the entire model is comprised of cross-infection and contaminated parameters. This underscores the importance of including both cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. Crucially our simulations suggest that the disease has a more devastating effect on cattle populations than on buffalo populations when all transmission routes are involved. This has important implications for agriculture and tourism. PMID:27105864

  3. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  4. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  9. In Buffalo, Opening Doors for the Overlooked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…

  10. Natural infection of Cryptosporidium muris in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Huang, Lei; Wang, Rongjun; Xiao, Lihua; Xu, Lina; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-10-15

    A total of 303 fecal samples were collected from ostriches (Struthio camelus) and 31 samples (10.2%) were Cryptosporidium-positive upon microscopic analysis. The infection rate was 27.6% in ostriches aged 16-60 days, 1.2% in those aged 61-180 days, and 20.4% in those aged >10 years. The Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The 22 isolates from ostriches aged >10 years were identified as Cryptosporidium muris, whereas the nine isolates from ostriches <180 days were Cryptosporidium baileyi. Ten of the 22 C. muris isolates were analyzed based on the actin and HSP70 genes, and the results were identical to those observed for the SSU rRNA gene. Cross-transmission studies demonstrated that the C. muris isolate infected BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils, but did not infect chickens. C. muris isolated in this study appears to be host-adapted, consistent with a previous multilocus sequence typing analysis. Further studies are required to understand the prevalence and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches in different geographic areas. PMID:25178556

  11. The pulmonary involvement in Theileria lestoquardi naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Ovine Theileriosis (MOT) caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered a major constraint for sheep production in many areas of the world including Sudan. Pulmonary oedema is thought to be the main cause of animal death, but the mechanism, the cell types involved and/or the probable cause of this pneumonia has yet to be defined. The present study was carried out to investigate the pulmonary involvement post T. lestoquardi infection and to identify the cell types involved in pneumonia. Apparently healthy sheep were exposed to ticks challenge in T. lestoquardi endemic area. Lungs impression smears and tissue sections for histopathology were processed. At necropsy, fifteen infected sheep revealed severe pneumonia associated with oedema and accumulation of creamy-grayish frothy exudates. The microscopic findings of examined lungs showed emphysema, congestion, collapse and proliferation of immense amount of different kinds of cells. The current study indicates that T. lestoquardi infections are accompanied with remarkable pulmonary involvements and may lead to respiratory failure and death. PMID:27262956

  12. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  13. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2000-02-01

    Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

  14. Transmission Ecology of Sin Nombre Hantavirus in Naturally Infected North American Deermouse Populations in Outdoor Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Bagamian, Karoun H.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Douglass, Richard J.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Waller, Lance A.; Mills, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters) than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies. PMID:23110096

  15. An inter-subspecies cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) obtained by transferring of cryopreserved embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah × Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521

  16. HPV16 Seropositivity and Subsequent HPV16 Infection Risk in a Naturally Infected Population: Comparison of Serological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Ghosh, Arpita; Porras, Carolina; Markt, Sarah C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Kemp, Troy J.; Pinto, Ligia A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Esser, Mark T.; Matys, Katie; Meuree, Ariane; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Several serological assays have been developed to detect antibodies elicited against infections with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. The association between antibody levels measured by various assays and subsequent HPV infection risk may differ. We compared HPV16-specific antibody levels previously measured by a virus-like particle (VLP)-based direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) with levels measured by additional assays and evaluated the protection against HPV16 infection conferred at different levels of the assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Replicate enrollment serum aliquots from 388 unvaccinated women in the control arm of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial were measured for HPV16 seropositivity using three serological assays: a VLP-based direct ELISA; a VLP-based competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA); and a secreted alkaline phosphatase protein neutralization assay (SEAP-NA). We assessed the association of assay seropositivity and risk of subsequent HPV16 infection over four years of follow-up by calculating sampling-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and HPV16 seropositivity based on standard cutoff from the cLIA was significantly associated with protection from subsequent HPV16 infection (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.27–0.86, compared with seronegatives). Compared with seronegatives, the highest seropositive tertile antibody levels from the direct ELISA (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.28–0.90) as well as the SEAP-NA (OR = 0.20, CI = 0.06, 0.64) were also significantly associated with protection from HPV16 infection. Conclusions/Significance Enrollment HPV16 seropositivity by any of the three serological assays evaluated was associated with protection from subsequent infection, although cutoffs for immune protection were different. We defined the assays and seropositivity levels after natural infection that better measure and translate to protective immunity. PMID:23301022

  17. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzai, Yousef; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium commonly infects cattle throughout the world and Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the abundance and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle herds of northwestern Iran. A total number of 246 fecal samples from 138 (56.1%) diarrheic (D) and 108 (43.9%) non-diarrheic (ND) cattle were randomly collected and examined by fecal smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen. For molecular specification, DNA was extracted from collected Cryptosporidium oocysts and a fragment of 1325 bp in size from 18S rRNA gene was amplified. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 22.3% (55/246). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in examined calves less than 6 month-old was significantly higher than adult cattle. C. parvum and C. andersoni were identified in 20.3% (50/246) and 2.03% (5/246) of examined cattle, respectively. The highest prevalence of C. parvum infection was found in D calves < 6 month-old (13.4%, 33/246), while C. andersoni was only detected in ND cattle (8.9%, 22/246). There was significant difference in the prevalence between male than female cattle. There was no significant difference between prevalence and seasons of investigation. It was concluded that C. parvum was the prevalent species in younger animals compared to older ones as a potentially zoonotic agent in the region. PMID:25568693

  18. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations. PMID:23733232

  19. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  20. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 μm and wall thickness of 2.47 μm in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 μm cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 μm in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 μm in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 μm in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  1. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  2. Observations on mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae from experimentally and naturally infected Bulinus tropicus.

    PubMed

    Mavenyengwa, M; Mukaratirwa, S; Obwolo, M; Monrad, J

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to establish an ideal method for mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae, a study was carried out to compare the shedding capacities of Bulinus tropicus naturally and experimentally infected with C. microbothrium. A total of 906 F1 B. tropicus between 4 and 5 weeks old were each experimentally infected with two C. microbothrium miracidia and monitored for 12 weeks. The infected snails were fed on dried lettuce and fish flakes and were kept in 1 l plastic aquaria housed in a snail room where temperature, light and humidity were controlled. Seventy-four percent of the experimentally infected snails died during the prepatent period and of the remaining, only 13.2% developed patent infection, while 12.5% were refractory. Snail growth rate was poor and the average shedding rate was 20 cercariae per snail per day. Compared to the experimentally infected snails, 2200 adult B. tropicus, collected from the field and naturally infected with C. microbothrium, yielded high numbers of metacercariae. Eighty-four percent of the snails died within 7 weeks of the study with peak mortality occurring from the 2nd to the 4th week of infection and coinciding with an overall decrease in the number of cercariae shed. PMID:16958259

  3. Screening of Natural Waters for Viruses Which Infect Chlorella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Higashiyama, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takao

    1991-01-01

    By using a plaque assay with the unicellular green alga Chlorella sp. strain NC64A as a host, viruses were screened from natural pond waters collected in Kyoto and Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan. From some samples tested, two kinds of plaques, large (φ = 6 to 10 mm) and small (φ = 2 to 3 mm), were detected with various frequencies. The frequency of plaques in each of the water sources was seasonal; generally, it reached a peak value (8,000 PFU/ml) in May and gradually decreased to the limit of detection (<1) in November before increasing again in early spring. Electron microscopy revealed that the purified and negatively stained viruses were very large (125 to 200 nm) icosahedral particles. The genome isolated from these particles was always a linear double-stranded DNA of 340 to 370 kbp. Electrophoresis patterns of the DNA fragments produced by digestion with restriction enzymes differed considerably from plaque to plaque, even for plaques from the same water source. However, Southern hybridization showed strong homology among all of the virus DNAs tested, indicating relatedness of those viruses. A possible use of the Chlorella virus assay system to monitor the natural population of algal cells and water quality is discussed. Images PMID:16348596

  4. Anti-tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus neutralizing antibodies dynamics in natural infections versus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Marchi, Antonella; Fortuna, Claudia; Benedetti, Eleonora; Minelli, Giada; Fiorentini, Cristiano; Mel, Rosanna; Venturi, Giulietta; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus infection elicits a life-long lasting protection. However, little is known about the neutralizing antibodies titres following natural infection. In this study, subjects with past TBE disease (n = 62) were analysed for the presence and titre of anti-TBE neutralizing antibodies, and compared with a vaccinated cohort (n = 101). Neutralizing antibody titres were higher in individuals with past TBE and did not show an age-dependent decrease when compared with vaccinees. PMID:25722483

  5. Marine natural product drug discovery: Leads for treatment of inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Villa, Francisco A; Gerwick, Lena

    2010-06-01

    Natural products, secondary metabolites, isolated from plants, animals and microbes are important sources for bioactive molecules that in many cases have been developed into treatments for diseases. This review will focus on describing the potential for finding new treatments from marine natural products for inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. Historically terrestrial natural products have been studied to a greater extent and such classic drugs as aspirin, vincristine and many of the antibiotics are derived from terrestrial natural products. The need for new therapeutics in the four areas mentioned is dire. Within the last 30 years marine natural products, with their unique structures and high level of halogenation, have shown many promising activities against the inflammatory response, cancer, infections and neurological disorders. The review will outline examples of such compounds and activities. PMID:20441539

  6. Infections by Pasteuria do not protect its natural host Daphnia magna from subsequent infections.

    PubMed

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The existence of immunological memory in invertebrates remains a contentious topic. Exposure of Daphnia magna crustaceans to a noninfectious dose of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa has been reported to reduce the chance of future infection upon exposure to higher doses. Using clonal hosts and parasites, we tested whether initial exposure of the host to the parasite (priming), followed by clearing of the parasite with antibiotic, protects the host from a second exposure (challenge). Our experiments included three treatments: priming and challenge with the same or with a different parasite clone, or no priming. Two independent experiments showed that both the likelihood of infection and the degree of parasite proliferation did not differ between treatments, supporting the conclusion that there is no immunological memory in this system. We discuss the possibility that previous discordant reports could result from immune or stress responses that did not fade following initial priming. PMID:26709232

  7. A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Scott; Buller, R Mark

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was discovered in 1958 during an outbreak in an animal facility in Copenhagen, Denmark. Since its discovery, MPXV has revealed a propensity to infect and induce disease in a large number of animals within the mammalia class from pan-geographical locations. This finding has impeded the elucidation of the natural host, although the strongest candidates are African squirrels and/or other rodents. Experimentally, MPXV can infect animals via a variety of multiple different inoculation routes; however, the natural route of transmission is unknown and is likely to be somewhat species specific. In this review we have attempted to compile and discuss all published articles that describe experimental or natural infections with MPXV, dating from the initial discovery of the virus through to the year 2012. We further discuss the comparative disease courses and pathologies of the host species. PMID:23626656

  8. Case series of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a tertiary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Zairi, N Z; Amry, A R; Zeehaida, M

    2012-09-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite and is recently recognized as the fifth malaria parasite infecting humans. Manifestation of the infection may resemble other infection particularly dengue fever leading to inappropriate management and delay in treatment. We reported three cases of naturally acquired P. knowlesi in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Clinical manifestations were quite similar in those cases. Microscopically, the diagnosis might be challenging. These cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction method which serves as a gold standard. PMID:23018503

  9. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  10. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  11. Experimental evolution can unravel the complex causes of natural selection in clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly clear that rapid evolutionary dynamics are an important process in microbial ecology. Experimental evolution, wherein microbial evolution is observed in real-time, has revealed many instances of appreciable evolutionary change occurring on very short timescales of a few days or weeks in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic selection pressures. From clinical infections, including the chronic bacterial lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis that form a focus of my research, there is now abundant evidence suggesting that rapid evolution by infecting microbes contributes to host adaptation, treatment failure and worsening patient prognosis. However, disentangling the drivers of natural selection in complex infection environments is extremely challenging and limits our understanding of the selective pressures acting upon microbes in infections. Controlled evolution experiments can make a vital contribution to this by determining the causal links between predicted drivers of natural selection and the evolutionary responses of microbes. Integration of experimental evolution into studies of clinical infections is a key next step towards a better understanding of the causes and consequences of rapid microbial evolution in infections, and discovering how these evolutionary processes might be influenced to improve patient health.A video of this Prize Lecture, presented at the Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference 2015, can be viewed via this link: Michael A. Brockhurst https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1bodVSl27E. PMID:25957311

  12. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  13. A study of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling iraqi buffalo cows.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the non-specific aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling Iraqi buffalo cows at Nineveh province, validate diagnostic criteria for endometritis and to evaluate the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics for the treatment of endometritis. Data were collected from 60 buffalo cows with history of repeat breeding in different herds. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement. Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline with tylosin in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment. The most pre-disposing factor for uterine infection was retained placenta (13.3%). The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were E. coli (23%), Archanobacterium pyogenes (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%) were mostly isolated from buffaloes with repeat breeding. Vaginal mucus character score was associated with the bacterial growth density score. The difference in PMN was highly significant (p < 0.01) in animals with repeat breeding than control groups. In addition, PMNs was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated r = 0.894 with the character of vaginal discharge. High level of PMNs observed in buffaloes infected with A. pyogenes. Buffalo cows with endometritis had higher CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 162.01 +/- 16.41 U/l) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 97.01 +/- 6.86 U/l) activities (p < 0.05) than control-heifers, but no significant difference was observed between buffalo cows with endometritis in CK (321

  14. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout. PMID:26130859

  15. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout. PMID:26130859

  16. Evidence of Fasciola spp. resistance to albendazole, triclabendazole and bromofenofos in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Venturina, Virginia M; Alejandro, Ma Antonette F; Baltazar, Cyril P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries. Anthelmintic resistance has become a global concern. This study compared the efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics, determined the toxicity level and any indication of resistance. Thirty two water buffaloes naturally-infected with Fasciola spp. were used to determine the efficacy of triclabendazole (TBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and bromofenofos (BRO) using Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). To test the toxicity of the drugs given, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) was evaluated before and within one week after treatment. One dose administration of ABZ registered an efficacy of 79.17%, 73.33% for TBZ and 70.83% for BRO. Efficacy in two dose- treatment group was 83.33% for both BRO and ABZ, and 90.00% for TBZ. Two dose-treatment was effective for TBZ (90%), ineffective for BRO and ABZ. SGPT levels were not significantly different between pre-treatment and post- treatment across all treatments. Giving one or two doses of anthelmintics, at one month interval, does not increase the efficacy of the three drugs tested. The study also implies that anthelmintic resistance may have developed in the animals. PMID:26878627

  17. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding. PMID:16699143

  18. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection). PMID:25597157

  19. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs. PMID:26319520

  20. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis disturbs the frog skin microbiome during a natural epidemic and experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jani, Andrea J; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2014-11-25

    Symbiotic microbial communities may interact with infectious pathogens sharing a common host. The microbiome may limit pathogen infection or, conversely, an invading pathogen can disturb the microbiome. Documentation of such relationships during naturally occurring disease outbreaks is rare, and identifying causal links from field observations is difficult. This study documented the effects of an amphibian skin pathogen of global conservation concern [the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)] on the skin-associated bacterial microbiome of the endangered frog, Rana sierrae, using a combination of population surveys and laboratory experiments. We examined covariation of pathogen infection and bacterial microbiome composition in wild frogs, demonstrating a strong and consistent correlation between Bd infection load and bacterial community composition in multiple R. sierrae populations. Despite the correlation between Bd infection load and bacterial community composition, we observed 100% mortality of postmetamorphic frogs during a Bd epizootic, suggesting that the relationship between Bd and bacterial communities was not linked to variation in resistance to mortal disease and that Bd infection altered bacterial communities. In a controlled experiment, Bd infection significantly altered the R. sierrae microbiome, demonstrating a causal relationship. The response of microbial communities to Bd infection was remarkably consistent: Several bacterial taxa showed the same response to Bd infection across multiple field populations and the laboratory experiment, indicating a somewhat predictable interaction between Bd and the microbiome. The laboratory experiment demonstrates that Bd infection causes changes to amphibian skin bacterial communities, whereas the laboratory and field results together strongly support Bd disturbance as a driver of bacterial community change during natural disease dynamics. PMID:25385615

  1. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis disturbs the frog skin microbiome during a natural epidemic and experimental infection

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Andrea J.; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microbial communities may interact with infectious pathogens sharing a common host. The microbiome may limit pathogen infection or, conversely, an invading pathogen can disturb the microbiome. Documentation of such relationships during naturally occurring disease outbreaks is rare, and identifying causal links from field observations is difficult. This study documented the effects of an amphibian skin pathogen of global conservation concern [the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)] on the skin-associated bacterial microbiome of the endangered frog, Rana sierrae, using a combination of population surveys and laboratory experiments. We examined covariation of pathogen infection and bacterial microbiome composition in wild frogs, demonstrating a strong and consistent correlation between Bd infection load and bacterial community composition in multiple R. sierrae populations. Despite the correlation between Bd infection load and bacterial community composition, we observed 100% mortality of postmetamorphic frogs during a Bd epizootic, suggesting that the relationship between Bd and bacterial communities was not linked to variation in resistance to mortal disease and that Bd infection altered bacterial communities. In a controlled experiment, Bd infection significantly altered the R. sierrae microbiome, demonstrating a causal relationship. The response of microbial communities to Bd infection was remarkably consistent: Several bacterial taxa showed the same response to Bd infection across multiple field populations and the laboratory experiment, indicating a somewhat predictable interaction between Bd and the microbiome. The laboratory experiment demonstrates that Bd infection causes changes to amphibian skin bacterial communities, whereas the laboratory and field results together strongly support Bd disturbance as a driver of bacterial community change during natural disease dynamics. PMID:25385615

  2. Differential Specificity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by Natural Infection or Immunization▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Gall, Jason G. D.; Nason, Martha; King, C. Richter; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Churchyard, Gavin; Baden, Lindsey R.; Duerr, Ann C.; Keefer, Michael C.; Graham, Barney S.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A recent clinical trial of a T-cell-based AIDS vaccine delivered with recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vectors showed no efficacy in lowering viral load and was associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Preexisting immunity to Ad5 in humans could therefore affect both immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. We hypothesized that vaccine-induced immunity is differentially affected, depending on whether subjects were exposed to Ad5 by natural infection or by vaccination. Serum samples from vaccine trial subjects receiving a DNA/rAd5 AIDS vaccine with or without prior immunity to Ad5 were examined for the specificity of their Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and their effect on HIV-1 immune responses. Here, we report that rAd5 neutralizing antibodies were directed to different components of the virion, depending on whether they were elicited by natural infection or vaccination in HIV vaccine trial subjects. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection were directed largely to the Ad5 fiber, while exposure to rAd5 through vaccination elicited antibodies primarily to capsid proteins other than fiber. Notably, preexisting immunity to Ad5 fiber from natural infection significantly reduced the CD4 and CD8 cell responses to HIV Gag after DNA/rAd5 vaccination. The specificity of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies therefore differs depending on the route of exposure, and natural Ad5 infection compromises Ad5 vaccine-induced immunity to weak immunogens, such as HIV-1 Gag. These results have implications for future AIDS vaccine trials and the design of next-generation gene-based vaccine vectors. PMID:19846512

  3. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  4. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India. PMID:27447215

  5. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. PMID:27405210

  6. Redundant Function of Plasmacytoid and Conventional Dendritic Cells Is Required To Survive a Natural Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Lauren W.; Sei, Janet J.; Parekh, Nikhil J.; Davies, Michael L.; Reider, Irene E.; Krouse, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses that spread systemically from a peripheral site of infection cause morbidity and mortality in the human population. Innate myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DC), and dendritic cells (DC), respond early during viral infection to control viral replication, reducing virus spread from the peripheral site. Ectromelia virus (ECTV), an orthopoxvirus that naturally infects the mouse, spreads systemically from the peripheral site of infection and results in death of susceptible mice. While phagocytic cells have a requisite role in the response to ECTV, the requirement for individual myeloid cell populations during acute immune responses to peripheral viral infection is unclear. In this study, a variety of myeloid-specific depletion methods were used to dissect the roles of individual myeloid cell subsets in the survival of ECTV infection. We showed that DC are the primary producers of type I interferons (T1-IFN), requisite cytokines for survival, following ECTV infection. DC, but not macrophages, monocytes, or granulocytes, were required for control of the virus and survival of mice following ECTV infection. Depletion of either plasmacytoid DC (pDC) alone or the lymphoid-resident DC subset (CD8α+ DC) alone did not confer lethal susceptibility to ECTV. However, the function of at least one of the pDC or CD8α+ DC subsets is required for survival of ECTV infection, as mice depleted of both populations were susceptible to ECTV challenge. The presence of at least one of these DC subsets is sufficient for cytokine production that reduces ECTV replication and virus spread, facilitating survival following infection. IMPORTANCE Prior to the eradication of variola virus, the orthopoxvirus that causes smallpox, one-third of infected people succumbed to the disease. Following successful eradication of smallpox, vaccination rates with the smallpox vaccine have significantly dropped. There is now an increasing

  7. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  8. Review of the Occurrence of Anti-infectives in Contaminated Wastewaters and Natural and Drinking Waters

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Pedro A.; François, Matthieu; Gagnon, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Objective Anti-infectives are constantly discharged at trace levels in natural waters near urban centers and agricultural areas. They represent a cause for concern because of their potential contribution to the spread of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other effects on aquatic biota. We compiled data on the occurrence of anti-infectives published in the last 24 years in environmental water matrices. The collected information was then compared with the available ecotoxicologic values to evaluate potential environmental concerns. Data sources We used Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in the English language since 1984. Data extraction Information on compound concentrations in wastewaters and natural and drinking waters, the source of contamination, country of provenance of the samples, year of publication, limits of quantification, and method of analysis was extracted. Data synthesis From the 126 different substances analyzed in environmental waters, 68 different parent compounds and 10 degradation products or metabolites have been quantified to date. Environmental concentrations vary from about 10−1 to 109 ng/L, depending on the compound, the matrix, and the source of contamination. Conclusions Detrimental effects of anti-infectives on aquatic microbiota are possible with the constant exposure of sensitive species. Indirect impact on human health cannot be ruled out when considering the potential contribution of high anti-infective concentrations to the spreading of anti-infective resistance in bacteria. PMID:19479007

  9. A Bovine Cell Line That Can Be Infected by Natural Sheep Scrapie Prions

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases. PMID:25565633

  10. Immunoproteomics of Brucella abortus reveals differential antibody profiles between S19-vaccinated and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Almeida, Karine C; Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Pirovani, Carlos P; Camillo, Luciana R; Mineo, José R

    2012-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes infectious abortion in food-producing animals and chronic infection in humans. This study aimed to characterize a B. abortus S19 antigen preparation obtained by Triton X-114 (TX-114) extraction through immunoproteomics to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle. Three groups of bovine sera were studied: GI, 30 naturally infected cows; GII, 30 S19-vaccinated heifers; and GIII, 30 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of TX-114 hydrophilic phase antigen revealed a broad spectrum of polypeptides (10-79 kDa). 1D immunoblot showed widespread seroreactivity profile in GI compared with restricted profile in GII. Three antigenic components (10, 12, 17 kDa) were recognized exclusively by GI sera, representing potential markers of infection and excluding vaccinal response. The proteomic characterization revealed 56 protein spots, 27 of which were antigenic spots showing differential seroreactivity profile between GI and GII, especially polypeptides <20 kDa that were recognized exclusively by GI. MS/MS analysis identified five B. abortus S19 proteins (Invasion protein B, Sod, Dps, Ndk, and Bfr), which were related with antigenicity in naturally infected cattle. In conclusion, immunoproteomics of this new antigen preparation enabled the characterization of proteins that could be used as tools to develop sensitive and specific immunoassays for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, with emphasis on differentiation between S19 vaccinated and infected cattle. PMID:22539433

  11. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates. PMID:22831751

  12. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs. PMID:3010532

  13. Protective Effect of Natural Rotavirus Infection in an Indian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Beryl P.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Rehman, Andrea M.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Gomara, Miren Iturriza; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.G.; Desselberger, Ulrich; Crawford, Sue E.; John, Jacob; Babji, Sudhir; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected). METHODS We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3. RESULTS Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P[8], the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection. CONCLUSIONS Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.) PMID:21793745

  14. Natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in a Cohort of Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, Judith; Weiss, Helen A.; Kyakuwa, Nassim; Nakubulwa, Susan; Muller, Etienne; Buvé, Anne; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been few studies of the natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium in women. We investigated patterns of clearance and recurrence of untreated M. genitalium infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda. Methods Women diagnosed as having M. genitalium infection at enrollment were retested for the infection at 3-month intervals. Clearance of infection was defined as testing negative after having a previous positive result: persistence was defined as testing positive after a preceding positive test result, and recurrence as testing positive after a preceding negative test result. Adjusted hazard ratios for M. genitalium clearance were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Among 119 participants infected with M. genitalium at enrollment (prevalence, 14%), 55% had spontaneously cleared the infection within 3 months; 83%, within 6; and 93%, within 12 months. The overall clearance rate was 25.7/100 person-years (pyr; 95% confidence interval, 21.4–31.0). HIV-positive women cleared M. genitalium infection more slowly than did HIV-negative women (20.6/100 pyr vs. 31.3/100 pyr, P = 0.03). The clearance rate was slower among HIV-positive women with CD4 counts less than 350/mL3 than among those with higher CD4 counts (9.88/100 pyr vs. 29.5/100 pyr, P < 0.001). After clearing the infection, M. genitalium infection recurred in 39% women. Conclusions M. genitalium is likely to persist and recur in the female genital tract. Because of the urogenital tract morbidity caused by the infection and the observed association with HIV acquisition, further research is needed to define screening modalities, especially in populations at high risk for HIV, and to optimize effective and affordable treatment options. PMID:23588134

  15. Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) as potential antiviral treatment in naturally BQCV infected honeybees.

