Science.gov

Sample records for bufo spinulosus anura

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingjun; Yang, Baotian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo stejnegeri was determined, which was 17 939 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop). The total length of D-loop region is 2533 bp, some tandem repeat units were found in this region. The phylogenetic trees of the 20 species from anura were reconstructed based on complete mtDNA sequences by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses. The result demonstrated that B. stejnegeri is the most closely related species with other Bufo species. PMID:26457914

  2. Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Sinsch, U

    1989-03-01

    The body temperature of free-ranging Andean toadsBufo spinulosus was measured either directly or radiotelemetrically during two 15-day periods at 3200 m elevation in the Mantaro Valley, Central Perú. All toads attempted to maintain their diurnal sum of body temperature within a narrow range. Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during 3-5 h in the morning. Core temperature increased up to 15° C above the air temperature in shade and reached maximum values of about 32° C. At air temperatures (in sun) exceeding 29° C, toads maintained body temperatures below 32° C by evaporative cooling. Following heliothermic heating during the moring toads retreated to the shade, thereby decreasing body temperature below air temperature. Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures at or slightly above ambient levels. Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads under the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for 64.6-77.9% of total variance whereas air temperature was of minor importance (1.5-4.4%). The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon the bladders were mostly empty. The bladder contents probably serve as water reserves during basking when evaporative water loss was high. Toads preferred sites that provided shady hiding places as well as sun-exposed bare soil within a radius of 5 m. However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in 20-70 m distance after periods of 2-5 days. The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad

  3. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than

  4. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Chen, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus is 17,719 bp in size, and shares a conserved gene arrangement, gene content and base composition with other Bufonidae species. The base composition of the H-strand is biased toward A + T content at 56.97% (T 28.14%, C 27.67%, A 28.83% and G 15.36%). Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) begin with ATG, while COX1 and ND2 initiate with ATA and ND1 starts at ATT. Seven PCGs have the complete stop codons AGA and TAA, whereas the remaining four PCGs end with TA or T. The putative control region possesses two repeat motifs, and four termination-associated sequences and six conserved sequence blocks at the 5' and 3' ends. PMID:25856517

  5. The genetics of amphibian declines: Population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite Toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Shaffer H.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Randal, Voss S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  6. Molecular Description of Macroorchis spinulosus (Digenea: Nanophyetidae) Based on ITS1 Sequences.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Yun, Yong Woon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2016-02-01

    We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 μm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 μm long and 320-450 μm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea. PMID:26951989

  7. Molecular Description of Macroorchis spinulosus (Digenea: Nanophyetidae) Based on ITS1 Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Yun, Yong Woon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 μm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 μm long and 320-450 μm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea. PMID:26951989

  8. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  9. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  10. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. PMID:27133069

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  12. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ≥ 200 μg/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 μg/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 μg/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments. PMID:26091834

  13. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  14. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Brunelli, Elvira; Berg, Cecilia; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC(50)). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles. PMID:18243363

  15. Bufadienolides with cytotoxic activity from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Jing; Tian, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lei, Yu-He; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-09-01

    Twelve new bufadienolides (1-12), along with fourteen known analogues (13-26) were isolated from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was an unusual bufadienolide with 3,19-epoxy moiety and A/B trans ring junction. Compounds 2-4 were rare bufadienolides possessing 10-H or 10-carboxyl units. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects on HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Six new compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 10 and 12) displayed significant anti-proliferative activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.049 to 1.856 μM. Arenobufagin (24) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity with IC50 value 0.011 μM. In addition, the present data provided more insight into the structure-activity relationships of bufadienolides. PMID:26022446

  16. Phenotypic divergence of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient: evidence for local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; Miaud, C; Plénet, S

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the environment can induce different patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Both neutral processes and selection can influence phenotypic differentiation. Altitudinal phenotypic variation is of particular interest in disentangling the interplay between neutral processes and selection in the dynamics of local adaptation processes but remains little explored. We conducted a common garden experiment to study the phenotypic divergence in larval life-history traits among nine populations of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient in France. We further used correlation among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (QST) and neutral genetic divergence (FST from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as altitudinal difference, to estimate the relative role of divergent selection and neutral genetic processes in phenotypic divergence. We provided evidence for a neutral genetic differentiation resulting from both isolation by distance and difference in altitude. We found evidence for phenotypic divergence along the altitudinal gradient (faster development, lower growth rate and smaller metamorphic size). The correlation between pairwise QSTs–FSTs and altitude differences suggested that this phenotypic differentiation was most likely driven by altitude-mediated selection rather than by neutral genetic processes. Moreover, we found different divergence patterns for larval traits, suggesting that different selective agents may act on these traits and/or selection on one trait may constrain the evolution on another through genetic correlation. Our study highlighted the need to design more integrative studies on the common toad to unravel the underlying processes of phenotypic divergence and its selective agents in the context of environmental clines. PMID:25074572

  17. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  18. Visual optics in toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Mathis, U; Schaeffel, F; Howland, H C

    1988-06-01

    Aspects of visual optics were investigated in the American toad (Bufo americanus). The development of the refractive state of the eye during metamorphosis was followed with IR photoretinoscopy. Frozen sections documented the changes in optical parameters before and after metamorphosis. There is a difference in light sensitivity between juvenile and adult toads. Binocular accommodation in adult toads was observed. 1. IR photoretinoscopic measurements showed that the refractive state of the eye changed very rapidly during metamorphosis, about 10 D/h while the animal entered the terrestrial habitat. 2. Frozen sections showed that the almost spherical lens in a tadpole eye had flattened in a just metamorphosed toad's eye while at the same time the distance of the lens to the retina had decreased. However, the morphological measurements were not sufficiently sensitive to record the relatively small changes in ocular dimensions that were responsible for the rapid changes in refractive state during metamorphosis. 3. Schematic eyes, with homogeneous and non homogeneous lenses, were constructed for tadpoles, juvenile toads, and adult toads. 4. Nonparaxial raytracing studies in schematic eyes suggested that the lenses of animals of the three developmental stages tadpole, juvenile toad, and adult are not homogeneous but have a refractive index gradient. The raytracing studies indicated that the refractive index gradient is different for the different developmental stages, being highest in the tadpole lens. 5. The observations of toads during feeding behavior at different light levels showed an increased light sensitivity in the adult nocturnal toads in contrast to the juvenile animals, which are diurnal. The increased light sensitivity could partly be explained with an increase in aperture and an increase in red rod outer segments. To fully explain the higher light sensitivity in adult toads, changes in neuronal parameters had to be assumed. 6. Retinoscopic measurements of

  19. Sensitivity of toad tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Amphibian larval stages have several qualities which make them as a useful indicator of harmful levels of pollutants in bioassay tests. Amphibian tadpoles show a variety of sublethal responses such as changes in growth, development rates, pigmentation and expression of morphological deformities in a lesser time of exposure to the environmental pollutants. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to determine the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc to the tadpoles of toad Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), which is commonly available and breed in aquatic habitats exhibiting a wide range of temperature and varying water quality.

  20. Interaction between Pax6 and its novel mutant in Bufo raddei Strauch

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Furong; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhao, Yuanlin; Wang, Ying; Wen, Fan; Ye, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Exploration of the relationship between a novel paired box 6 (Pax6) mutant and Pax6 in Bufo raddei Strauch. Methods RT–PCR, yeast 2-hybrid system, and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the Pax6 protein and its mutant during embryonic eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. Results We have cloned the Pax6 ORF sequence from Bufo raddei Strauch. Here we report the cloning of a novel Pax6 homolog of Bufo raddei Strauch named Pax6 variant. Comparing the 2 genes, the homolog of ORF nucleotide sequence is more than 99% in Bufo raddei Strauch; only the proline-serine-threonine(PST)-rich transaction domain differs. The deduced amino acid sequences of PST region are 53.1% identical. An interaction was found between Pax6 and Pax6 variant via yeast 2-hybrid system; with further study, we found that they interacted in vivo via co-immunopricipitation. Conclusions A Pax6 mutant was first found in Bufo raddei Strauch. Interaction between Pax6 and Pax6 variant may play a critical role during eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. This suggests that expression of Pax6 variant may play a role and appears to be a necessity in eye development, but that Pax6 itself is still pivotal in eye development. PMID:22065923

  1. Analysis of Bufo arenarum oviductal secretion during the sexual cycle.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Claudia A; Ramos, Inés; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-11-01

    SummaryBufo arenarum oocytes are oviposited surrounded by jelly coats, one component of the extracellular matrix required for fertilization. The secretion, released to the oviductal lumen, was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The coomassie blue staining evidenced an electrophoretic pattern with molecules ranging between 300 and 19 kDa that showed variations in their secretion profiles during the sexual cycle. In the preovulatory period the densitometric analysis showed the presence of nine peaks with marked predominance of the 74 kDa molecule. Once ovulation has occurred, the jelly coats become arranged around the oocytes during their transit throughout the oviductal pars convoluta (PC), revealing the addition of three proteins only observed during this period, which suggests a differential secretion. Some of these proteins could not diffuse under any extraction treatment, indicating for them a structural or in situ function. Proteins of low molecular mass diffused totally while others showed a partial diffusing capacity. After ovulation a marked decrease in the relative amount of all the proteins released to the lumen, especially the 74 kDa protein, could be detected. During this period, unlike the other stages of the sexual cycle, a differential secretion pattern was observed along the PC. The histochemical analysis performed during the ovulatory period showed the presence of glycoconjugates including both acidic and neutral groups. The present results are in agreement with previous ultrastructural and histochemical studies that describe the role of Bufo arenarum jelly coats in fertilization. PMID:19500442

  2. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    PubMed

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion. PMID:27087930

  3. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory. PMID:27059330

  4. Effective number of breeding adults in Bufo bufo estimated from age-specific variation at minisatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Arntzen, J.W.; Burke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the effective number of breeding adults were derived for three semi-isolated populations of the common toad Bufo bufo based on temporal (i.e. adult-progeny) variance in allele frequency for three highly polymorphic minisatellite loci. Estimates of spatial variance in allele frequency among populations and of age-specific measures of genetic variability are also described. Each population was characterized by a low effective adult breeding number (N(b)) based on a large age-specific variance in minisatellite allele frequency. Estimates of N(b) (range 21-46 for population means across three loci) were ??? 55-230-fold lower than estimates of total adult census size. The implications of low effective breeding numbers for long-term maintenance of genetic variability and population viability are discussed relative to the species' reproductive ecology, current land-use practices, and present and historical habitat modification and loss. The utility of indirect measures of population parameters such as N(b) and N(e) based on time-series data of minisatellite allele frequencies is discussed relative to similar measures estimated from commonly used genetic markers such as protein allozymes.

  5. Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine. PMID:8895112

  6. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  7. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans. PMID:21882955

  8. The identity of Rana lutea Molina, 1782 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Daiana P; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2013-01-01

    Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799). PMID:24614468

  9. Stage-dependent uptake of cadmium by Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Preez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several years, environmental contamination with cadmium has significantly increased because of its extensive use In anthropogenic activities. This heavy metal is a very toxic xenobiotic producing reproductive and developmental impairments in a wide spectrum of organisms. Within the life cycle of organisms, the embryo is the most sensitive period to adverse conditions. Moreover, stage-dependent susceptibilities to toxic agents in amphibian embryos treated with lead, cadmium and aluminium were described. In the case of cadmium, this differential sensitivity could be related to changes in the metal accumulation through development or in the induction of defense mechanisms against cadmium toxicity, such as metallothionein (Mt) synthesis, which seems to be developmentally regulated. In the case of the toad Bufo arenarum, susceptibility to cadmium seems to follow a biphasic pattern during embryonic development. From the two-cell stage to the neurula stage an increase in susceptibility occurs, whereas from the last stage onwards a gradual increase in the resistance against this heavy metal seems to be achieved. This stage reports the uptake profile of cadmium at different post-hatching stages. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  11. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  12. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    PubMed

    Hansen, H J; Olsen, A G; Willumsen, N J

    1994-08-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent of transepithelial electrical potential in vitro. While all the incorporations in vitro showed (32P) and (14C) frog and toad skin phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylcholine-independent of adaptational temperature and salinity--corresponding phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were found in vivo, when toads adapted to Ringer solution were transferred to tap water containing tracer amounts of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate. PE could play a role in the formation of a "hydrophilic" environment and thereby, e.g. stabilise the integral membrane proteins that regulate the function of ion channels. PMID:7521276

  13. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  14. Salt sensitivity and hydration behavior of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Maleek, R; Sullivan, P; Von Seckendorff Hoff, K; Baula, V; Hillyard, S D

    1999-11-01

    Toads, Bufo marinus, were placed on laboratory tissue saturated with water or with hyperosmotic (250 or 500 mM NaCl or KCl) solutions, and their behavior was observed for 5 min. Toads placed on water initially allowed their ventral skin to touch the surface without abducting the hind limbs. During this "seat patch down" (SPD) behavior toads appeared to be evaluating the suitability of a hydration source prior to initiating "water absorption response" (WR) behavior with the hind limbs fully abducted and the ventral skin pressed to the moist surface. Toads dehydrated by more than 10% showed significantly shorter periods of SPD behavior and initiated WR behavior more frequently than did hydrated toads. Dehydrated toads placed on 250 mM NaCl initiated WR behavior in only 18% of the trials, but spent significantly more time showing SPD behavior than they did on water, indicating that this concentration is marginally acceptable to them. Recordings from spinal nerve #6 showed an increase in activity when 250 mM NaCl or KCl solutions were perfused over the outer surface of the ventral skin. The response to KCl was significantly greater than NaCl. The addition of 10 microM amiloride to 250 mM NaCl resulted in a higher frequency of WR behavior and reversibly inhibited the neural response to 250 mM NaCl. These results suggest that epithelial Na+ channels in the skin serve a sensory function in this species. Neither the hydrated nor dehydrated toads initiated WR behavior on 250 or 500 mM KCl solutions, indicating that toads have a lower tolerance of K+ than of Na+ salts. PMID:10604846

  15. Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll

    1995-12-31

    As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

  16. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation. PMID:24647111

  17. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  18. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    JI, Yu-Cheng; ZHUGE, Hui; ZHANG, Shan-Shan; ZHANG, Shu-Fang; YANG, Xian-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA library by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5′ untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3′ UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources. PMID:25297079

  19. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources. PMID:25297079

  20. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  1. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  2. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the Mojave

    Desert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toads

    collected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  3. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  4. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  5. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY )

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  6. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, Ningning; Yu, Danna; Storey, Kenneth B; Zheng, Rongquan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae) was sequenced. The genome is a circular molecule of 17,343 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a large non-coding region. The gene order and mitochondrial genome information of L. sylvaticus is similar to most other frogs. The overall AT content of L. sylvaticus mitochondrial DNA is 59.3%. In BI and MLtrees, we found L. sylvaticus is a sister clade to L. catesbeianus. The monophyly of Lithobates, Rana, Odorrana, Glandirana, Pelophylax, and Amolops is well supported, but the paraphyly of Babina is supported. PMID:26016875

  8. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning. PMID:25418553

  9. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  10. A volatile, heat-stable anesthetic is not present in the skin of Bufo asper (Gravenhorst).

    PubMed

    Ratanabanangkoon, K

    1988-01-01

    A study was made concerning the possible existance of a volatile, heat-stable anesthetic popularly believed by the Thai people to be in the skin of Bufo asper. The skin together with the paratoid glands of two toads were dried and pyrolyzed. Mice and rats inhaling a continuous stream of the smoke or injected with a high dose of the volatile material showed signs of extreme irritation with no loss of consciousness. It is concluded that the skin of this toad does not contain a volatile, heat-stable anesthetic. PMID:3363570

  11. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  12. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  13. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  14. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  15. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  16. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  17. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  18. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  19. Ionophoretically applied acetylcholine and vagal stimulation in the arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed Central

    Bramich, N J; Brock, J A; Edwards, F R; Hirst, G D

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine (ACh), applied by ionophoresis, on the isolated arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus, were examined. 2. At each position where ACh was applied across the surface of sinus venosus preparations, a hyperpolarization was produced. These responses were abolished by hyoscine, indicating that muscarinic cholinoceptors are widely distributed over the surface of these muscle cells. 3. Vagal stimulation produced hyperpolarizations which were mimicked, to some extent, by ionophoretically applied ACh. 4. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were abolished by adding barium ions to the perfusion fluid, whereas responses to vagal stimulation persisted. 5. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were consistently slower than those to vagal stimulation. It is argued that the pathways activated by neural and applied ACh have different kinetics of activation. PMID:7965847

  20. Common toads (Bufo arenarum) learn to anticipate and avoid hypertonic saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2007-11-01

    Toads (Bufo arenarum) were exposed to pairings between immersion in a neutral saline solution (i.e., one that caused no significant variation in fluid balance), followed by immersion in a highly hypertonic saline solution (i.e., one that caused water loss). In Experiment 1, solutions were presented in a Pavlovian conditioning arrangement. A group receiving a single neutral-highly hypertonic pairing per day exhibited a greater conditioned increase in heart rate than groups receiving either the same solutions in an explicitly unpaired fashion, or just the neutral solution. Paired toads also showed a greater ability to compensate for water loss across trials than that of the explicitly unpaired group. Using the same reinforcers and a similar apparatus, Experiment 2 demonstrated that toads learn a one-way avoidance response motivated by immersion in the highly hypertonic solution. Cardiac and avoidance conditioning are elements of an adaptive system for confronting aversive situations involving loss of water balance. PMID:18085926

  1. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  2. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  3. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391

  4. Phylogenetic relationships linking Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) species based on 12S and 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Manojit; Deuti, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Genus Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) is endemic to southwestern and southern China and throughout southern Asia. Duttaphrynus phylogeny was also under debate for many years. 12S and 16S rDNAs help us to elucidate Duttaphrynus phylogeny. PMID:26155970

  5. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:24570052

  6. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

    PubMed

    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. PMID:24648036

  7. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  8. [Characterization of an experimental model of monosodium- glutamate-induced convulsions in the amphibian Bufo spp].