    PubMed

    Aurori, Adriana C; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Erler, Silvio

    2016-08-15

    Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (≥5mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees. PMID:27235809

  16. Resistance of four sheep breeds to natural and subsequent artificial Haemonchus contortus infection.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Bain, R K; Wanyangu, S W; Ihiga, M A; Duncan, J L; Murray, M; Stear, M J

    1997-05-01

    The response of Red Maasai sheep to natural and artificial Haemonchus contortus infections was compared with sheep of Blackheaded Somali, Dorper and Romney Marsh breeds. Significant breed differences in egg count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mortality rates showed that the Red Maasai sheep were more resistant to natural H. contortus infection than sheep from the other three breeds. Of the initial groups of 15 wethers of each breed, two animals from each of the Dorper and Blackheaded Somali groups and nine from the Romney Marsh group died with haemonchosis during a 12 month field study. Following artificial infection of the Red Maasai, Dorpers and Blackheaded Somalis, with 10000 H. contortus L3, the Red Maasai sheep maintained a lower egg output and a higher PCV than animals of the other two breeds. The results clearly showed that breed substitution with the Red Maasai is a control option in areas where sheep are kept for meat and H. contortus is endemic. PMID:9195736

  17. Microsporidia in exotic birds: intermittent spore excretion of Encephalitozoon spp. in naturally infected budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Sak, Bohumil; Kasicková, Denisa; Kvác, Martin; Kvetonová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg

    2010-03-25

    Nine naturally infected asymptomatic budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were screened daily for microsporidia spore excretion during a 30-day period and the localization of infection was evaluated using microscopy and molecular methods. While the microscopic examination revealed 2.4% positivity out of all fecal samples, using PCR the positivity was 10x higher (24.6%). All nine budgerigars excreted microsporidial spores intermittently in irregular intervals with 1-11-day long interruptions. Most of the birds were infected simultaneously with Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon hellem. While histological and TEM examination failed to confirm the presence of microsporidial spores in tissues, the PCR detected microsporidial DNA mostly in the small intestine, liver and lungs of four selected budgerigars dissected. Despite the chronic infection proved using molecular methods, no clinical signs of disease were observed during monitoring and no pathological findings were found during dissection. PMID:20006443

  18. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection of Natural Killer Cell-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Amanda R.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the initial nonspecific response to viral infection, and viruses exhibit a range of sensitivities to NK cells in vivo. We investigated the role of NK cells in infection of mice by mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) using antibody-mediated depletion and knockout mice. MAV-1 causes encephalomyelitis and replicates to highest levels in brains. NK cell-depleted mice infected with MAV-1 showed brain viral loads 8-20 days p.i. that were similar to wild-type control non-depleted mice. Mice genetically deficient for NK cells behaved similarly to wild-type control mice with respect to brain viral loads and survival. We conclude that NK cells are not required to control virus replication in the brains of MAV-1-infected mice. PMID:18155121

  19. Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations affect egg laying and negatively correlate with Plasmodium development.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M; Buckee, Caroline O; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27243367

  20. Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations affect egg laying and negatively correlate with Plasmodium development

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, W. Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M.; Buckee, Caroline O.; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27243367

  1. Natural killer cell dysfunction during acute infection with foot-and-mouth diseaase virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer cells (NK) provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. The role of these cells in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is unknown. Previously, we characterized the phenotype and function of NK cells fr...

  2. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts. PMID:24991567

  3. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius futo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius futo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically b...

  4. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Deformed wing virus is an important contributor to honey bee colony losses. Frequently queen failure is reported as a cause for colony loss. Here we examine whether sexual transmission during multiple matings of queens is a possible way of virus infection in queens. In an environment with high prevalence of deformed wing virus, queens (n = 30) were trapped upon their return from natural mating flights. The last drone's endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli. After oviposition, viral quantification revealed that seven of the 30 queens had high-level deformed wing virus infections, in all tissues, including the semen stored in the spermathecae. Two groups of either unmated queens (n = 8) with induced egg laying, or queens (n = 12) mated in isolation with drones showing comparatively low deformed wing virus infections served as control. None of the control queens exhibited high-level viral infections. Our results demonstrate that deformed wing virus infected drones are competitive to mate and able to transmit the virus along with semen, which occasionally leads to queen infections. Virus transmission to queens during mating may be common and can contribute noticeably to queen failure. PMID:27608961

  5. Role of natural killer cells in innate protection against lethal ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Perkins, Jeremy G; Swenson, Dana L; Deal, Emily M; Bosio, Catharine M; Aman, M Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Young, Howard A; Bavari, Sina

    2004-07-19

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1-3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injection enhanced the numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in lymphoid tissues. In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets. Unlike wild-type mice, treatment of NK-deficient or -depleted mice with VLPs had no protective effect against Ebola virus infection and NK cells treated with VLPs protected against Ebola virus infection when adoptively transferred to naive mice. The mechanism of NK cell-mediated protection clearly depended on perforin, but not interferon-gamma secretion. Particles containing only VP40 were sufficient to induce NK cell responses and provide protection from infection in the absence of the viral GP. These findings revealed a decisive role for NK cells during lethal Ebola virus infection. This work should open new doors for better understanding of Ebola virus pathogenesis and direct the development of immunotherapeutics, which target the innate immune system, for treatment of Ebola virus infection. PMID:15249592

  6. Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed arthropod-borne flavivirus capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrates, with birds as its natural reservoir. Although it had been considered a pathogen of little importance for birds, from the 1990’s, and especially after its introduction in the North American continent in 1999, thousands of birds have succumbed to West Nile infection. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and pathology of WNV infection in birds highlighting differences in lesion and antigen distribution and severity among bird orders and families. Despite significant species differences in susceptibility to infection, WNV associated lesions and viral antigen are present in the majority of organs of infected birds. The non-progressive, acute or more prolonged course of the disease accounts for part of the differences in lesion and viral antigen distribution and lesion severity. Most likely a combination of host variables and environmental factors in addition to the intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity of the infecting WNV strain influence the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:23731695

  7. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D.; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Deformed wing virus is an important contributor to honey bee colony losses. Frequently queen failure is reported as a cause for colony loss. Here we examine whether sexual transmission during multiple matings of queens is a possible way of virus infection in queens. In an environment with high prevalence of deformed wing virus, queens (n = 30) were trapped upon their return from natural mating flights. The last drone’s endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli. After oviposition, viral quantification revealed that seven of the 30 queens had high-level deformed wing virus infections, in all tissues, including the semen stored in the spermathecae. Two groups of either unmated queens (n = 8) with induced egg laying, or queens (n = 12) mated in isolation with drones showing comparatively low deformed wing virus infections served as control. None of the control queens exhibited high-level viral infections. Our results demonstrate that deformed wing virus infected drones are competitive to mate and able to transmit the virus along with semen, which occasionally leads to queen infections. Virus transmission to queens during mating may be common and can contribute noticeably to queen failure. PMID:27608961

  8. Plasmodium falciparum Mating Patterns and Mosquito Infectivity of Natural Isolates of Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morlais, Isabelle; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Toussile, Wilson; Abate, Luc; Annan, Zeinab; Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Fontenille, Didier; Rousset, François; Berry, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria endemic areas often harbor multiple clones of parasites. However, the transmission success of the different genotypes within the mosquito vector has remained elusive so far. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites was measured by using microsatellite markers in gametocyte isolates from 125 asymptomatic carriers. For a subset of 49 carriers, the dynamics of co-infecting genotypes was followed until their development within salivary glands. Also, individual oocysts from midguts infected with blood from 9 donors were genotyped to assess mating patterns. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) was high both in gametocyte isolates and sporozoite populations, reaching up to 10 genotypes. Gametocyte isolates with multiple genotypes gave rise to lower infection prevalence and intensity. Fluctuations of genotype number occurred during the development within the mosquito and sub-patent genotypes, not detected in gametocyte isolates, were identified in the vector salivary glands. The inbreeding coefficient Fis was positively correlated to the oocyst loads, suggesting that P. falciparum parasites use different reproductive strategies according to the genotypes present in the gametocyte isolate. The number of parasite clones within an infection affects the transmission success and the mosquito has an important role in maintaining P. falciparum genetic diversity. Our results emphasize the crucial importance of discriminating between the different genotypes within an infection when studying the A. gambiae natural resistance to P. falciparum, and the need to monitor parasite diversity in areas where malaria control interventions are implemented. PMID:25875840

  9. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  10. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  11. Phylogeny of Theileria buffeli genotypes identified in the South African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2014-08-29

    Theileria buffeli/orientalis is a group of benign and mildly pathogenic species of cattle and buffalo in various parts of the world. In a previous study, we identified T. buffeli in blood samples originating from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Park (HIP) and the Addo Elephant Game Park (AEGP) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to characterise the 18S rRNA gene and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region of T. buffeli samples, and to establish the phylogenetic position of this species based on these loci. The 18S rRNA gene and the complete ITS region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples originating from buffalo in HIP and AEGP. The PCR products were cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. We identified novel T. buffeli-like 18S rRNA and ITS genotypes from buffalo in the AEGP, and novel Theileria sinensis-like 18S rRNA genotypes from buffalo in the HIP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the T. buffeli-like sequences were similar to T. buffeli sequences from cattle and buffalo in China and India, and the T. sinensis-like sequences were similar to T. sinensis 18S rRNA sequences of cattle and yak in China. There was extensive sequence variation between the novel T. buffeli genotypes of the African buffalo and previously described T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes. The presence of organisms with T. buffeli-like and T. sinensis-like genotypes in the African buffalo could be of significant importance, particularly to the cattle industry in South Africa as these animals might act as sources of infections to naïve cattle. This is the first report on the characterisation of the full-length 18S rRNA gene and ITS region of T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes in South Africa. Our study provides invaluable information towards the classification of this complex group of benign and mildly pathogenic species. PMID:25002308

  12. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  13. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat...

  14. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51′05″ N., longitude...

  15. Natural anti-CCR5 antibodies in HIV-infection and -exposure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Natural antibodies constitute a first-line of defence against pathogens; they may also play other roles in immune regulation and homeostasis, through their ability to bind host antigens, surface molecules and receptors. Natural anti-CCR5 antibodies can be decisive in preventing HIV infection in mucosal tissues and offer prompt and effective protection just at major sites of virus entry. Among natural anti-CCR5 antibodies, IgG and IgA to the ECL1 domain have been shown to block HIV effectively and durably without causing harm to the host. Their biological properties and their uncommon generation in subsets of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed individuals (so called ESN) will be introduced and discussed, with the aim at exploiting their potential in therapy and prevention. PMID:21284903

  16. Is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G F; Garbossa, G; Macchiaverna, N P; Argibay, H D; Bua, J; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

    2016-06-15

    Interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. These interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. This study determined the infectiousness of Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qPCR), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in eight rural villages from Pampa del Indio and neighboring municipalities (northeastern Argentina) detected 32 T. cruzi-seropositive dogs out of 217 individuals examined for infection. Both the infectiousness to the vector Triatoma infestans and parasite load of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs examined were heterogeneous. A statistically significant, nine-fold higher mean infectiousness was registered in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs co-infected with Ancylostoma caninum and a trematode than in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs without these infections. The median parasite load of T. cruzi was also significantly higher in dogs co-infected with these helminths. An opposite trend was observed in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs that were serologically positive to Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum relative to dogs seronegative for these parasites. Using multiple logistic regression analysis with random effects, we found a positive and significant association between the infectiousness of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs and co-infections with A. caninum and a trematode. Our results suggest that co-infections may be a modifier of host infectiousness in dogs naturally infected with T. cruzi. PMID:27198799

  17. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions. PMID:26771702

  18. Identification of a site for a cohort study on natural history of HIV infection in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sahlu, T; Fontanet, A; Rinke de Wit, T; Messele, T; Doorly, R; Yeneneh, H; Bindels, P; Coutinho, R

    1998-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a sugar estate in central Ethiopia to identify a subgroup for a cohort study on the natural history of HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-3.9%) in 957 adults aged 15 to 54 years randomly selected for the initial survey. A follow-up survey including only factory workers of the estate aged 18 to 45 years (n = 280) showed a higher HIV prevalence in male factory workers (n = 262) compared with the male estate workers of the same age of the initial survey (n = 484; 8.8% versus 3.1 %; p < .05). Factors independently associated with HIV infection in male factory workers were number of lifetime sexual partners, positive syphilis serology, higher income, and absence of travel outside the residential area. Among male estate workers, only older age was associated with HIV infection. Both factory workers and male estate workers were stable residents and were willing to participate in a long-term study on HIV/ AIDS. However, because of the higher HIV prevalence in factory workers and the higher prevalence of behaviors associated with an increased risk for HIV infection, factory workers were selected for the long-term cohort study on the natural history of HIV infection. PMID:9473016

  19. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T.; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. Principal Findings The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. Significance This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk. PMID:26201090

  20. Natural infection of small mammal species in Minnesota with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Walls, J J; Greig, B; Neitzel, D F; Dumler, J S

    1997-04-01

    The natural reservoirs for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) are suspected to be the small mammals that host immature stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks. To determine if such small mammals are naturally infected, we collected blood and serum samples from small mammal species in rural and suburban areas of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. Samples were collected from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), and insectivorous shrews (Blarina brevicauda and Sorex cinereus). Blood samples were tested by PCR for active infection with the HGE agent, and sera from P. leucopus mice were tested for serologic evidence of infection by indirect immunofluorescence. PCR analyses revealed the presence of HGE agent DNA in 20 of the 190 samples (10.5%) tested. Of the 119 P. leucopus mouse serum samples that were analyzed, 12 (10.1%) contained Ehrlichia equi antibodies. In 3 of 119 (2.5%) P. leucopus mice from which both blood and serum were collected. HGE agent DNA and antibodies against E. equi were present. Animals with evidence of infection with the HGE agent are widely distributed around the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in regions with known I. scapularis tick activity. Small mammals that are frequent hosts for larval I. scapularis ticks and that are found in areas where HGE occurs are likely to be a major reservoir from which infected ticks that bite humans are derived. PMID:9157141

  1. Natural Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes - Tissue Tropism and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Goldspink, Lauren K; Edson, Daniel W; Vidgen, Miranda E; Bingham, John; Field, Hume E; Smith, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal zoonotic agent that emerged in 1994 in Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir. To date, HeV has spilled over from flying-foxes to horses on 51 known occasions, and from infected horses to close-contact humans on seven occasions. We undertook screening of archived bat tissues for HeV by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Tissues were tested from 310 bats including 295 Pteropodiformes and 15 Vespertilioniformes. HeV was detected in 20 individual flying-foxes (6.4%) from various tissues including spleen, kidney, liver, lung, placenta and blood components. Detection was significantly higher in Pteropus Alecto and P. conspicillatus, identifying species as a risk factor for infection. Further, our findings indicate that HeV has a predilection for the spleen, suggesting this organ plays an important role in HeV infection. The lack of detections in the foetal tissues of HeV-positive females suggests that vertical transmission is not a regular mode of transmission in naturally infected flying-foxes, and that placental and foetal tissues are not a major source of infection for horses. A better understanding of HeV tissue tropism will strengthen management of the risk of spillover from flying-foxes to horses and ultimately humans. PMID:26060997

  2. Natural infection of the soil-borne fungus Rosellinia necatrix with novel mycoviruses under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Yaegashi, Hajime; Kanematsu, Satoko

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an important component of the soil ecosystem. Mycoviruses have numerous potential impacts on soil fungi, including phytopathogenic fungal species. However, the diversity and ecology of mycoviruses in soil fungi is largely unexplored. Our previous work has shown that the soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix was infected with several novel mycoviruses after growing for 2-3 years in an apple orchard. In this study, we investigated whether natural infection of R. necatrix with mycoviruses occurs under limited conditions. Virus-free R. necatrix isolates were grown in a small bucket containing soil samples for a short time (1.5-4.5 months) under greenhouse conditions. Screening of dsRNA mycoviruses among 365 retrieved isolates showed that four, including 6-31, 6-33, 6-35, and 7-11, harbored virus-like dsRNAs. Molecular characterization of the dsRNAs revealed that three retrieved isolates, 6-31, 6-33, and 6-35 were infected with a novel endornavirus and isolate 7-11 is infected with a novel partitivirus belonging to the genus Alphapartitivirus. These novel mycoviruses had no overt biological impact on R. necatrix. Overall, this study indicates that natural infections of R. necatrix with new mycoviruses can occur under experimental soil conditions. PMID:26555164

  3. Natural Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes - Tissue Tropism and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Goldspink, Lauren K.; Edson, Daniel W.; Vidgen, Miranda E.; Bingham, John; Field, Hume E.; Smith, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal zoonotic agent that emerged in 1994 in Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir. To date, HeV has spilled over from flying-foxes to horses on 51 known occasions, and from infected horses to close-contact humans on seven occasions. We undertook screening of archived bat tissues for HeV by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Tissues were tested from 310 bats including 295 Pteropodiformes and 15 Vespertilioniformes. HeV was detected in 20 individual flying-foxes (6.4%) from various tissues including spleen, kidney, liver, lung, placenta and blood components. Detection was significantly higher in Pteropus Alecto and P. conspicillatus, identifying species as a risk factor for infection. Further, our findings indicate that HeV has a predilection for the spleen, suggesting this organ plays an important role in HeV infection. The lack of detections in the foetal tissues of HeV-positive females suggests that vertical transmission is not a regular mode of transmission in naturally infected flying-foxes, and that placental and foetal tissues are not a major source of infection for horses. A better understanding of HeV tissue tropism will strengthen management of the risk of spillover from flying-foxes to horses and ultimately humans. PMID:26060997

  4. Fine-Scale Spatial Covariation between Infection Prevalence and Susceptibility in a Natural Population.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda K; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of infection varies dramatically on a fine spatial scale. Many evolutionary hypotheses are founded on the assumption that this variation is due to host genetics, such that sites with a high frequency of alleles conferring susceptibility are associated with higher infection prevalence. This assumption is largely untested and may be compromised at finer spatial scales where gene flow between sites is high. We put this assumption to the test in a natural snail-trematode interaction in which host susceptibility is known to have a strong genetic basis. A decade of field sampling revealed substantial spatial variation in infection prevalence between 13 sites around a small lake. Laboratory assays replicated over 3 years demonstrate striking variation in host susceptibility among sites in spite of high levels of gene flow between sites. We find that mean susceptibility can explain more than one-third of the observed variation in mean infection prevalence among sites. We estimate that variation in susceptibility and exposure together can explain the majority of variation in prevalence. Overall, our findings in this natural host-parasite system argue that spatial variation in infection prevalence covaries strongly with variation in the distribution of genetically based susceptibility, even at a fine spatial scale. PMID:27322117

  5. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  7. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  9. Brucella infection in fresh water fish: Evidence for natural infection of Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus, with Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, Wael F; Tayel, Ahmed A; Eltholth, Mahmoud M; Guitian, Javier

    2010-03-24

    Brucellosis is endemic among ruminants in the Nile Delta region of Egypt, where recent reports suggest that the incidence of human infection is increasing. In this region the practice of throwing animal waste into Nile canals is common. As a result, water can be contaminated with potential zoonotic pathogens such as B. melitensis that could infect fish. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing B. melitensis from Nile catfish. Serum samples from 120 catfish captured from Nile canals and 120 farmed catfish were tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. by using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and the Rivanol test (Riv T). Skin swabs from all fish and samples from internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen) from all serologically positive fish were cultured to identify B. melitensis biovar 3 isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the results. 9.2% and 8.3% of serum samples from Nile catfish were positive by RBT and Riv T, respectively. None of the samples from farmed catfish were seropositive. B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated from 5.8%, 4.2%, 5.8% and 13.3% of liver, kidney and spleen samples and skin swabs, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first report of isolation of B. melitensis biovar 3 from fresh water fish. Our results suggest that Nile catfish are naturally infected with B. melitensis biovar 3 and this may play a role in the epidemiology of brucellosis. The public should be aware of the consequences of disposing of animal waste into the canals and public health authorities should consider the potential role of catfish as a source of infection. PMID:19880265

  10. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis. PMID:20106599

  11. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  12. Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  13. Natural Killer Cell Evasion Is Essential for Infection by Rhesus Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Sturgill, Elizabeth R; Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Seo, Seongkyung; Schneider, Christine L; Womack, Jennie L; Verweij, Marieke C; Ventura, Abigail B; Bhusari, Amruta; Jeffries, Krystal M; Legasse, Alfred W; Axthelm, Michael K; Hudson, Amy W; Sacha, Jonah B; Picker, Louis J; Früh, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The natural killer cell receptor NKG2D activates NK cells by engaging one of several ligands (NKG2DLs) belonging to either the MIC or ULBP families. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL16 and UL142 counteract this activation by retaining NKG2DLs and US18 and US20 act via lysomal degradation but the importance of NK cell evasion for infection is unknown. Since NKG2DLs are highly conserved in rhesus macaques, we characterized how NKG2DL interception by rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) impacts infection in vivo. Interestingly, RhCMV lacks homologs of UL16 and UL142 but instead employs Rh159, the homolog of UL148, to prevent NKG2DL surface expression. Rh159 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and retains several NKG2DLs whereas UL148 does not interfere with NKG2DL expression. Deletion of Rh159 releases human and rhesus MIC proteins, but not ULBPs, from retention while increasing NK cell stimulation by infected cells. Importantly, RhCMV lacking Rh159 cannot infect CMV-naïve animals unless CD8+ cells, including NK cells, are depleted. However, infection can be rescued by replacing Rh159 with HCMV UL16 suggesting that Rh159 and UL16 perform similar functions in vivo. We therefore conclude that cytomegaloviral interference with NK cell activation is essential to establish but not to maintain chronic infection. PMID:27580123

  14. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  15. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  16. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  17. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. PMID:26162882

  18. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. PMID:26162882

  19. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  20. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  1. Felid Herpesvirus Type 1 Infection in Cats: A Natural Host Model for Alphaherpesvirus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes feline viral rhinotracheitis, an important viral disease of cats on a worldwide basis. Acute FeHV-1 infection is associated with both upper respiratory and ocular signs. Following the acute phase of the disease lifelong latency is established, primarily in sensory neuronal cells. As is the case with human herpes simplex viruses, latency reactivation can result in recrudescence, which can manifest itself in the form of serious ocular lesions. FeHV-1 infection in cats is a natural host model that is useful for the identification of viral virulence genes that play a role in replication at the mucosal portals of entry or are mediators of the establishment, maintenance, or reactivation of latency. It is also a model system for defining innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms and for immunization strategies that can lead to better protection against this and other alphaherpesvirus infections. PMID:23762586

  2. Multiple Origins of Virus Persistence during Natural Control of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Boritz, Eli A; Darko, Samuel; Swaszek, Luke; Wolf, Gideon; Wells, David; Wu, Xiaolin; Henry, Amy R; Laboune, Farida; Hu, Jianfei; Ambrozak, David; Hughes, Marybeth S; Hoh, Rebecca; Casazza, Joseph P; Vostal, Alexander; Bunis, Daniel; Nganou-Makamdop, Krystelle; Lee, James S; Migueles, Stephen A; Koup, Richard A; Connors, Mark; Moir, Susan; Schacker, Timothy; Maldarelli, Frank; Hughes, Stephen H; Deeks, Steven G; Douek, Daniel C

    2016-08-11

    Targeted HIV cure strategies require definition of the mechanisms that maintain the virus. Here, we tracked HIV replication and the persistence of infected CD4 T cells in individuals with natural virologic control by sequencing viruses, T cell receptor genes, HIV integration sites, and cellular transcriptomes. Our results revealed three mechanisms of HIV persistence operating within distinct anatomic and functional compartments. In lymph node, we detected viruses with genetic and transcriptional attributes of active replication in both T follicular helper (TFH) cells and non-TFH memory cells. In blood, we detected inducible proviruses of archival origin among highly differentiated, clonally expanded cells. Linking the lymph node and blood was a small population of circulating cells harboring inducible proviruses of recent origin. Thus, HIV replication in lymphoid tissue, clonal expansion of infected cells, and recirculation of recently infected cells act together to maintain the virus in HIV controllers despite effective antiviral immunity. PMID:27453467

  3. Diffuse intralobular liver fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%). PMID:18689624

  4. Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2012-09-15

    Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. PMID:22687350

  5. First report of a naturally patent infection of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Gutierrez, Natalia; Chinchilla, Adriana; Annoscia, Giada; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-15

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is the zoonotic agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in several countries in North and South America. Rodents are recognized as the main definitive hosts of A. costaricensis, but other wildlife species can develop patent infections. Although, several human cases have been described in the literature, the role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of the infection is not clear. Here we review the literature available on A. costaricensis in mammals and describe the first confirmed fatal case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 4-month-old dog, presented with intestinal perforation, peritonitis and faecal shedding of first-stage larvae. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. This is the first record of a naturally infected dog acting as a definitive host for A. costaricensis. These data suggest that dogs may potentially spread this parasite in urbanized areas. PMID:26321134

  6. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:25956636

  7. Natural Killer-like B Cells Prime Innate Lymphocytes against Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Chen, Yi; Huang, Guanling; Xiong, Zhen; Liu, Jing; Li, Chong; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Fan, Zusen

    2016-07-19

    Natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing group I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) produce large amounts of IFN-γ and cause activation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, how NKs and ILC1s are primed during infection remains elusive. Here we have shown that a lymphocyte subpopulation natural killer-like B (NKB) cells existed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). NKBs had unique features that differed from T and B cells, and produced interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-12 at an early phase of infection. NKB cells played a critical role in eradication of microbial infection via secretion of IL-18 and IL-12. Moreover, IL-18 deficiency abrogated the antibacterial effect of NKBs. Upon bacterial challenge, NKB precursors (NKBPs) rapidly differentiated to NKBs that activated NKs and ILC1s against microbial infection. Our findings suggest that NKBs might be exploited to develop effective therapies for treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:27421702

  8. A study of lesions induced in Seriola dumerili infected naturally with Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, H; Takano, R; Noguchi, M; Taniuchi, Y; Kawano, K; Narita, M; Yanai, T

    2011-01-01

    An outbreak of disease in Seriola dumerili occurred from August to October in 2007 and 2008. The fish developed lesions of the caudal peduncle, pectoral and/or dorsal fin and the heart. The lesions were characterized by moderate to severe infarction with areas of microabscessation and multifocal granulomatous inflammation associated with the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae antigen. This is the first report to describe the immunohistology of the lesions induced in S. dumerili following natural infection with S. dysgalactiae. PMID:21453928

  9. Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) Versus Rhabdias paraensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): Expanding the View on a Natural Infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; da Silva, Djane Clarys Baia; Feitosa, Lucas Aristóteles das Neves; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; de Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago

    2016-06-01

    Amphibian and reptile lungs are frequently infected with Rhabdias parasites, and this condition ultimately leads to reduced survival, performance, and growth because of granulomatous inflammation, nodule formation, and nematodal pneumonia onset. Here we investigate the histopathological features of naturally infected Rhinella marina by the lung nematode Rhabdias paraensis. A total of 10 host animals were captured in peridomiciliar areas in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, and anatomic-histological analyses were performed on both the infected and non-infected lungs of these amphibians. Helminths were usually found within the secondary and primary septa of infected lungs whereas parasites were not detected within vessels or adhering to tissues. In addition, we observed discrete erythrocytes, diapedesis foci, few granulocytes and erythrocytes in the interseptal spaces, discrete cell infiltration, and a small number of melanomacrophages, and no granulomas or cysts were observed. New aspects related to changes in tissue and helminth-host interactions are discussed for the relationship of R. paraensis × Rhi. marina from the Amazon region. PMID:26959813

  10. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26724737

  11. High natural killer cell number might identify stroke patients at risk of developing infections

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Aurelie; Van Binst, Anne-Marie; De Waele, Marc; Coomans, Danny; Buyl, Ronald; De Keyser, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate early changes in leukocyte subsets and autonomic function as predictors of the development of poststroke infections. Methods: We assessed the time course of leukocyte subsets in the blood of 59 patients with acute ischemic stroke. We divided the patients into 2 groups: those who developed infections during the first 7 days after stroke onset and those who did not. We measured urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations and pulse rate variability indices within 24 hours of admission. Results: We found that the number of circulating natural killer (NK) cells within the first hours after stroke was higher in stroke patients who developed infections (mean 435 cells/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] 321–588) than in stroke patients who did not develop infections (mean 236 cells/mL; 95% CI 186–300; p = 0.001). This was followed by a decrease in all lymphocyte subsets from admission to day 1, varying between 22% and 40%, which was not seen in patients without poststroke infection (mean increase varied between 2% and 23%; all p < 0.005). In the group that developed infections, pulse rate variability revealed a decreased high frequency component. These findings all remained significant after adjustment for age and stroke volume. Conclusions: High circulating NK cell count within the first hours after ischemic stroke onset followed by a drop in all lymphocyte subsets identified patients who developed infections and may be caused by a sympathovagal imbalance with sympathetic overweight. These findings need to be validated in larger studies. PMID:25738168

  12. Natural History of Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Sirak, Bradley A.; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Little is known about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. A sub-cohort of 209 men with no NMSC history, initially enrolled in the HPV infection in men (HIM) study, were followed for a median of 12.6 months. Epidemiological data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Cutaneous HPV DNA was measured in normal skin swabs (SS) and eyebrow hairs (EB) for 25 and 16 HPV types in genera β and γ, respectively. Any β HPV infection was more prevalent in SS (67.3%) compared to EB (56.5%, p = 0.04). Incidence in SS was higher than 20 per 1,000 person-months for HPV types 4, 5, 23, 38 and 76. Median duration of persistence of β and γ HPV infection was 8.6 and 6.1 months in EB, respectively, and 11.3 months and 6.3 months, in SS, respectively. Older age (>44 years vs. 18-30 years) was significantly associated with prevalent (SS OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.2–7.0) and persistent β HPV infection (EB OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 2.6–14.1). History of blistering sunburn was associated with prevalent (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3–5.8) and persistent (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2–4.6) β HPV infection in SS. Cutaneous HPV is highly prevalent in men, with age and blistering sunburn being significant risk factors for cutaneous β HPV infection. PMID:25198694

  13. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (κ = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (κ = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

  14. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Simon-Grifé, M; Sibila, M; Dubey, J P; Cabezón, O; Martín, G; Almería, S

    2010-05-28

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy-three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT >or=1:25) were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 22 and 25 weeks of age. Twenty-six of the 73 piglets analyzed (35.6%; CI 95%: 25.5-45.7) were seropositive at some point during the study. Seroprevalence in piglets at 1 and 3 weeks of age was significantly higher in animals born from seropositive sows (P<0.001 and P=0.02, respectively) as an indication of maternally derived antibodies. The longest persistence (up to 6 weeks of age) was observed in piglets whose dam had high T. gondii antibody level (MAT >or=1:500), while persistence of maternally derived antibodies in the piglets born from sows with low antibody titers (maximum 1:50) was shorter and lasted only up to 3 weeks of age, when the piglets were weaned. The risk of horizontal transmission in piglets increased with age and was higher in piglets during the finishing period. The present results indicate that the decline of T. gondii maternally derived antibodies in naturally infected piglets is associated with the titers of their dams. PMID:20189311

  15. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Sin Nombre Virus Quasispecies in Naturally Infected Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Ralph; Boone, John D.; Netski, Dale; Morzunov, Sergey P.; St. Jeor, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is thought to establish a persistent infection in its natural reservoir, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), despite a strong host immune response. SNV-specific neutralizing antibodies were routinely detected in deer mice which maintained virus RNA in the blood and lungs. To determine whether viral diversity played a role in SNV persistence and immune escape in deer mice, we measured the prevalence of virus quasispecies in infected rodents over time in a natural setting. Mark-recapture studies provided serial blood samples from naturally infected deer mice, which were sequentially analyzed for SNV diversity. Viral RNA was detected over a period of months in these rodents in the presence of circulating antibodies specific for SNV. Nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed in viral clones from all time points analyzed, including changes in the immunodominant domain of glycoprotein 1 and the 3′ small segment noncoding region of the genome. Viral RNA was also detected in seven different organs of sacrificed deer mice. Analysis of organ-specific viral clones revealed major disparities in the level of viral diversity between organs, specifically between the spleen (high diversity) and the lung and liver (low diversity). These results demonstrate the ability of SNV to mutate and generate quasispecies in vivo, which may have implications for viral persistence and possible escape from the host immune system. PMID:10516063

  16. Nucleotide Sequencing and SNP Detection of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Gene in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, M.; Taraphder, S.; Sonawane, G. S.; Verma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has an important pattern recognition receptor that recognizes endotoxins associated with gram negative bacterial infections. The present investigation was carried out to study nucleotide sequencing and SNP detection by PCR-RFLP analysis of the TLR-4 gene in Murrah buffalo. Genomic DNA was isolated from 102 lactating Murrah buffalo from NDRI herd. The amplified PCR fragments of TLR-4 comprised of exon 1, exon 2, exon 3.1, and exon 3.2 were examined to RFLP. PCR products were obtained with sizes of 165, 300, 478, and 409 bp. TLR-4 gene of investigated Murrah buffaloes was highly polymorphic with AA, AB, and BB genotypes as revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis using Dra I, Hae III, and Hinf I REs. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplified fragment of TLR-4 gene of Murrah buffalo was done. Twelve SNPs were identified. Six SNPs were nonsynonymous resulting in change in amino acids. Murrah is an indigenous Buffalo breed and the presence of the nonsynonymous SNP is indicative of its unique genomic architecture. Sequence alignment and homology across species using BLAST analysis revealed 97%, 97%, 99%, 98%, and 80% sequence homology with Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Homo sapiens, respectively.

  17. Leishmania infection and neuroinflammation: Specific chemokine profile and absence of parasites in the brain of naturally-infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Melo, Guilherme D; Silva, José Eduardo S; Grano, Fernanda G; Souza, Milena S; Machado, Gisele F

    2015-12-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. We aimed to detect the parasite in the brain of fifteen naturally-infected dogs using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and the gene expression of selected chemokines by RT-qPCR. We detected no parasite in the brain, but perivascular deposition of parasite DNA and IgG in the choroid plexus. We noticed up-regulation of CCL-3, CCL-4 and CCL-5, coherent with T lymphocyte accumulation, stating the brain as a pro-inflammatory environment. Indeed, not necessarily the parasite itself, but rather its DNA seems to act as a trigger to promote brain inflammation during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26616868

  18. Progression of Coxiella burnetii infection after implementing a two-year vaccination program in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds recently reported and the long survival time of the bacterium in the environment pose a risk to human and animal health that calls for the implementation of control measures at herd level. This study presents the results of a 2-year vaccination program with an inactivated phase I vaccine in a Spanish dairy herd naturally infected with C. burnetii. Calves older than 3 months and non-pregnant heifers and cows were vaccinated in April 2011 and the farm was subsequently visited at a monthly basis for vaccination of recently calved cows and calves that reached the age of 3 months. Annual booster doses were given to previous vaccinated animals as well. The effectiveness of the vaccine was assessed in terms of level of C. burnetii shedding through milk and uterine fluids and environmental contamination as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The percentage of shedder animals through uterine fluids and milk progressively decreased, and C. burnetii DNA load in bulk-tank milk samples was low at the end of the study. The average seroconversion rate in not yet vaccinated animals, which acted as control group, was 8.6% during the first year and 0% in the second year. DNA of C. burnetii was found in aerosols and dust samples taken in the calving area only at the beginning of the study, whereas slurry samples remained C. burnetii PCR positive for at least 18 months. Multiple Locus Variable number tandem-repeat Analysis identified the same genotype in all C. burnetii DNA positive samples. Conclusions In the absence of any changes in biosecurity, the overall reduction of C. burnetii infection in animals to 1.2% milk shedders and the reduced environment contamination found at the end of the study was ascribed to the effects of vaccination together with the culling of milk shedders. Vaccination has to be planned as a medium-long term strategy to suppress risks of re-infection

  19. Capacity of a natural strain of woodchuck hepatitis virus, WHVNY, to induce acute infection in naive adult woodchucks.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Natalia; Lukash, Tetyana; Dudek, Megan; Litwin, Sam; Menne, Stephan; Gudima, Severin O

    2015-07-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is often used as surrogate to study mechanism of HBV infection. Currently, most infections are conducted using strains WHV7 or WHV8 that have very high sequence identity. This study focused on natural strain WHVNY that is more genetically distant from WHV7. Three naive adult woodchucks inoculated with WHVNY developed productive acute infection with long lasting viremia. However, only one of two woodchucks infected with WHV7 at the same multiplicity demonstrated productive liver infection. Quantification of intracellular WHV RNA and DNA replication intermediates; percentages of core antigen-positive hepatocytes; and serum relaxed circular DNA showed that strains WHVNY and WHV7 displayed comparable replication levels and capacities to induce acute infection in naive adult woodchucks. Strain WHVNY was therefore validated as valuable reagent to analyze the mechanism of hepadnavirus infection, especially in co- and super-infection settings, which required discrimination between two related virus genomes replicating in the same liver. PMID:25979221

  20. Specific dysregulation of IFNγ production by natural killer cells confers susceptibility to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Fodil, Nassima; Langlais, David; Moussa, Peter; Boivin, Gregory Allan; Di Pietrantonio, Tania; Radovanovic, Irena; Dumaine, Anne; Blanchette, Mathieu; Schurr, Erwin; Gros, Philippe; Vidal, Silvia Marina

    2014-12-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells contribute to the control of viral infection by directly killing target cells and mediating cytokine release. In C57BL/6 mice, the Ly49H activating NK cell receptor plays a key role in early resistance to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection through specific recognition of the MCMV-encoded MHC class I-like molecule m157 expressed on infected cells. Here we show that transgenic expression of Ly49H failed to provide protection against MCMV infection in the naturally susceptible A/J mouse strain. Characterization of Ly49H(+) NK cells from Ly49h-A transgenic animals showed that they were able to mount a robust cytotoxic response and proliferate to high numbers during the course of infection. However, compared to NK cells from C57BL/6 mice, we observed an intrinsic defect in their ability to produce IFNγ when challenged by either m157-expressing target cells, exogenous cytokines or chemical stimulants. This effect was limited to NK cells as T cells from C57BL/6 and Ly49h-A mice produced comparable cytokine levels. Using a panel of recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and C57BL/6 progenitors, we mapped the genetic basis of defective IFNγ production to a single 6.6 Mb genetic interval overlapping the Ifng gene on chromosome 10. Inspection of the genetic interval failed to reveal molecular differences between A/J and several mouse strains showing normal IFNγ production. The chromosome 10 locus is independent of MAPK signalling or decreased mRNA stability and linked to MCMV susceptibility. This study highlights the existence of a previously uncovered NK cell-specific cis-regulatory mechanism of Ifnγ transcript expression potentially relevant to NK cell function in health and disease. PMID:25473962

  1. Natural History of Polyomaviruses in Men: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Several new polyomaviruses have been discovered in the last decade, including Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Little is known about the natural history of the more recently discovered polyomaviruses. We estimated the incidence, prevalence, and persistence of 9 polyomaviruses (MCPyV, BK polyomavirus, KI polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, WU polyomavirus, Human polyomavirus 6 [HPyV6], HPyV7, HPyV9, and Trichodysplasia spinulosa–associated polyomavirus) and examined factors associated with MCPyV infection in a prospective cohort of 209 men initially enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study. Methods. Participants enrolled at the US site of the HIM study were recruited into a substudy of cutaneous viral infections and followed for a median of 12.6 months. Eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens were obtained at each study visit, and the viral DNA load was measured using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results. MCPyV infection showed the highest prevalence (65.1% of normal skin swab specimens and 30.6% of eyebrow hair specimens), incidence (81.7 cases per 1000 person-months among normal skin swab specimens, and 24.1 cases per 1000 person-months among eyebrow hair specimens), and persistence (85.8% of normal skin swab specimens and 58.9% of eyebrow hair specimens) among all polyomaviruses examined. Age of >44 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–4.33) and Hispanic race (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.01–6.88) were associated with an increased prevalence of MCPyV infection in eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens, respectively. Conclusion. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in adults, with age and race being predisposing factors. PMID:25387582

  2. Larval trematode infections in Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-05-01

    Adult Galba truncatula ( ≥ 4 mm in shell height) were collected from 135 habitats for 3 years (2012-2014) to identify parasite species via the study of cercariae, and to determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the type of snail habitat (six types). A total of 323 infected snails and ten digenean species were noted in the bodies of 11,025 G. truncatula after their dissection. Snails with Calicophoron daubneyi and/or Fasciola hepatica were found in 20.7% and 12.5% of the habitats, respectively, and most of these infected snails were collected from rainwater-draining furrows and pools in meadows. The percentages were lower for snails with Echinostoma revolutum (9.6% of habitats) and Haplometra cylindracea (7.4%), and were less than 5% for those parasitized by any of the other five species of digenean. The highest prevalence of all digenean infections was noted in pools (9.4%), followed by furrows located in meadows (8.3%) and ponds (5.1%). The prevalence noted for each digenean infection varied with the type of habitat. In furrows located in meadows, the infection rate of C. daubneyi in snails (3.5%) was significantly higher than that of F. hepatica (2.2%). In pools, values greater than 1.5% were noted for C. daubneyi, H. cylindracea and Opistoglyphe ranae. In ponds, E. revolutum was the dominant species (prevalence, 2.5%). Parasite species richness in G. truncatula was greater in the Brenne Natural Regional Park than in the nearby region of Limousin (ten instead of eight). The distribution and prevalence of each parasite species were dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:25804319

  3. Widespread Recombination, Reassortment, and Transmission of Unbalanced Compound Viral Genotypes in Natural Arenavirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stenglein, Mark D.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Chang, Li-Wen; Sanders, Chris; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Guzman, David S-M.; Drazenovich, Tracy; Dunker, Freeland; Kamaka, Elizabeth K.; Fisher, Debbie; Reavill, Drury R.; Meola, Linda F.; Levens, Gregory; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L) and small (S) genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on viral ecology

  4. Widespread recombination, reassortment, and transmission of unbalanced compound viral genotypes in natural arenavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Stenglein, Mark D; Jacobson, Elliott R; Chang, Li-Wen; Sanders, Chris; Hawkins, Michelle G; Guzman, David S-M; Drazenovich, Tracy; Dunker, Freeland; Kamaka, Elizabeth K; Fisher, Debbie; Reavill, Drury R; Meola, Linda F; Levens, Gregory; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2015-05-01

    Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L) and small (S) genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on viral ecology

  5. Haematological response of snow barbell, Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel, naturally infected with a new Trypanosoma species.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Aamir; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2016-09-01

    The present study deals with the description of a new piscine trypanosome species found infecting the fresh water fish Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel from river Jhelum, Srinagar, J&K, India and evaluating the haematological parameters of the infected fish. Haematological examination of S. plagiostomus revealed 61.1 % infection with an intensity of 1-9 trypanosomes/100 RBC's. Small (26.9 ± 1.39 µm) and large (47.17 ± 3.50 µm) forms of the trypanosome were observed in light microscopy investigations, revealing the dimorphic nature of the species. The trypanosome species was found to be distinct from the other related dimorphic species in morphometric dimensions including cell length, cell breadth, kinetoplast index, flagellar index, and cytological peculiarities, respectively. The detailed descriptions of the two morphological forms found in the blood of S. plagiostomus are provided. Based on the geographical location, morphometrics, cytological peculiarities, host status and comparative study, the new species is named Trypanosoma kashmirensis n. sp. The parasitic infestation caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in red blood cell counts, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations while, the leucocyte (WBC) count, mean cellular volume and mean cellular haemoglobin showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the infected fish as compared to the non-infected. The above alterations of the haematological parameters could be used as an important tool for the indication of Trypanosoma infection in the fish. PMID:27605786

  6. Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Krebs, Vernon; Collins, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen pygmy goats (Capra hircus) from a herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MPTB) were monitored with 4 diagnostic assays for 2 to 15 mo. Cellular and humoral immune responses to the infection were assessed with assays of gamma interferon (IFNγ), serum antibody [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel diffusion (AGID)], and radiometric fecal culture. Microscopic examination and radiometric culture of tissue from 12 sites were performed at necropsy. Goats were considered infected if MPTB was isolated from any tissue sample collected at necropsy. Mycobacterial isolates were confirmed as MPTB with an IS900 polymerase chain reaction assay. Ten goats whose antemortem tests indicated infection carried heavy organism burdens at necropsy, both within and beyond the gastrointestinal system. False-negative ELISA, AGID, and/or culture results were obtained in 5 of the 10 confirmed cases during the study period. In 3 goats with sporadic fecal shedding of MPTB or detectable IFNγ response, or both, no abnormalities were detected at necropsy and no MPTB was isolated from the tissue samples; the antemortem fecal-culture and IFNγ results were thus considered false-positive. Diagnosticians should be alert to the possibility of both false-positive and false-negative test results for Johne's disease in goats. False-positive fecal-culture results may occur when a high prevalence of infection exists in the herd and the premises are likely to be heavily contaminated. The diverse antemortem testing patterns seen in these goats underscore the importance of using varied diagnostic assays serially or in parallel to increase the likelihood of identifying all infected goats. PMID:12889728

  7. First case of a naturally acquired human infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since 1960, a total of seven species of monkey malaria have been reported as transmissible to man by mosquito bite: Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium brasilianum, Plasmodium eylesi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium schwetzi and Plasmodium simium. With the exception of P. knowlesi, none of the other species has been found to infect humans in nature. In this report, it is described the first known case of a naturally acquired P. cynomolgi malaria in humans. The patient was a 39-year-old woman from a malaria-free area with no previous history of malaria or travel to endemic areas. Initially, malaria was diagnosed and identified as Plasmodium malariae/P. knowlesi by microscopy in the Terengganu State Health Department. Thick and thin blood films stained with 10% Giemsa were performed for microscopy examination. Molecular species identification was performed at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR, Malaysia) and in the Malaria & Emerging Parasitic Diseases Laboratory (MAPELAB, Spain) using different nested PCR methods. Microscopic re-examination in the IMR showed characteristics of Plasmodium vivax and was confirmed by a nested PCR assay developed by Snounou et al. Instead, a different PCR assay plus sequencing performed at the MAPELAB confirmed that the patient was infected with P. cynomolgi and not with P. vivax. This is the first report of human P. cynomolgi infection acquired in a natural way, but there might be more undiagnosed or misdiagnosed cases, since P. cynomolgi is morphologically indistinguishable from P. vivax, and one of the most used PCR methods for malaria infection detection may identify a P. cynomolgi infection as P. vivax. Simian Plasmodium species may routinely infect humans in Southeast Asia. New diagnostic methods are necessary to distinguish between the human and monkey malaria species. Further epidemiological studies, incriminating also the mosquito vector(s), must be performed to know the relevance of cynomolgi malaria and its

  8. The effect of a live Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine in naturally infected pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mazuz, M L; Fish, L; Wolkomirsky, R; Leibovich, B; Reznikov, D; Savitsky, I; Golenser, J; Shkap, V

    2015-06-15

    Neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. There is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. A N. caninum NcIs491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. N. caninum-seropositive pregnant dams were inoculated with 10(8) live tachyzoites during mid-term pregnancy. A total of 520 N. caninum seropositive dams were included in this study, of these, 146 were immunized and 374 cows served as a non-vaccinated control group. A significantly lower incidence of abortion was observed in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated cows, 16 and 26% respectively (P=0.01), with a vaccine efficacy of 39%. However, the number of seropositive offspring remained similar in both groups. Overall, this field trial suggests that vaccination with live N. caninum tachyzoites should be considered as an effective measure to reduce abortions caused by neosporosis in naturally infected cows. PMID:25890821

  9. Oxidative stress associated with pathological changes in the pancreas of cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    PubMed

    Schwertz, Claiton I; Gabriel, Mateus E; Henker, Luan C; Bottari, Nathieli B; Carmo, Guilherme do; Guarda, Naiara Dos S; Moresco, Rafael N; Machado, Gustavo; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stedille, Fernanda A; Baska, Piotr; Mattei, Vanessa; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mendes, Ricardo E

    2016-06-15

    Although Eurytrema coelomaticum is considered a parasite with low pathogenicity, it may be associated with mortality and loss of productive performance in animals due to chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oxidative stress caused by E. coelomaticum in naturally infected cattle, correlating the biochemical findings with the parasite load and histopathological changes. For this study, blood and pancreas samples from 51 cattle were collected, and levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in the serum and pancreas, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured in total blood. Parasite burden was determined opening the pancreatic ducts, and then fragments of pancreas were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for histopathology. From the 51 collected pancreas, 33 (63.5%) were parasitized. The average parasite burden per pancreas was 532 (12-2,578). TBARS and FRAP showed higher levels in serum and pancreas of infected animals (p<0.05), with a positive correlation between the histopathological changes and the number of parasites. SOD level in blood was 42% higher in parasitized group compared with control group (p<0.05), as well as AOPP in serum. Based on these results, we concluded that in natural infection by E. coelomaticum in cattle, oxidative stress occurs, characterized by the occurrence of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and activation of antioxidant system. PMID:27198785

  10. Infection with Wolbachia protects mosquitoes against Plasmodium-induced mortality in a natural system.

    PubMed

    Zélé, F; Nicot, A; Duron, O; Rivero, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a shift in the one host-one parasite paradigm with the realization that, in the field, most hosts are coinfected with multiple parasites. Coinfections are particularly relevant when the host is a vector of diseases, because multiple infections can have drastic consequences for parasite transmission at both the ecological and evolutionary timescales. Wolbachia pipientis is the most common parasitic microorganism in insects, and as such, it is of special interest for understanding the role of coinfections in the outcome of parasite infections. Here, we investigate whether Wolbachia can modulate the effect of Plasmodium on what is, arguably, the most important component of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes: their longevity. For this purpose, and in contrast to recent studies that have focused on mosquito-Plasmodium and/or mosquito-Wolbachia combinations not found in nature, we work on a Wolbachia-mosquito-Plasmodium triad with a common evolutionary history. Our results show that Wolbachia protects mosquitoes from Plasmodium-induced mortality. The results are consistent across two different strains of Wolbachia and repeatable across two different experimental blocks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an effect has been shown for Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and, in particular, in a natural Wolbachia-host combination. We discuss different mechanistic and evolutionary explanations for these results as well as their consequences for Plasmodium transmission. PMID:22533729