    PubMed

    Alfaro, F; Blas, O; Gutiérrez-Padilla, R; Feria-Velasco, A

    1990-01-01

    In previous reports, Feria-Velasco et al. characterized an experimental model of convulsions in rats induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) with evaluation of the motor behavior and neurochemical parameters. In the present work, MSG injected in toads (Bufo spp) reproduced the model of convulsions with some peculiarities. The electrocorticographic recordings in toads after MSG injection were similar to those obtained in rats after administration of convulsant agents. Most of the toads injected with MSG (81.8%) showed convulsions preceded by an episode of stereotyped movements and signs of hyperexcitability. Latency for convulsions and frequency of convulsive episodes were similar to what has been reported in rats injected with MSG. However, the duration of convulsive period was larger than that seen in rats, and no deaths were recorded in toads. The peculiar feature of amphibia regarding their cerebral structures and their blood-brain barrier (BBB) make the amphibian model, an interesting and valuable one in studying experimentally induced convulsions, as well as the role of BBB in these phenomena. PMID:1669233

  9. Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas.

    PubMed

    Marco; Kiesecker; Chivers; Blaustein

    1998-06-01

    In field-based choice experiments, we examined sex recognition and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of equal size, males did not discriminate between the sexes and attempted to amplex a male or a female with equal frequency. When a test male clasped a stimulus male, the stimulus male uttered a release call that caused the test male to release the stimulus male. Male-male amplexus never lasted more than 3 s, but male-female amplexus was tenacious and prolonged. Furthermore, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones, but they did not discriminate between gravid females or non-gravid females of equal size. In choice tests that excluded chemical cues, males jumped more frequently towards large females than small ones. Given that females are significantly larger than males, selecting larger individuals as potential mates increases the probability that males amplex with a female. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9642006

  10. Sex recognition and mate choice by male Bufo gargarizans in central China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong Lei; Sharma, Manmohan D

    2012-06-01

    Mate choice is important for successful reproduction, and consequently species have evolved various ways to choose potential high-quality mates. Anuran mate choice and underlying processes have been the subject of several recent investigations, however we are far from a complete understanding of mate choice in this system. In the present study, when given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of identical size, males did not discriminate between the sexes, and attempted to clasp a male or a female with equal frequency. Test males only released the stimulus toad when a release call was emitted by the stimulus male. When two males with distinct size differences were provided with a male, the male chose the larger one. Moreover, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones. These results suggest that male Bufo gargarizans can discriminate between the sexes, probably based on male release calls, and prefer to mate with larger individual using visual cues. PMID:22639803

  11. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  12. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  13. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Experimental repatriation of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) eggs, metamorphs, and adults in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Johnson, T.L.; Corn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) is an endangered species in Colorado and is considered a candidate species for federal listing by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Boreal toads are absent from many areas of suitable habitat in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado presumably due to a combination of causes. We moved boreal toads from existing populations and from captive rearing facilities to habitat which was historically, but is not currently, occupied by toads to experimentally examine methods of repatriation for this species. Repatriation is defined as the release of individuals into areas currently of historically occupied by that species (Dodd and Seigel, 1991). This effort was in response to one of the criteria for delisting the boreal toad in Colorado stated in the conservation plan and agreement for the management and recovery of the Southern Rocky Mountain population of the boreal toad (Loeffler, 1998:16); a??a?|there must be at least 2 viable breeding populations of boreal toads in each of at least 9 of 11 mountain ranges of its historic distribution.a?? Without moving eggs from established wild populations, or from captivity to historical localities, it is doubtful whether the recovery team will attain this ambitions goal.

  15. Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana B; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-08-01

    The localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity in Bufo arenarum oocytes was investigated by ultracytochemical techniques during progesterone-induced nuclear maturation, under in vitro conditions. No Ca2+ deposits were detected in either control oocytes or progesterone-treated ones for 1-2 h. At the time when nuclear migration started, electron dense deposits of Ca2+ were visible in vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and in the space between the annulate lamellae membranes. Furthermore, Ca-ATPase activity was also detected in these membrane structures. As maturation progressed, the cation deposits were observed in the cytomembrane structures, which underwent an important reorganization and redistribution. Thus, they moved from the subcortex and became located predominantly in the oocyte cortex area when nuclear maturation ended. Ca2+ stores were observed in vesicles surrounding or between the cortical granules, which are aligned close to the plasma membrane. The positive Ca-ATPase reaction in these membrane structures could indicate that the calcium deposit is an ATP-dependent process. Our results suggest that during oocyte maturation calcium would be stored in membrane structures where it remains available for release at the time of fertilization. Data obtained under our experimental conditions indicate that calcium from the extracellular medium would be important for the oocyte maturation process. PMID:19397840

  16. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. PMID:26587739

  17. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    PubMed

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  18. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  19. Single-dose metronidazole clears Opalina sp. from juvenile Bufo woodhousii.

    PubMed

    Nickol, Devin R; Tufts, Danielle M

    2013-06-01

    Protozoans of the family Opalinidae are intestinal commensals in amphibians. To test the hypothesis that these organisms are susceptible to the antiprotozoal antibiotic metronidazole, we randomly assigned 60 juvenile Woodhouse's toads ( Bufo woodhousii ) to receive a single oral dose of metronidazole or water. In pilot trials, the prevalence of opalinids in untreated members of this population was over 70%. One-third of the study population was dissected at each of 3 time points: 18 hr, 1 wk, and 2 wk post-treatment. An examiner blinded to the toad's treatment history determined the presence or absence of opalinids using a dissecting microscope. Opalinids were found in 3/10 toads in the treatment group and 9/10 in the control group after 18 hr (P < 0.02), in none of the treatment group and 8/10 in the control group after 1 wk (P < 0.001), and in none of the treatment group and 10/10 in the control group after 2 wk (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that a single-dose of metronidazole quickly and reliably clears opalinids from juvenile Woodhouse's toads with no evidence of short-term recurrence. The treatment was well tolerated, with no apparent morbidity and no mortality in either group. Future exploration of opalinid-related host fitness consequences may be facilitated by this simple method of developing a protozoan-free host population. PMID:23339344

  20. Plasma steroid concentrations change in response to sexual behavior in Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, M; Licht, P; Crews, D

    1988-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations change in response to social or environmental stimuli in many vertebrates. To test this phenomenon in an amphibian, we examined plasma androgen (A) and corticosterone (B) concentrations in male marine toads (Bufo marinus), a tropical species exhibiting intermale competition, amplectic clasping of females, and bouts of breeding behavior following rains. When males clasped females for 0, 1, 2, or 3 hr, plasma A concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with hours spent in amplexus. In field-sampled males, plasma A concentrations were higher in amplexing males than in single males. Among single males those found closer to breeding ponds had higher A concentrations than those more distant. These data support the hypothesis that sexual stimuli enhance plasma A concentrations in this amphibian. In 3-hr experimental tests and field-sampled males, B concentrations were higher in amplexing than in single males. Unlike some amphibians, short-term elevations of B apparently are not associated with decreased reproductive function. However, as in other amphibians in which high B concentrations are associated with stress-induced inhibition of reproduction, after 48-72 hr in captivity male toads showed high B concentrations and low plasma androgen concentrations. The bursts of sexual activities exhibited by B. marinus following heavy rains were associated with no changes in A concentration and with increased B concentration. PMID:3139541

  1. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  2. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  3. Physiological basis for diurnal activity in dispersing juvenile Bufo granulosus in the Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carlos A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Carvalho, José E; Suzuki, Hana; Jared, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Diurnal activity is characteristic of many toad species, including Bufo granulosus from the Brazilian semi-arid biome called the Caatinga. Because of their patterns of activity, juvenile toads are exposed to hot and dehydrating conditions. Our investigation focuses on temperature and water relationships, and is based on the prediction that anuran diurnal activity in a semi-arid environment must be associated with morphological, physiological and behavioral traits enhancing thermal tolerances, capacity for performance at high temperatures and water balance. To test specific hypothesis related with this prediction, we investigated postmetamorphic B. granulosus and collected data on thermal tolerances and preferences, thermal safety margins, thermal dependence of locomotor behavior, thermal and kinetic properties of citrate synthase (CS), and skin morphophysiology. This information was compared with additional data from adult conspecifics and adult toads from sympatric species or from species from more moderate environments. We found that juvenile B. granulosus exhibit the highest critical maximum temperature reported for toads (44.2 degrees C) and are well suited to move at high temperatures. However, and in contrast with juveniles of other Bufo species, they do not show thermal preferences in a gradient and appear to hydroregulate more than thermoregulate. The CS of adult and juvenile toads shows typical patterns of thermal sensibility, but the thermal stability of this enzyme is much higher in juveniles than in adult Bufo of any other species studied. The inguinal skin exhibits a complex folding pattern and seems highly specialized for capillary water uptake. Diurnal activity in juvenile B. granulosus is possible given high thermal tolerances, keen ability to detect and uptake water, and avoidance behaviors. PMID:17234442

  4. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  5. Role of cations as components of jelly coats in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela Fátima; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2010-02-01

    The role of monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) cations in Bufo arenarum fertilization was analysed. Our results showed that the highest fertilization percentages were obtained when strings of uterine oocytes (UO) were inseminated. Under these conditions, full jelly (FJ), which represents the jelly coats surrounding the oocytes at the time of deposition, contained 68.5 +/- 7.0 mM Na+, 27.4 +/- 2.4 mM K+, 6.3 +/- 0.9 mM Ca2+ and 6.9 +/- 0.9 mM Mg2+. When the strings of oocytes were washed in deionized water, these cations diffused into the liquid medium surrounding them. There was a marked similarity between the loss of Ca2+ in the jelly and the decrease in the fertilizability of the UO. Furthermore, the use of chelating agents of divalent cations showed the importance of the Ca2+ contained in the jelly. When Ca2+ was sequestered from the jelly coats by the addition of the chelating agents to the insemination medium as well as by pretreatment of the UO strings, a decrease in fertilization percentages occurred, this effect being dose dependent and more marked with EGTA. These results demonstrate that the Ca2+ in the jelly plays a role in fertilization. Nevertheless, taking into account that during the washing of the jelly other jelly coat components were diffused and considering that the addition of Ca2+ to the insemination medium reverted significantly, but only partially, the loss of fertilizability of jellied UO (washed), the participation of other components in the fertilization mechanism is suggested. PMID:19664308

  6. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  7. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  8. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2002-07-01

    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport. PMID:12077171

  9. Participation of inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors in Bufo arenarum oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2011-05-01

    Calcium is considered the most important second messenger at fertilization. Transient release from intracellular stores is modulated through both agonist-gated channels, IP₃Rs and RyRs, which can be found individually or together depending on the oocyte species. Using the four commonly used compounds (thimerosal, caffeine, heparin and ruthenium red), we investigated the existence and interdependence of both IP₃Rs and RyRs in mature Bufo arenarum oocytes. We found that caffeine, a well known specific RyRs agonist, was able to trigger oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of 10 mM caffeine showed 100% of oocytes exhibiting characteristic morphological criteria of egg activation. Ruthenium red, the specific RyR blocker, was able to inhibit oocyte activation induced either by sperm or caffeine. Our present findings provide the first reported evidence of the existence of RyR in frogs. We further explored the relationship between IP₃Rs and RyRs in B. arenarum oocytes by exposing them to the agonists of one class after injecting a blocker of the other class of receptor. We found that thimerosal overcame the inhibitory effect of RyR on oocyte activation, indicating that IP₃Rs function as independent receptors. In contrast, previous injection of heparin delayed caffeine-induced calcium release, revealing a relative dependence of RyRs on functional IP₃Rs, probably through a CICR mechanism. Both receptors play a role in Ca²+ release mechanisms although their relative contribution to the activation process is unclear. PMID:20880424

  10. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  11. Heavy metal contamination in the river toad, Bufo juxtasper (Inger), near a copper mine in East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yook Heng; Stuebing, R.B. )

    1990-08-01

    Mining of metals creates a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the environment. An open pit copper mine situated in the Northwest of Sabah, East Malaysia has been known to pollute its surroundings especially with discharges involving heavy metals. Although extensive investigations of heavy metal pollution has been carried out, none of the studies performed so far has included amphibians as indicator of heavy metal contamination in the area. As amphibians live both on land and in water, a study on the heavy metal content of these animals will thus enable a more extensive evaluation of the degree of contamination by heavy metals. Bufo juxtasper was chosen since it inhabits the rocky streams and rivers which exist in both a polluted and non-polluted condition in Sabah. Its' tadpoles are herbivorous feeding mainly on plant detritus, while adults feed principally on ants (which are polyphagous). Furthermore the large adult size of Bufo juxtasper, in which the size of the liver has an allometric relationship with body size, may allow for differentiation between larval and adult uptake through regression analysis. Thus concentration of pollutants acquired only during the larval phase should show a declining or negative slope as a function of body size in adults.

  12. Fine-scale population structure in a desert amphibian: landscape genetics of the black toad (Bufo exsul).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ian J

    2009-09-01

    Environmental variables can strongly influence a variety of intra- and inter-population processes, including demography, population structure and gene flow. When environmental conditions are particularly harsh for a certain species, investigating these effects is important to understanding how populations persist under difficult conditions. Furthermore, species inhabiting challenging environments present excellent opportunities to examine the effects of complex landscapes on population processes because these effects will often be more pronounced. In this study, I use 16 microsatellite loci to examine population structure, gene flow and demographic history in the black toad, Bufo exsul, which has one of the most restricted natural ranges of any amphibian. Bufo exsul inhabits four springs in the Deep Springs Valley high desert basin and has never been observed more than several meters from any source of water. My results reveal limited gene flow and moderately high levels of population structure (F(ST) = 0.051-0.063) between all but the two closest springs. I found that the geographic distance across the arid scrub habitat between springs is significantly correlated with genetic structure when distance accounts for topography and barriers to dispersal. I also found very low effective population sizes (N(e) = 7-30) and substantial evidence for historical population bottlenecks in all four populations. Together, these results suggest that the desert landscape and B. exsul's high habitat specificity contribute significantly to population structure and demography in this species and emphasize the importance of considering behavioural and landscape data in conservation genetic studies of natural systems. PMID:19708887

  13. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  14. Ionic mechanism for the photoreceptor potential of the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Pinto, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials were recorded from single rods in the isolated retina of Bufo marinus while the ionic composition of the extracellular medium was rapidly changed. Substitution of 2 mM aspartate- for Cl- produced a prompt depolarization of horizontal cells, but no modification of either resting potential or response to light in receptor cells. This implies that feed-back from horizontal cells to receptor cells was not active. 2. During substitution of choline+ or Li+ for Na+, and during isosmotic substitution of sucrose for NaCl, the resting potential of receptor cells became more negative and responses to light were abolished. During exposure to K+-free medium, the resting potential became slightly more negative and the responses to light became larger and developed small after-depolarizations. Exposure to [K+]out of four times normal resulted in permanent diminution of response magnitude and permanent change of response waveshape. Removal of Mg2+, four times normal [Mg2+]out or substitution of methylsulphate- for Cl- had no effect on resting potential or responses to light. With the exception of the small effects seen with altered [K+]out these results are consistent with the receptor potential being generated by a light-induced decrease of membrane conductance to Na+. 3. Exposure to decreased [Ca2+]out caused both a depolarization of the receptor membrane in the dark and an increase in the magnitude of the maximal response that could be evoked by a test stimulus. The magnitude of the increase in response equalled the magnitude of the depolarization. Exposure to increased [Ca2+]out or steady background light caused both a steady hyperpolarization and a decrease in the magnitude of the maximal response that could be evoked by a test stimulus. For steady hyperpolarizations greater than 3·5 mV, whether caused by elevated [Ca2+]out or steady background light, the decrease in response magnitude exceeded the magnitude of the hyperpolarization. These results

  15. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  16. Interactions of temperature and steroids on larval growth, development, and metamorphosis in a toad (Bufo boreas).