  11. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents. PMID:21086160

  12. Bryant and Stratton Business Institute, Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attmore, Robert H.

    In June 1992, the New York State Office of the Comptroller performed an audit of Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) awards at Bryant and Stratton Business Institute's Buffalo Campus (BC). TAP, the largest student grant and scholarship program administered by the Higher Education Services Corporation…

  13. Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoer, Wanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

  14. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality. PMID:25489729

  16. Generation of a Persistently Infected MDBK Cell Line with Natural Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    PubMed Central

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H.; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE. PMID:25647616

  17. Innate immune natural killer cells and their role in HIV and SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Bostik, Pavel; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Mayne, Ann E; Ansari, Aftab A

    2010-01-01

    The findings that early events during HIV-1 and SIV infection of Asian rhesus macaques dictate the levels of viremia and rate of disease progression prior to the establishment of mature and effective adaptive immune responses strongly suggest an important role for innate immune mechanisms. In addition, the fact that the major target of HIV and SIV during this period of acute infection is the gastrointestinal tissue suggests that whatever role the innate immune system plays must either directly and/or indirectly focus on the GI tract. The object of this article is to provide a general overview of the innate immune system with a focus on natural killer (NK) cells and their role in the pathogenesis of lentivirus infection. The studies summarized include our current understanding of the phenotypic heterogeneity, the putative functions ascribed to the subsets, the maturation/differentiation of NK cells, the mechanisms by which their function is mediated and regulated, the studies of these NK-cell subsets, with a focus on killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in nonhuman primates and humans, and finally, how HIV and SIV infection affects these NK cells in vivo. Clearly much has yet to be learnt on how the innate immune system influences the interaction between lentiviruses and the host within the GI tract, knowledge of which is reasoned to be critical for the formulation of effective vaccines against HIV-1. PMID:20730028

  18. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-07-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality. PMID:25489729

  19. Comparative Burkholderia pseudomallei natural history virulence studies using an aerosol murine model of infection

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Shane; Yeager, Linsey A.; Blumentritt, Carla A.; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Sbrana, Elena; Peterson, Johnny W.; Brasel, Trevor; LeDuc, James W.; Endsley, Janice J.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is an endemic disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Concerns exist regarding B. pseudomallei use as a potential bio-threat agent causing persistent infections and typically manifesting as severe pneumonia capable of causing fatal bacteremia. Development of suitable therapeutics against melioidosis is complicated due to high degree of genetic and phenotypic variability among B. pseudomallei isolates and lack of data establishing commonly accepted strains for comparative studies. Further, the impact of strain variation on virulence, disease presentation, and mortality is not well understood. Therefore, this study evaluate and compare the virulence and disease progression of B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and HBPUB10303a, following aerosol challenge in a standardized BALB/c mouse model of infection. The natural history analysis of disease progression monitored conditions such as weight, body temperature, appearance, activity, bacteremia, organ and tissue colonization (pathological and histological analysis) and immunological responses. This study provides a detailed, direct comparison of infection with different B. pseudomallei strains and set up the basis for a standardized model useful to test different medical countermeasures against Burkholderia species. Further, this protocol serves as a guideline to standardize other bacterial aerosol models of infection or to define biomarkers of infectious processes caused by other intracellular pathogens. PMID:24603493

  20. The epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Machalek, Dorothy A; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Templeton, David J; Poynten, I Mary

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are essential to understand the significance of this virus in the aetiology of anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM). This paper presents a review of studies on anal HPV in MSM. For this review, a Medline search was performed to identify English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals on the epidemiology, natural history and risk factors for anal HPV infection in MSM. Anal HPV prevalence is high in MSM and infection with multiple HPV types is common. The available prospective data suggest detection of new anal HPV infections may also be common. However, with limited epidemiological data available on infection dynamics and associated behavioural risk factors, it is difficult to draw conclusions on how persistent anal HPV infection is in this population. PMID:23380235

  1. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  2. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  3. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. A Nature-Inspired Betalainic Probe for Live-Cell Imaging of Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Tonelli, Renata Rosito; Bagnaresi, Piero; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    A model betalainic dye was semisynthesized from betanin, the magenta pigment of the red beet, and was effective for live-cell imaging of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. This water-soluble fluorescent probe is photostable, excitable in the visible region and cell membrane-permeable, and its photophysical properties are not notably pH-sensitive. Fluorescence imaging microscopy of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of malaria in humans, showed that only the parasite was stained. Z-stacking analysis suggested that the probe accumulates proximal to the nucleus of the parasite. Indicaxanthin, one of the natural fluorescent betalains found in the petals of certain flowers, did not stain the parasite or the red blood cell. PMID:23342028

  5. A nature-inspired betalainic probe for live-cell imaging of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Tonelli, Renata Rosito; Bagnaresi, Piero; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    A model betalainic dye was semisynthesized from betanin, the magenta pigment of the red beet, and was effective for live-cell imaging of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. This water-soluble fluorescent probe is photostable, excitable in the visible region and cell membrane-permeable, and its photophysical properties are not notably pH-sensitive. Fluorescence imaging microscopy of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of malaria in humans, showed that only the parasite was stained. Z-stacking analysis suggested that the probe accumulates proximal to the nucleus of the parasite. Indicaxanthin, one of the natural fluorescent betalains found in the petals of certain flowers, did not stain the parasite or the red blood cell. PMID:23342028

  6. Seroprevalence of Leptospira hardjo in cattle and African buffalos in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512

  7. Differences in intermittent and continuous fecal shedding patterns between natural and experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to study shedding patterns of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While multiple single farm studies of MAP dynamics were reported, there is not large-scale meta-analysis of both natural and experimental infections. Large difference...

  8. AAV Natural Infection Induces Broad Cross-Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Multiple AAV Serotypes in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of primates have revealed that natural neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to adeno-associated viruses (AAV) span multiple serotypes. This differs from the phenotype of the NAb response to an AAV vector delivered to seronegative nonhuman primates that is typically restricted to the administered AAV serotype. To better understand the mechanism by which natural AAV infections result in broad NAb responses, we conducted a longitudinal study spanning 10 years in which we evaluated serum-circulating AAV NAb levels in captive-housed chimpanzees. In a cohort of 25 chimpanzees we identified 3 distinct groups of animals: those that never seroconverted to AAV (naïve), those that were persistently seropositive (chronic), and those that seroconverted during the 10-year period (acute). For the chronic group we found a broad seroresponse characterized by NAbs reacting to multiple AAV serotypes. A similar cross-neutralization pattern of NAbs was observed in the acute group. These data support our hypothesis that a single natural infection with AAV induces a broadly cross-reactive NAb response to multiple AAV serotypes. PMID:27314914

  9. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    PubMed

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. PMID:24725945

  10. Conserved Immune Recognition Hierarchy of Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins during Infection in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Young, Douglas B.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains two large gene families encoding proteins of unknown function, characterized by conserved N-terminal proline and glutamate (PE and PPE) motifs. The presence of a large number of PE/PPE proteins with repetitive domains and evidence of strain variation has given rise to the suggestion that these proteins may play a role in immune evasion via antigenic variation, while emerging data suggests that some family members may play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined cellular immune responses to a panel of 36 PE/PPE proteins during human and bovine infection. We observed a distinct hierarchy of immune recognition, reflected both in the repertoire of PE/PPE peptide recognition in individual cows and humans and in the magnitude of IFN-γ responses elicited by stimulation of sensitized host cells. The pattern of immunodominance was strikingly similar between cattle that had been experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and humans naturally infected with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The same pattern was maintained as disease progressed throughout a four-month course of infection in cattle, and between humans with latent as well as active tuberculosis. Detailed analysis of PE/PPE responses at the peptide level suggests that antigenic cross-reactivity amongst related family members is a major determinant in the observed differences in immune hierarchy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a subset of PE/PPE proteins are major targets of the cellular immune response to tuberculosis, and are recognized at multiple stages of infection and in different disease states. Thus this work identifies a number of novel antigens that could find application in vaccine development, and provides new insights into PE/PPE biology. PMID:22870206

  11. Expansion of highly activated invariant natural killer T cells with altered phenotype in acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Kamaladasa, A; Wickramasinghe, N; Adikari, T N; Gomes, L; Shyamali, N L A; Salio, M; Cerundolo, V; Ogg, G S; Malavige, G Neelika

    2016-08-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 ex-vivo enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha-galactosyl-ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4(+) subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl-6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl-6 and inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4(+) iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822

  12. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  13. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  14. Hepatic cholinesterase of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum (fowl typhoid).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Boiago, Marcel M; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Alves, Mariana Sauzen; Boscato, Carla; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Casagrande, Renata A; Stefani, Lenita M

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and animals consisting of over 2000 serovars. The serovar Salmonella Gallinarum is an important worldwide pathogen of poultry. However, little is known on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in chickens. The aim of this study was to evaluate cholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities in hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum. Twenty positive liver samples for S. Gallinarum were collected, in addition to seven liver samples from healthy uninfected laying hens (control group). The right liver lobe was homogenized for analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the left lobe was divided into two fragments, one for histopathology and the other for Salmonella isolation. The results showed changes in AChE and BchE activity in the liver of infected laying hens compared to the control group (P < 0.05), i.e. reduced AChE and increased BChE activities in liver samples. Infected animals showed increased MPO activity compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the histopathological findings showed fibrinoid necrosis associated to the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages,heterophils in the liver of infected hens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory process was attenuated providing a pro-inflammatory action of both enzyme analyzed in order to reduce the free ACh, a molecule which has an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinesterase plays an important role on the modulation of immune response against S. Gallinarum with an inflammatory effect, contributing to the response against this bacterium. This study should contribute to a better understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in laying hens infected by S. Gallinarum. PMID:27377431

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of Schistosoma japonicum DNA vaccines in sheep and water buffalo in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, F; Zhang, Y; Ye, P; Lin, J; Cai, Y; Shen, W; Bickle, Q D; Taylor, M G

    2001-11-12

    Vaccines are needed to control zoonotic Schistosoma japonicum infection and several vaccine candidates have now been identified. Two of these (Sj28GST and Sj23) have shown particular promise in sheep when injected with Freund's adjuvants. The objective of the present work was to find a vaccine formulation which may have potential for widespread use in the field. DNA vaccine formulations of these antigens were produced and tested first in sheep under laboratory conditions and then in both the laboratory and the field in water buffalo. In both host species partial protection as evidenced by a reduction in parasite counts in vaccinated compared with control animals was induced by both vaccines, and in water buffalo the vaccines were shown to be partially protective in the field as well as in the laboratory. These results suggest that the two DNA vaccines tested here may have potential for large-scale field use. PMID:11672910

  16. Efficacy of oxyclozanide against adult Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Rodrigo; Moreno, Laura; Alvarez, Luis; Lanusse, Carlos; Romero, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the current study was to assess oxyclozanide (OCZ) efficacy against Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected adult sheep. OCZ concentrations in blood stream and gastrointestinal fluids collected from treated animals were also measured. Fifteen P. leydeni naturally infected sheep were randomly divided into two groups: untreated control (n=5) and treated (n=10). The treated group was orally drenched with OCZ (20mg/kg, day 0). A second dose was administered 72 h later. Faecal samples were taken at days 0, +3 and +5. Five sheep from both groups were slaughtered at day +5. At necropsies, rumen, abomasum and small intestine were examined for adult and immature flukes. All recovered flukes were counted and the treatment efficacy was estimated. Additionally, serum and gastrointestinal fluid content (ruminal, abomasal and small intestine) samples, obtained from five treated animals at day +5, were analyzed by HPLC to measure OCZ concentrations. OCZ showed high efficacy (99%) against mature P. leydeni. The post-treatment egg reduction was also high after the first dose with values ranging from 98.4% (day +3) to 99.5% (day +5). The highest OCZ concentrations were measured in serum (20.7 ± 11.5 μg/mL) followed by the small intestinal fluid (6.00 ± 4.50 μg/mL). Very low OCZ concentrations (ranging between 0.05 and 0.02 μg/mL) were measured in ruminal and abomasal fluids. OCZ administered to sheep twice (20mg/kg) by the oral route was highly efficacious against mature stages of P. leydeni in naturally infected sheep. Despite a high drug concentration at the intestinal fluid, OCZ efficacy against immature stages could not be assessed. OCZ efficacy and assessment of its concentration profiles in different tissues are considered a contribution to the scarce information available on this ruminant fluke. PMID:25458118

  17. Rapid evolution of the env gene leader sequence in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity. We estimated that env evolved at a rate of 1.16×10−3 substitutions per site per year and demonstrated that recombinant sequences evolved faster than non-recombinant sequences. It was evident that the V3–V5 fragment of FIV env displayed higher evolutionary rates in healthy cats than in those with terminal illness. Our study provided the first evidence that the leader sequence of env, rather than the V3–V5 sequence, had the highest intra-host diversity and the highest evolutionary rate of all env fragments, consistent with this region being under a strong selective pressure for genetic variation. Overall, FIV env displayed relatively low intra-host diversity and evolved slowly in naturally infected cats. The maximum evolutionary rate was observed in the leader sequence of env. Although genetic stability is not necessarily a prerequisite for clinical stability, the higher genetic stability of FIV compared with human immunodeficiency virus might explain why many naturally infected cats do not progress rapidly to AIDS. PMID:25535323

  18. Evaluation of tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists on buffalo uterus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satish K; Garg, K M; Sabir, M

    2004-09-01

    Present study was conducted on prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), oxytocin, (OT), potassium chloride (KCI) and barium chloride (BaCl2) pre-contracted perimetrial uterine strips of dioestrus and pregnant buffaloes to evaluate the tocolytic efficacy of selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-albuterol (salbutamol) and terbutaline. Cumulative concentration-response curves of both the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists were constructed and the mean effective concentration (EC50) values determined and compared statistically. Based on the comparative EC50 values in relaxing the pre-contracted uterine strips with different spasmogens, the rank order potency of albuterol was found to be--PGF2alpha > BaCl2 > OT > KCl on uterine strips from dioestrus animals, while OT> BaCl2> PGF2alpha >KCl on the uterine strips of pregnant buffaloes. The rank order potency of terbutaline on uterine strips from dioestrus stage animals was- BaCl2 > OT > KCl > PGF2alpha, while BaCl2 > PGF2alpha > KCl > OT on uterine tissues of pregnant animals. Thus, irrespective of the state of uterus, whether gravid or non-gravid, KCl-depolarized uterine tissues required comparatively higher concentrations of albuterol or terbutaline to produce tocolytic effect. High concentrations of K+ in biophase may have interfered with the beta2 adrenoceptor agonists-induced outward K+ current and hyperpolarization. From the results of present study, it was evident that selective beta2 adrenergic agonists had good tocolytic efficacy on the uterus of buffaloes. Further, indirectly the possibility of existence and activation of K(Ca) channels by selective beta2 adrenoceptor agonists in mediating tocolysis of buffalo myometrium can not be ruled out, however, detailed studies using specific K(Ca) channel blockers are required for characterizing the nature of such channels in buffalo uterus. PMID:15462186

  19. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick

    2015-01-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  20. Escherichia coli Population Structure and Antibiotic Resistance at a Buffalo/Cattle Interface in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mercat, Mathilde; Clermont, Olivier; Massot, Méril; Ruppe, Etienne; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Miguel, Eve; Valls Fox, Hugo; Cornelis, Daniel; Andremont, Antoine; Denamur, Erick; Caron, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    At a human/livestock/wildlife interface, Escherichia coli populations were used to assess the risk of bacterial and antibiotic resistance dissemination between hosts. We used phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques to describe the structure and the level of antibiotic resistance of E. coli commensal populations and the resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage of sympatric African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and cattle populations characterized by their contact patterns in the southern part of Hwange ecosystem in Zimbabwe. Our results (i) confirmed our assumption that buffalo and cattle share similar phylogroup profiles, dominated by B1 (44.5%) and E (29.0%) phylogroups, with some variability in A phylogroup presence (from 1.9 to 12%); (ii) identified a significant gradient of antibiotic resistance from isolated buffalo to buffalo in contact with cattle and cattle populations expressed as the Murray score among Enterobacteriaceae (0.146, 0.258, and 0.340, respectively) and as the presence of tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, and amoxicillin-resistant subdominant E. coli strains (0, 5.7, and 38%, respectively); (iii) evidenced the dissemination of tetracycline, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin resistance genes (tet, dfrA, and blaTEM-1) in 26 isolated subdominant E. coli strains between nearby buffalo and cattle populations, that led us (iv) to hypothesize the role of the human/animal interface in the dissemination of genetic material from human to cattle and toward wildlife. The study of antibiotic resistance dissemination in multihost systems and at anthropized/natural interface is necessary to better understand and mitigate its multiple threats. These results also contribute to attempts aiming at using E. coli as a tool for the identification of pathogen transmission pathway in multihost systems. PMID:26712551

  1. Description of lesions in cattle in a natural outbreak of Babesia bovis infection in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, J H; Vargas, M I; Bicudo, P L

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes the pathologic features of a natural infection by Babesia bovis (B. argentina) in Brazil. Microscopic examination of cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, heart and spleen of five fatal cases revealed variable degrees of congestion, particularly in the brain, liver and kidney. The packing of erythrocytes, the majority of which were parasitized, was most marked in the capillaries of brain, kidney and less in liver. Lymphocytic glomerulonephritis was observed. Variable degrees of fatty degeneration were noted in the liver, distention of hepatic canaliculi and biliary retention was marked. A strong activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system was evident in all the subjects studied. PMID:6892174

  2. Natural Killer Cell Diversity in Viral Infection: Why and How Much?

    PubMed Central

    Blish, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are a diverse group of innate lymphocytes that are specialized to rapidly respond to cancerous or virus-infected cells. NK cell function is controlled by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory receptors expressed at the cell surface. Variegated expression patterns of these activating and inhibitory receptors at the single cell level leads to a highly diverse NK cell repertoire. Here I review the factors that influence NK cell repertoire diversity and its functional consequences for our ability to fight viruses.

  3. Molecular Ecology and Natural History of Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Wild-Living Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Worobey, Michael; Li, Yingying; Keele, Brandon F.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Guo, Yuanyuan; Goepfert, Paul A.; Santiago, Mario L.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Neel, Cecile; Clifford, Stephen L.; Sanz, Crickette; Kamenya, Shadrack; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Gross-Camp, Nicole; Boesch, Christophe; Smith, Vince; Zamma, Koichiro; Huffman, Michael A.; Mitani, John C.; Watts, David P.; Peeters, Martine; Shaw, George M.; Switzer, William M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724) were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706) or viral nucleic acids (n = 392). SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz); however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp), pol-RT (717 bp), and pol-IN (425 bp) sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus

  4. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem. PMID:22191174

  5. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population. PMID:24330522

  6. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  7. Cardiac lesions in 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F A; Leite, J H A C; Braga, E T; Moreira, P R R; Baltazar, F H; Biondo, A W; Padua, P P M; Vasconcelos, R O; Camacho, A A; Ferreira, W L; Machado, G F; Marcondes, M

    2014-05-01

    The hearts of 30 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. Myocardial lesions were detected in all dogs, including lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (27/30), myonecrosis (24/30), increased interstitial collagen (22/30), lepromatous-type granulomatous myocarditis (7/30), fibrinoid vascular change (3/30), and vasculitis (1/30). The parasite was detected in the hearts of 20 of 30 dogs. The number of parasitized cells correlated with the intensity of the inflammation and with the number of granulomas. The results indicate that cardiac lesions are prevalent in dogs with naturally occurring leishmaniasis even in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac disease. PMID:23794149

  8. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetal fibroblasts with buffalo defined factors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanfei; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Chen, Shibei; Li, Xiangping; Wang, Caizhu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lei, Xiaocan; Zhang, Huina; Sun, Hongliang; Lu, Fenghua; Jiang, Jianrong; Shi, Deshun

    2012-09-01

    Ectopically, expression of defined factors could reprogram mammalian somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which initiates a new strategy to obtain pluripotent stem cell lines. Attempts have been made to generate buffalo pluripotent stem cells by culturing primary germ cells or inner cell mass, but the efficiency is extremely low. Here, we report a successful method to reprogram buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) into pluripotent stem cells [buffalo induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSCs)] by transduction of buffalo defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) using retroviral vectors. The established biPSCs displayed typical morphological characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, normal karyotype, positive staining of alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, E-Cadherin, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, STAT3, and FOXD3. They could form embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas after injecting into the nude BALB/C mice, and 3 germ layers were identified in the EBs and teratomas. Methylation assay revealed that the promoters of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated in biPSCs compared with BFFs and pre-biPSCs, while the promoters of Sox2 and E-Cadherin were hypomethylated in both BFFs and biPSCs. Further, inhibiting p53 expression by coexpression of SV40 large T antigen and buffalo defined factors in BFFs or treating BFFs with p53 inhibitor pifithrin-a (PFT) could increase the efficiency of biPSCs generation up to 3-fold, and nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with biPSCs could develop to blastocysts. These results indicate that BFFs can be reprogrammed into biPSCs by buffalo defined factors, and the generation efficiency of biPSCs can be increased by inhibition of p53 expression. These efforts will provide a feasible approach for investigating buffalo stem cell signal pathways, establishing buffalo stem cell lines, and producing genetic modification buffaloes in the future. PMID:22420535

  9. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:26692260

  10. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months. PMID:25358238

  11. Postmonorchis sp. inq. (Digenea: Monorchiidae) metacercariae infecting natural beds of wedge clam Donax trunculus in Italy.