    PubMed

    Hayes, T; Chan, R; Licht, P

    1993-07-01

    The effects of temperature and steroids [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (B)] on premetamorphic growth and development were investigated in the toad (Bufo boreas). The effects of steroids were both temperature and age dependent. In the first experiment, steroids (1.1-1.4 microM) were administered by dissolving them in the water beginning 1 day after hatching at 22 degrees C or 27 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, B inhibited growth (P < 0.001) but had no significant effect on development. Forelegs never emerged in B-treated animals and all died before complete tail resorption. Discontinuation of B treatment allowed normal growth and metamorphosis, but the resulting post-metamorphic animals were significantly shorter (snout-vent length, P < 0.001) than after other treatments. At 22 degrees C, T and E2 had no effect on larval growth and development or size at metamorphosis (P > 0.05), but T induced early foreleg emergence (FLE) (P < 0.005). At 27 degrees C, B was fatal after 2 weeks of treatment, and T and E2 inhibited growth (P < 0.001) and development (P < 0.001), but did not affect time to FLE. In a second experiment at 27 degrees C, treatment with 1.1 microM B starting 15 days after hatching induced early metamorphic events (P < 0.001), such as tail resorption and emergence of the left foreleg (but not the right), but jaw and head restructuring failed to occur. All B-treated animals died before complete tail resorption. In a third experiment, 0.275 and 1.11 microM B, starting at day 43 (stage 43), induced early FLE (P < 0.05) and decreased snout-vent length at tail resorption (P < 0.005) without a dose effect. A higher dose of B (4.44 microM) decreased snout-vent length at tail resorption and time to FLE (P < 0.05) but did not affect body weight at metamorphosis (P > 0.05). Animals in this experiment survived to complete tail resorption and transformed normally. The actions of B in these experiments closely resemble those observed with

  17. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  18. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhacophorus dennysi (Anura: Rhacophoridae) and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Lv, Tong; Duan, Renyan; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    Rhacophorus dennysi is one species of the family Rhacophoridae. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi was 17 572 bp in length (GenBank accession number KT191129). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of R. dennysi contained two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and one D-loop region. The complete mitogenome sequence data in R. dennysi would provide a basis and important molecular data for studying the phylogenetic relationship, molecular identification and evolutionary analysis in anura species. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Rhacophoridae. PMID:26329505

  20. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  1. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed. PMID:24938085

  3. The King of the Dwarves: a new cryptic species of Dainty Frog (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows the presence of a cryptic species of Cacosternum (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa, supporting the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of vertebrate endemism. Bioacoustic and morphological characteristics, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of this cryptic species. Tadpoles and details of life history are described. PMID:24872236

  4. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, H.B.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Voss, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  5. Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mestre, I; Tejedo, M

    2005-07-01

    The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) shows variation in embryonic and larval salinity tolerance across populations in southern Spain. However, its aquatic/terrestrial biphasic life cycle, together with remarkable differences in salinity tolerance between Spanish and UK freshwater populations suggest an alternative hypothesis to local adaptation. Drought resistance during the terrestrial phase and salinity tolerance during the aquatic phase are both related to osmotic stress tolerance, and if there were an association between them, one could have evolved as an exaptation from the other. To test such an association, we reared B. calamita juveniles from three populations known to differ genetically in their salinity tolerance, under either dry or humid conditions. Drought decreased growth rate, enhanced burying behaviour, and decreased foraging activity and efficiency. No significant population x treatment interaction was found for any variable, i.e. populations were equally affected by drought. These results do not support the hypothesis of a genetic association between salinity and drought tolerance. PMID:16033556

  6. The natural heterohaemagglutinin in the serum of the toad Bufo regularis, and its relationship to lower vertebrate immunoglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, P; Gold, E R

    1976-01-01

    The serum of the toad Bufo regularis contains a natural heterohaemagglutinin for human erythrocytes, Which appears to have anti-(B + HP) specificity. Results of inhibition and absorption experiments indicate that only one agglutinin is present. The biochemical specificity of the agglutinin may be provisionally described as involving alpha-D-galactose residues linked (1-3) in the B determinant, of red cells possessing the H ANTIGEN. Unlike amphibian IgM, the agglutinin was insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol treatment; moreover, it could be eluted from the alpha1 globulin region on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. These results suggest that this naturally occurring heterohaemagglutinin has a structure similar to that of plant and animal lectins. The relationship of this observation to the phylogenetic evolution of immunity is discussed. PMID:58835

  7. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  8. Comparative Phylogeography of Direct-Developing Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) in the Southern Andes of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García-R, Juan C.; Crawford, Andrew J.; Mendoza, Ángela María; Ospina, Oscar; Cardenas, Heiber; Castro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Andes of South America hosts perhaps the highest amphibian species diversity in the world, and a sizable component of that diversity is comprised of direct-developing frogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae). In order to better understand the initial stages of species formation in these frogs, this study quantified local-scale spatial genetic structuring in three species of Pristimantis. DNA sequences of two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S and COI) were obtained from P. brevifrons, P. palmeri and P. jubatus at different locations in the Cordillera Occidental. We found high levels of genetic diversity in the three species, with highly structured populations (as measured by FST) in P. brevifrons and P. palmeri while P. jubatus showed panmixia. Large effective population sizes, inferred from the high levels of genetic diversity, were found in the three species and two highly divergent lineages were detected within P. jubatus and P. palmeri. Estimated divergence times among populations within P. brevifrons and P. palmeri coincide with the Pleistocene, perhaps due to similar responses to climatic cycling or recent geological history. Such insights have important implications for linking alpha and beta diversity, suggesting regional scale patterns may be associated with local scale processes in promoting differentiation among populations in the Andes. PMID:23049941

  9. Flurochloridone-based herbicides induced genotoxicity effects on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Nikoloff, Noelia; Natale, Guillermo S; Marino, Damián; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2014-02-01

    Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the flurochloridone (FLC)-containing commercial formulation herbicides Twin Pack Gold(®) (25 percent a.i.) and Rainbow(®) (25 percent a.i.) were evaluated on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. Lethal effect was evaluated as end point for lethality, whereas frequency of micronuclei (MN) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Lethality studies revealed equivalent LC-5096 h values of 2.96 and 2.85 mg/L for Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), respectively. Twin Pack Gold(®) did not induce DNA damage at the chromosomal level, whereas Rainbow(®) increased the frequency of MN only when the lowest concentration (0.71 mg/L) was used. However, all concentrations of Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®) increased the frequencies of primary DNA lesions estimated by alkaline SCGE. This study represents the first evidence of the acute toxic and genotoxic effects exerted by two FLC-based commercial formulations, Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of minimizing the impacts on nontarget living species exposed to agrochemicals. PMID:24239267

  10. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  11. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  12. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  13. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  14. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic effects of strobilurin fungicides on development, growth, and mortality of larval Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus).

    PubMed

    Hartman, Emily A H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural fungicide application has increased tenfold since 2005 in the United States. Active ingredients and formulations of strobilurin fungicides at environmentally relevant concentrations cause mortality to larval and metamorph amphibians; however, little is known about chronic exposure effects in amphibians. We exposed larval amphibians (Bufo cognatus) throughout metamorphosis to the common fungicide formulations Headline(®), Stratego(®), Quilt(®), and a control to determine effects on development and growth. Formulations were tested at 1.7, 50, and 400 μg/L of the active strobilurin ingredient for Headline(®), Stratego(®), and Quilt(®), respectively. Fungicide exposure did not affect body mass or snout-vent length at metamorphosis. However, exposure to Headline(®) at 1.7 μg/L increased the development rate of tadpoles by approximately 5 days compared to the control, an effect not observed for Stratego(®) and Quilt(®). Stratego(®) also caused approximately 35 % cumulative mortality. Results from the experiment suggest that chronic effects of strobilurin fungicides on development, growth, and mortality to B. cognatus are apparent at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:24522617

  16. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Candice M; Starkweather, Peter L; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad (Bufo (Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T(b) range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T(b) as low as 3.1 degrees C and as high as 39.1 degrees C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested. PMID:18357398

  17. Behavioral responses to immune-system activation in an anuran (the cane toad, Bufo marinus): field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, D; Brown, G P; Thompson, M B; Shine, R

    2011-01-01

    The challenges posed by parasites and pathogens evoke behavioral as well as physiological responses. Such behavioral responses are poorly understood for most ectothermic species, including anuran amphibians. We quantified effects of simulated infection (via injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) on feeding, activity, and thermoregulation of cane toads Bufo marinus within their invasive range in tropical Australia. LPS injection reduced feeding rates in laboratory trials. For toads in outdoor enclosures, LPS injection reduced activity and shifted body temperature profiles. Although previous research has attributed such thermal shifts to behavioral fever (elevated body temperatures may help fight infection), our laboratory studies suggest instead that LPS-injected toads stopped moving. In a thermal gradient, LPS-injected toads thus stayed close to whichever end of the gradient (hot or cold) they were first introduced; the introduction site (rather than behavioral thermoregulation) thus determined body temperature regimes. Shifts in thermal profiles of LPS-injected toads in outdoor enclosures also were a secondary consequence of inactivity. Thus, the primary behavioral effects of an immune response in cane toads are reduced rates of activity and feeding. Thermoregulatory modifications also occur but only as a secondary consequence of inactivity. PMID:21128787

  18. Characteristics of cathelicidin-Bg, a novel gene expressed in the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Xu, W F; Tang, L P; Wang, M M; Wang, X J; Qian, Y C

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su (toad venom) comprises dried secretions of the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans. Chan Su is known for its small molecular components, which include telocinobufagin, marinobufagin, and bufalin, while in other amphibians, studies mainly focus on peptide components. Until recently, no genes expressed in the ear-side gland of B. gargarizans gland had been cloned. In this study, cathelicidin-Bg, a coding sequence of anti-microbial peptide (AMP), was cloned. The predicted amino acid sequence of cathelicidin-Bg was very similar to that from other amphibians, with a 34-amino acid mature peptide predicted in the C-terminus. The functions of this mature peptide were verified by microbe and tumor cell inhibition assays. Our results showed that the mature peptide of cathelicidin-Bg could inhibit the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mature peptide was also shown to selectively inhibit tumor cells. These results indicate that the identified coding sequence represents an active peptide of Chan Su. PMID:27525920

  19. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  20. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  1. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians. PMID:27392436

  2. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  3. The role of reactive oxygen species in the herbicide acetochlor-induced DNA damage on Bufo raddei tadpole liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingmei; Liu, Jianghai; Huang, Dejun

    2006-06-10

    After exposure of Bufo raddei tadpoles to acetochlor (ACETO) for 14 days, malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA-single strand break (DNA-SSB) in livers were analyzed. An enhanced accumulation of MDA suggests that ACETO causes oxidative stress, and the significant increase in the level of DNA-SSB indicates that ACETO induces DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as well. On the basis of the fact that oxidative stress is caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the present results, we speculate that ACETO-induced DNA damage may be a consequence of the generation of ROS. To evaluate this hypothesis, tadpoles were treated with ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or melatonin (MEL), prior to ACETO exposure. The decrease of DNA-SSB level and the increase of total antioxidant capability (TAC) show that ACETO-caused DNA damage can be attenuated by NAC and MEL. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between the extent of DNA damage and the level of TAC in tadpole liver. In conclusion, the results suggest that ACETO-induced DNA damage is mediated by ROS. PMID:16513190

  4. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  5. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  6. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  7. Antioxidant responses to azinphos methyl and carbaryl during the embryonic development of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ana; Lascano, Cecilia I; Anguiano, Olga L; D'Angelo, Ana M Pechen de; Venturino, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Amphibian embryos are naturally exposed to prooxidant conditions throughout their development. Environmental exposure to contaminants may affect their capacity to respond to challenging conditions, to progress in a normal ontogenesis, and finally to survive and succeed in completing metamorphosis. We studied the effects of the exposure to two anticholinesterase agents, the carbamate carbaryl and the organophosphate azinphos methyl, on the antioxidant defenses of developing embryos of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased early by carbaryl, but were decreased by both pesticides at the end of embryonic development. The GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidases showed oscillating activity patterns that could be attributed to an induction of activity in response to oxidative stress and inactivation by excess of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione-S-transferases, which may participate in the conjugation of lipid peroxide products in addition to pesticide detoxification, showed an increase of activity at the beginning and at the end of development. Catalase also showed variations in the activity suggesting, successively, induction and inactivation in response to pesticide exposure-induced oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by carbaryl and transiently decreased by azinphos methyl exposure. Judging from the depletion in GSH levels and glutathione reductase inhibition at the end of embryonic development, the oxidative stress caused by azinphos methyl seemed to be greater than that caused by carbaryl, which might be in turn related with a higher number of developmental alterations caused by the organophosphate. GSH content is a good biomarker of oxidative stress in the developing embryos exposed to pesticides. The antioxidant enzymes are in turn revealing the balance between their protective capacity and the oxidative damage to the enzyme molecules, decreasing their

  8. Effects of copper, zinc and dragonfly kairomone on growth rate and induced morphology of Bufo arabicus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    It is well documented that many amphibian species can detect chemical signals from predatory invertebrates and subsequently develop alternate phenotypes that are protective against predation. The effects of metallic pollutants on the development of predator-induced morphology have not previously been reported. Tadpoles of the Arabian toad Bufo arabicus were exposed for 20 days to copper (0, 10 or 100 μg/L), zinc (0, 10 or 100 μg/L) and kairomones of larval dragonflies (Crocothemis erythrea 1 dragonfly/12 L) in a fully crossed design. The effects of these treatments of growth and body shape were measured. Measured copper concentrations after 24 h were 4.25 μg/L±1.30 (10 μg/L nominal) and 34.9 μg/L±2.15 (100 μg/L nominal). Measured zinc concentrations were 3.04 μg/L±0.1 (10 μg/L nominal) and 26.3 μg/L±12.3 (100 μg/L nominal). Tadpoles exposed to 34.9 μg/L copper were significantly lighter and had a shorter body length than other groups. There was no direct effect of zinc on growth or tadpole shape. Tadpoles exposed to dragonfly kairomones were heavier, wider and had deeper bodies when viewed laterally and had longer tails but overall length was not affected. At 4.25 μg/L copper differences between the control and predator-exposed phenotypes increased but at 34.9 μg/L the phenotypes converged, indicating that copper may inhibit the induced response. PMID:21251714

  9. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Farias, C F; Azevedo, R A; Brito-Gitirana, L

    2006-02-01

    The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Lens culinaris (LCA), Erythrina cristagalli (ECA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I), Aleuria aurantia (AAA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), and Glycine maximum (SBA). The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary. PMID:16680305

  10. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  11. Steroid-induced protein synthesis in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders. Correlation with natriferic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Geheb, M; Alvis, R; Owen, A; Hercker, E; Cox, M

    1984-01-01

    We have identified a group of proteins (Mr approximately 70 000-80 000; pI approximately 5.5-6.0) in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders whose synthesis appears to be related to aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport. Spironolactone, a specific mineralocorticoid antagonist in renal epithelia, inhibits the synthesis of these proteins as well as the natriferic effect of the hormone. Since a variety of other steroids (some of which are traditionally considered to be glucocorticoids) also stimulate Na+ transport in toad urinary bladders, we examined whether their natriferic activity was expressed in a fashion similar to that of aldosterone. Short-circuit current was used to measure Na+ transport, and epithelial-cell protein synthesis was detected with high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. At a concentration of approximately 100 nM, dexamethasone, corticosterone and aldosterone were equinatriferic. Dexamethasone and aldosterone had identical dose-response curves, maximal and half-maximal activity being evident at concentrations of approximately 100 nM and 10 nM respectively. In contrast, at a concentration of approximately 10 nM, corticosterone had no effect on Na+ transport. The natriferic activities of these three steroids correlate with their known affinities for the putative mineralocorticoid receptor in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic concentrations of dexamethasone and corticosterone (140 nM) induced the synthesis of proteins with characteristics identical with those induced by aldosterone. Spironolactone, at an antagonist/agonist ratio of 2000:1, inhibited steroid-induced Na+ transport and the synthesis of these proteins. Thus it appears that all natriferic steroids share a common mechanism of action in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic activity can be correlated not only with relative steroid-receptor affinity but also with the induction of a specific group of epithelial-cell proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig

  12. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  13. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region. PMID:18301990

  14. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  15. Plasma osmolality, urine composition and tissue water content of the toad Bufo viridis Laur. in nature and under controlled laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Katz, U; Pagi, D; Hayat, S; Degani, G

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of plasma and urine were studied in toads (Bufo viridis) which were collected from three locations in Israel, and compared with toads which were kept under constant laboratory conditions for nearly 2 years. Plasma osmolality was rather constant (over 310 mOsm kg-1 H2O) during the whole year in the active toads. Urea was the most variable osmolyte in the plasma, and accounted for the higher osmolality in southern population. Urine osmolality fluctuated in a circannual fashion both in freshly captured and in the toads under constant laboratory conditions. Water content of the tissues was constant throughout the year, independent of the plasma osmolality. It is concluded that high plasma urea concentration and the excretory system (kidneys and the urinary bladder) are important in sustaining constant plasma osmolality in active toads. Both mechanisms change annually and form the basis for the high terrestriality of this species. PMID:2879673

  16. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  17. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  18. Seasonal increase in olfactory receptor neurons of the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus, is paralleled by an increase in olfactory sensitivity to isoamyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hideo; Ichikawa, Masumi; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2009-10-01

    Japanese toads (Bufo japonicus) migrate to and from breeding sites in the early spring, possibly guided by olfactory cues. We previously showed that the electrical activity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the toads was enhanced in the breeding period. We undertook morphological and physiological studies of the olfactory epithelium to determine whether any cellular substrate of the epithelium underlies the enhanced electrical activity of ORNs. The ORNs of the toads were labeled by antiserum to olfactory marker protein (OMP), and the morphology of the labeled cells and their distribution in the epithelium were examined throughout the year. The OMP-positive cells, distributed mainly in the basal and intermediate layers of the epithelium, were most numerous in the early breeding period. Cell proliferation in the epithelium detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling was most elevated in this period. The electrical activity of ORNs was examined by recording the electroolfactogram (EOG) in the toads throughout the year. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the density of OMP-positive cells in the epithelium and the amplitude of the EOG responses. A greater number of ORNs in the breeding period possibly aids the toads in migrating to their breeding sites. PMID:19643818

  19. The role of the egg jelly coat in protecting Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus embryos from Ultraviolet B radiation during development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, L.J.; Fabacher, D.L.; Calfee, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the egg mass jelly provides photoprotection to the developing embryos. Methods. Direct spectrophotometric scans of egg jelly, scans of egg jelly methanol extracts, and experimental manipulation in a solar simulator during development were all used to assess the role of egg mass jelly as a photoprotective agent. Results/Discussion. For Hyla regilla, scans of egg jelly and methanolic extracts (for mycosporine-like amino acid content) both displayed no absorption in the UV range. Experimental manipulation (removal of egg mass jelly) with both Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus egg masses in a solar simulator demonstrated that egg mass jelly played no apparent role in photoprotection of either of these species. Conclusions. Based on the results in this study it seems unlikely that the egg jelly coat is playing a crucial role in protecting developing embryos from the impact of UVB radiation.

  20. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Rhacophoridae (Anura): A framework of taxonomic reassignment of species within the genera Aquixalus, Chiromantis, Rhacophorus, and Philautus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-tang; Che, Jing; Bain, Raoul H; Zhao, Er-mi; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among representative species of the family Rhacophoridae were investigated based on 2904bp of sequences from both mitochondrial (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, the complete t-RNA for valine), and nuclear (tyrosinase, rhodopsin) genes. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses were employed to reconstruct the phylogenetic trees. This analysis, combined with previous phylogenetic studies, serves as a framework for future work in rhacophorid systematics. The monophyly of Rhacophorus is strongly confirmed except for the species R.hainanus, which is the sister taxon to A.odontotarsus. The non-monophyly of the newly designated genus Aquixalus by Delorme et al. [Delorme, M., Dubois, A., Grosjean, S., Ohler, A., 2005. Une nouvelle classification générique et subgénérique de la tribu des Philautini (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 74, 165-171] is further confirmed. Aquixalus (Aquixalus) forms a well-supported monophyletic group within Kurixalus, whereas, Aquixalus (Gracixalus) is more closely related to species of Rhacophorus, Polypedates, and Chiromantis. Philautus as currently understood, does not form a monophyletic group. Philautus (Kirtixalus) is the sister group to the clade comprising Kurixalus and Aquixalus (Aquixalus), and more remotely related to Philautus (Philautus). Chiromantisromeri does not cluster with species of Chiromantis, and forms a basal clade to all rhacophorids save Buergeria. We propose some taxonomic changes that reflect these findings, but further revision should await more detailed studies, which include combined morphological and molecular analyses, with greater species sampling. PMID:18442928

  2. Delimiting the distribution range of Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae), an endemic threatened anuran of the Western Ghats, based on molecular and morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nikhil; Padhye, Anand; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae) is a frog species endemic to the Western Ghats and is categorized as Vulnerable according to IUCN red list. This species is currently considered to be widespread over the entire Western Ghats. Our study based on molecular data (using DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes and the nuclear rhodopsin gene), morphological analysis of topotypic material as well as material collected from a wide range within the northern Western Ghats, suggests that the species has instead a restricted range in the state of Maharashtra. Specimens identified as I. leithii from the southern Western Ghats as well as from outside the Western Ghats probably belong to hitherto undescribed species. To facilitate future studies in understanding the nature of this species complex and provide better means for identification and delimitation of species we provide molecular, morphological and osteological characters of I. leithii from topotyic material. PMID:24870665

  3. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  4. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gerchen, Jörn F.; Reichert, Samuel J.; Röhr, Johannes T.; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  5. The effects of drought on population structure, activity, and orientation of toads Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris at a temporary pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, I monitored the populations of two species of toads, Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris, at a temporary pond in the xeric uplands of north-central Florida. A drift fence with pitfall traps completely encircled the pond basin; the fence was monitored 5 days per week throughout the year. The 5-year study coincided with a severe regional drought that resulted in generally short hydroperiods at unpredictable times of the year. More than 800 toads were captured. Successful metamorphosis never occurred at the pond although toads continued to visit it throughout the study. The sex ratio was male biased in B. quercicus but not in B. terrestris, although significant variation was observed from one year to the next. Likewise, the size-class structure and length-weight patterns varied among species, sexes, and years. Although fewer toads entered the pond basin as the study progressed, toads may have gone elsewhere to breed or they may have remained in refugia. Thus, decreased capture does not necessarily indicate that a drought-related population decline occurred. Drought may have disrupted normal arrival patterns and length of stay within the pond basin. Drought also could be responsible for variation in annual size-class structure of captured toads. The uncertainty of the hydroperiod both spatially and temporally in adjacent breeding sites, the ability of toads to move long distances with the potential for migration between breeding sites, and the lack of specificity in the choice of breeding sites (i.e. permanent versus different types of temporary wetlands) may lead to the formation of metapopulations in the xeric upland habitats of north-central Florida. Long-term monitoring under a variety of climatic conditions is needed to assess the effects of drought and other types of environmental stresses on toad populations.

  6. Cryptic Neogene vicariance and Quaternary dispersal of the red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus): insights on the evolution of North American warm desert biotas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jef R; Riddle, Brett R; Bradford, David F

    2005-09-01

    We define the geographical distributions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages embedded within a broadly distributed, arid-dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus. These patterns were evaluated as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of desert biotas within western North America. We assessed mtDNA sequence variation among 191 samples from 82 sites located throughout much of the species' range. Parsimony-based haplotype networks of major identified lineages were used in nested clade analysis (NCA) to further elucidate and evaluate shallow phylogeographic patterns potentially associated with Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene) vicariance and dispersal. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three monophyletic lineages (clades) within B. punctatus. The geographical distributions of the clades showed little overlap and corresponded to the general boundaries of the Peninsular Desert, and two continental desert regions, Eastern (Chihuahuan Desert-Colorado Plateau) and Western (Mojave-Sonoran deserts), geographically separated along the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre Occidental. The observed divergence levels and congruence with postulated events in earth history implicate a late Neogene (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) time frame for separation of the major mtDNA lineages. Evaluation of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and interpretations from NCA reveal that populations on the Colorado Plateau resulted from a recent, likely post-Pleistocene, range expansion from the Chihuahuan Desert. Dispersal across historical barriers separating major continental clades appear to be recent, resulting in secondary contacts in at least two areas. Given the observed contact between major clades, we speculated as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials of the Pleistocene. PMID:16101772

  7. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3-1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5-1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  8. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  9. Immunolocalization and mRNA expression of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha-subunit in the kidney and urinary bladder of the marine toad, Bufo marinus, under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamada, Toshiki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2007-06-01

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has previously been shown to be involved in the maintenance of body fluid volume and in Na(+) absorption across the skin and urinary bladder in amphibians. However, the function and distribution of ENaC have not been clearly described in amphibian kidney. We therefore cloned the ENaC alpha-subunit cDNA from kidney of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. The ENaC mRNA and protein were abundantly expressed in the kidney and in the urinary bladder and ventral pelvic skin. In an immunohistochemical study, the ENaC alpha-subunit protein was specifically localized to the apical membrane of the principal cells but not the intercalated cells from the late distal tubule to the collecting duct in the kidney or in the apical area of cells of urinary bladder epithelia. When toads were acclimated to dry and hyper-saline environments, the levels of ENaC mRNA expression in the kidney and urinary bladder decreased under hyper-saline acclimation, but not under dry conditions. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that the levels of ENaC protein expression were much lower in the apical area of renal distal tubules and urinary bladder epithelia of hyper-saline acclimated toad compared with controls. The present study suggests that Bufo ENaC is significantly expressed and functions during Na(+) reabsorption in the apical membrane domain in the distal nephron of normal and desiccated toads. Natriuresis may be caused by decreases in ENaC expression and its trafficking to the cell surface in the distal nephron, a response to prevent excessive Na(+) reabsorption in hyper-saline-acclimated toads. PMID:17333031

  10. Damage to the gills and integument of Litoria fallax larvae (Amphibia: Anura) associated with ionoregulatory disturbance at low pH.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Edward A; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2010-02-01

    In fish, exposure to waters of low pH causes significant damage to the gill resulting in fatal iono- and osmoregulatory disturbance. In amphibians, exposure to acid waters also disrupts ionic homeostasis, however the extent and nature of injuries to amphibian larvae from acid exposure are poorly understood. Changes in gross morphology and ultrastructure of the gills and integument were examined, together with measures of Na(+) efflux/uptake, in larval Litoria fallax (Amphibia: Anura) following acute acid exposure. Examination of tissues revealed significant changes in morphology and ultrastructure of both gills and the integument following acutely lethal exposure to low pH water. Changes to the gills of acid-exposed L. fallax larvae included lifting of the branchial epithelium and opening of tight junctions between pavement cells (with a consequent reduction in tight junction length). Damage to epithelial cell-cell tight junctions was also apparent at the integument along with widespread oncosis and localised epithelial necrosis. Mucous secretory activity at the gills and body surface was largely unaffected by acid exposure, with little or no difference in density, cross-sectional area and number of epithelial mucous secretory vesicles in acid-exposed and control larvae. Changes in morphology and ultrastructure at low pH were accompanied by significant Na(+) loss (up to 50% of the total body Na(+) content) attributable in large part to increased paracellular ionic efflux across the gills as well as increased transcellular and paracellular efflux of ions across the integument. PMID:19879955

  11. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rommel R; Chaparro, Juan C; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  12. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  13. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley. PMID:26250261

  14. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Samuel G.; Andreone, Franco; Crottini, Angelica; Holderied, Marc W.; Rakotozafy, Lovasoa Sylviane; Schwitzer, Christoph; Rosa, Gonçalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of treefrog of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) is described from the Sahamalaza – Iles Radama National Park in northwest Madagascar. This new species is green in colour with bright red speckling across its head and dorsum; similar in morphology to other species of this group including: B. bottae, B. rappiodes, B. erythrodactylus and B. tasymena. The new species can be distinguished by its advertisement call and by a genetic divergence of more than 4.9% in the analysed mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment. Its call consists of two note types: a trill and a click; although similar sounding to B. bottae, the trill note of the new species has a faster pulse rate while the click note is predominantly two-pulsed rather than three. All individuals were detected from the banks of two streams in Ankarafa Forest. The new species represents the only member of the B. rappiodes group endemic to Madagascar’s western coast, with the majority of other members known from the eastern rainforest belt. Despite its conspicuous call, it has not been detected from other surveys of northwest Madagascar and it is likely to be a local endemic to the peninsula. The ranges of two other amphibian species also appear restricted to Sahamalaza, and so the area seems to support a high level of endemicity. Although occurring inside a National Park, this species is highly threatened by the continuing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Due to these threats it is proposed that this species should be classified as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria. PMID:25152689

  15. Changes in the antioxidant metabolism in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Bufo arenarum: differential responses to pesticide in early embryos and autonomous-feeding larvae.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ana; Anguiano, Liliana; Lascano, Cecilia; Sotomayor, Verónica; Rosenbaum, Enrique; Venturino, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Amphibians may be critically challenged by aquatic contaminants during their embryonic development. Many classes of compounds, including organophosphorus pesticides, are able to cause oxidative stress that affects the delicate cellular redox balance regulating tissue modeling. We determined the progression of antioxidant defenses during the embryonic development of the South American common toad, Bufo arenarum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were high in the unfertilized eggs, and remained constant during the first stages of development. SOD showed a significant increase when the gills were completely active and opercular folds began to form. Reductase (GR) activity was low in the oocytes and increased significantly when gills and mouth were entirely developed and the embryos presented a higher exposure to pro-oxidant conditions suggesting an environmental control. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also initially low, and rose continuously pointing out an increasing participation of GSH-related enzymes in the control of oxidative stress. GSH peroxidases and GSH-S-transferases showed relatively high and constant activities, probably related to lipid peroxide control. B. arenarum embryos have plenty of yolk platelets containing lipids, which provide the energy and are actively transferred to the newly synthesized membranes during the early embryonic development. Exposure to the pro-oxidant pesticide malathion during 48 h did not significantly affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes in early embryos, but decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and the pool of GSH in larvae. Previous work indicated that lipid peroxide levels were kept low in malathion-exposed larvae, thus we conclude that oxidative stress is overcome by the antioxidant defenses. The increase in the antioxidant metabolism observed in the posthatching phase of development of B. arenarum embryo, thus constitutes a defense against natural and human-generated pro

  16. A New Indole Alkaloid from the Toad Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying-Hui; Shen, Bo; Xia, Ming-Yu; Wang, An-Dong; Chen, Yu-Lin; Liu, Dong-Chun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    A new indole alkaloid named bufobutarginine (1), along with three known bufotenines, namely, serotonin (2), bufotenidine (3), and bufotenine (4), were isolated from the water extract of toad venom. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods. This is the first time that arginine has been found to be involved in the biosynthesis of bufotenines in parotid of toad. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been assayed against A375 and A549 cell lines by the MTT method; however, they showed no cytotoxic activities. PMID:26999086

  17. [Quantitative evaluation of the genetic divergence of amphibian taxa of different rank by the spectra of total proteins and nonspecific esterases].