    PubMed

    Carella, F; Culurgioni, J; Aceto, S; Fichi, G; Pretto, T; Luise, D; Gustinelli, A; De Vico, G

    2013-10-11

    The wedge clam Donax trunculus Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common bivalve molluscs inhabiting the sandy shores of the Mediterranean Sea and is considered an important commercial resource. In this study, we report the first molecular, morphological and histopathological descriptions of metacercariae from a trematode belonging to the genus Postmonorchis (Digenea: Monorchiidae) that infects D. trunculus in natural beds of the Italian Tyrrhenian coast (Campania, Lazio and Tuscany). Morphological analysis of the parasite revealed a combination of features that exist in the 3 previously identified species of Postmonorchis, viz. P. donacis, P. variabilis and P. orthopristis, with the addition of new, distinctive morphological characteristics. The pathogen exhibited a predilection for the gill; however, it was also present in the labial palp and mantle in addition to the gut, kidney epithelium and foot. The inflammatory response was characterised by either a focal or diffuse haemocyte infiltration followed by the formation of multiple, large multi-layered capsules associated with tissue destruction. The prevalence of the pathogen ranged from 75 to 100%, while the infection intensity fluctuated among the study areas. Further studies regarding the life cycle of this parasite and the identification of other larval and adult stages and their respective hosts may confirm the identification of a new species of Postmonorchis that infects wedge clams in Mediterranean waters. The study of the parasite is completed by molecular analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences. PMID:24113249

  12. Presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen of naturally infected asymptomatic rams.

    PubMed

    Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; Gómez-Martín, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma), the main causative agent of ovine contagious agalactia (CA), in semen of naturally infected rams. Therefore, semen samples from 167 rams residing in three different artificial insemination (AI) centers of a CA-endemic area were studied by microbiological and molecular techniques. In addition, serial ejaculates from the same rams were evaluated to determine the excretion dynamics of Ma. Of the 384 samples studied, Ma was detected in 56 (14.58%) which belonged to 44 different rams (26.35%). These findings confirm the ability of Ma to be excreted in semen of asymptomatic rams. Furthermore, these results also evidence the presence of these asymptomatic carriers of Ma in ovine AI centers, representing a serious health risk regarding the spread and maintenance of CA, especially in endemic areas. Moreover, the excretion of Ma in semen also points to the risk of venereal transmission of this disease. The current results highlight the need to implement control measures to prevent the admission of infected rams in AI centers and the necessity to continuously monitor semen samples to effectively detect infected individuals. PMID:27045625

  13. Detection and characterisation of hepatitis E virus in naturally infected swine in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Zoran; Novosel, Dinko; Vojta, Lea; Roić, Besi; Simpraga, Miljenko; Vojta, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a viral zoonotic disease infecting swine worldwide. Since pigs represent a likely animal reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, the epidemiology of naturally occurring hepatitis E was investigated in Croatian swine herds. Nearly all tested animals were seropositive for antibodies against the hepatitis E virus (55/60, 91.7%). Active infection was detected in all age groups by RT-PCR of viral RNA in serum (8/60, 13.3%) and bile samples (3/37, 8.1%), which was further confirmed by histopathological findings of characteristic lesions in the livers of the infected animals. Three new strains of hepatitis E virus were isolated from Croatian pig herds. Phylogenetic analysis using median-joining networks clustered those Croatian strains with isolates from various parts of the world, indicating their likely origin in international trade. Similarity to human isolates implies a zoonotic potential of Croatian strains, which raises a public health concern, especially in the light of the high prevalence of hepatitis E in the herds studied. PMID:23974940

  14. Human Invariant Natural Killer T cells possess immune-modulating functions during Aspergillus infection.

    PubMed

    Beitzen-Heineke, Antonia; Bouzani, Maria; Schmitt, Anna-Lena; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin; Einsele, Hermann; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause for invasive fungal infections, a disease associated with high mortality in immune-compromised patients. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells compose a small subset of T cells known to impact the immune response toward various infectious pathogens. To investigate the role of human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection, we studied their activation as determined by CD69 expression and cytokine production in response to distinct fungal morphotypes in the presence of different CD1d(+) antigen presenting cells using flow cytometry and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among CD1d(+) subpopulations, CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs showed the highest potential to activate iNKT cells on a per cell basis. The presence of A. fumigatus decreased this effect of CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs on iNKT cells and led to reduced secretion of TNF-α, G-CSF and RANTES. Production of other Th1 and Th2 cytokines was not affected by the fungus, suggesting an immune-modulating function for human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection. PMID:26483428

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Devilliers, Hervé; Yssel, Hans; Mombo, Illich; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Debré, Patrice; Leroy, Eric; Vieillard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. Methodology We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients. Principal Findings We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Conclusions/Significance Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections. PMID:26938618

  16. Immunological characterization of a bacterial protein isolated from salmonid fish naturally infected with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sergio H; Conejeros, Pablo; Zahr, Marcela; Olivares, Jorge; Gómez, Fernando; Cataldo, Patricio; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2007-03-01

    The Salmon Rickettsia syndrome (SRS) remains a major infectious disease in the Chilean aquaculture. A limited number of Piscirickettsia salmonis proteins have been characterized so far for their use as potential candidates for vaccines studies. In this study, we identified and expressed a highly immunogenic protein of P. salmonis extracted by selective hydrophobicity from crude-cell macerates of naturally infected salmonid fish. One and two-D PAGE gels followed by Western blot analysis with a battery of polyclonal anti-P. salmonis antibodies have allowed the isolation of the target protein. Basic local alignment search (BLAST) done after partial sequencing of the pure protein identified it as a member of the heat-shock protein (HSP) family of prokaryotes. The protein, named ChaPs, was cloned as a single open reading frame encoding 545 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 57.3 kDa. The amplicon representing the entire novel gene was expressed in vitro in different heterologous systems: the PurePro Caulobacter crescentus expression system from where most of the characterization was attained, and also in the Escherichia coli BL-21 CodonPlus model for commercially potential purposes. The immunologic potential of ChaPs was determined with serum from naturally infected fish. PMID:17250933

  17. A Critical Role of Natural Immunoglobulin M in Immediate Defense Against Systemic Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Marianne; Prodeus, Andrey P.; Schmidt, Tara; Carroll, Michael C.; Chen, Jianzhu

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the role of natural immunoglobulin (Ig)M in the immediate response against microbial infection, we tested mutant mice that are deficient in secreted (s)IgM in an acute peritonitis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). 20% of wild-type mice died within 32 h of CLP, whereas 70% of sIgM-deficient mice died within the same time period. The increased susceptibility was associated with a reduced level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a decreased neutrophil recruitment and an increased bacterial load in the peritoneum, and elevated levels of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines in the circulation. Resistance to CLP by sIgM-deficient mice was restored by reconstitution with polyclonal IgM from normal mouse serum. Reconstitution with a monoclonal IgM specific to phosphatidylcholine, a conserved cell membrane component, has a modest effect but a monoclonal IgM specific to phosphocholine is not protective. These findings demonstrate a critical role of natural IgM in the immediate defense against severe bacterial infection. PMID:9858525

  18. Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

  19. Expression of NRAMP1 and iNOS in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Delgado, F; Estrada-Chávez, C; Romano, M; Paolicchi, F; Blanco-Viera, F; Capellino, F; Chavez-Gris, G; Pereira-Suárez, A L

    2010-09-01

    Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects several animal species, and some studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between Crohn's disease and PTB. Significant aspects of PTB pathogenesis are not yet completely understood, such as the role of macrophages. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecules have shown nonspecific effects against several intracellular pathogens residing within macrophages. However, these molecules have been scarcely studied during natural infection with MAP. In this work, changes in NRAMP1 and iNOS expression were surveyed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from MAP-infected cattle and healthy controls. Our findings show strong specific immunolabeling against both NRAMP1 and iNOS molecules, throughout granulomatous PTB-compatible lesions in ileum and ileocaecal lymph nodes from paratuberculous cattle compared with uninfected controls, suggesting a relationship between the expression of these molecules and the pathogenesis of PTB disease. PMID:19345998

  20. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Essam A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs. PMID:27047014

  1. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  2. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  3. Pathomorphological, immunohistochemical and bacteriological findings in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with S. Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Tunca, R; Toplu, N; Kırkan, S; Avci, H; Aydoğan, A; Epikmen, E T; Tekbiyik, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the pathological and bacteriological findings and diagnosis by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with Salmonella gallinarum obtained from three commercial budgerigar rearing farms. The course of the disease in young budgerigars was peracute or acute, whereas in adult budgerigars the disease was acute or chronic. Clinically, yellow-white diarrhoea was observed in the young budgerigars with the acute form. In the adult budgerigars with the acute and chronic forms, a decrease in feed and water consumption with loss in body condition together with greenish-yellow diarrhoea was generally noted. Peritonitis and pericarditis were the most common findings in young budgerigars at necropsy, while in adult budgerigars scattered grey-white necrotic foci were found in the livers. Histopathologically, the lesions in young budgerigars were characterized with fibrinonecrotic peritonitis and/or pericarditis and necrotic hepatitis. In adult budgerigars with acute infection, hepatic necrosis with focal heterophil infiltration was present; whilst lesions in the chronic cases were granulomatous in nature with the infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and histiocytes. For the detection of S. Gallinarum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex and immunofluorescence methods were used. Both methods showed bacteria to be localized in the liver, kidney, peritoneum, heart, spleen and intestines of both young and adult budgerigars. The results of the present study indicate that the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was more sensitive than the immunofluorescence method in the detection of the bacteria. PMID:22515538

  4. Detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum in naturally and experimentally infected animal samples.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Porrozzi, Renato; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Vallejo, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2016-08-15

    Leishmania infantum is one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and can be fatal if it is not properly treated. Although several PCR works are intended to detect L. infantum, in silico analysis of available primers and/or primer-probes reveals potential cross species amplification. Here, a TaqMan-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of L. infantum in tissue samples from experimentally or naturally infected animals, mice or dogs, respectively. For this assay, primers and probes were designed for the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of L. infantum. The qPCR assay achieved a detection limit of 0.01pg of parasite DNA, and allowed specific amplification of L. infantum in both asymptomatic and symptomatic naturally infected dogs with inter-assay variation coefficients between 0.05-0.11. There was no cross amplification with dog DNA or with L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica or Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, our assay detected a significantly higher parasite load in symptomatic than in the asymptomatic animals (p<0.0001). We believe this approach will be a valuable tool for the specific detection of L. infantum in regions of sympatric transmission of VL-causing parasites. PMID:27514885

  5. Curcumin and its analogues: a potential natural compound against HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2015-11-01

    No safe and effective cure currently exists for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, antiretroviral therapy can prolong the lives of HIV patients and lowers the secondary infections. Natural compounds, which are considered to be pleiotropic molecules, could be useful against HIV. Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can be used for the treatment of several diseases including HIV-AIDS because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antibacterial nature. In this review we have summarized that how curcumin and its analogues inhibit the infection and replication of viral genes and prevent multiplicity of HIV. They are inhibitors of HIV protease and integrase. Curcumin also inhibits Tat transactivation of the HIV1-LTR genome, inflammatory molecules (interleukins, TNF-α, NF-κB, COX-2) and HIV associated various kinases including tyrosine kinase, PAK1, MAPK, PKC, cdk and others. In addition, curcumin enhances the effect of conventional therapeutic drugs and minimizes their side effects. PMID:26404185

  6. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the California Culex pipiens mosquito species complex: parameter estimates and infection dynamics in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Rasgon, Jason L; Scott, Thomas W

    2003-01-01

    Before maternally inherited bacterial symbionts like Wolbachia, which cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; reduced hatch rate) when infected males mate with uninfected females, can be used in a program to control vector-borne diseases it is essential to understand their dynamics of infection in natural arthropod vector populations. Our study had four goals: (1) quantify the number of Wolbachia strains circulating in the California Culex pipiens species complex, (2) investigate Wolbachia infection frequencies and distribution in natural California populations, (3) estimate the parameters that govern Wolbachia spread among Cx. pipiens under laboratory and field conditions, and (4) use these values to estimate equilibrium levels and compare predicted infection prevalence levels to those observed in nature. Strain-specific PCR, wsp gene sequencing, and crossing experiments indicated that a single Wolbachia strain infects Californian Cx. pipiens. Infection frequency was near or at fixation in all populations sampled for 2 years along a >1000-km north-south transect. The combined statewide infection frequency was 99.4%. Incompatible crosses were 100% sterile under laboratory and field conditions. Sterility decreased negligibly with male age in the laboratory. Infection had no significant effect on female fecundity under laboratory or field conditions. Vertical transmission was >99% in the laboratory and approximately 98.6% in the field. Using field data, models predicted that Wolbachia will spread to fixation if infection exceeds an unstable equilibrium point above 1.4%. Our estimates accurately predicted infection frequencies in natural populations. If certain technical hurdles can be overcome, our data indicate that Wolbachia can invade vector populations as part of an applied transgenic strategy for vector-borne disease reduction. PMID:14704183

  7. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  8. A Natural Genetic Variant of Granzyme B Confers Lethality to a Common Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Andoniou, Christopher E.; Sutton, Vivien R.; Wikstrom, Matthew E.; Fleming, Peter; Thia, Kevin Y. T.; Matthews, Antony Y.; Kaiserman, Dion; Schuster, Iona S.; Coudert, Jerome D.; Eldi, Preethi; Chaudhri, Geeta; Karupiah, Gunasegaran; Bird, Phillip I.

    2014-01-01

    Many immune response genes are highly polymorphic, consistent with the selective pressure imposed by pathogens over evolutionary time, and the need to balance infection control with the risk of auto-immunity. Epidemiological and genomic studies have identified many genetic variants that confer susceptibility or resistance to pathogenic micro-organisms. While extensive polymorphism has been reported for the granzyme B (GzmB) gene, its relevance to pathogen immunity is unexplored. Here, we describe the biochemical and cytotoxic functions of a common allele of GzmB (GzmBW) common in wild mouse. While retaining ‘Asp-ase’ activity, GzmBW has substrate preferences that differ considerably from GzmBP, which is common to all inbred strains. In vitro, GzmBW preferentially cleaves recombinant Bid, whereas GzmBP activates pro-caspases directly. Recombinant GzmBW and GzmBP induced equivalent apoptosis of uninfected targets cells when delivered with perforin in vitro. Nonetheless, mice homozygous for GzmBW were unable to control murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, and succumbed as a result of excessive liver damage. Although similar numbers of anti-viral CD8 T cells were generated in both mouse strains, GzmBW-expressing CD8 T cells isolated from infected mice were unable to kill MCMV-infected targets in vitro. Our results suggest that known virally-encoded inhibitors of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway account for the increased susceptibility of GzmBW mice to MCMV. We conclude that different natural variants of GzmB have a profound impact on the immune response to a common and authentic viral pathogen. PMID:25502180

  9. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  10. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation methods.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2014-04-01

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. Intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions. There were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. IOP inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas INP inoculation at similar doses resulted in delayed, or completely absent infection. All pigs that developed clinical infection had detectable levels of FMDV RNA in their oropharynx directly following inoculation. Furthermore, FMDV antigens were localized to the oropharyngeal tonsils suggesting a role in early infection. The utility of IOP inoculation was further demonstrated in a vaccine-challenge experiment. Thus, the novel system of IOP inoculation described herein, offers a valid alternative to traditionally used systems for FMDV inoculation of pigs, applicable for experimental studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology. PMID:24548596

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-05-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  13. EUROGIN 2014 roadmap: differences in human papillomavirus infection natural history, transmission and human papillomavirus-related cancer incidence by gender and anatomic site of infection.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Nyitray, Alan G; Kreimer, Aimée R; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Goodman, Marc T; Sudenga, Staci L; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-06-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cancer at multiple anatomic sites in men and women, including cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, vulvar and vaginal cancers in women and oropharyngeal, anal and penile cancers in men. In this EUROGIN 2014 roadmap, differences in HPV-related cancer and infection burden by gender and anatomic site are reviewed. The proportion of cancers attributable to HPV varies by anatomic site, with nearly 100% of cervical, 88% of anal and <50% of lower genital tract and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to HPV, depending on world region and prevalence of tobacco use. Often, mirroring cancer incidence rates, HPV prevalence and infection natural history varies by gender and anatomic site of infection. Oral HPV infection is rare and significantly differs by gender; yet, HPV-related cancer incidence at this site is several-fold higher than at either the anal canal or the penile epithelium. HPV seroprevalence is significantly higher among women compared to men, likely explaining the differences in age-specific HPV prevalence and incidence patterns observed by gender. Correspondingly, among heterosexual partners, HPV transmission appears higher from women to men. More research is needed to characterize HPV natural history at each anatomic site where HPV causes cancer in men and women, information that is critical to inform the basic science of HPV natural history and the development of future infection and cancer prevention efforts. PMID:25043222

  14. The Buffalo Medical Journal: 1845-1919.

    PubMed Central

    Sentz, L

    1985-01-01

    Fielding H. Garrison's paper "The medical periodical and the scientific society" cited the Buffalo Medical Journal in the company of eminent periodicals published in Berlin, Boston, and Edinburgh. This article provides an overview of the Journal and places it in context of 19th-century medical journalism. The Journal is assessed in terms of original scientific contributions and as a source of social and local history. Images PMID:3896357

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  16. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26. PMID:27274850

  17. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  18. Stress dependent infection cost of the human malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum on its natural vector Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Sangare, I; Dabire, R; Yameogo, B; Da, D F; Michalakis, Y; Cohuet, A

    2014-07-01

    Unraveling selective forces that shape vector-parasite interactions has critical implications for malaria control. However, it remains unclear whether Plasmodium infection induces a fitness cost to their natural mosquito vectors. Moreover, environmental conditions are known to affect infection outcome and may impact the effect of infection on mosquito fitness. We investigated in the laboratory the effects of exposition to and infection by field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum on fecundity and survival of a major vector in the field, Anopheles coluzzii under different conditions of access to sugar resources after blood feeding. The results evidenced fitness costs induced by exposition and infection. When sugar was available after blood meal, infected and exposed mosquitoes had either reduced or equal to survival to unexposed mosquitoes while fecundity was either increased or decreased depending on the blood donor. Under strong nutritional stress, survival was reduced for exposed and infected mosquitoes in all assays. We therefore provide here evidence of an environmental-dependant reduced survival in mosquitoes exposed to infection in a natural and one of the most important parasite-mosquito species associations for human malaria transmission. PMID:24747607

  19. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    demonstrates, for the first time in Tunisia, natural infection of hedgehog animals (Atelerix algirus) by the Leishmania parasites species L. major and L. infantum. L. major is also detected for the first time in wild animals captured in the North Western part of the country; likewise for the co-infection of these animals by the 2 Leishmania species. This mammal could play a potential reservoir role in epidemiology of SCL or ZCL and could contribute to emergence or extension of ZCL in the studied region. PMID:26086952

  20. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  1. Prospects for flavonoid and related phytochemicals as nature-inspired treatments for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoqian; Alam, Zahidul; Feng, Li; Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Sun, Dianqing; Hurdle, Julian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims There is a need for novel treatments for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Antibacterial flavonoids are part of a large family of polyphenol phytochemicals with a long history of use in ethnomedicine, but are unexamined against C. difficile. We explored their anti-difficile properties. Methods and Results Anti-difficile activities were determined for several naturally occurring flavonoids, olympicin A and synthetic 4-chromanone and chalcone analogs. With the exception of olympicin A, most naturally occurring phytochemicals tested were poorly active. Diversified synthetic flavonoids resembling olympicin A retained anti-difficile activity, suggesting olympicin A could act as a pharmacophore to obtain novel agents. They also demonstrated concentration dependent killing of logarithmic and stationary phase cultures and reduced sporulation and toxin production. Olympicin A and some synthetic flavonoids dissipated the bacterial transmembrane potential. Interestingly, mutants could only be selected with the analog 207 at a frequency of 10-9. Conclusions Based on the potent anti-difficile properties of olympicin A and modified flavonoids, further exploration of this class of phytochemicals is warranted. Significance and Impact of the Study CDI is a major problem in developed countries. These studies point to there being an avenue for optimizing plant-derived flavonoids, and related antibacterial phytochemicals, as nature-inspired approaches to treat CDI. PMID:24479135

  2. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species. PMID:22834371

  3. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  4. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  5. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. PMID:23886616

  6. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected. PMID:27044415

  7. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  8. An epidemiological study of natural in utero infection with bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, M C; Carter, R L; Puhr, D M; Burridge, M J; Miller, J M; Schmerr, M J; Van der Maaten, M J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of natural in utero infection with bovine leukemia virus for association with breed, sex, dam age, dam parity and time of maternal seroconversion. Analyses conducted for breed and sex, dam age and parity and time of maternal seroconversion were the FUNCAT procedure for categorical data, Wilcoxon Rank Sums test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. A total of 223 calves born between July 1979, and September 1980, to cows infected with bovine leukemia virus in the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit herd were tested for detectable bovine leukemia virus antibodies prior to the consumption of colostrum. Sera were tested for antibodies by agar-gel immunodiffusion and radioimmunoprecipitation using the glycoprotein-51 antigen. In a group of 125 calves in which in utero infection could be confirmed through serological follow-up (group A), eight calves (6.4%) had precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies. For all 223 calves (group B), 18 (8.1%) had detectable bovine leukemia virus antibodies. For calves in group A, no associations were detected between precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies and breed (p = 0.66), dam age (p = 0.86), dam parity (p = 0.83), or time of maternal seroconversion to bovine leukemia virus (p = 0.50). However, precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies were found in 17.4% of the males and 3.6% of the females in group A (p = 0.11) and in 12.4% of the males and 3.6% of the females in group B (p = 0.04). PMID:6315199

  9. Quasispecies composition and phylogenetic analysis of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Mara; Coradin, Tiziana; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Ciulli, Sara; Ostanello, Fabio; Prosperi, Santino; Morganti, Luigi

    2003-11-28

    Quasispecies composition and tissue distribution of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) were studied in naturally infected cats. The genomic complexity of FCoVs was investigated using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of N and ORF7b amplicons, and the evolutionary process was investigated by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. SSCP analysis showed high heterogeneity of the FCoV genome which was correlated with the seriousness of the clinical form. The two genomic regions analysed showed different levels of variation; the N region demonstrated significant heterogeneity as compared to ORF7b. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the clear separation of sequences analysed on the basis of virulence and geographical origin. A maximum likelihood analysis of N and ORF7b data sets showed a situation of strong heterogeneity for the N region. PMID:14625097

  10. Natural Infection of the Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus spp.) with Echinococcus granulosus in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu Rong; Liu, Tianxi; Bai, Xueli; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira; Zhang, Jan Zhong; Giraudoux, Patrick; McManus, Donald P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Echinococcus granulosus is usually transmitted between canid definitive hosts and ungulate intermediate hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings Lesions found in the livers of ground squirrels, Spermophilus dauricus/alashanicus, trapped in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, an area in China co-endemic for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, were subjected to molecular genotyping for Echinococcus spp. DNA. One of the lesions was shown to be caused by E. granulosus and subsequently by histology to contain viable protoscoleces. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of a natural infection of the ground squirrel with E. granulosus. This does not provide definitive proof of a cycle involving ground squirrels and dogs or foxes, but it is clear that there is active E. granulosus transmission occurring in this area, despite a recent past decline in the dog population in southern Ningxia. PMID:19771151

  11. African great apes are naturally infected with polyomaviruses closely related to Merkel cell polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Cameron, Kenneth N; Kidega, Tonny; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Boesch, Christophe; Calvignac, Sébastien; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infects humans worldwide, but little is known about the occurrence of viruses related to MCPyV in the closest phylogenetic relatives of humans, great apes. We analyzed samples from 30 wild chimpanzees and one captive gorilla and identified two new groups of polyomaviruses (PyVs). These new viruses are by far the closest relatives to MCPyV described to date, providing the first evidence of the natural occurrence of PyVs related to MCPyV in wild great apes. Similar to MCPyV, the prevalence of these viruses is relatively high (>30%). This, together with the fact that humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates, may point toward further MCPyV-like strains spreading to, or already existing in, our species. PMID:21047967

  12. Natural fatal Sarcocystis falcatula infections in free-ranging eagles in North America.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A; Hall, Natalie; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Vaughn, Samuel B; Barr, Bradd C

    2010-03-01

    Three bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) were admitted to rehabilitation facilities with emaciation, lethargy, and an inability to fly. Intravascular schizonts and merozoites were present in 2 bald eagles, mainly in the lung tissue, whereas the third bald eagle and the golden eagle had lymphohistiocytic encephalitis with intralesional schizonts and merozoites. In all eagles, protozoal tissue cysts were present in skeletal musculature or heart. The protozoal organisms were morphologically compatible with a Sarcocystis sp. By immunohistochemistry, the protozoal merozoites were positive for Sarcocystis falcatula antigen in all cases when using polyclonal antisera. Furthermore, the protozoa were confirmed to be most similar to S. falcatula by polymerase chain reaction in 3 of the 4 cases. To the authors' knowledge, this report presents the first cases of natural infection in eagles with S. falcatula as a cause of mortality. PMID:20224094

  13. Morphological characterization of Cysticercus cellulosae in naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Chawhan, Pradeep; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Rajnish; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-06-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is an important medical and veterinary concern in the developing world. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological characteristics of Cysticercus cellulosae, so as to differentiate the C. viscerotropica (larval form of T. asiatica) which is having only rudimentary hooks on their rostellum. Morphological analysis was conducted on 22 Cysticercus positive samples. Measurements for number of hooks (large and small), the total length and blade length of large and small hooks per rostellum were carried out as per previous studies. Microscopic examination of all the cysts showed typical characteristic of T. solium i.e. presence of hooks in all the cysts. The results indicated absence of T. asiatica from naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India). PMID:27413285

  14. Molecular Identification of a Trichinella Isolate from a Naturally Infected Pig in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling Zhao; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Ren, Hui Jun

    2011-01-01

    The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China. PMID:22355205

  15. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma. PMID:24317268

  16. Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

    1985-12-01

    The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

  17. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  18. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  19. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives Anchorage A. Inside the south...

  20. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  1. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  2. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  3. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  4. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus in productive lesions after natural infection.

    PubMed

    Salvermoser, Melanie; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Braspenning-Wesch, Ilona; Hasche, Daniel; Rösl, Frank; Vinzón, Sabrina E

    2016-07-01

    Mastomys coucha, an African rodent, is a useful animal model of papillomavirus infection, as it develops both premalignant and malignant skin tumors as a consequence of a persistent infection with Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV). In this study, we mapped the MnPV transcriptome in productive lesions by both classical molecular techniques and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Combination of these methods revealed a complex and comprehensive transcription map, with novel splicing events not described in other papillomaviruses. Furthermore, these splicing occurrences could potentially lead to the expression of novel E2, E1∧E4, E7 and L2 isoforms. Expression level estimation of each transcript showed that late-region mRNAs considerably outnumber early transcripts, with species coding for L1 and E1∧E4 being the most abundant. In summary, the full transcription map assembled in this study will allow us to further understand MnPV gene expression and the mechanisms that lead to natural tumour development. PMID:27043420

  6. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Maltez, Vivien I; Tubbs, Alan L; Cook, Kevin D; Aachoui, Youssef; Falcone, E Liana; Holland, Steven M; Whitmire, Jason K; Miao, Edward A

    2015-11-17

    Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26572063

  7. Expression of two novel proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Myers, G S; Grinvalds, R; Booth, S; Hutton, S I; Binks, M; Kemp, D J; Sriprakash, K S

    2000-08-01

    Genes for a putative membrane associated protein (mvi -homologue) and a 48 kDa protein (ctr48) in Chlamydia trachomatis were characterized. The mvi -homologue has 12 transmembrane domains and shows considerable homology to the members of this gene family in various organisms. The ctr48 has a leader sequence and the C-proximal half is tryptophan-rich. The latter region shares 65% identity with the N-proxima third of C. pneumoniae 76 kDa protein over an overlap of 231 amino acid residues. The genes for the mvi -homologue and the ctr48 are present in the B, Ba, D, E, J and L2 serotypes of C. trachomatis. Immediately downstream from the ctr48 gene are multiple stop codons which are followed by a functional rho-independent terminator. The mvi -homologue and ctr48 genes are independently transcribed, albeit poorly in serotype B. However, protein products corresponding to these genes could not be detected by western blotting in HEp2 cells infected with C. trachomatis. Nevertheless, antibodies to peptides corresponding to these proteins were detected in sera with high micro-immunofluorescence titre against C. trachoImatic, collected from a Chlamydia -endemic population. These results suggest that the mvi -homologue and ctr48 are expressed by C. trachomatis during natural infection. PMID:10906261

  8. Proteomic analysis of Ascaridia galli. Identification of immunoreactive proteins in naturally and experimentally infected hens.