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, K I; Truveller, K A

    2007-01-01

    Based on the PAAG disc-electrophoretic spectra of water-soluble total proteins (Pr) and non-specific esterases (Est) from several types of tissues in representatives of Urodela (Triturus vulgaris vulgaris, T. v. lantzi, T. cristatus, T. montandoni, T. dobrogicus) and Anura amphibians (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. temporaria, R. arvalis; Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina; Xenopus laevis, X. borealis; Hymenochirus boettgeri), mean genetic distances (D = -ln[2i/(2i + d)], where i is the number of fractions identical and d is the number of fractions different by Rf-bands, were estimated within and between taxa of intra-, inter-, and superspecific ranks. The most stable estimates were obtained for Pr and Est spectra of skeletal muscles and eyes. In most cases, the spectra of tissues of the digestive system gave higher D values than those of the other organs. The levels of intraspecific differentiation by D (both Pr and Est) were higher in the studied representatives of the order Urodela, probably due to their lower migration ability and more conservative choice of water-bodies for spawning than in the representatives of the other order; the same trend is true for the interspecific differentiation by Pr spectra. Est, on the contrary, gave lighter interspecific differentiation level in Anura than in Urodela, evidently due to the prevalence of sympatric species pairs able to hybridize among the studied representatives of the latter order. PMID:17484154

  18. Chromosome evolution in dendropsophini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, P; Cardozo, D; Baldo, D; Pereyra, M O; Faivovich, J; Orrico, V G D; Catroli, G F; Grabiele, M; Bernarde, P S; Nagamachi, C Y; Haddad, C F B; Pieczarka, J C

    2013-01-01

    Dendropsophini is the most species-rich tribe within Hylidae with 234 described species. Although cytogenetic information is sparse, chromosome numbers and morphology have been considered as an important character system for systematic inferences in this group. Using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the previously unknown karyotypes of the genera Xenohyla, Scarthyla and Sphaenorhynchus and provide new information on Dendropsophus and Lysapsus. Our results reveal significant karyotype diversity among Dendropsophini, with diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 22 in S. goinorum, 2n = 24 in Lysapsus, Scinax, Xenohyla, and almost all species of Sphaenorhynchus and Pseudis, 2n = 26 in S. carneus, 2n = 28 in P. cardosoi, to 2n = 30 in all known Dendropsophus species. Although nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding patterns show a high degree of variability, NOR positions in 2n = 22, 24 and 28 karyotypes and C-banding patterns in Lysapsus and Pseudis are informative cytological markers. Interstitial telomeric sequences reveal a diploid number reduction from 24 to 22 in Scarthyla by a chromosome fusion event. The diploid number of X. truncata corroborates the character state of 2n = 30 as a synapomorphy of Dendropsophus. PMID:24107475

  19. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides. PMID:26916578

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops wuyiensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhu, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    In the organisms, mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the evolutionary studies, which can serve as a powerful molecular marker. Amolops wuyiensis, belongs to the family Ranidae that is known to occur in southeast China. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. wuyiensis was sequenced (17,797 bp in length, GenBank accession number KM386618). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of A. wuyiensis contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide composition was 25.9% A, 33.8% T, 28.0% C and 12.3% G. PMID:25238108

  1. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

  2. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007). PMID:27395723

  3. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  4. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Amolops tuberodepressus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohua; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2016-07-01

    Amolops tuberodepressus is a vulnerable torrent frog, and only know distributed in the Wuliang Mountain in southwestern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of A. tuberodepressus was determined. The genome was 18 348 bp in length, and it contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs), one partial control region and one light strand replication origin. The gene rearrangement was observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region, which similar to other Amolops species. In this paper, we utilized 13 protein-coding genes of A. tuberodepressus and other 10 closely ranid species to construct the species phylogenetic tree to verify the A. tuberodepressus was accuracy. PMID:26153745

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Telmatobufo australis (Amphibia: Anura: Calyptocephalellidae).

    PubMed

    Grau, José H; Nuñez, José J; Plötner, Jörg; Poustka, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of Telmatobufo australis is a circular molecule of 17,989 bp in length, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. Gene order and content are identical to those previously reported from other neobatrachian mt genomes. Two protein-coding genes (COI and ATP6) presumably used GTG as start codons while COIII possessed an incomplete stop codon. PMID:26094990

  6. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXII. The Genus Xenopus (Anura, Pipidae).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of 16 species of the frog genus Xenopus were prepared from kidney and lung cell cultures. In the chromosomes of 7 species, high-resolution replication banding patterns could be induced by treating the cultures with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and deoxythymidine (dT) in succession, and in 6 of these species the BrdU/dT-banded chromosomes could be arranged into karyotypes. In the 3 species of the clade with 2n = 20 and 4n = 40 chromosomes (X. tropicalis, X. epitropicalis, X. new tetraploid 1), as well as in the 3 species with 4n = 36 chromosomes (X. laevis, X. borealis, X. muelleri), the BrdU/dT-banded karyotypes show a high degree of homoeology, though differences were detected between these groups. Translocations, inversions, insertions or sex-specific replication bands were not observed. Minor replication asynchronies found between chromosomes probably involve heterochromatic regions. BrdU/dT replication banding of Xenopus chromosomes provides the landmarks necessary for the exact physical mapping of genes and repetitive sequences. FISH with an X. laevis 5S rDNA probe detected multiple hybridization sites at or near the long-arm telomeric regions in most chromosomes of X. laevis and X. borealis, whereas in X. muelleri, the 5S rDNA sequences are located exclusively at the long-arm telomeres of a single chromosome pair. Staining with the AT base pair-specific fluorochrome quinacrine mustard revealed brightly fluorescing heterochromatic regions in the majority of X. borealis chromosomes which are absent in other Xenopus species. PMID:26112092

  7. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed. PMID:27515627

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Kaloula rugifera (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuyan; Wang, Shouhong; Liang, Xixi; Jiang, Jianping; Wang, Bin; Deng, Liangji

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Kaloula rugifera in this work. The mitogenome was 17,073 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The base composition of the light strand was 29.7% A, 30.4% T, 25.7% C and 14.2% G. The gene order and contents of it is identical to most amphibian mitogenome. All protein-coding genes began with ATG as start codon except ND1 gene beginning with GTG and COI gene beginning with ATA. Five protein-coding genes (COII, ATP 6, COIII, ND3 and ND4) ended with incomplete stop codon T. The 22 tRNA genes with the size ranging from 65 bp to 73 bp were interspersed along the whole genome. The D-loop region containing tandem repetition was 1675 bp in length and heavily biased to A + T nucleotides. PMID:25959137

  9. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length. PMID:26106718

  10. Reproductive biology of Pleurodema guayapae (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Baraquet, Mariana; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2014-03-01

    Pleurodema guayapae is a species that inhabits saline environments and semidesert zones from central Argentina. To date, the knowledge about the reproductive biology of this species is very poor, and our aim is to contribute to its knowledge with the description of some important reproductive aspects. For this, field work was undertaken in an area near to Patquia, La Rioja province. Sampling was undertaken during three summer periods (2006-2007; 2007-2008; 2008-2009) in Chamical-Patquia area, where we could find reproductively active populations. We observed and described breeding sites, type of clutch, process of foam nest construction, clutch and egg number and sizes, and hatching time and stage. Behaviour observations were performed from the time that males began to call until the pairs ended up the foam nests building, and layed the eggs. Additionally, one amplected pair was observed and filmed in the process of foam nest construction, and four amplectant pairs were collected and separatelly placed in plastic containers, for nests observations in the laboratory. Hatching time was based on three different foam nests of known age. We found that P. guayapae populations were acoustically active only after a rainfall. Its breeding sites were represented by ephemeral ponds of fresh water, product of rains. The males emitted their calls inside or outside these ponds. A detailed description of the foam nest construction process by both females and males was made. The clutches were in dome-shaped foam nest type of 6-9cm in diameter and 1-3cm in height, some of which were in communal nests. The nests had an average of 1 137 pigmented eggs. This species showed a short hatching time. Our results allow us to conclude that this species should be considered an extreme explosive breeder. Our results are discussed with others obtained for related species. PMID:24912352

  11. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis. PMID:27394273

  12. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  13. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  14. A New Species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Nilphamari, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Microhyla frog from the Nilphamari district of Bangladesh is described and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. Molecular phylogeny derived from mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that although the new species – designated here as Microhyla nilphamariensis sp. nov. – forms a clade with M. ornate, it is highly divergent from M. ornata and all of its congeners, with 5.7 – 13.2% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA gene. The new species can be identified phenotypically on the basis of a set of diagnostic (both qualitative and quantitative) characters as follows: head length is 77% of head width, distance from front of eyes to the nostril is roughly six times greater than nostril–snout length, internarial distance is roughly five times greater than nostril–snout length, interorbital distance is two times greater than internarial distance, and distance from back of mandible to back of the eye is 15% of head length. Furthermore, inner metacarpal tubercle is small and ovoid-shaped, whereas outer metacarpal tubercle is very small and rounded. Toes have rudimentary webbing, digital discs are absent, inner metatarsal tubercle is small and round, outer metatarsal tubercle is ovoid-shaped, minute, and indistinct. PMID:25806804

  15. A New Species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL) 30.44 – 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril–snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril–snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3), tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL. PMID:25651541

  16. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  17. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae).

    PubMed

    Duellman, William E; Marion, Angela B; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America. PMID:27394762

  18. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops mantzorum (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Sichuan torrent frog, Amolops mantzorum (family Ranidae, suborder Neobatrachia), possesses heteromorphic sex chromosomes unusual characteristics among amphibians. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the A. mantzorum mitogenome. This genome is 17,744 bp in length and contains 37 genes, 1 control region, and 1 light strand replication origin typically found in vertebrate mtDNAs. In the A. mantzorum mitogenome, a novel gene arrangement is observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region. This mt gene arrangement seems to be usable as a molecular maker to distinguish to this species from other species in the genus Amolops. PMID:24810067

  20. Lineage divergence in Odorrana graminea complex (Anura: Ranidae: Odorrana).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rongchuan; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The confusing and unstable taxonomy of Odorrana livida (Rana livida) since its first record has made it a focal frog complex for systematics. In China, four species, Odorrana nebulosa, O. graminea, O. sinica, O. leporipes, were described to closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota based on their morphological similarities, accompanied by much taxonomic confusion because of ambiguities in the wide distribution and morphological variations. Currently O. graminea is being used as the name of a provisional monotypic species group to include all the populations in China that closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota. Here, we conducted a range-wide molecular phylogeographic analysis of the large green odorous frog (Odorrana graminea) complex across the majority of its range in China, based on 2780 bp DNA sequences of three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND2) in 107 samples from 20 sites. Our data recognized three distinct phylogeographic lineages of the Odorrana graminea (lato sensu) complex in China, and they together with a Thailand lineage formed a monophyletic group. Among the four lineages within O. graminea complex, the average genetic distances based on the concatenated sequences of 12S, 16S and ND2 were 7.5-8.8% and those based on 16S rRNA alone were 4.2-5.5%. Furthermore, canonical discriminant functions in morphometric analyses showed significant separations of all the paired lineage comparisons in China. The aforementioned genetic divergence and mismatched phenotypes among the lineages within the Odorrana graminea complex, in addition to their non-overlapping geographic distributions, imply extensive lineage diversification. However, precise taxonomic status of these lineages needs more studies based on adequate type information and more thorough species delimitation based on analysis of differentiaton in bioacoustic and nuclear genetic characters especially regarding gene flow and admixture in geographical contact zones. PMID:26249398

  1. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  2. Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in Montane Meadows

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Lind, Amy J.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Roche, Leslie M.; Frost, William E.; Grasso, Rob L.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models. PMID:24223919

  3. Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  4. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act on January 17, 1984, with a recovery plan approved in 1991. Currently the total population of the Wyoming toad includes approximately 200 animals in the captive breeding program and as few as 62 toads surviving at reintroduction sites in the Laramie Basin based upon fall 2000 survey data (after releases of more than 10,000 toads and tadpoles since 1995). Necessary conservation measures include improving reproduction and survival in the captive breeding program, improving survival at reintroduction sites, developing techniques to control the effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus, and eliminating threats and further habitat degradation in the wild.

  5. Electrolyte sensitivity of the skin in the toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Reboreda, J C; Segura, E T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on the responsiveness of the skin to solutions of different electrolytes and sucrose have been done in the toad in vivo and in vitro. Brain pithed animals showed a strong flexor "on" response of the hindlimb when the foot was plunged into a saline solution. The delay of this response was strictly proportional to the concentration of the bath from 0.5 to 1 M. The flexor response was invariably elicited by solutions of different salts: NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl, MgSO4 and choline chloride, but not by a solution of sucrose with the same osmolarity. On the other hand, a contrast "off" response with strong flexion was also systematically observed when a limb adapted to electrolyte solution was displaced to distilled water. Patches of skin were also exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl in vitro and the discharges of its afferent nerve were recorded. A clear cut correlation between the osmolarity of the bath and the rate of discharges was observed. The contrast "off" response to distilled water after exposure to NaCl was also observed in the patches of skin, as an increase in nervous discharges. The spontaneous basal firing observed in water, as well as the induced responses by electrolytes, were reversibly blocked by decreasing the temperature of the bath to 0 C. These results indicate that detectors of salinity are present in the skin of the toad. These detectors appear to be sensitive to the ionization but not to the osmolarity of the bath. PMID:6236671

  6. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  7. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  8. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  9. Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocroft, R.B.; McDiarmid, R.W.; Jaslow, A.P.; Ruiz-Carranza, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Vocalizations of frogs of the genus Atelopus include three discrete types of signals: pulsed calls, pure tone calls, and short calls. Repertoire composition is conservative across species. Repertoires of most species whose calls have been recorded contain two or three of these identifiable call types. Within a call type, details of call structure are very similar across species. This apparent lack of divergence in calls may be related to the rarity of sympatry among species of Atelopus and to the relative importance of visual communication in their social interactions.

  10. A comparative ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa in Pleurodema (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Julio C; Ferraro, Daiana P; Farías, Alejandro; Santos, Julio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Faivovich, Julián; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the spermatozoa of 10 of the 15 species of the Neotropical frog genus Pleurodema through transmission electron microscopy. The diversity of oviposition modes coupled with a recent phylogenetic hypothesis of Pleurodema makes it an interesting group for the study of ultrastructural sperm evolution in relation to fertilization environment and egg-clutch structure. We found that Pleurodema has an unusual variability in sperm morphology. The more variable structures were the acrosomal complex, the midpiece, and the tail. The acrosomal complex has all the structures commonly reported in hyloid frogs but with different degree of development of the subacrosomal cone. Regarding the midpiece, the variability is given by the presence or absence of the mitochondrial collar. Finally, the tail is the most variable structure, ranging from single (only axoneme) to more complex (presence of paraxonemal rod, cytoplasmic sheath, and undulating membrane), with the absence of the typical axial fiber present in hyloid frogs, also shared with some other genera of Leiuperinae. J. Morphol. 277:957-977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151937

  11. Two New Species of Liuixalus (Rhacophoridae, Anura): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Cai, Bo; Xie, Feng; Jiang, Jianping; Murphy, Robert W.; Li, Jia-Tang; Wang, Yuezhao

    2015-01-01

    Due to small body sizes, superficial similarities in morphologies, and obscure activity behaviors, the phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the genus Liuixalus were very troublesome. Some species might comprise a complex of cryptic species. To investigate the species of group, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of the genus using 16s rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences. Analyses recovered six well supported matrilines that involved L. romeri, L. ocellatus, L. hainanus, L. calcarius, Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. and Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov., though the historical relationships among them remained unresolved. Currently, Liuixalus included 4 species, distributed eastwards from northern Vietnam to Hong Kong, China. Based on genealogical and morphological distinctiveness, we described Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Dayao, Jinxiu, China and Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Shiwanda, China. A combination of morphological measurements, genetic, bioacoustic and osteological analysis was served to diagnose the new taxa. PMID:26305377

  12. A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; YAN, Fang; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of threefrog is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China based on morphological and phylogenetic data. The new genus can be distinguished from other treefrog genera by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate, 45.0 mm in male; (2) snout rounded; (3) canthus rostralis obtuse and raised prominently, forming a ridge from nostril to anterior corner of eyes; (4) web rudimentary on fingers; (5) web moderately developed on toes; (6) phalange "Y" shaped, visible from dorsal side of fingers and toes; (7) skin of dorsal surfaces relatively smooth, scatted with small tubercles; (8) iris with a pale yellow, "X" shaped pattern of pigmentation. PMID:26828030

  13. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; LI, Pi-Peng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  14. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Abstract I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region. PMID:24146562

  15. A new Leptolalax from the mountains of Sabah, Borneo (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto; Yambun, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Leptolalax is described from Kinabalu National Park in western Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The new species had been assigned to L. dringi, L. gracilis, or L. fritinniens in the past. It differs from all congeners, including these species, by a unique combination of morphological characters, including small body size, rounded snout, narrower interorbital than upper eyelid, basal toe webbing, smooth skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 1-149 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 6.90-7.35 kHz, without prominent frequency modulation. PMID:24869507

  16. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein. PMID:26250286

  17. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial. PMID:24304922

  18. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat. PMID:25543630

  19. Larval morphology and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus Bokermann, 1966 (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Thamires F; De Lima, Marcelo G; Do Nascimento, Filipe Augusto C; Dos Santos, Ednilza M

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the tadpole and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus, based on specimens from the Parque Nacional do Catimbau, in the municipality of Buíque, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The overall morphology of P. acuminatus tadpole is similar to that of most species of the genus. The presence of a double row of marginal papillae surrounding all the oral apparatus (except on most of the upper labium which has a dorsal gap) was a characteristic that differentiate P. acuminatus from the other species of the genus. Furthermore, the call structure of the species (unpulsed notes with harmonic structure) fits it in the group composed of P. kautskyi and P. melanomystax. PMID:24871716

  20. Reinterpreting features of the advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885; Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio; Vo, Pacific; Herche, Jesse; Tang, Justine Nicole; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri was originally described by Nelson (1973) in a brief section of a review on the mating calls of the Microhylinae. He used two calls from São Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil to determine that they have i) dominant frequency between 1.500-2.200 kHz (mean 1.854 + 0.216 kHz), and ii) harmonic intervals between 0.140 and 0.150 kHz (0.146 +/- 0.005 kHz). Nelson (1973) based his description on an audiospectrogram produced with high frequency resolution and did not quantify the pulse structure of the calls. More recently, Giaretta and colleagues (2013) expanded on the original description using a larger set of calls recorded from Gurinhat, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. They quantified the temporal structure of the call and confirmed that the dominant frequency is around 1.8 kHz. In addition, they identified a secondary low frequency band at 667 Hz. PMID:26249515

  1. New Material of Beelzebufo, a Hyperossified Frog (Amphibia: Anura) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Susan E.; Groenke, Joseph R.; Jones, Marc E. H.; Turner, Alan H.; Krause, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates. PMID:24489877

  2. Helminth community structure of Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae) from a South American subtropical area.