    PubMed

    González-Miguel, Javier; Marcos-Atxutegi, Cristina; de Castello, Roberta Bottari; Carpani, Sara; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2013-09-23

    Ascaridia galli, intestinal parasite of domestic fowl, is responsible of economic losses in avian exploitations. However, molecular mechanisms that govern avian ascaridiasis remain largely unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify proteins of A. galli recognized by the immune system of naturally and experimentally infected hens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Sixteen immunoreactive proteins of A. galli were identified. These proteins are mainly related to different metabolic processes, cell motility and binding activities. The timing evolution of this recognition pattern was studied using serum samples from experimentally infected hens, allowing us to observe an early recognition of many of these antigens. Many of them were isoforms from lipid and plasminogen-binding proteins. Moreover, plasminogen-binding activity has been related in other parasites with the facilitation of intra-organic migration, which represents an important fact in avian ascaridiasis. This work represents the first proteomic study of A. galli and could contribute to explain some aspects of parasite/host relationships of avian ascaridiasis. PMID:23578998

  9. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance. PMID:27028780

  10. Evidence of Leishmania infantum infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a natural area in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    García, Nerea; Moreno, Inmaculada; Alvarez, Julio; de la Cruz, María Luisa; Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  11. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  12. Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

    2006-02-18

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions. PMID:16289862

  13. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness. PMID:9698835

  14. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72). The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78). Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany. PMID:22463789

  15. A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Lidani, Kárita Cláudia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite. PMID:25004147

  16. Immunological profile of resistance and susceptibility in naturally infected dogs by Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Leal, Gleisiane Gomes; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Francisco, Amanda Fortes; Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle; Mathias, Fernando Augusto Siqueira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-10-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis has a great impact on public health, and dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causal parasite. In this study, 159 animals naturally infected by L. infantum from an endemic area of Brazil were evaluated through an analysis of cellular responses, using flow cytometry, and of the hematological parameters. The results confirmed that disease progression is associated with anemia and reductions in eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. The investigation of the immune response, based on the immunophenotypic profile of peripheral blood, showed declines in the absolute numbers of T lymphocytes CD5(+) and their subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and a drop of B lymphocytes in asymptomatic seropositive (AD-II) and symptomatic seropositive (SD) dogs. Neutrophils, when stimulated with soluble antigen of L. infantum, showed higher synthesis of interferon (IFN)-γ(+) in AD-II and SD groups, with decreased production of interleukin (IL)-4(+) in asymptomatic seronegative dogs positive for L. infantum infection based on polymerase chain reaction testing (AD-I group). In the AD-II and SD groups, subpopulations of stimulated lymphocytes (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) also exhibited greater synthesis of IFN-γ(+) and IL-4(+) in culture. These results suggest that the animals of the AD-II and SD groups exhibited a mixed immune response (Type 1 and 2) and the AD-I group presenting an immune profile very similar to normal control animals. PMID:25234767

  17. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  18. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  19. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...

  20. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...

  1. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2010-07-15

    In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID

  2. Influenza Virus in a Natural Host, the Mallard: Experimental Infection Data

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Elsa; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Wahlgren, John; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Bröjer, Caroline; Sahlin, Sofie; Svensson, Lovisa; Waldenström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Åke; Olsen, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), are considered the main reservoir of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). They carry viruses that may evolve and become highly pathogenic for poultry or zoonotic. Understanding the ecology of LPAIVs in these natural hosts is therefore essential. We assessed the clinical response, viral shedding and antibody production of juvenile mallards after intra-esophageal inoculation of two LPAIV subtypes previously isolated from wild congeners. Six ducks, equipped with data loggers that continually monitored body temperature, heart rate and activity, were successively inoculated with an H7N7 LPAI isolate (day 0), the same H7N7 isolate again (day 21) and an H5N2 LPAI isolate (day 35). After the first H7N7 inoculation, the ducks remained alert with no modification of heart rate or activity. However, body temperature transiently increased in four individuals, suggesting that LPAIV strains may have minor clinical effects on their natural hosts. The excretion patterns observed after both re-inoculations differed strongly from those observed after the primary H7N7 inoculation, suggesting that not only homosubtypic but also heterosubtypic immunity exist. Our study suggests that LPAI infection has minor clinically measurable effects on mallards and that mallard ducks are able to mount immunological responses protective against heterologous infections. Because the transmission dynamics of LPAIVs in wild populations is greatly influenced by individual susceptibility and herd immunity, these findings are of high importance. Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals. PMID:20126617

  3. Natural infection of cortelezzii complex (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) with Leishmania braziliensis in Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juan; Pereira, Daniela Pita; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade; Salomón, Oscar; Szelag, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    In Argentina, American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) extends up to 29°S in the phytogeographic regions of the Yungas (west), Chaco (center) and Paranaense (east). Since the Phlebotominae vectors of this disease in the western Chaco (dry Chaco) are unknown, in the present work, we studied the natural infection in Phlebotominae by PCR-ERFLP and Dot blot in order to incriminate these organisms as potential vectors. Captures with CDC-type traps were performed monthly in the domicile, the peridomicile and the forest in the Municipio Misión Nueva Pompeya, Chaco, Argentina, in two sites with human cases of ACL: Los Pozos (24°54'S, 61°22'W) and Fortín Arenales (24°58'S, 61°21'W), from November 2006 to December 2007. A total of 1702 Phlebotominae were captured: Mygonemyia migonei (83.8%), cortelezzii complex (11.1%), Mycropigomyia peresi (3.3%), Mycropygomy quinquefer (1.2%), Pintomyia torresi (0.2%) and Nyssomyia neivai (0.2%). Although no significant differences were found in species diversity, there were significant differences in abundance between both sites studied. A total of 80 phlebotomine females were analyzed: 50 of the cortelezzii complex and 30 My. migonei. No intestinal flagellates were observed by light microscopy. Two pools of 10 individuals of the cortelezzii complex of the peridomicile and forest of Fortín Arenales were reactive by PCR and Dot blot for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In Argentina, Evandromyia cortelezzii has been incriminated as a likely vector of ACL because of its abundance in areas of sporadic outbreaks. In the present work, Ev. cortelezzii females were found naturally infected, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that the members of the cortelezzii complex act as vectors of the disease. PMID:22569560

  4. Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Saudi Arabia: Light microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected rabbits in Saudi Arabia were described. The prevalence of infection was 75%. Oocysts were ovoid to elliptical and measured 16 × 10 μm. The four dizoic sporocysts were ovoid and measured 7 × 5 μm. Endogenous stages were restricted to the duodenum. Meronts, microgamonts, macrogamonts and young oocysts were recorded and described. PMID:23961159

  5. Interferon γ and interleukin 10 responses in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel; Arce-Mendoza, Alma Y; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Heidi G; Trejo-Chávez, Armando

    2016-09-01

    Levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured in the serum of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animals treated with the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone (Dex). The role of IL-10 in infected rabbits remains unclear, as IL-10 levels were similar to those of negative controls. Dex appeared to exhibit a proinflammatory effect, as IFN-γ levels were elevated in infected immunosuppressed rabbits. Similarly, Dex exhibited a synergic effect in infected immunosuppressed rabbits, as evidenced by the elevation in IFN-γ production. These data indicate that the immune response to this glucocorticoid should be considered in the design of future animal model studies of immunosuppression. PMID:27156850

  6. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. Method From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. Results In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans. PMID:24499381

  7. Lower numbers of natural killer T cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Karina I; Bruno, Fernanda R; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Maeda, Solange M; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marilia B; Haslett, Patrick A; Nixon, Douglas F; Kallas, Esper G

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes that recognize antigens presented by CD1d and have attracted attention because of their potential role linking innate and adaptive immune responses. Peripheral NKT cells display a memory-activated phenotype and can rapidly secrete large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon antigenic activation. In this study, we evaluated NKT cells in the context of patients co-infected with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae. The volunteers were enrolled into four groups: 22 healthy controls, 23 HIV-1-infected patients, 20 patients with leprosy and 17 patients with leprosy and HIV-1-infection. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT assays were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We demonstrated that patients co-infected with HIV-1 and M. leprae have significantly lower NKT cell frequencies [median 0.022%, interquartile range (IQR): 0.007–0.051] in the peripheral blood when compared with healthy subjects (median 0.077%, IQR: 0.032–0.405, P < 0.01) or HIV-1 mono-infected patients (median 0.072%, IQR: 0.030–0.160, P < 0.05). Also, more NKT cells from co-infected patients secreted interferon-γ after stimulation with DimerX, when compared with leprosy mono-infected patients (P = 0.05). These results suggest that NKT cells are decreased in frequency in HIV-1 and M. leprae co-infected patients compared with HIV-1 mono-infected patients alone, but are at a more activated state. Innate immunity in human subjects is strongly influenced by their spectrum of chronic infections, and in HIV-1-infected subjects, a concurrent mycobacterial infection probably hyper-activates and lowers circulating NKT cell numbers. PMID:22269018

  8. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL TRICHODINA SP.PARASITISM ON EXPERIMENTAL STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OR Streptococcus AGALACTIAE INFECTION AND SURVIVAL OF YOUNG CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS (RAFINESQUE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  9. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrödl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n = 21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n = 3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  10. Distribution of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Western Gray Squirrels (Sciurus griseus)

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kelly; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Lane, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi infections within its natural hosts are poorly understood. We necropsied four wild-caught western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) that were acquired during a previous study that evaluated the reservoir competence of this rodent for the Lyme disease spirochete. One animal was infected experimentally, whereas the others were infected in the wild before capture. To investigate dissemination of B. burgdorferi and concurrent histopathologic lesions in different tissues, blood specimens, synovial and cerebrospinal fluid, ear-punch biopsies, and diverse tissue samples from skin and various organs were taken and examined by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histology. Borrelia-positive cultures were obtained from three of the squirrels, that is, from skin biopsies (7 of 20 samples), ear-punch biopsies (2 of 8), and one (1 of 5) lymph node. Sequencing of amplicons confirmed B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) infection in 9 of 10 culture-positive samples and in DNA extracted from all 10 positive cultures. The experimentally infected squirrel yielded most of the positive samples. In contrast, bodily fluids, all other organ specimens from these animals, and all samples from one naturally infected squirrel were negative for Borrelia for both assays. None of the necropsied squirrels exhibited specific clinical signs associated with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, necropsy and histological examination of tissues indicated the presence of underlying infectious processes, none of which could be ascribed conclusively to B. burgdorferi infection. Based on these results, obtained from a small number of animals investigated at a single time point, we suggest that B. burgdorferi s.s. infection in S. griseus may result in rather localized dissemination of spirochetes, and that mild or nonclinical disease might be more common after several months of infection duration. Since spirochetes could be detected in squirrels 7–21 months

  11. Detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia vogeli, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the Brain of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Cardinot, Cinthya B; Silva, José E S; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Nunes, Cáris M; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Rafael F C; Junior, João P Araujo; Marcondes, Mary

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Leishmania infantum and possible co-infection with Anaplasma platys , Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis , and Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of 24 dogs naturally infected by L. infantum . A total of 24 mongrel adult dogs (22 clinically affected, 2 with neurological signs, and 2 subclinically infected) aged between 2 and 5 yr, naturally infected by visceral leishmaniasis, were selected. Fragments from meninges, frontal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle were collected, mixed, and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 95.8% (23/24) of the infected dogs, including the subclinically infected. A total of 14/24 (58.3%) dogs were co-infected by E. canis and L. infantum , 4/24 (16.7%) were co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, and L. infantum , 2/24 (8.3%) were co-infected by B. vogeli and L. infantum , and 1/24 (4.2%) dog was co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, T. gondii , and L. infantum . All 24 brain samples tested negative for A. platys . These results demonstrate that L. infantum is able to penetrate into the brain parenchyma, either alone or in association to other zoonotic pathogens. In addition, qPCR could be considered for adequate evaluation of Leishmania in the brain tissue of dogs with neurological signs that have died. PMID:26765523

  12. Maternal and foetal cytokine production in dams naturally and experimentally infected with Neospora caninum on gestation day 110.

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Li, Y; Serrano-Pérez, B; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F; Almería, S

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, IFN-γ (Th1), IL-17A (Th17) and IL-4 (Th2) concentrations in response to concanavalin (ConA) and Neospora caninum antigen (Nc-1) stimulation were determined in cultures of cells from control uninfected (n=4), naturally N. caninum-infected (n=3) and experimentally N. caninum-infected (n=6) pregnant dams and their foetuses. Experimental animals were infected at 110days of gestation and euthanized 6weeks post-infection. In culture supernatants from the dams, significantly higher IFN-γ and IL-4 levels were found in the experimentally-infected animals compared to the control or naturally-infected dams. However, among the experimentally-infected dams no significant differences in IFN-γ production were observed regardless of the incidence of live or aborted/dead foetuses, though spleen cultures of dams carrying live foetuses showed the highest levels of IFN-γ. IL-17A production was very low and occasional in the dams infected with N. caninum and did not seem to be a major regulator of IFN-γ production in this model. Experimentally infected dams with live foetuses showed higher IL-4 levels and accordingly IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios were significantly lower than ratios recorded for cows with aborted/dead foetuses. In the infected foetuses of these dams, only spleen cultures showed high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 after Nc-1 antigen and ConA stimulation, respectively. No IL-17A was detected in the foetuses. As conclusion, although we could not clearly relate a protective immune response against N. caninum abortion only to IFN-γ levels in cell cultures, our results highlight the important role of an inverse IFN-γ/IL-4 balance in conferring protection against abortion induced by this parasite. PMID:27473975

  13. Neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus E protein derived from a naturally infected patient

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Antibodies produced in response to infection with any of the four serotypes of dengue virus generally provide homotypic immunity. However, prior infection or circulating maternal antibodies can also mediate a non-protective antibody response that can enhance the course of disease in a subsequent heterotypic infection. Naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies can help us understand the protective and pathogenic roles of the humoral immune system in dengue virus infection. Results Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transformation of B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of a human subject with previous dengue infection was performed. B cell cultures were screened by ELISA for antibodies to dengue (DENV) envelope (E) protein. ELISA positive cultures were cloned by limiting dilution. Three IgG1 human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) were purified and their binding specificity to E protein was verified by ELISA and biolayer interferometry. Neutralization and enhancement assays were conducted in epithelial and macrophage-like cell lines, respectively. All three HMAbs bound to E from at least two of the four DENV serotypes, one of the HMAbs was neutralizing, and all were able to enhance DENV infection. Conclusions HMAbs against DENV can be successfully generated by EBV transformation of B cells from patients at least two years after naturally acquired DENV infections. These antibodies show different patterns of cross-reactivity, neutralizing, and enhancement activity. PMID:20132551

  14. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis among buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Namakkal, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, P; Jagadeswaran, D; Manoharan, R; Giri, T; Balasubramaniam, G A; Balachandran, P

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from 206 apparently healthy buffaloes of marginal farmers maintained under the prevailing field conditions were screened for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) to determine its prevalence and etiology by White Side Test (WST), California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Bacteriological examination. 26.20% of animals were positive for SCM in SCC and bacteriological examination. Prevalence in graded Murrah buffaloes were found to be higher compared to graded Surti and Non-descript breeds. The prevalence of SCM was highest in above 6th stage of lactation. Single quarter infection (51.85%) was more common compared to multiple quarter infection. Hind (83.34%) and left side (57.41%) quarters were more prone to SCM. The indirect tests such as WST and CMT were found to be closely agreement with SCC and bacteriological examination. Due to their efficacious, easy to perform and interpret, these tests can effectively be employed to detect SCM under field conditions. Somatic cell count of = 3,00,000/mL of milk was regarded as the upper limit for normal buffaloes. The SCC of = 3,00,000/mL of milk with positive bacterial growth were used to diagnose SCM in the present study. Staphylococcus sp. 25 (46.30%) was the most common pathogens isolated from SCM followed by Streptococcus sp. 11 (20.37%) and E. coli 06 (11.11%) of the 54 bacterial isolates. Monobacterial and mixed bacterial infections were observed in 47 (87.04%) and 7 (12.96%) cases respectively. PMID:24506047

  15. Marked Antigiardial Activity of Yucca baccata Extracts: A Potential Natural Alternative for Treating Protozoan Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; León-Trujillo, Rocio; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Robles, María del Refugio; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E.; Canett, Rafael; Sánchez-Escalante, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Human Giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females) were weighed and orally inoculated with 5 × 106 Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group). Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL) or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis. PMID:25250335

  16. Marked antigiardial activity of Yucca baccata extracts: a potential natural alternative for treating protozoan infections.

    PubMed

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; León-Trujillo, Rocio; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Esparza-Romero, Julián; del Refugio Robles, María; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Canett, Rafael; Sánchez-Escalante, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Human giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females) were weighed and orally inoculated with 5 × 10(6) Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group). Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL) or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis. PMID:25250335

  17. Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection

    PubMed Central

    Gostic, Katelyn M; Kucharski, Adam J; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2015-01-01

    During outbreaks of high-consequence pathogens, airport screening programs have been deployed to curtail geographic spread of infection. The effectiveness of screening depends on several factors, including pathogen natural history and epidemiology, human behavior, and characteristics of the source epidemic. We developed a mathematical model to understand how these factors combine to influence screening outcomes. We analyzed screening programs for six emerging pathogens in the early and late stages of an epidemic. We show that the effectiveness of different screening tools depends strongly on pathogen natural history and epidemiological features, as well as human factors in implementation and compliance. For pathogens with longer incubation periods, exposure risk detection dominates in growing epidemics, while fever becomes a better target in stable or declining epidemics. For pathogens with short incubation, fever screening drives detection in any epidemic stage. However, even in the most optimistic scenario arrival screening will miss the majority of cases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05564.001 PMID:25695520

  18. Correlations between traits in soybean (Glycine max L.) naturally infected with Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Serafim, F; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, O T; de Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, R L

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.)-breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high grain yields and high tolerance to Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi). Considering that the traits targeted for breeding are mainly quantitative in nature, knowledge of associations between traits allows the breeder to formulate indirect selection strategies. In this study, we investigated phenotypic, genotypic, and environmental correlations between the agronomic traits of soybean plants naturally infected with P. pachyrhizi, and identified agronomic traits that would be useful in indirectly selecting soybean genotypes for high yields. The study was conducted on the Capim Branco Farm, Uberlândia, Brazil, with 15 soybean genotypes, which were cultivated in a completely randomized block design with four replications. Fourteen phenotypic traits were evaluated using the GENES software. The phenotypic and genotypic correlations were positive and of a high magnitude between the total number of pods and the number of pods with two or three grains, indicating that the total number of pods is a useful trait for the indirect selection of soybean genotypes for high grain yields. Strong environmental correlations were found between plant height at blooming and maturity and grain yield and yield components. PMID:26782417

  19. Evaluation of nitroxynil and closantel activity using ELISA and egg counts against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Boulard, C; Carreras, F; Van Gool, F

    1995-01-01

    The responses of cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica to treatment with nitroxynil or closantel were monitored by faecal egg counts and by ELISA assay of anti-fluke antibodies. A first trial with experimentally infected heifers showed an increase in anti-fluke antibody titre as early as 2 weeks post-infection. Eggs were first detected in the faeces 10 weeks after infection. Egg output increased steadily over the next 8 weeks and then rapidly decreased. Treatment of a 20-week infection with nitroxynil was followed by a slow decrease in antibody titre 4 weeks later. This decrease continued over the next 40 weeks, but returned to pre-infection levels in only 2 out of 4 animals. The faecal egg count fell to zero 2 weeks after treatment and remained so for the following 30 weeks, although 1 animal produced a few eggs 32 and 34 weeks post-treatment. Within this period, neither diagnostic technique discriminated between this persistently infected animal and the others. In a second trial, 45 cattle from a naturally infected herd were treated with nitroxynil or closantel. The faecal egg counts of the treated cattle were zero within the following 2 months, whereas there were eggs in the faeces of the control (untreated) group. Nevertheless, the treated cattle showed a small, non-significant drop in anti-fluke antibody titre. These results demonstrate the need for new tools to monitor and evaluate accurately the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment. PMID:7550396

  20. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  1. Interleukin-2 from Adaptive T Cells Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity against Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeguang; Frascaroli, Giada; Bayer, Carina; Schmal, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) requires a continuous immune surveillance, thus HCMV is the most important viral pathogen in severely immunocompromised individuals. Both innate and adaptive immunity contribute to the control of HCMV. Here, we report that peripheral blood natural killer cells (PBNKs) from HCMV-seropositive donors showed an enhanced activity toward HCMV-infected autologous macrophages. However, this enhanced response was abolished when purified NK cells were applied as effectors. We demonstrate that this enhanced PBNK activity was dependent on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion of CD4+ T cells when reexposed to the virus. Purified T cells enhanced the activity of purified NK cells in response to HCMV-infected macrophages. This effect could be suppressed by IL-2 blocking. Our findings not only extend the knowledge on the immune surveillance in HCMV—namely, that NK cell-mediated innate immunity can be enhanced by a preexisting T cell antiviral immunity—but also indicate a potential clinical implication for patients at risk for severe HCMV manifestations due to immunosuppressive drugs, which mainly suppress IL-2 production and T cell responsiveness. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is never cleared by the host after primary infection but instead establishes a lifelong latent infection with possible reactivations when the host′s immunity becomes suppressed. Both innate immunity and adaptive immunity are important for the control of viral infections. Natural killer (NK) cells are main innate effectors providing a rapid response to virus-infected cells. Virus-specific T cells are the main adaptive effectors that are critical for the control of the latent infection and limitation of reinfection. In this study, we found that IL-2 secreted by adaptive CD4+ T cells after reexposure to HCMV enhances the activity of NK cells in response to HCMV-infected target cells. This is the first direct evidence that the adaptive T cells can

  2. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replicates to High Levels in Naturally Infected African Green Monkeys without Inducing Immunologic or Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Suzanne R.; Staprans, Silvija I.; White, Robert; Whitehead, Evelyn M.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Allan, Jonathan S.

    2001-01-01

    African green monkeys can maintain long-term persistent infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVagm) without developing AIDS and thus provide an important model for understanding mechanisms of natural host resistance to disease. This study assessed the levels and anatomic distribution of SIVagm in healthy, naturally infected monkeys. Quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR assays developed to measure SIVagm from two African green monkey subspecies demonstrated high levels of SIV RNA in plasma (>6 × 106 RNA copies/ml) in sabaeus and vervet monkeys. Infectious virus was readily recovered from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and shown to be highly cytopathic in human cell lines and macrophages. SIVagm DNA levels were highest in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the gut is a major site for SIVagm replication in vivo. Appreciable levels of virus were also found within the brain parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with lower levels detected in peripheral blood cells and lymph nodes. Virus isolates from the CSF and brain parenchyma readily infected macrophages in culture, whereas lymph node isolates were more restricted to growth in human T-cell lines. Comparison of env V2-C4 sequences showed extensive amino acid diversity between SIVagm recovered from the central nervous system and that recovered from lymphoid tissues. Homology between brain and CSF viruses, macrophage tropism, and active replication suggest compartmentalization in the central nervous system without associated neuropathology in naturally infected monkeys. These studies provide evidence that the nonpathogenic nature of SIVagm in the natural host can be attributed neither to more effective host control over viral replication nor to differences in the tissue and cell tropism from those for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans or SIV-infected macaques. PMID:11160730

  3. Assessing impacts to birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota windplant development

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, M.D.; Johnson, G.D.; Erickson, W.P.

    1997-12-31

    Northern States Power (NSP) plans development of a 425 MW windpowered electrical generation facility within the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area (WRA) in southwestern Minnesota. In 1996, Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST, Inc.) was contracted by NSP to develop an avian monitoring protocol for the Buffalo Ridge windplant. This protocol was developed and peer-reviewed by numerous individuals representing the wind energy industry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and conservation groups prior to finalization. The WRA currently consists of three phases of development. Phase I, constructed by Kenetech in 1994, consists of 73 Model 33 M-VS turbines and related facilities, including distribution lines, meteorological towers, communication systems, transformers, substations, roads, and operations and maintenance facilities in the approximate center of the WRA, and generates 25 MW of electricity. Phase II, consisting of 143 turbines and related facilities sufficient to generate 100 MW of electricity, will be constructed by Zond Systems, Inc. beginning in the spring of 1997. Phase II will be located in the northwestern portion of the WRA. Phase III facilities capable of generating an additional 100 MW are planned for the southeast portion of the WRA. Plans call for the eventual production of 425 MW of electricity within the WRA. Studies were conducted in these three areas and a permanent reference area not scheduled for windpower development located along Buffalo Ridge northwest of the WRA in Brooking County South Dakota.

  4. Successful Interferon-Free Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Normalizes Natural Killer Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Serti, Elisavet; Chepa-Lotrea, Xenia; Kim, Yun Ju; Keane, Meghan; Fryzek, Nancy; Liang, T. Jake; Ghany, Marc; Rehermann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic hepatitis C virus infection activates an intrahepatic immune response, leading to increased expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes and activation of natural killer (NK) cells—the most prevalent innate immune cell in the liver. We investigated whether the elimination of HCV with direct-acting antiviral agents normalizes expression of IFN-stimulated genes and NK cell function. METHODS We used multicolor flow cytometry to analyze NK cells from liver and blood of 13 HCV-infected patients who did not respond to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Samples were collected before and during IFN-free treatment with daclatasvir and asunaprevir therapy and compared with those from blood of 13 healthy individuals (controls). Serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Before treatment, all patients had increased levels of CXCL10 or CXCL11 and a different NK cell phenotype from controls, characterized by increased expression of HLA-DR, NKp46, NKG2A, CD85j, pSTAT1, STAT1, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). NK cells from patients also had increased degranulation and decreased production of IFNγ and TNFα compared with NK cells from controls. Nine patients had an end-of-treatment response (undetectable virus) and 4 had virologic breakthrough between weeks 4 and 12 of therapy. A rapid decrease in viremia and level of inflammatory cytokines in all patients was associated with decreased activation of intrahepatic and blood NK cells; it was followed by restoration of a normal NK cell phenotype and function by week 8 in patients with undetectable viremia. This normalized NK cell phenotype was maintained until week 24 (EOT). CONCLUSIONS DAA-mediated clearance of HCV is associated with loss of intrahepatic immune activation by IFNα, indicated by decreased levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 and normalization of NK cell phenotype and function. PMID:25754160

  5. Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis infection in New Zealand white rabbits: natural history and intravenous levofloxacin treatment.

    PubMed

    Yee, Steven B; Hatkin, Joshua M; Dyer, David N; Orr, Steven A; Pitt, M Louise M

    2010-12-01

    The natural history for inhalational Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) exposure in New Zealand white rabbits was investigated to better identify potential, early biomarkers of anthrax. Twelve SPF Bordetella-free rabbits were exposed to 150 LD(50) aerosolized B. anthracis spores, and clinical signs, body temperature, complete blood count, bacteremia, and presence of protective antigen in the blood (that is, antigenemia) were examined. The development of antigenemia and bacteremia coincided and preceded both pyrexia and inversion of the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of infection. Antigenemia was determined within 1 h by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, compared with the 24-h traditional culture needed for bacteremia determination. Rabbits appeared clinically normal until shortly before succumbing to anthrax approximately 47 h after challenge or approximately 22 h after antigenemia, which suggests a relatively narrow therapeutic window of opportunity. To evaluate the therapeutic rabbit model, B. anthracis-exposed rabbits were treated (after determination of antigenemia and later confirmed to be bacteremic) intravenously with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic levofloxacin for 5 d at a total daily dose of 25 or 12.5 mg/kg, resulting in nearly 90% and 70% survival, respectively, to the study end (28 d after challenge). The peak level for 12.5 mg/kg was equivalent to that observed for a 500-mg daily levofloxacin dose in humans. These results suggest that intravenous levofloxacin is an effective therapeutic against inhalational anthrax. Taken together, our findings indicate that antigenemia is a viable and early biomarker for B. anthracis infection that can be used as a treatment trigger to allow for timely intervention against this highly pathogenic disease. PMID:21262133

  6. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  7. A description of Haemogregarina species naturally infecting white-spotted gecko (Tarentola annularis) in Qena, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Soheir A H; Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A

    2014-08-01

    The present study describes the developmental stages of Haemogregarina species in the blood and tissues of naturally infecting white-spotted gecko Tarentola annularis collected from Qena, Egypt. Different parasite's forms were observed infecting the erythrocytes. The gamonts enclosed within parasitophorous vacuole and seems to have no clear effect on the host cell especially in case of immature parasite forms. But in the presence of mature gamonts the host cell nucleus displaced. The parasitaemia level is up to 280 per 10,000 erythrocytes counted. Trophozoites and gamonts have been recognized in the blood smears. The rounded trophozoite diameter is 3.84 ±0.87 μm, while the elongated trophozoite measured 4.42 ± 0.69 x 2.8 ± 0.56 μm. The mature gamonts were differentiated into two forms; short gamont measuring 10.82 ± 0.82 x 3.30 ± 0.73 μm (range: 10-12.1 x 2.2-4.4 μm) and the long gamont measured 14.67 ± 0.83 x 3.96 ± 0.77 μm (range: 14.1-16.5 x 3.3-5.5 μm). Merogony carried out only in the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries in the lung. Different merogonic stages have been recognized and differentiated in two forms; micromeront measured 13.25 ± 0.50 x 12 ± 0.0 μm and produces a few number of large merozoites, macromeront measured 19.75+0.87x13.25+0.50 im and produces more small sized merozoites. The gamonts and merozoites have the general characteristic ultrastructures of the Apicomplexa containing components of the apical complex, e.g. pellicle, micronemes, rhoptries, and few dense bodies and subpellicular microtubules. PMID:25597149

  8. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  9. The Transcriptional Programme of Human Heart Valves Reveals the Natural History of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Marie; Thuny, Franck; Le Priol, Yannick; Lepidi, Hubert; Bastonero, Sonia; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Collart, Frédéric; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease that is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. It usually leads to valvular destruction and vegetation formation. Its pathophysiology is badly understood and likely involves immune and coagulation systems with close interactions with the microorganism. Our objective was to evaluate host response by comparing transcriptional profiles of cardiac valves from IE patients with controls. Hierarchical clustering revealed a signature of IE consisting of 146 genes. Among the 89 up-regulated genes, we identified two genes strongly associated with IE: metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) and aquaporin-9, a member of the aquaglyceroporin membrane channel family. The up-regulation of MMP-12 gene is strengthened by the down-modulation of the gene encoding its inhibitor TIMP3. In addition, MMP-12 was expressed in macrophages infiltrating EI valves. We also found that aquaporin-9 was expressed in endothelial cells lining neo-vessel lumen, suggesting that aquaporin-9 might be associated with neovascularization of infected valves leading to tissue oedema secondary to the inflammatory process. The Gene Ontology annotation and the resulting functional classification showed that most up-regulated genes account for recruitment of inflammatory cells in vegetations, angiogenesis and remodelling of endocardium tissue. A network analysis confirmed the involvement of molecules related to the remodelling of endocardium tissue and angiogenesis in IE. It also evidenced the role of caspases, especially that of caspase-9 and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in IE. Based on this study we propose a scenario for the natural history of IE in humans. Some parameters identified in this work could become tools for measuring the disease activity and should be tested as biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis assessment in future studies. PMID:20126625

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. No change in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with Theileria annulata in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amod; Bhushan, Bharat; Ghosh, Srikant; Saravanan, B C; Sulabh, Sourabh; Parida, Subhashree; Gaur, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) act as carrier to Theileria annulata and show less clinical sign of tropical theileriosis as compared to indigenous and exotic cattle. Differential expression of immune-related genes such as major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (MHC-DQα), signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA), prion protein (PRNP), Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10), c-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (cMAF) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB) genes influence host resistance to this disease in exotic, crossbred and indigenous cattle. In the present study we examined the differential mRNA expression of the abovesaid immune-related genes in response to T. annulata infection in buffaloes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested from blood samples of buffaloes were challenged with ground-up tick supernatant carrying T. annulata sporozoites in vitro. After 48h of in vitro challenge qPCR was employed to measure the relative mRNA expression of MHC-DQα, SIRPA, PRNP, TLR10, cMAF and MAFB genes in infected and control PBMCs. In the current study, the selected genes showed no change in mRNA expression after T.annulata infection which indicates that they have little role in providing host resistance to theileriosis in buffaloes. PMID:26997138

  12. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs. PMID:20503176

  13. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Fink, Günther; Subramanian, SV; Moyo, Sikhulile; Bor, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2·3 Million individuals are newly infected with HIV each year. Existing cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found conflicting evidence on the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomized experiment to date has identified a causal effect of education on HIV incidence. Methods A 1996 policy reform changed the grade structure of secondary school in Botswana and increased educational attainment. We use this reform as a ‘natural experiment’ to identify the causal effect of schooling on HIV infection. Data on HIV biomarkers and demographics were obtained from the 2004 and 2008 Botswana AIDS Impact Surveys, nationally-representative household surveys (N = 7018). The association between years of schooling and HIV status was described using multivariate OLS regression models. Using exposure to the policy reform as an instrumental variable, we estimated the causal effect of years of schooling on the cumulative probability that an individual contracted HIV up to his or her age at the time of the survey. The cost-effectiveness of secondary schooling as an HIV prevention intervention was assessed in comparison to other established interventions. Findings Each additional year of secondary schooling induced by the policy change led to an absolute reduction in the cumulative risk of HIV infection of 8·1% points (p = 0·008), relative to a baseline prevalence of 25·6%. Effects were particularly large among women (11·6% points, p = 0·046). Results were robust to a wide array of sensitivity analyses. Secondary school was cost-effective as an HIV prevention intervention by standard metrics. Interpretation Additional years of secondary schooling had a large protective effect against HIV risk, particularly for women, in Botswana. Increasing progression through secondary school may be a cost-effective HIV prevention measure in HIV-endemic settings, in addition to yielding other societal benefits. Funding Takemi Program in

  14. Osteopontin Expression During the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the role of osteopontin (Opn) in Johne’s disease is of interest based upon its ability to influence cytokine expression and to improve host defense against mycobacterial infections. The objective of this study was to characterize Opn expression and secretion by peripheral blood mono...

  15. STUDIES OF SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS INFECTION AND TUMORS IN A NATURALLY INFECTED COMMERCIAL BROILER BREEDER FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens were pedigree hatched from a commercial broiler breeder flock that had been identified by the company to have a relatively high incidence (20% - 60%) of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Unexpectedly, only one of 175 (0.6%) of chicks hatched at our laboratory tested positiv...

  16. [The new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis of M'sila (Algeria). Natural infection cf Psammomys obesus (Rodentia, Gerbillidae)].

    PubMed

    Belazzoug, S

    1983-01-01

    The M'sila region has been recently the theatre of an important outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The search for the animal reservoir resulted in the discovery of 3 rodents, Psammomys obesus, naturally infected with Leishmania. This is of importance as far as prophylactic measures are concerned. PMID:6347415

  17. The occurrence of Trichinella zimbabwensis in naturally infected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    La Grange, L J; Govender, D; Mukaratirwa, S

    2013-03-01

    Trichinella zimbabwensis has been found naturally infecting crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Ethiopia and South Africa, as well as monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. The reports on natural infections were mostly accidental rather than structured surveys and involved very few animals. Previous surveillance studies in South Africa reported a 38.5% prevalence of T. zimbabwensis among wild crocodiles tested from the Mpumalanga province and Kruger National Park (KNP). No studies have been conducted to date on the geographical distribution and occurrence of T. zimbabwensis in wild crocodiles and varans in countries in southern Africa. Recent outbreaks of pansteatitis in crocodile populations of the KNP, South Africa, provided an opportunity to conduct a more structured survey aimed at elucidating the occurrence and distribution of T. zimbabwensis in culled wild crocodile populations within the KNP. Results from this study showed that T. zimbabwensis occurred in 10 out of 12 culled crocodiles form the KNP. The results also showed that the natural distribution of T. zimbabwensis in crocodiles includes all the major river systems in the KNP. The predilection sites of larvae in muscles followed a different pattern in naturally infected crocodiles compared to observations in experimentally infected mammalian hosts. PMID:22335961

  18. Accumulation of PrP-Sc in hemal nodes of naturally and experimentally scrapie-infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent. Infection is accompanied by accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Hemal nodes, which are unique ...

  19. Sarcocystis cafferi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lane, Emily P; van Wilpe, Erna; Suleman, Essa; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Verma, S K; Rosenthal, B M; Mtshali, Moses S

    2014-12-01

    Sarcocystis infections have been reported from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), but the species have not been named. Here we propose a new name Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo. Histological examination of heart (92), skeletal muscle (36), and tongue (2) sections from 94 buffalos from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, and a review of the literature revealed only 1 species of Sarcocystis in the African buffalo. Macrocysts were up to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide and were located in the neck muscles and overlying connective tissue. They were pale yellow; shaped like a lychee fruit stone or cashew nut; turgid or flaccid and oval to round (not fusiform). By light microscopy (LM) the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped villar protrusions (vp) that were of different sizes and folded over the sarcocyst wall. The entire surfaces of vp were covered with papillomatous structures. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was up to 3.6 μm thick and had highly branched villar protrusions that were up to 3 μm long. The villar projections contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections, but some tubules criss-crossed, especially at the base. Granules were absent from these tubules. Longitudinally cut bradyzoites were 12.1 × 2.7 μm in size, had a long convoluted mitochondrion, and only 2 rhoptries. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences indicated that this Sarcocystis species is very closely related to, but distinct from, Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Thus, morphological findings by LM, SEM, and TEM together with molecular phylogenetic data (from 18S rRNA and cox1) confirm that the Sarcocystis species in the African buffalo is distinct from S. fusiformis and has therefore been named Sarcocystis

  20. Flow Cytometric Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibodies in Experimentally Infected and Naturally Exposed Calves

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, Ö.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bülte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.

    2013-01-01

    A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032

  1. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  2. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  3. The effect of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer B; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; DeGraves, Fred J

    2010-09-01

    Currently no standard definitions for the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection (IMI) exist. As a result, criteria applied in research to diagnose S. aureus IMIs have varied making comparisons between published works difficult. The goal of the current study was to define the optimal inoculum volume used in the diagnosis of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs. Microbiologic results from 2 field studies examining S. aureus IMIs were used to examine the effects of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of S. aureus. A total of 1,583 milk samples were included in the analysis, and the results of using a 0.01-ml and a 0.1-ml inoculum are presented. Using a 0.01-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.6-93%) and a specificity of 99.4% (95% CI: 98.6-99.8%). Using the larger 0.1-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 96.8% (95% CI: 95.2-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95% CI: 98.4-99.7%). All false-positive samples were from S. aureus-negative quarters in S. aureus-positive cows. There were no false-positive cultures from S. aureus-negative cows. Of the false-negative samples, the majority (77%) were from 6 of the 34 S. aureus-positive quarters. Results from the current study of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs support the hypothesis that, when using quarter level milk samples, a S. aureus IMI is most accurately diagnosed using a 0.1-ml inoculum. Regardless of inoculum volume, a single quarter sample culture that is positive with S. aureus (>or=1 colony-forming unit) is sufficient to diagnose a S. aureus IMI. PMID:20807927

  4. Elevated levels of invariant natural killer T-cell and natural killer cell activation correlate with disease progression in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Susanna M.; Malone, David F.G.; Buggert, Marcus; Karlsson, Annika C.; Isberg, Per-Erik; Biague, Antonio J.; Norrgren, Hans; Medstrand, Patrik; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K.; Jansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency and activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and natural killer (NK) cells among HIV-1, HIV-2, or dually HIV-1/HIV-2 (HIV-D)-infected individuals, in relation to markers of disease progression. Design: Whole blood samples were collected from treatment-naive HIV-1 (n = 23), HIV-2 (n = 34), and HIV-D (n = 11) infected individuals, as well as HIV-seronegative controls (n = 25), belonging to an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Frequencies and activation levels of iNKT and NK cell subsets were analysed using multicolour flow cytometry, and results were related to HIV-status, CD4+ T-cell levels, viral load, and T-cell activation. Results: HIV-1, HIV-D, and viremic HIV-2 individuals had lower numbers of CD4+ iNKT cells in circulation compared with seronegative controls. Numbers of CD56bright NK cells were also reduced in HIV-infected individuals as compared with control study participants. Notably, iNKT cell and NK cell activation levels, assessed by CD38 expression, were increased in HIV-1 and HIV-2 single, as well as dual, infections. HIV-2 viremia was associated with elevated activation levels in CD4+ iNKT cells, CD56bright, and CD56dim NK cells, as compared with aviremic HIV-2 infection. Additionally, disease markers such as CD4+ T-cell percentages, viral load, and CD4+ T-cell activation were associated with CD38 expression levels of both iNKT and NK cells, which activation levels also correlated with each other. Conclusion: Our data indicate that elevated levels of iNKT-cell and NK-cell activation are associated with viremia and disease progression markers in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. PMID:27163705

  5. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  6. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  8. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  9. Comparison of infectious hematopoietic necrosis in natural and experimental infections of spawning salmonids by infectivity and immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, C.K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) continues to be a serious virus disease of salmonids with epizootics recorded in both wild and hatchery populations (Williams and Amend 1976; Carlisle et al 1979; Groberg and Fryer 1983; Saft and Pratt 1986; Traxler 1987; Follett et al 1987; Meyers et al 1988). While originally enzootic in western North America, the virus appears to be spreading further (Sano et al 1977; de Kinkelin et al 1987; Bovo et al 1987). In hatchery outbreaks occurring in regions where the virus is not enzootic, it is often possible to trace the virus to the importation of infected fingerlings or contaminated eggs. In regions where the virus is widespread among stocks of fish, the source of virus infection is more difficult to establish particularly in watersheds where there are anadromous salmonids. Although salmonid fish surviving infection as fry and returning from the ocean to spawn are considered to be parental carriers of IHNV, there is very little data to support this hypothesis. Amend (1975) in the study of rainbow trout reported that in a population surviving infection and assayed a few years later found that a few trout were carrying virus. This is the study often cited as evidence for the carrier status of returning salmonids. LaPatra et al (1987) presented data that indicated IHNV has been transmitted horizontally through water from adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) at a hatchery in northern California. They suggested that horizontal transmission may be an important means for perpetuating IHN. However, the actual mechanisms for persistence and transmission of IHN among fish in a watershed is likely to be complex and involve multiple species and age groups as well as intermediate vectors and/or reservoirs.

  10. Spontaneous and natural cytotoxicity receptor-mediated cytotoxicity are effector functions of distinct natural killer subsets in hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, B E; Nieuwenhuis, I G; Mooij, P; Bogers, W M; Boonstra, A; Koopman, G

    2016-07-01

    In humans, CD16 and CD56 are used to identify functionally distinct natural killer (NK) subsets. Due to ubiquitous CD56 expression, this marker cannot be used to distinguish between NK cell subsets in chimpanzees. Therefore, functional analysis of distinct NK subsets during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has never been performed in these animals. In the present study an alternative strategy was used to identify four distinct NK subsets on the basis of the expression of CD16 and CD94. The expression of activating and inhibiting surface receptors showed that these subsets resemble human NK subsets. CD107 expression was used to determine degranulation of the different subsets in naive and HCV-infected chimpanzees. In HCV-infected chimpanzees increased spontaneous cytotoxicity was observed in CD94(high/dim) CD16(pos) and CD94(low) CD16(pos) subsets. By contrast, increased natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR)- mediated degranulation after NKp30 and NKp44 triggering was demonstrated in the CD94(dim) CD16(neg) subset. Our findings suggest that spontaneous and NCR-mediated cytotoxicity are effector functions of distinct NK subsets in HCV-infected chimpanzees. PMID:26850369

  11. The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

    2013-10-18

    The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

  12. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population. PMID:25698865

  13. Detection and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from fresh semen of naturally infected dogs in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, M O; Weiss, R R; Cruz, A A; Soccol, V T; Gonçalves, K A; Bertol, Maf; Beltrame, O C; Dittrich, R L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Toxoplasma gondii and determine the viability of the parasite in fresh semen samples of clinically healthy adult dogs naturally infected. Eleven seropositive dogs with T. gondii IgG antibodies from southern Brazil were selected to confirm the presence and viability of T. gondii in fresh semen samples using in vitro isolation in Vero cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The presence of viable T. gondii was confirmed by in vitro isolation and PCR in five semen samples. The ITS1 region of the isolated protozoa (TG S4) was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence obtained was 99% compatible with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. It has been shown that T. gondii tachyzoites may be isolated in vitro from fresh semen samples of clinically healthy dogs seropositive for T. gondii. PMID:27287987

  14. Evaluation of Nitazoxanide and Oxfendazole Efficacy against Cystic Echinococcosis in Naturally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lopera, Luis; Jayashi, Cesar; Angelats, Roxana; Barron, Eduardo A.; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Villarreal, Lucia; Garcia, Hector H.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic echinococosis (CE) is a public health problem caused by Echinococcus granulosus. We aimed to determine the efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and oxfendazole (OXF) against CE in naturally infected sheep. A total of 151 ewes were assigned to the following groups: 15 mg/kg of NTZ weekly for five weeks (NTZ5); two rounds of 15 mg/kg of NTZ a day for five days (NTZ5×2) two weeks apart; 30 mg/kg of OXF a week for 11 weeks (OXF11); 30 mg/kg of OXF plus 15 mg/kg of NTZ a week for 11 weeks (OXF/NTZ); and the control group. OXF11 and OXF/NTZ decreased the number of fertile cysts, increased the number of degenerated cysts, and were more efficacious (49.6–61.2%) against lung cysts and liver cysts (91.8–100%) than any other treatment group. OXF might be an additional strategy for control programs and an optional treatment of human CE after it is licensed. PMID:19270283

  15. Composition of bacterial communities associated with natural and laboratory populations of Asobara tabida infected with Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Zouache, Karima; Voronin, Denis; Tran-Van, Van; Mavingui, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Asobara tabida wasps are fly endoparasitoids that naturally harbor three Wolbachia strains, which induce cytoplasmic incompatibility and control oogenesis. To investigate whether other bacteria play a role in wasp biology, we surveyed the bacterial communities of wild A. tabida populations originating from different regions of France and of laboratory colonies using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and culture methods. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found to be the main phyla represented in these populations. Among these were several cultured and uncultured representatives of the genera Acetobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Duganella, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. In addition to Wolbachia, wild individuals harbored Rickettsia, which tended to be lost when insects were reared in the laboratory. The antibiotic treatment used to generate wasp sublines singly infected with Wolbachia also affected the overall bacterial composition, with most fingerprint sequences being characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We also screened for potentially heritable endosymbionts by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in stable laboratory lines, with only Wolbachia being consistently found in wasp ovaries. PMID:19376923

  16. Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Ganesh G.; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology. Results: On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination. Conclusion: In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep. PMID:27182131

  17. Efficacy of nitroxynil against Fasciola hepatica resistant to triclabendazole in a naturally infected sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, Maria; del Rosario Famularo, Maria; Fernández-Pato, Nelida; Castañón-Ordóñez, Luciano; Cordero-Pérez, Coral; Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco Antonio

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and nitroxynil against a TCBZ-resistant Fasciola hepatica strain in a naturally infected sheep flock. The efficacies were measured by the faecal egg count reduction test. The level of F. hepatica antigens was tested in faeces; and haematological indices such as total proteins (TP), albumin, hepatic enzymes and total IgG were also studied. The results confirmed the resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ in the flock with an efficacy during the first month post-treatment between 59.4% and 73.8%. In the nitroxynil group, the efficacy during the same period ranged between 81.3% and 86%, likely because the efficacy of this drug against 7- to 9-week-old immature stages is only 50-90%. Anemia was showed in all groups and white blood cells were always higher than the reference range. The values of TP and albumin were within normal range in most of the sheep, and an increase in hepatic enzymes confirmed the liver damage. Regarding total IgG, some negative correlations were found with egg excretion, and in relation to the level of antigens in faeces, these ones decreased immediately after treatment. We conclude that nitroxynil could be an alternative in case of TCBZ resistance. PMID:20680341

  18. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  19. Altered natural history of AIDS-related opportunistic infections in the era of potent combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M A; French, M

    1998-01-01

    Since potent HIV protease inhibitor drugs became widely available in early 1996, many HIV clinical specialists have noted a marked decrease in the occurrence of AIDS-related opportunistic infections, and some specialists have reported unusual clinical presentations and manifestations of previously common opportunistic infections. In this article, we will review (1) the available data regarding recent trends in AIDS-related opportunistic infections incidence and manifestations, (2) clinical and immunologic evidence that potent combination antiretroviral therapy can alter the natural history of these opportunistic infections, and (3) the implications of these findings for current patient management practice and future clinical and immunologic research. As a preface to this review, however, it is important to acknowledge that any evaluation of the potential benefit of potent combination antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of serious opportunistic infections can be confounded by the concomitant use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents co-administered to prevent specific opportunistic infections. For example, it is standard clinical practice to administer trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (or another agent if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole cannot be tolerated) to patients with an absolute CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 cells/microliters, unexplained chronic fever or a history of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Similarly, specific antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with absolute CD4 counts < 50 cells/microliters is also a widely recommended guideline. Although the relative efficacies of specific antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens in preventing the most common life- and sight-threatening opportunistic infectious complications of AIDS [Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), disseminated MAC infection, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis] are now well established, these relative efficacies were established in

  20. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  1. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities. PMID:16967912

  2. Cytokine gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Neospora caninum naturally infected dams throughout gestation.