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I; Kehr, A I; González, C E

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relative influence of season, year of study, host body size, and host sex on abundance of helminth species parasitic in the frog Scinax nasicus. A total of 273 frogs was collected between December 2004 and November 2006 over all seasons in Corrientes City, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Helminth community included 21 taxa, and was dominated particularly by larval trematodes. Infected frogs harboured a maximum of 7 species. Host sex and season played no significant effect in determining infracommunity parasite species abundance. Similarly, species richness was similar for both host sexes, and across time (year and season). However, occurrence of the parasites Opisthogonimus sp. 2 and Travtrema aff. stenocotyle greatly varied over time. Host body size was the main factor for determining infrapopulation structure of Centrorhynchus sp. Species richness was significantly and positively correlated with host body size. Strong associations were observed mainly between metacercariae of some species. The transmission strategies of parasites suggest that this hylid acquires infections by ingestion of infective larvae and through direct contact with larval parasites from aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:21290898

  3. Feeding mechanisms in two treefrogs, Hyla nana and Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Vera Candioti, M F; Lavilla, E O; Echeverría, D D

    2004-08-01

    After the description of the chondrocranium, hyobranchial apparatus, associated musculature, buccal apparatus, buccopharyngeal cavity, digestive tract, and gut contents, it was possible to define the feeding modes of Scinax nasicus and Hyla nana tadpoles (Gosner Stages 31-36). Scinax nasicus larvae are "typical" microphagous tadpoles, with keratodonts and robust rostrodonts appropriate for rasping surfaces and mincing of food particles; the buccopharyngeal cavity is equipped with filtering structures and has a conspicuous glandular zone and a highly developed branchial basket. In contrast, H. nana tadpoles have a modified buccal apparatus; the reduction of the buccopharyngeal and branchial basket structures, together with the high lever-arm ratio and the great development of the depressor muscles of the buccal floor are indicative of macrophagous feeding. PMID:15216525

  4. The karyotype of three Brazilian Terrarana frogs (Amphibia, Anura) with evidence of a new Barycholos species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A recent substantial rearrangement of the 882 described eleutherodactyline frog species has considerably improved the understanding of their systematics. Nevertheless, many taxonomic aspects of the South American eleutherodactyline species remain unknown and require further investigation using morphological, cytogenetic and molecular approaches. In this work, the karyotypes of the Brazilian species Ischnocnema juipoca (Atibaia and Campos do Jordão, SP), Barycholos cf. ternetzi (Uberlândia, MG, and Porto Nacional, TO), and Pristimantis crepitans (Chapada dos Guimarães and São Vicente, MT) were analyzed using Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR labeling, and C-banding techniques. All individuals had a diploid number of 22 chromosomes, but the Fundamental Numbers were different among species. The herein described low chromosome number of Pristimantis crepitans is unique within this genus, suggesting that cytogenetically this species is not closely related either to its congeneric species or to Ischnocnema. In addition, karyotype differences, mainly in the NOR position, clearly distinguished the two Barycholos populations, besides indicating the existence of a so far undescribed species in this genus. A taxonomic review could clarify the systematic position of P. crepitans and verify the hypothetic new Barycholos species. PMID:21637508

  5. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic position of Osteocephalus festae (Anura, Hylidae) with description of its larva

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Toral, Eduardo; Venegas, Pablo J.; Barnes, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Osteocephalus festae is an Amazonian species recently resurrected from a synonymy with Osteocephalus buckleyi. Because few specimens are known, its morphological variation, diagnostic characters, and distribution are poorly understood. Herein we determine its phylogenetic relationships and provide a complete taxonomic account based on recently collected specimens (adults and larvae) from nine localities in Ecuador and Peru. Osteocephalus festae is most similar to Osteocephalus verruciger from which it differs in having less tuberculate dorsal skin on males, smaller tympanum, and more tooth rows in the oral disk of larvae. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, genes 12S and ND1, shows that Osteocephalus festae is closely related to Osteocephalus buckleyi, Osteocephalus mutabor and Osteocephalus verruciger. A clade consisting of Osteocephalus festae, Osteocephalus verruciger, and Osteocephalus buckleyi is characterized by stream dwelling tadpoles. Surprisingly, we found paraphyly among Ecuadorian populations of Osteocephalus buckleyi and Osteocephalus verruciger. The causes for paraphyly are unknown but in Osteocephalus buckleyi may result from the existence of cryptic species. PMID:21594044

  6. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  7. Unusual chromosomal distribution of a major satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Amor, N; Odierna, G; Chinali, G; Said, K; Picariello, O

    2009-01-01

    A new highly abundant satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Dp-sat1) was isolated and characterized. The repetitive unit (0.51 kb) has 2 HindIII sites and only one SpeI site: digestion of genomic DNA with HindIII produces 3 fragments: HA (0.17 kb), HB (0.34 kb), and HC = HA + HB (0.51 kb), while digestion with SpeI produces the whole repetitive unit (0.51 kb) that contains both HindIII sites. Sequence analysis of cloned repeats indicates an average A + T content of 71%, with many A- and T-runs. Southern blot analysis shows an arrangement of multiple bands of the 0.51 kb monomer in SpeI-digested DNA, while HindIII-digested DNA shows a ladder composed of all the possible combinations of the 3 digested fragments. Quantitative dot-blot indicates that Dp-sat1 accounts for about 6% of the D. pictus genome: this value represents about 1.5 x 10(6) copies of repetitive units per nucleus. This satellite DNA is also a major repetitive DNA in 4 other Discoglossus species, in which the repetitive unit presents the same size and restriction sites except in D. montalentii where it contains a unique HindIII site. This satellite DNA was absent in all the other tested archaeo- and neo-bratrachian species, as well as non-amphibian species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that Dp-sat1 is localized only in peri- and/or para-centromeric areas of the 7 small chromosome pairs, while no labeling was observed in the 7 large chromosome pairs. Remarkably, Dp-sat1 heterochromatin is found only at one pole of the nucleus, suggesting that during interphase all 7 small chromosome pairs are located in the same nuclear region. PMID:20110657

  8. Aspects of the reproductive ecology and behavior of the tepui toads, genus Oreophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Gorzula, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (-3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 females, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8-35. All viable clutches from Kukenan were attended by an adult. One clutch of 13 eggs from Ilu-tepui was without an attendant adult. Calls of Kukenan males consist of 9-16 partially pulsed notes given at a rate of 5-7 notes per second. Calls and notes were modulated and increased or decreased in frequency; dominant frequencies of the calls ranged between 2650-3650 Hz. Tepui toads are diurnal, rock dwellers with a slow, deliberate walking gait. An unusual balling and tumbling behavior and bright colored venter may be associated with predator avoidance in some populations. Remarkable parallels in reproductive ecology and behavior between Oreophynella and montane populations of the African bufonid Nectophrynoides are noted.

  9. Two new species of South American Centrolenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Glenn; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Perú, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  10. Two new species of South American Centrorlenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. Mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, G.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Peru, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  11. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Catherine E.; Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Rissler, Leslie J.; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp = 1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap = 99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. PMID:22321689

  12. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61–92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2–18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  13. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. PMID:22052622

  14. A new species of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Leptobrachium from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, Yunnan Province of China based on molecular and morphological evidences. The new species, Leptobrachium tengchongense sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) relatively small size (adult males SVL 41.7-51.5 mm); (2) head width slightly larger than head length; (3) tympanum indistinct; (4) two palmar tubercles oval and distinct, inner one larger than outer one; (5) sexually active males without spines on the upper lip; (6) dorsal skin smooth with distinct network of ridges; (7) dorsum pinkish grey and scattered with irregular black markings; (8) venter dark purplish-gray with numerous small white spots on tubercles, solid white chest; (9) iris bicolored, upper one-third light blue, lower two-third dark brown. With the description of the new species, the number of Leptobrachium species currently known from China adds up to ten. PMID:27515651

  15. Hematology of Wild Caught Dubois's Tree Frog Polypedates teraiensis, Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Blood was analyzed from eighty (forty males and forty females) adult individuals of Polypedates teraiensis to establish reference ranges for its hematological and serum biochemical parameters. The peripheral blood cells were differentiated as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and thrombocytes, with similar morphology to other anurans. Morphology of blood cells did not vary according to sex. The hematological investigations included morphology and morphometry of erythrocytes, morphometry of leucocytes, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin content (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) count, leukocyte or white blood cell (WBC) count, differential leukocyte count, and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio. Besides, protein, cholesterol, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine content of blood serum were assayed. Hematological parameters that differed significantly between sexes were RBC count, length and breadth of RBC, neutrophil %, N/L ratio, area occupied by basophils, and diameter of large lymphocyte and eosinophils. The level of glucose, urea, and creatinine in blood serum also significantly differed between sexes. PMID:24616633

  16. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  17. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  18. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value.

    PubMed

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, Renaud; Lenoir, Nicolas; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierce, Stephanie E; Rage, Jean-Claude; Smirnov, Sergei V; Schwermann, Achim H; Valentin, Xavier; Venczel, Márton; Wuttke, Michael; Zikmund, Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Palaeobatrachidae are extinct frogs from Europe closely related to the Gondwanan Pipidae, which includes Xenopus. Their frontoparietal is a distinctive skeletal element which has served as a basis for establishing the genus Albionbatrachus. Because little was known about developmental and individual variation of the frontoparietal, and its usefulness in delimiting genera and species has sometimes been doubted, we investigate its structure in Palaeobatrachus and Albionbatrachus by means of X-ray high resolution computer tomography (micro-CT). To infer the scope of variation present in the fossil specimens, we also examined developmental and interspecific variation in extant Xenopus. In adults of extinct taxa, the internal structure of the frontoparietal bone consists of a superficial and a basal layer of compact bone, with a middle layer of cancellous bone between them, much as in early amphibians. In Albionbatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone, consisting of small and large cavities, was connected with the dorsal, sculptured surface of the bone by a system of narrow canals; in Palaeobatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone and the canals connecting this layer with the dorsal surface of the frontoparietal were reduced. The situation in Palaeobatrachus robustus from the lower Miocene of France is intermediate-while external features support assignment to Palaeobatrachus, the inner structure is similar to that in Albionbatrachus. It may be hypothesized that sculptured frontoparietals with a well-developed layer of cancellous (i.e., vascularized) bone may indicate adaptation to a more terrestrial way of life, whereas a reduced cancellous layer might indicate a permanent water dweller. PMID:26235188

  19. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  20. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz, III; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  1. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Luis; Malqui, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the humid grassland of Distrito de Comas, Provincia Concepcion, Department of Junin. The new species is diagnosed by the lack of dentigerous processes of vomers, tympanic annulus and membrane imperceptible through the skin, males with nuptial pads and vocal slits, warty dorsal skin, and aerolate throat, belly and ventral surfaces of thighs, by possessing pronounced subconical tubercles in the post-tympanic area, by having rounded finger and toe tips with no disc structure, and by its overall dark brown to black coloration with few white and yellow spots in the dorsum and a dark-brown belly with white to gray blotches. Specimens were found under stones at a single area of the central Peruvian Andes at elevations between 4205-4490 m.a.s.l. The eggs had an average diameter of 4.3 mm. With the description and naming of the new species, the genus Phrynopus now contains 26 species, all of them endemic to Peru, and five of which are restricted to Departamento Junin. PMID:25081770

  2. Development and characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Komaki, Shohei; Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Lin, Si-Min; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a common frog species distributed throughout almost all islands in Ryukyu Archipelago. Because of their exceptionally wide distribution and higher physiological tolerance comparing to the other anurans, their demographic history and formation of distribution are intrinsic topics in the herpetological fauna of Ryukyu. Microsatellite marker is ideal genetic marker for such studies at inter- and intra-population level. We therefore developed microsatellite markers of B. japonica utilizing Ion PGM™ sequencing. As a result of the screening, we developed a total of 14 polymorphic markers. To test availabilities of these markers, we genotyped four island populations. The total number of alleles and expected hetelozygosities per locus ranged from 4 to 21 and 0.00 to 0.864, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the four populations based on the genetic distances of these markers was congruent with general divergence pattern of amphibians and reptiles in Ryukyu area. These markers developed in this study are considered to be useful for future studies about phylogeography and demography of this species. PMID:24817760

  3. [Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests].

    PubMed

    Valera-Leal, Javier; Acevedo, Aldemar; Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio; Vega, Jorge; Manzanilla, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m). This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international) and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP). Likewise, we carried out a systematic population monitoring of G. ovifera in historic and additional localities among the cloud forest of Rancho Grande, PNHP. We found 106 individuals in 11 zoological collections deposited during 1929-2007. After an effort of 646 hours/person we did not detect G. ovifera individuals in the evaluated localities; as well as no statistical significant associations between the annual precipitation average and the historic records of the species during 1941-1997 period (r = -0.054, p = 0.820, n = 19). We discussed the distribution, fluctuation and population changes of this species, analyzing it conservation status. PMID:21516654

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xizang Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Xizang Plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which distributes in southern and eastern Xizang, southern-most Qinghai in China, high elevations of north-central Nepal, Himalayan Bhutan, northeastern Kashmir and India. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. parkeri was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,837 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR). As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the N. parkeri is A: 27.7 % A, T: 30.1 % T, C: 26.6% and G: 15.6%. The alignment of the Nanorana species CRs exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. In comparison with the mtDNA sequences typical of vertebrates, a tandem duplication of the tRNA(Met) gene and a rearrangement of the tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) (CUN) genes were found. The complete mitogenome of N. parkeri can provided an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species. PMID:25758045

  5. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs. PMID:27374495

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of "Xenopus tropicalis" Asashima line (Anura: Pipidae), a possible undescribed species.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Tomomi; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ito, Yuzuru; Kurabayashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The diploid Xenopus tropicalis, with its small nuclear genomic size and short generation time compared to the traditional experimental amphibian X. laevis, is considered a next-generation model animal. Several experimental X. tropicalis lines have been used in research studies. Previous studies showed that the mtDNA sequence of the Asashima line is divergent from other lines and that this line may represent a distinct species. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this unique X. tropicalis experimental line. The genome is 17,700 bp in length and contains 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs. The 16S rRNA gene sequence in Asashima line differed by over 6% from the standard Nigerian lines (a 3% difference is considered the species threshold in anurans), suggesting that this experimental line is a distinct species from the true X. tropicalis. PMID:25714145

  7. Ontogenetic and structural variation of mineralizations and ossifications in the integument within ceratophryid frogs (anura, Ceratophryidae).

    PubMed

    Quinzio, Silvia; Fabrezi, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Ceratophryidae represent a monophyletic group of terrestrial and aquatic frogs inhabiting lowlands of South America where they are more diverse in semiarid environments of the Chaco region. Adult morphology of ceratophryids presents some features associated to terrestrial and fossorial life such as hyper-ossified skulls, spade feet for digging, among others. For anurans, different mineralized structures have been described in the integument as calcium reservoirs and related to the terrestrial life and water balance (e.g., the calcified layer and dermal ossifications). We describe the ontogeny of the integument in the three genera of ceratophryids (Chacophrys, Ceratophrys, and Lepidobatrachus) that inhabit in semiarid environments. Data obtained demonstrated the early acquisition of metamorphic transformations in the integument layers in larvae of Ceratophrys cranwelli and Lepidobatrachus spp. and a continuous increment in the thickness of them up to old postmetamorphic stages. The integument of ceratophryids develops calcium deposits as the calcified layer during postmetamorphic stages. Furthermore, dorsal shields are also present in adult stages independently of terrestrial versus aquatic lifestyles. While the calcified layer seems to be a feature of a fully developed integument, in which their layers have acquired the adult thickness, dorsal shields develop at premetamorphic stages in L. llanensis and postmetamorphic individuals of C. cranwelli. In ceratophryids, similar to other studied taxa (e.g., Brachycephalus spp.) dorsal shields develop via an intramembranous ossification in which the calcified layer does not precede its differentiation. Within anurans, the occurrence of dorsal shields in the monophyletic ceratophryids suggested a distinctive evolutionary history in the lineage. PMID:23074148

  8. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura: Bufonidae: Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serrania Eslabo??n, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  9. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups. PMID:27026545

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs. PMID:25329260

  11. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound encourages lower degradation rates of the Bidder's organ germ cells. PMID:27152939

  12. Development and morphological variation of the axial and appendicular skeleton in hylidae (Lissamphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Soliz, Mónica; Ponssa, María Laura

    2016-06-01

    The axial and appendicular skeleton, the associated musculature and tendons form a functional system related to specific modes of locomotion in anurans. Many transformations in the structures linked with the locomotor function of the adult occur during larval stages and metamorphosis. In this study, we present the larval ontogeny and adult morphology of the axial and appendicular skeletons of 14 species of frogs in the family Hylidae with different locomotor modes and habitat uses. Among Hylidae, a diversity of shapes, locomotory types occurs (e.g., walker, swimmer, jumper, hopper) and different habitat types occupied (shrubby, terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal). Many elements complete differentiation at the end of metamorphosis; others, such as sesamoids, still show an incomplete development at that stage. Sixty seven characters were scored and optimized in an available phylogeny. Nine characters of developmental timing and adult osteology are optimized as synapomorphies of specific groups. Some characters appear to be related to the locomotor type (e.g., the sacro-urostyle region configuration is highly linked with the jumping mode; nonexpanded diapophyses would related to aquatic habitat use). Nevertheless, the functional interpretations are quite particular to this family. Monophyletic clades are also groups with shared locomotory modes or habitat uses. Hence, the hypothesis of common ancestry or adaptation can be evaluated, taking into account the analysis level of the phylogenetic context, so that, when a character is inherited via common ancestry, it necessarily means that functional constraints could also be inherited. Here, we outline the basis for further work on: postmetamorphic development as a fundamental period for the complete differentiation of structures related to a full locomotor functionality; the biomechanical performance in relationship to the variation in ligaments and sesamoids; the importance of analyzing these topics within the frame of heterochrony. J. Morphol. 277:786-813, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012309

  13. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts.  PMID:25543621

  14. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S

    2014-05-01

    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5). PMID:25166328

  15. Phylogenetic systematics of egg-brooding frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and the evolution of direct development.

    PubMed

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; De La Riva, Ignacio; Pombal, José P; Da Silva, Helio R; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Medina-Méndez, Esteban; Frost, Darrel R

    2015-01-01

    Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies. PMID:26623754

  16. A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Filho, João A; Brito, Samuel V; Almeida, Waltécio De O; Morais, Drausio H; Ávila, Robson W

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngodon silvoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is described from the large and small intestine of the Muller's termite frog Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) from the biome Caatinga, Exu municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, Dermatonotus muelleri is a fossorial species with a specialized termite diet, and feeding and reproductive behavior occurring only during the wet season. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus Parapharyngodon by showing ovary not coiled around the esophagus, morphology of anterior cloacal lip, spicule size and number of caudal papillae. PMID:26623864

  17. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae) from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; García, Víctor Vargas; Lehr, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6) in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but Telmatobius intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from Telmatobius intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of Telmatobius intermedius), and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in Telmatobius intermedius). The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru. PMID:25685025

  18. Positive Darwinian selection results in resistance to cardioactive toxins in true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Halliday, Damien C. T.; Rowell, David M.; Robinson, Anthony J.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Family Bufonidae, true toads, are famous for their endogenously synthesized cardioactive steroids that serve as defensive toxins. Evolution of resistance to these toxins is not understood. We sequenced a key region of the toxin's binding site in the Na+/K+ ATPase for relevant taxa representing Hyloidea (including bufonids), Ranoidea and Archaeobatrachia and tested for positive selection in a phylogenetic context. Bufonidae were distinct from other Hyloidea at 4–6 of 12 sites and, with one exception, had a homologous amino acid sequence. Melanophryniscus stelzneri had a distinct sequence, consistent with other independent evidence for a differentiated toxin. Tests within Bufonidae detected positive selection within the binding region, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of this type for positive selection within Amphibia. There was no evidence for positive selection on Bufonidae or M. stelzneri lineages. Sequence change in Leptodactylus ocellatus, a leptodactylid predator of Bufonidae, provides a molecular basis for predator resistance possibly associated with gene duplication. PMID:19465576

  19. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus. PMID:26213769

  20. Histopathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues induced by carbaryl in Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl in liver and kidney tissues of Bufotes variabilis. After 96h following exposure to carbaryl (low dose: 0.05, medium dose: 0.1 and high dose: 0.2mg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected. In liver tissue, vacuolization in hepatocytes, necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, an increase in melanomacrophage number, enlargement of sinusoids, hemorrhage and congestion were determined in exposed toads. In kidney tissue, mononuclear cell infiltration, hypertrophied Bowman's capsule cells, deformation, vacuolization, karyolysis and necrosis of renal tubule epithelium, brush border destruction, glomerular shrinkage, hemorrhage and fibrosis were observed in carbaryl-treated groups. According to this investigation, carbaryl caused histopathologic damages in liver and kidney tissues of B. variabilis. PMID:25573057

  1. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile.  PMID:25662142

  2. Cytogenetic analysis of Scinaxauratus and Scinaxeurydice (Anura, Hylidae) with emphasis on cytotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Paim, Fabilene; Diniz, Débora; Solé, Mirco; Affonso, Paulo; Siqueira, Sérgio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2015-01-01

    Scinax Wagler, 1830 is a species-rich genus of amphibians with relatively few detailed chromosomal reports. In this work, cytogenetic analyses of Scinaxauratus (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) and Scinaxeurydice (Bokermann, 1968) were carried out based on conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding) and cytomolecular (base-specific fluorochrome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization - FISH of ribosomal probes) techniques. Both species shared the same karyotype, location of active nucleolar organizer regions on pair 11 and GC-rich heterochromatin, as reported for most species in Scinaxruber clade. Interpopulation chromosomal variation was observed in Scinaxeurydice, indicating the occurrence of cryptic species. The mapping of 18S ribosomal genes by FISH is reported for the first time in both species. PMID:26140164

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of Scinax auratus and Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) with emphasis on cytotaxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Paim, Fabilene; Diniz, Débora; Solé, Mirco; Affonso, Paulo; Siqueira, Sérgio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Scinax Wagler, 1830 is a species-rich genus of amphibians with relatively few detailed chromosomal reports. In this work, cytogenetic analyses of Scinax auratus (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) and Scinax eurydice (Bokermann, 1968) were carried out based on conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding) and cytomolecular (base-specific fluorochrome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization – FISH of ribosomal probes) techniques. Both species shared the same karyotype, location of active nucleolar organizer regions on pair 11 and GC-rich heterochromatin, as reported for most species in Scinax ruber clade. Interpopulation chromosomal variation was observed in Scinax eurydice, indicating the occurrence of cryptic species. The mapping of 18S ribosomal genes by FISH is reported for the first time in both species. PMID:26140164

  4. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1–20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  5. Histochemical and Biometric Study of the Gastrointestinal System of Hyla Orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akat, E.; Arıkan, H.; Göçmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

  6. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXIV. The B chromosomes of Gastrotheca espeletia (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Ziegler, C G; Steinlein, C; Nanda, I; Haaf, T

    2002-01-01

    The mitotic chromosomes of an Ecuadorian population of the marsupial frog Gastrotheca espeletia were analyzed by means of banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This species is characterized by unusual supernumerary (B) chromosomes. The maximum number of B chromosomes is 9 and they occur in three different morphological types. Banding analyses show that the B chromosomes are completely heterochromatic, consist of AT base pair-rich repeated DNA sequences, replicate their DNA in very late S-phase of the cell cycle, and are probably derived from a centromeric or paracentromeric region of a standard (A) chromosome. Exceptionally, the B chromosomes carry 18S + 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the conserved vertebrate telomeric DNA sequence appears to be underrepresented. Flow cytometric measurements of the nuclear DNA content differentiate between individuals with different numbers of B chromosomes. Significantly more B chromosomes are present in female than in male animals. PMID:12438715

  7. Molecular evidence for cryptic candidate species in Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Gonçalves, Helena; Sequeira, Fernando; Sousa-Neves, Tiago; Tejedo, Miguel; Ferrand, Nuno; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2015-02-01

    Species delineation is a central topic in evolutionary biology, with current efforts focused on developing efficient analytical tools to extract the most information from molecular data and provide objective and repeatable results. In this paper we use a multilocus dataset (mtDNA and two nuclear markers) in a geographically comprehensive population sample across Iberia and Western Europe to delineate candidate species in a morphologically cryptic species group, Parsley frogs (genus Pelodytes). Pelodytes is the sole extant representative of an ancient, historically widely distributed anuran clade that currently includes three species: P. caucasicus in the Caucasus; P. punctatus in Western Europe, from Portugal to North-Western Italy; and P. ibericus in Southern Iberia. Phylogenetic analyses recovered four major well-supported haplotype clades in Western Europe, corresponding to well demarcated geographical subdivisions and exhibiting contrasting demographic histories. Splitting times date back to the Plio-Pleistocene and are very close in time. Species-tree analyses recovered one of these species lineages, corresponding to P. ibericus (lineage B), as the sister taxon to the other three major species lineages, distributed respectively in: western Iberian Peninsula, along the Atlantic coast and part of central Portugal (lineage A); Central and Eastern Spain (lineage C); and North-eastern Spain, France and North-western Italy (lineage D). The latter is in turn subdivided into two sub-clades, one in SE France and NW Italy and the other one from NE Spain to NW France, suggesting the existence of a Mediterranean-Atlantic corridor along the Garonne river. An information theory-based validation approach implemented in SpedeSTEM supports an arrangement of four candidate species, suggesting the need for a taxonomic revision of Western European Pelodytes. PMID:25541245

  8. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  9. A new species of Leptolalax from Sarawak, Western Borneo (Anura: Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Zainudin, Ramlah; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2014-11-01

    A new megophryid species is described from southwestern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. In appearance, Leptolalax marmoratus sp. nov. is most similar to L. hamidi also from southwestern Sarawak, but differs from it by mtDNA sequence, larger body size, and higher dominant frequency of advertisement call. The assumption that more than one species of Leptolalax coexist at one locality in Borneo is supported. The finding of the new species raises the species number of Leptolalax known from Borneo to nine, and the island is thought to be one of the diversification centers of the genus. PMID:25366161

  10. Integrative taxonomic revision of mantellid frogs of the genus Aglyptodactylus (Anura: Mantellidae).

    PubMed

    Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Pabijan, Maciej; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have in recent years revealed the presence of hidden species diversity in Madagascar's amphibians, and numerous genera contain candidate species awaiting description. We here revise the taxonomy of one such genus within the endemic Malagasy-Comorian family Mantellidae. The target taxon, Aglyptodactylus, is classified in the subfamily Laliostominae and to date contained three recognized nominal species. We focus in particular on clarifying the status of three candidate species proposed for the genus, and for this purpose integrate evidence from molecular genetics, bioacoustics and morphology. We furthermore summarize the information available for all species in the genus concerning their taxonomic identities, distributions and advertisement calls. Our analyses of advertisement calls revealed significant differences coinciding with major clades revealed by phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Together with the new molecular dataset this provides clear evidence for evolutionary lineage divergence and supports the three candidate species previously characterized by mtDNA divergence of single specimens only. We also observed morphological differences among some of the lineages but these were in most cases not unambiguously diagnostic. As a taxonomic consequence we describe two new species: Aglyptodactylus australis sp. nov. from Andohahela rainforest in southeastern Madagascar, which so far is the largest species known in the genus with females reaching 82.5 mm snout-vent length; and Aglyptodactylus chorus sp. nov. from northeastern lowland rainforests in the Maroantsetra region. For the third proposed and confirmed candidate species we resurrect the name Rana inguinalis Günther, 1877 as Aglyptodactylus inguinalis (Günther, 1877) from the synonymy of A. madagascariensis. This name is applied to populations distributed in lowlands along most of the east coast of Madagascar, from Marojejy in the north southward to Tolagnaro. Genetic data indicate strong differentiation of A. inguinalis with three sub-lineages receiving support, and we cannot exclude that A. inguinalis as defined herein is a complex of species warranting further partition in the future. As a result of the revised taxonomy, A. madagascariensis remains restricted to rainforests at higher elevations (650‒1500 m a.s.l.) ranging from northern to south-central Madagascar, and showing some further differentiation with respect to a northern and a southern sub-lineage. Difficulties in the assignment of historical type specimens are discussed, as well as the biogeography and conservation status of the recognized species. PMID:26623776

  11. A new species of Choerophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from the central cordillera of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Amy; Richards, Stephen; Oliver, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of very small microhylid frog in the genus Choerophryne from the upper Strickland River area, Western and Southern Highlands Provinces, Papua New Guinea. Choerophryne gracilirostris sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: small size (SUL 13.5-14.7 mm), moderately long and narrow snout, first finger without expanded disk and advertisement call consisting of 3-5 distinctly pulsed notes repeated in long sequences. Males in the type series were calling from within leaf litter in primary hill rainforest (213-1368 m a.s.l.). The new species is the third Choerophryne known from the southern side of New Guinea's central cordillera. Measurements of a juvenile specimen (rare because most Choerophryne collected are calling males) demonstrate that the distinctive rostral projection of this genus exhibits pronounced positive allometry. PMID:24869510

  12. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    PubMed

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range. PMID:25283663

  13. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61-92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2-18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  14. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Ohler, Annemarie; Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  15. Amietia angolensis and A. fuscigula (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) in southern Africa: a cold case reheated.

    PubMed

    Channing, Alan; Baptista, Ninda

    2013-01-01

    A study combining DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, advertisement calls and morphology of some southern African river frogs confirms Amietia vandijki (Visser & Channing, 1997) as a good species. The form presently referred to as Amietia angolensis in southern Africa is shown to comprise two species: Amietia angolensis (Bocage, 1866) known from Angola, and Amietia quecketti (Boulenger, 1895) known from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Lesotho. Junior synonyms of A. quecketti include Rana theileri Mocquard, 1906 and Afrana dracomontana Channing, 1978. The form presently known as Amietia fuscigula is shown to consist of two distantly related taxa: Amietia fuscigula (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) from the south-western Cape and an undescribed species that we here name Amietia poyntoni sp. nov. Channing & Baptista, known from the rest of South Africa and Namibia. These five species have large differences in 16S sequences, as well as differences in morphology and advertisement call. Call and molecular data are both diagnostic, while morphology shows some overlap between taxa. An extended study of the genus across Africa is in preparation. PMID:26000433

  16. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. PMID:26988233

  17. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  18. The cane or marine toad, Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distinct species.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Lampo, Margarita; Cipriani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Rhinella marina is a Neotropical toad that has been introduced widely worldwide. Its toxic effects to frog-eating predators threaten the native and domestic fauna of some regions where it has been introduced. Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. For the first time, data from two mitochondrial genes (ND3 and CR) and 23 morphometric landmarks are combined to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species. Our results support the hypothesis of two separate evolutionary lineages within R. marina and demonstrate that these lineages have significantly diverged in skull shape. We identified two distinct morphotypes, one eastern and one Andean western, with no overlapping morphospaces. The geographic pattern of genetic variation was consistent with a stable structured population with no evidence of recent demographic or geographic expansions. The concordance between the observed geographic patterns in morphometric and genic traits calls for the recognition of two species under R. marina name. PMID:27394759

  19. The tadpole of Odontophrynus monachus Caramaschi & Napoli, 2012 (Amphibia, Anura: Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    Menegucci, Rafael C; Santos, Marcus Thadeu T; Magalhães, Rafael F De; Machado, Ibere F; Garcia, Paulo C A; Pezzuti, Tiago L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus Reinhardt & Lütken comprises 11 species distributed throughout South and East of South America (Frost 2016) clustered in three phenetic groups: O. americanus, O. cultripes, and O. occidentalis (Savage & Cei 1965; Cei 1987; Caramaschi & Napoli 2012). Only the O. occidentalis group is recovered as monophyletic in the most recent phylogenetic hypotheses (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014). In these analyses, the O. cultripes group is not recovered and the monophyly of O. americanus group was not tested, since only one species of the group was included (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014). Therefore, the relationships within the genus are still inconclusive due to low support values and limited taxon sampling. PMID:27615949

  20. Two new Phrynobatrachus species (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Burger, Marius; Zassi-Boulou, Ange Ghislain; Emmrich, Mike; Penner, Johannes; Barej, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of puddle frogs, genus Phrynobatrachus, from the south-western Republic of the Congo. One of them, P. horsti sp. nov., occurs also in neighbouring Gabon and is morphologically most similar to the Cameroonian P. ruthbeateae. It differs from the latter species by smaller males with longer thighs and shanks. The new species comprises various colour morphs but always has less conspicuous black borders between flanks and belly than P. ruthbeateae. The distinct and large black axillary blotch of P. ruthbeateae is either much smaller in P. horsti sp. nov., or broken into numerous irregularly shaped smaller dots. Similarly, a black transversal line at the anterior ventral border of thighs and the black face mask is less distinct and irregularly delimitated in P. horsti sp. nov. when compared to P. ruthbeateae. The mean genetic difference in the sampled region of the 16S rRNA gene between P. horsti sp. nov. and 40 other western African congeners range from 3.66-18.10%. The second new species, P. mayokoensis sp. nov., differs from all other known congeners by the combination of a compact and warty body, the absence of a spiny eyelid tubercle and pedal webbing, a conspicuous black triangle on throat and anterior part of the belly, and a distinct large red blotch on the anterior-proximal surface of the thighs. It exhibited a mean genetic difference in the 16S rRNA to 40 other western African congeners ranging from 1.34-16.98%. The genetically most similar sequence stems from a GenBank entry of a Gabonese frog, determined as P. ogoensis. A comparison of the new species with P. ogoensis syntypes confirmed their specific distinctiveness, most convincingly underlined by the absence of pedal webbing in the new species and the pronounced pedal webbing in P. ogoensis. The GenBank entry thus most likely is based on a misidentification and P. mayokoensis sp. nov. may also occur in neighbouring Gabon. The discovery of the two new frog species is further evidence of the huge gap in our knowledge concerning the species richness in the Guineo-Congolian rainforests. PMID:26624339

  1. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations. PMID:27498792

  2. Terrestrialization, miniaturization and rates of diversification in African frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, have been identified as a key features in the evolution of modern amphibians. This study examines anuran terrestrialization and miniaturization in a phylogenetic context to deter...