    PubMed

    Almería, S; Serrano, B; Yàniz, J L; Darwich, L; López-Gatius, F

    2012-02-10

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but it is not known why some infected animals suffer abortion while others do not. An essential role in protective immunity against N. caninum has been proposed for Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-12 although cytokine patterns in N. caninum infected pregnant cattle have been scarcely addressed. In this study, gene expression of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α was analyzed by real time RT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in N. caninum naturally infected dams throughout pregnancy. Blood samples were drawn from 18 cows (13 N. caninum seropositive and 5 N. caninum seronegative) on Days 45, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of pregnancy or until abortion. Four seropositive animals aborted. Compared to the seronegative animals, N. caninum infected dams showed up-regulated mRNA levels of the Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12p40, along with up-regulation of the T regulatory (Treg) cytokine IL-10. In contrast, expression levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) did not differ significantly among the different groups throughout the study period. Our findings indicate clear differences in peripheral blood cytokine gene expression levels during pregnancy between animals naturally infected with N. caninum and seronegative control animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the gene expression of Th1, Th2 and regulatory cytokines in the peripheral blood of pregnant cows naturally infected with N. caninum. PMID:21846584

  3. Comparative efficacy, persistent effect, and treatment intervals of anthelmintic pastes in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Mercier, P; Chick, B; Alves-Branco, F; White, C R

    2001-07-31

    Eighty horses were involved in a comparative, controlled, and randomised field study conducted in Australia and Brazil. This study was undertaken to address the duration of efficacy (by faecal egg count reduction) of four anthelmintic pastes and to measure the time required between treatments on horses naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. The treatment interval was based on the egg reappearance period (ERP), defined as "the period after treatment when horses have reached a positive egg count equal or superior to 200 eggs per gram (epg) of faeces". Horses were ranked according to pre-treatment faecal egg counts and randomly allocated on Day 0 to one of the four treatment groups (n=16). Group A received a combination of ivermectin at 200 microg/kg and praziquantel at 1.5mg/kg, Group B received an ivermectin paste at 200 microg/kg, Group C received a reference product containing ivermectin at 200 microg/kg, Group D received a moxidectin paste at 400 microg/kg, and Group E received a placebo. Horses were individually faecal sampled at weekly interval from Days 0 to 70 after treatment and coprocultures were made on pooled samples at the pre-treatment time on D-7 in Brazil and D-6 in Australia. The nematode population was mainly composed of small strongyles (Cyathostominae, Gyalocephalus spp., Triodontophorus spp.). All products were efficient (>90% efficacy) until Day 42 with no statistical difference between groups. From Day 49 onwards, Group C reached the threshold, while Group B exceeded this threshold on Day 56. Groups A and D remained below 200 epg for the entire study period (70 days). The interval between two anthelmintic treatments can vary according to the threshold. The ERP was defined as the period after treatment while the output of eggs is negligible or considered as acceptable. The mean number of days calculated to recurrence of 200 epg and more was, respectively, 60 days for product A, 56 days for products B and C, and 64 days for product D

  4. Detection of Neospora caninum in the semen and blood of naturally infected bulls.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Ignacio; Aduriz, Gorka; Del-Pozo, Itziar; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Hurtado, Ana; Ugarte-Garagalza, Carlos; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2005-03-15

    A prospective study was designed to investigate the presence of Neospora caninum in semen and blood of eight bulls seropositive to N. caninum using nested-PCR procedures. Positive semen and blood samples were bioassayed in a BALB/c nu/nu mouse model. Specific anti-N. caninum serological and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses were also studied. In parallel, five seronegative bulls acted as non-infected controls. All bulls were located in a collaborating AI centre and monitored for 22 weeks. Six of eight seropositive bulls showed N. caninum DNA in their semen and/or blood samples at some time during the course of the study. In all positive semen samples, we consistently found Neospora-DNA in the cell fraction and not in seminal plasma. Parasite load, as determined by a real-time PCR in nested-PCR positive semen samples, ranged from 1 to 10 parasites/ml. We found no association between the presence of N. caninum DNA in semen and blood. N. caninum could not be detected in the BALB/c nu/nu mice inoculated with PCR-positive semen or blood samples. Specific IgG antibody levels in seropositive bulls fluctuated over time, at times falling below cut-off level. The response was predominantly IgG2, with significant differences compared to control bulls (P < 0.05). The overall mean specific IFN-gamma response in seropositive bulls was also higher than those observed in the control group (P < 0.05), although extensive variation in individual responses was observed among bulls and over time. No significant association was found between bulls showing Neospora DNA in semen, blood, or both, and specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA levels or IFN-gamma response. This study is the first to report the presence of Neospora DNA in semen and blood of naturally-infected bulls. Our observations indicate intermittent presence of N. caninum in blood and semen and shedding in semen in low numbers. PMID:15725454

  5. Biology of PrPsc accumulation in two natural scrapie-infected sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, Patrick; O'Rourke, Katherine; Wolf, Cynthia; Shaw, Daniel; Baszler, Timothy V

    2004-11-01

    Sheep scrapie is a prion disease that requires interaction of exogenous prions with host prion protein (PrP) supporting prion formation. Disease is associated with deposition of a host-generated conformational variant of PrP, PrPsc, in a variety of tissues, including brain, resulting in fatal spongiform encephalopathy. Efficiency of PrPsc formation is determined by polymorphisms in the PrP-coding sequence. This article adds to previous data of natural sheep scrapie, concentrating on the effect of host genotype and age on PrPsc accumulation patterns during preclinical and clinical disease. Two entire scrapie-infected, predominantly Suffolk-cross, sheep flocks euthanized for regulatory purposes were genotyped and analyzed for PrPsc deposition in various tissues using single- and dual-label immunohistochemistry. Scrapie, as defined by PrPsc deposition, occurred in 13/80 sheep. Preclinical disease was evident in nearly 70% of infected sheep, ranging in age from 14 months to 7 years. PrPsc accumulated systemically in the nervous tissue, various lymphoid tissues, both alimentary tract related and non-alimentary tract related, and the placenta. Clinical neurological illness was always associated with spongiform encephalopathy and PrPsc deposition in the brain. Only 6 of 9 sheep with preclinical scrapie had PrPsc deposition in the brain but widespread PrPsc deposition in peripheral lymphoid tissue, supporting previous data showing peripheral PrPsc accumulation preceding deposition in the brain. PrPsc colocalized with a marker for follicular dendritic cells throughout the lymphoid system. PrPsc also accumulated in the peripheral nervous system, particularly the nervous supply of the gastrointestinal tract. Abundant PrPsc was evident in trophoblast cells of placentomes but not in the endometrium, myometrium, or associated nervous plexus. PrPsc deposits were not observed in the mammary parenchyma or bone marrow. Scrapie susceptibility was defined genetically by PrP codon 171

  6. Suppression of NK cells and regulatory T lymphocytes in cats naturally infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ben L; Devriendt, Bert; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Favoreel, Herman W; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-05-31

    A strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be indispensable for protection against infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in cats. In this study, the role of natural killer (NK) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), central players in the innate and adaptive CMI respectively, was examined during natural FIPV infection. When quantified, both NK cells and Tregs were drastically depleted from the peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph node (LN) and spleen in FIP cats. In contrast, mesentery and kidney from FIP cats did not show any difference when compared to healthy non-infected control animals. In addition, other regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD3+CD8+Foxp3+) were found to be depleted from blood and LN as well. Phenotypic analysis of blood-derived NK cells in FIP cats revealed an upregulation of activation markers (CD16 and CD25) and migration markers (CD11b and CD62L) while LN-derived NK cells showed upregulation of only CD16 and CD62L. LN-derived NK cells from FIPV-infected cats were also significantly less cytotoxic when compared with healthy cats. This study reveals for the first time that FIPV infection is associated with severe suppression of NK cells and Tregs, which is reflected by cell depletion and lowered cell functionality (only NK cells). This will un-doubtfully lead to a reduced capacity of the innate immune system (NK cells) to battle FIPV infection and a decreased capacity (Tregs) to suppress the immunopathology typical for FIP. However, these results will also open possibilities for new therapies targeting specifically NK cells and Tregs to enhance their numbers and/or functionality during FIPV infection. PMID:23434014

  7. Comparison of test performance and evaluation of novel immunoassays for tuberculosis in a captive herd of wood bison naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Elkin, Brett T; Nishi, John S; Epp, Tasha; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Surujballi, Om; Turcotte, Claude; Esfandiari, Javan; Greenwald, Rena; Leighton, Fredrick A

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, the Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project was initiated to establish a small, disease-free, captive, bison-breeding herd. Founders originated from wild bison herds in the Slave River Lowlands in northern Canada, which, like other bison herds in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, are endemically infected with bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (caused by Brucella abortus). After 9 yr of apparent disease freedom, tuberculosis was detected within the captive herd, leading to complete depopulation. This study examined the performance of antemortem tuberculosis diagnostic tests used during the project. Performances of the caudal-fold test, fluorescent polarization assay, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), and the rapid test (RT) were assessed by estimating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for each test. Kappa values measuring agreement between tests were calculated. Overall, the tests did not differ with respect to sensitivities and specificities, which ranged from 50% to 92% and from 34% to 100%, respectively. The MAPIA tended to show high sensitivity, and there was significant agreement only between the MAPIA and RT. Serum collected from infected animals at slaughter produced highly variable results on the different assays, and one infected bison was negative on all antemortem tests. The results of this analysis suggest use of multiple antemortem tests in parallel, particularly those incorporating multiple antigens, to optimize sensitivity in detecting bovine tuberculosis in bison. However, as demonstrated in this herd, even a seemingly optimal antemortem testing regimen can fail to detect M. bovis-infected individuals. PMID:20090020

  8. Analysis of the IgG antibody response against Paramphistomidae trematoda in naturally infected cattle. Application to serological surveys.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Lomba, C; Pedreira, J; Arias, M; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Suárez, J L; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P; Paz-Silva, A

    2006-09-10

    The IgG antibody response to Calicophoron daubneyi (Digenea: Paramphistomidae) excretory/secretory antigens was evaluated in naturally infected cattle from Lugo (Galicia, NW Spain) by using an ELISA procedure. Two studies were conducted, first a survey in 524 cattle separated into three groups according to age, G-1 (0-2 years old), G-2 (3-5 years old) and G-3 (> 6 years old). In the second study, three groups of cattle were employed: G-I, naturally infected; G-T, naturally infected and treated with oxyclozanide plus levamisole (Nilzan Plus); G-C, cattle maintained in a farm where C. daubneyi has never diagnosed. Variations on egg-output and haematic parameters (erythrocytes, haematocrite, leukocytes and lymphocytes) were also analyzed. The ELISA procedure showed that 61.2% of the cattle in the first study had been exposed to the trematode, but only 10.1% passed eggs in the feces. Age-association with egg-output was shown but not with the IgG values. In the second experiment, the administration of the anthelmintic reduced significantly the IgG kinetic levels and the C. daubneyi-egg-output was suppressed during 12 weeks in the G-T group. The values of red cells, haematocrite, leukocytes and lymphocytes increased significantly in the treated cattle 5 weeks after chemotherapy; however, new reduction after week 5 was recorded, as results of the challenge of these cattle. This is the first investigation in which evaluation of the IgG humoral response against C. daubneyi in cattle has been carried out. We proved that a notable IgG response in naturally infected cattle is induced, and can be detected by using an ELISA procedure. The IgG antibodies did not increase after challenge infection. Our results proved an important percentage of cattle were exposed to this trematode in the area of study and suitable measures for preventing this relationship must be considered. PMID:16672179

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID:26018834

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID:26018834

  11. A framework radiation hybrid map of buffalo chromosome 1 ordering scaffolds from buffalo genome sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Yang, E; Cai, J J; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo chromosome 1 (BBU1) is a sub-metacentric chromosome homologous to bovine chromosomes 1 and 27. In this study, we constructed a new framework radiation hybrid (RH) map from BBU1 using BBURH5000 panel adding nine new genes (ADRB3, ATP2C1, COPB2, CRYGS, P2RY1, SLC5A3, SLC20A2, SST, and ZDHHC2) and one microsatellite (CSSM043) to the set of markers previously mapped on BBU1. The new framework RH map of BBU1 contained 141 markers (55 genes, 2 ESTs, 10 microsatellites, and 74 SNPs) distributed within one linkage group spanning 2832.62 centirays. Comparison of the RH map to sequences from bovine chromosomes 1 and 27 revealed an inversion close to the telomeric region. In addition, we ordered a set of 34 scaffolds from the buffalo genome assembly UMD_CASPUR_WB_2.0. The RH map could provide a valuable tool to order scaffolds from the buffalo genome sequence, contributing to its annotation. PMID:26535622

  12. The prevalence of Neospora caninum and co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii by PCR analysis in naturally occurring mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Williams, R H; Morley, E K; Cook, D A N; Terry, R S; Murphy, R G; Smith, J E; Hide, G

    2006-01-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. Little is known about the extent of Neospora/Toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. Using nested PCR techniques, based on primers from the Nc5 region of N. caninum and SAG1 for T. gondii, the prevalence of N. caninum and its co-infection with T. gondii were investigated in populations of Mus domesticus, Rattus norvegicus and aborted lambs (Ovis aries). A low frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the Mus domesticus (3%) and Rattus norvegicus (4.4%) populations. A relatively high frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the brains of aborted lambs (18.9%). There was no significant relationship between N. caninum and T. gondii co-infection. Investigation of the tissue distribution of Neospora, in aborted lambs, showed that Neospora could not be detected in tissues other than brain and this was in contrast to Toxoplasma where the parasite could be frequently detected in a range of tissues. PMID:16393351

  13. Chemokine Binding Protein M3 of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Modulates the Host Response to Infection in a Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David J.; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H.; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A.; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F.; Sample, Jeffery T.; Stewart, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology. PMID:21445235

  14. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2011-03-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology. PMID:21445235

  15. Hematological characteristics of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) healthy and naturally infected by dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Zaragoza, O B; Fajer-Ávila, E J; Almazán-Rueda, P; Abdo de la Parra, M I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematology in order to determine changes in blood parameters of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. The morphological features of blood cells were described according to the observations made by light microscopy of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. The reference intervals and the mean value were determined for each hematological parameter evaluated in healthy fish and data were compared to those of naturally infected, with dactylogyrid monogeneans fish. Infected fish showed a prevalence of 100% and a mean intensity of 246.6 parasites per fish. Mean values of HCT, WBC, thrombocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the infected fish. In addition, lymphocytes percentage and total protein were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the infected fish compared to healthy fish. Only total WBC count, lymphocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage in infected fish were outside reference interval. The hematology of the spotted rose snapper of this study might serve as a basis for future studies and diagnosis. Changes observed in blood parameters in infected fish suggest that the immune system of L. guttatus was affected by the presence of the parasites. PMID:21466888

  16. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389

  17. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  19. 16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING SOUTH - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  20. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  1. Species identification of cattle and buffalo fat through PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, V V

    2016-04-01

    A method was standardized to isolate quality DNA from cattle and buffalo fat for species identification using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit. The quality of the DNA was sufficient enough to amplify universal primers viz., mt 12S rRNA and mt 16S rRNA, and species specific D loop primers for cattle and buffalo. The sensitivity of the PCR assay in the species specific D loop primer amplification was with a detection level of 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.23 ng buffalo DNA in simplex and, 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.12 ng buffalo DNA in duplex PCR. It is a potentially reliable method for DNA detection to authenticate animal fat. PMID:27413237

  2. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  3. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155), 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009), a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009), a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg) and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13) and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1). Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp), were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0), intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that SIVcpz

  4. Separation and quantification of milk casein from different buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production. PMID:27600966

  5. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  6. Confirmation of Fasciola hepatica resistant to triclabendazole in naturally infected Australian beef and dairy cattle☆

    PubMed Central

    Brockwell, Yvette M.; Elliott, Timothy P.; Anderson, Glenn R.; Stanton, Rex; Spithill, Terry W.; Sangster, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is the drug of choice for Fasciola hepatica control and reports of F. hepatica resistant to this drug from a wide range of geographic regions are very concerning. This study investigated the presence of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in naturally infected Australian beef and dairy cattle herds and evaluated methods of measuring the levels of resistance. Faecal egg count and coproantigen reduction tests (FECRT and CRT, respectively) were conducted on 6 South-eastern Australian beef properties and one dairy property where treatment failure by triclabendazole (TCBZ) was suspected. The CRT was conducted on an additional beef property. On each property 15 animals were treated with an oral preparation of TCBZ at the recommended dose and 15 animals remained as untreated controls. Fluke eggs in faeces were counted and coproantigen levels were measured before treatment and 21 days after treatment and in the untreated control animals. These data were evaluated using three different methods to calculate % reductions compared with controls. Resistance (<90% reduction) was detected on the dairy property using both FEC and CRT, and on 3/6 beef properties using FECRT and 4/7 beef properties using CRT. Using the FECRT, reductions of 6.1–14.1% were observed in dairy cattle and 25.9–65.5% in beef cattle. Using the CRT, reductions of 0.4–7.6% were observed in dairy cattle and 27.0–69.5% in beef cattle. Live flukes were recovered at slaughter following TCBZ treatment of 6 cattle from 3 of the beef properties, confirming the TCBZ resistance status of F. hepatica in these cattle. This is the first report of F. hepatica resistant to TCBZ in cattle in Australia and the results suggest that resistance is widespread in the South-eastern region. The CRT is shown to be a robust alternative to the FECRT for evaluation of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in cattle. PMID:24596668

  7. Natural Selection on Individual Variation in Tolerance of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Berenos, Camillo; Pilkington, Jill G.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Graham, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Hosts may mitigate the impact of parasites by two broad strategies: resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which limits the fitness or health cost of increasing parasite burden. The degree and causes of variation in both resistance and tolerance are expected to influence host–parasite evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics and inform disease management, yet very little empirical work has addressed tolerance in wild vertebrates. Here, we applied random regression models to longitudinal data from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep to estimate individual tolerance, defined as the rate of decline in body weight with increasing burden of highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematode parasites. On average, individuals lost weight as parasite burden increased, but whereas some lost weight slowly as burden increased (exhibiting high tolerance), other individuals lost weight significantly more rapidly (exhibiting low tolerance). We then investigated associations between tolerance and fitness using selection gradients that accounted for selection on correlated traits, including body weight. We found evidence for positive phenotypic selection on tolerance: on average, individuals who lost weight more slowly with increasing parasite burden had higher lifetime breeding success. This variation did not have an additive genetic basis. These results reveal that selection on tolerance operates under natural conditions. They also support theoretical predictions for the erosion of additive genetic variance of traits under strong directional selection and fixation of genes conferring tolerance. Our findings provide the first evidence of selection on individual tolerance of infection in animals and suggest practical applications in animal and human disease management in the face of highly prevalent parasites. PMID:25072883

  8. Embryonic and fetal mortality in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    River buffalo are able to adapt to diverse climatic zones and are widespread globally. The resource use efficiency of buffalo is highly relevant in a resource-constrained world and the increasing requirement to produce more food. Buffalo clearly have an important role in meeting the growing demand for animal protein. In the Mediterranean and higher latitudes, buffalo show annual cycles of ovarian activity, embryonic development, and pregnancy rate. In buffalo, the CL starts to develop early in the cycle, and there is also an early increase in concentrations of progesterone (P4) in circulation. This appears to be necessary for optimal embryonic development. The failure to establish a pregnancy in buffalo can occur before Day 21 (early embryonic mortality), from Day 21 to 45 (late embryonic mortality), and from Day 46 to 90 (fetal mortality) after mating. Treatment with P4, hCG, and GnRH on Day 5 after mating increases P4 in circulation and reduces early embryonic mortality in circumstances where concentrations of P4 are relatively low. The same treatments applied on Day 20 to 25 after mating can lower the occurrence of late embryonic mortality and fetal mortality. PMID:27142486

  9. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  10. Use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies in sheep naturally infected with Salmonella Abortusovis.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Dittus, Sophie; Belloy, Luc; Doherr, Marcus G; Hüssy, Daniela; Sting, Reinhard; Gabioud, Patricia; Waldvogel, Andreas S

    2010-07-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified and validated to detect antibodies against Salmonella Abortusovis in naturally infected sheep. The ELISA was validated with 44 positive and 45 negative control serum samples. Compared with the immunoblot, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98% and 100%, respectively. To follow antibody levels over time, samples from 12 infected ewes were collected at 1, 3, and 10 months after abortion. All animals showed antibody levels above the cutoff value throughout the observation period. One and 3 months after abortion, high antibody levels could be detected in all but one animal, whereas after 10 months, 9 animals had markedly lower but still positive antibody levels. The test characteristics and evidence for the persistence of detectable antibody levels in all infected animals for up to 10 months indicates that the ELISA can be used for herd surveillance testing. PMID:20622222

  11. Transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium infection in a natural population of non-human primates at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Dilrukshi K; Welch, David Mark; Kieft, Rudo; Hajduk, Stephen; Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2007-11-01

    Infections from Cryptosporidium parvum are of interest not only to public health, but also to wildlife conservation, particularly when humans and livestock encroach on nature and thereby increase the risk of cross-species transmissions. To clarify this risk, we used polymerase chain reaction to examine the hypervariable region of the C. parvum 18S rRNA gene in feces from three monkey species. Samples were isolated from regions where disease transmission between monkeys, livestock, and humans was likely (soiled habitat) or unlikely (clean habitat). Monkey individuals, their social groups, and different species shared multiple genotypes/isolates of C. parvum. Ecological and molecular analyses suggested that Cryptosporidium infection among Toque macaques in soiled habitats was mainly the bovine genotype C. parvum. Monkeys inhabiting clean habitat, particularly gray and purple-faced langurs, lacked Cryptosporidium species/types associated with bovines. Livestock apparently was a main source of infection for wild primates. PMID:17984333

  12. Improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M

    2006-01-30

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-three two-month-old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n=9) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n=8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation for an average of 7h/day together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of initially worm-free tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids faced low mixed infections (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum). Under conditions of scarce vegetation, such as those in the present study, supplemented groups (I-S and T-S) had higher growth rates compared to the non-supplemented groups independently of the control of GIN infection with anthelmintic (AH) treatment (P<0.001). Supplementary feeding did not affect FEC or PEC. In the absence of

  13. Virus isolation from saliva and salivary glands of cattle naturally infected with paralytic rabies.

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Larghi, O P; Russo, R G

    2001-02-16

    The infectivity of saliva, salivary and mammary glands, muscle, lung, kidney and liver of 87 cattle infected with paralytic rabies (positive viral isolation from brains) was studied. Fifty percent dilutions of saliva and tissue samples were inoculated intracerebrally into 10- to 15-day-old mice. Viral isolation in mice was confirmed by direct rabies fluorescent-antibody test and the antigenic variant of the isolates characterized by monoclonal antibodies. Rabies virus was isolated from 4.6% of salivary glands and from 1.6% of saliva samples. The rest of the peripheral tissues were negative. Cerebral and peripheral isolates belonged to vampire-bat antigenic variants. These results indicate that cattle infected by vampire bats may be a source of infection for man. The infection risk would depend on the type of contact between rabid cattle and man. PMID:11182465

  14. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  15. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  16. Modified procedure for extraction of poliovirus from naturally-infected oysters using Cat-Floc and beef extract

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Methods for recovery of poliovirus type 1 from naturally-infected oysters were examined. Extraction procedures analyzed included glycine-saline and polyelectrolyte (Cat-Floc) methods followed by concentration using modifications of an acid precipitation technique. Direct viral assay of shellfish homogenates, when compared to virus recovery following extraction, indicated that substantially fewer viruses were detected in initial homogenates. These data appeared to support the contention that input values based on homogenate assay were inappropriate in determining recovery efficiencies with naturally-infected shellfish. Since absolute efficiencies could not be determined, relative efficiencies using samples from pooled homogenates were used to determine the recovery efficiencies of various extraction procedures. Cat-Floc extraction followed by a beef extract-modified acid precipitation technique resulted in higher virus recoveries than a glycine-saline extraction procedure.

  17. Natural infection in anopheline species and its implications for autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic forest in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A descriptive study was carried out in an area of the Atlantic Forest with autochthonous malaria in the Parelheiros subdistrict on the periphery of the municipality of São Paulo to identify anopheline fauna and anophelines naturally infected with Plasmodium as well as to discuss their role in this peculiar epidemiological context. Methods Entomological captures were made from May 2009 to April 2011 using Shannon traps and automatic CDC traps in four areas chosen for their different patterns of human presence and incidences of malaria (anthropic zone 1, anthropic zone 2, transition zone and sylvatic zone). Natural Plasmodium infection was detected by nested PCR based on amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Results In total, 6,073 anophelines were collected from May 2009 to April 2011, and six species were identified in the four zones. Anopheles cruzii was the predominant species in the three environments but was more abundant in the sylvatic zone. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii specimens from the anthropic and sylvatic zones were positive for P. vivax and P. malariae. An. (Ker.) bellator, An. (Nys.) triannulatus, An. (Nys.) strodei, An. (Nys.) lutzi and An. (Ano) maculipes were found in small numbers. Of these, An. (Nys.) triannulatus and An. (Nys.) lutzi, which were collected in the anthropic zone, were naturally infected with P. vivax while An. (Nys.) triannulatus from the anthropic zones and An. (Nys.) strodei from the transition zone were positive for P. malariae. Conclusion These results confirm that Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii plays an important role as a major Plasmodium vector. However, the finding of other naturally infected species may indicate that secondary vectors are also involved in the transmission of malaria in the study areas. These findings can be expected to help in the implementation of new measures to control autochthonous malaria in areas of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:23497493

  18. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  19. Natural conception in HIV-serodiscordant couples with the infected partner in suppressive antiretroviral therapy: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Del Romero, Jorge; Baza, María Begoña; Río, Isabel; Jerónimo, Adrián; Vera, Mar; Hernando, Victoria; Rodríguez, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The potential of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV has increased the number of serodiscordant couples who are considering natural conception. We aim to describe the results of a protocol for reproductive counseling aimed at HIV serodiscordant couples who desire natural conception, in which the infected partner, the index case, is receiving suppressive antiretroviral treatment.A prospective cohort included all HIV serodiscordant couples attended a counseling program in the period 2002 to 2013