  3. Oviposition-site selection by Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura: Hylidae): An arboreal nester inhabiting arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Cecilia G.; Lescano, Julián N.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2013-08-01

    Breeding biology in Phyllomedusa sauvagii is related to vegetation since the species encloses its eggs in leaves above water. Considering that arid environments may represent high risks of death by desiccation for amphibians with this reproductive mode, we evaluated plant characteristics associated with sites used for oviposition in semi-permanent ponds in the Arid Chaco region of Argentina. Plant characteristics were used to fit a statistical habitat selection model that allows the prediction of nest presence. Our results show that P. sauvagii needs substrate with specific features for oviposition that would help to reduce the probability of eggs and tadpoles desiccation.

  4. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos. PMID:27399156

  5. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the highest mountain in Indochina.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Dau, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Leptolalax from northern Vietnam. Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of (1) supra-axillary and ventrolateral glands present; (2) dark brownish red ventral surface with white speckling; (3) medium body size for the genus (29.1-32.6 mm in 7 adult males, 30.0-31.8 mm in 2 females); (4) black markings on the flanks absent; (5) toes with rudimentary webbing and weak lateral fringing; (6) large pectoral glands (1.1-1.9 mm; 4-6% SVL) and femoral glands (2.4-4.3 mm; 7-14% SVL); and (7) an advertisement call with a dominant frequency of 2.6-3.2 kHz (at 14.0º C). At present, the new species is known only from upper montane forest between 2,795-2,815 m elevation on Mount Fansipan, Hoang Lien National Park. To our knowledge, Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. occurs at higher elevations than any other species in the genus. If L. botsfordi sp. nov. is truly restricted to a narrow, high-elevation band, it is likely to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The new species also faces the immediate threat of habitat degradation and pollution due to tourist activity. PMID:25112762

  6. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams. PMID:26624626

  7. The Green Clade grows: A phylogenetic analysis of Aplastodiscus (Anura; Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Haddad, Célio F B; Lyra, Mariana L; Cruz, Carlos A G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-04-01

    Green tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus occur in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes of South America. The genus comprises 15 medium-sized species placed in three species groups diagnosed mainly by cloacal morphology. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to: (1) test the monophyly of these species groups; (2) explore the phylogenetic relationships among putative species; and (3) investigate species boundaries. The dataset included eight mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments for up to 6642 bp per specimen. The results strongly support the monophyly of Aplastodiscus and of the A. albofrenatus and A. perviridis groups. Aplastodiscus sibilatus is the sister taxon of all other species of Aplastodiscus, making the A. albosignatus Group non-monophyletic as currently defined. At least six unnamed species are recognized for Aplastodiscus, increasing the diversity of the genus by 40%. A fourth species group, the A. sibilatus Group is recognized. Aplastodiscus musicus is transferred from the A. albofrenatus Group to the A. albosignatus Group, and A. callipygius is considered a junior synonym of A. albosignatus. Characters related to external cloacal morphology reveal an interesting evolutionary pattern of parallelisms and reversions, suggesting an undocumented level of complexity. We analyze, in light of our phylogenetic results, the evolution of reproductive biology and chromosome morphology in Aplastodiscus. PMID:26802207

  8. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  9. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    PubMed

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  10. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-12-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  11. Integrative taxonomy helps to reveal the mask of the genus Gynandropaa (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Junhua; Wang, Bin; Song, Zhaobin; Zhou, Caiquan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Gynandropaa within the family Dicroglossidae are typical spiny frogs whose taxonomic status has long been in doubt. We used integrative methods, involving morphological and molecular analyses, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships, and to determine identities and the geographic distribution of each valid species. We obtained DNA sequence data of 5 species of Gynandropaa (complete sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [ND2] gene, and 890 bp of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA partial sequences) from 37 localities (including the topotypes of 5 described species) and constructed Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees to examine the patterns of phylogeography. A total of 28 morphological variables were taken on 624 specimens. Three clades with clear geographic patterns were recognized: clade C (from south-western Sichuan Province and central Yunnan Province), clade E (western Guizhou Province and eastern to central Yunnan Province) and clade W (western to southern Yunnan Province). Integrating morphological characteristics and distribution information, the clades W, E and C represent Gynandropaa yunnanensis, G. phrynoides and G. sichuanensis, respectively. We draw the following conclusions: (i) the taxon G. phrynoides, formerly evaluated as a junior synonym of G. yunnanensis, is revalidated herein at the rank of species; (ii) G. liui is a junior synonym of G. sichuanensis; and (iii) G. yunnanensis is a valid species while G. bourreti is probably a subspecies of G. yunnanensis, with the distribution range from Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province. This study clears up the taxonomic status of Gynandropaa and provides important information for understanding the evolution and conservation of these spiny frogs. PMID:26531851

  12. Descriptions and biological notes on three unusual mantellid tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Mantellidae) from southeastern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The morphologies of three unusual tadpoles from slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed, rain forest streams in southeastern Madagascar are described. The large oral apparatus of the tadpole of Boophis picturatus Glaw, Vences, Andreone, and Vallan, 2001 lacks all keratinized structures and has an elaborately-folded lower labium with five, radially oriented, flattopped ridges. The tadpole of Mantidactylus guttulatus (Boulenger, 1881) lacks all keratinized mouthparts and has three immense papillae where the upper jaw normally occurs. The tadpole of Mantidactylus lugubris (Dumeril, 1853) has an ornate oral apparatus involving greatly hypertrophied derivatives of jaw serrations and unique structures on the lower labium that resemble labial teeth.

  13. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura : Bufonidae : Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serran Eslabon, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided.

  14. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation. PMID:24872168

  15. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. PMID:27001603

  16. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae. PMID:26004249

  17. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Li, Pi-Peng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  18. Terrestrialization, Miniaturization and Rates of Diversification in African Puddle Frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zimkus, Breda M.; Lawson, Lucinda; Loader, Simon P.; Hanken, James

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, are recurring trends in amphibian evolution, but the relationships among the traits that characterize these phenomena are not well understood. Furthermore, these traits have been identified as possible “key innovations” that are predicted to increase rates of speciation in those lineages in which they evolve. We examine terrestrialization and miniaturization in sub-Saharan puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachidae) in a phylogenetic context to investigate the relationship between adaptation and diversification through time. We use relative dating techniques to ascertain if character trait shifts are associated with increased diversification rates, and we evaluate the likelihood that a single temporal event can explain the evolution of those traits. Results indicate alternate reproductive modes evolved independently in Phrynobatrachus at least seven times, including terrestrial deposition of eggs and terrestrial, non-feeding larvae. These shifts towards alternate reproductive modes are not linked to a common temporal event. Contrary to the “key innovations” hypothesis, clades that exhibit alternate reproductive modes have lower diversification rates than those that deposit eggs aquatically. Adult habitat, pedal webbing and body size have no effect on diversification rates. Though these traits putatively identified as key innovations for Phrynobatrachus do not seem to be associated with increased speciation rates, they may still provide opportunities to extend into new niches, thus increasing overall diversity. PMID:22509392

  19. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the live frog trade of Telmatobius (Anura: Ceratophryidae) in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Vredenburg, Vance T; Lehr, Edgar

    2010-11-01

    Species of frogs in the genus Telmatobius are traded and sold for human consumption in the Andes and in coastal cities of Peru and Bolivia. These frogs are harvested from wild populations. We report high prevalence of infection by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in live frogs purchased at the main market in Cusco, Peru, from January 2008 to January 2010. We suggest that the transport of native anurans through the live frog trade could facilitate the spread of this fungus among Andean frogs. The tropical Andes are the most important biodiversity hotspot for amphibians. Because many neotropical taxa are known to be susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the presence of a large reservoir of infection in the frog trade poses a significant threat to amphibian conservation. PMID:21268980

  20. A new species of glassfrog, genus Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae), from the Caribbean foothills of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Brian; Salazar, Stanley; Puschendorf, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new glassfrog belonging to the genus Hyalinobatrachium from the tropical wet forests and premontane rainforests of the Caribbean foothills of Costa Rica, at elevations between 400-800 m. The type locality is approximately 4km west of Santa Clara, ca. 400 m a.s.l. (N 10.219, W 83.949). This new taxon is distinguished by its morphological characteristics, distinct advertisement call, and genetic distance (COI mRNA). The new species can be distinguished from other species of the genus Hyalinobatrachium by the combination of the following characters: (1) snout truncate in dorsal and lateral views; (2) granular dorsal skin; (3) parietal and cardial peritonea transparent; (4) hand webbing formula III 2--2+ IV; (5) in life having a uniform lime green dorsal surface that lacks any evident light or dark spots; (6) iris coloration silvery-white with fine dark spots or reticulation; (7) advertisement call consisting of a single tonal long metallic whistle-like note with a duration of 0.40-0.55 s (average 0.501 s) and a dominant frequency of 3.35-3.44 kHz (average 3.39 kHz); (8) highly divergent DNA sequences for the mitochondrial gene COI from other analysed members of the genus Hyalinobatrachium, with 12.4% divergence from its closest known species, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi. PMID:25781240

  1. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  2. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus. PMID:26250005

  3. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  4. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  5. Development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Královec, Karel; Žáková, Pavla; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2013-01-01

    Using histological techniques and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions of histological serial sections, we studied the development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in the discoglossid frog Discoglossus pictus. The olfactory epithelium in larval D. pictus represents one continuous unit of tissue not divided into two separate portions. However, a small pouch of olfactory epithelium (the "ventromedial diverticulum") is embedded into the roof of the buccal cavity, anteromedial to the internal naris. The lateral appendix is present in D. pictus through the entire larval period and disappears during the onset of metamorphosis. The disappearance of the lateral appendix at this time suggests that it is a typical larval organ related to aquatic life. The vomeronasal organ develops during hindlimb development, which is comparatively late for anurans. The development of the vomeronasal organ in D. pictus follows the same general developmental pattern recognized for neobatrachians. As with most anurans, the vomeronasal glands appear later than the vomeronasal organ. After metamorphosis, the olfactory organ of adult D. pictus is composed of a series of three interconnected chambers: the cavum principale, cavum medium, and cavum inferius. We suggest that the ventromedial diverticulum at the anterior border of the internal naris of larval D. pictus might be homologous with the ventral olfactory epithelium of bufonids and with the similar diverticulum of Alytes. PMID:22972712

  6. Two New Species of Liuixalus (Rhacophoridae, Anura): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Analyses.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaobo; Mo, Yunming; Jiang, Ke; Cai, Bo; Xie, Feng; Jiang, Jianping; Murphy, Robert W; Li, Jia-Tang; Wang, Yuezhao

    2015-01-01

    Due to small body sizes, superficial similarities in morphologies, and obscure activity behaviors, the phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the genus Liuixalus were very troublesome. Some species might comprise a complex of cryptic species. To investigate the species of group, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of the genus using 16s rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences. Analyses recovered six well supported matrilines that involved L. romeri, L. ocellatus, L. hainanus, L. calcarius, Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. and Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov., though the historical relationships among them remained unresolved. Currently, Liuixalus included 4 species, distributed eastwards from northern Vietnam to Hong Kong, China. Based on genealogical and morphological distinctiveness, we described Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Dayao, Jinxiu, China and Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Shiwanda, China. A combination of morphological measurements, genetic, bioacoustic and osteological analysis was served to diagnose the new taxa. PMID:26305377

  7. Phylogeography and Demographic History of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64–0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053–0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of “refugia within refugia”. PMID:22448286

  8. A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço-de-Moraes, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rodrigo Barbosa; Fouquet, Antoine; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelophryne is composed of diminutive frogs occurring in northern Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. Herein we describe a new species of Adelophryne found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forests in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, two phalanges in the finger IV, and a glandular ridge line that runs from the posterior part of eye to the insertion of the forelimb. This species is sensitive to edge effect and conversion of native forest into coffee and Eucalyptus plantations and may be listed as Endangered (EN) under B1ab(iii) criteria of the IUCN Red List. PMID:25112256

  9. Amphibians crossing the Bering Land Bridge: evidence from holarctic treefrogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Tang; Wang, Ji-Shan; Nian, Hui-Huang; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Wang, Jichao; Li, Yang; Rao, Ding-Qi; Klaus, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Based on an updated, time-calibrated phylogeny and applying biogeographical model testing and diversification analysis, we re-examined systematics and biogeography of the Holarctic treefrog genus Hyla with a focus on the East Asian species. We analyzed four mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA, tRNA(Leu), ND1) and one nuclear gene (POMC) for 192 samples representing 30 species of Hyla. Based on our results we suggest that H. ussuriensis is a synonym of H. japonica. Specimens from Sakhalin and Kunashir Islands might represent a cryptic species within H. japonica. We confirm earlier hypotheses that the genus Hyla originated during the Eocene to Early Oligocene and that Eurasian species originated from two independent dispersal events from North America via the Bering Land Bridge. Middle Eocene to Oligocene dispersal gave rise to the most recent common ancestor of the West Palearctic H. arborea-group and the East Palearctic, newly defined, H. chinensis-group. The Northeast Asian H. japonica-group resulted from a second wave of colonization from the Nearctic. A trans-Atlantic dispersal route could be excluded. Dispersal of the H. arborea-group to the western Palearctic coincides with the closure of the Turgai Strait at the end of the Oligocene. Diversification of Hyla decreased at the end of the Middle Miocene, possibly coinciding with the end of the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum and the advent of cooler and drier climates in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:25765368

  10. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution. PMID:26312020

  11. Ecology of the bromeligenous frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura, Hylidae) from three restinga remnants across Brazil's coast.

    PubMed

    Motta-Tavares, Tatiana; Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Dantas, Leonardo F; Sluys, Monique Van; Hatano, Fábio H; Vrcibradic, Davor; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed diet, sexual dimorphism and bromeliad use in three populations of the hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus from restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. We found 13 arthropods categories in 161 stomachs. Ants and termites were the dominant prey items. The similar trophic niche across populations suggests this species has a conservative diet. We found sexual dimorphism regarding body size and jaw width. We recordedP. luteolus in five bromeliad species, but predominantly inAechmeablanchetiana (35.6% of individuals recorded). We recorded solitary individuals in 44% of occupied bromeliads, and never found two males sharing the same bromeliad. The data is suggestive that populations ofP. luteolus has a conservative diet independent of area, with ants and termites the being most relevant prey items. The sexual dimorphism in jaw and the solitary males may suggest that this species have territorial behavior. PMID:26871497

  12. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes. PMID:26250010

  13. Patterns of Cranial Development in Larval Rana macrocnemis: Chondrocranial Size and Shape Relationship With Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elıf; Kaya, Uğur

    2016-06-01

    Notwithstanding the abundance of amphibians, there are few descriptions about ranid cranial development. Herein, larval chondrocranial development of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis (Boulenger, 1885), is described on cleared and double-stained specimens. Descriptions are related with the ontogeny of the chondrocranium and osteogenesis of the cranial skeleton. The larval chondrocranial development of R. macrocnemis is compared to those of Rana and Pelophylax larvae (Pelophylax bedriagae, Rana pipiens, R. palustris, R. sphenocephala, R. catesbeiana, R. clamitans and R. sylvatica). In R. macrocnemis, the first bones to ossify are the parasphenoid and exoccipital (Stage 33), followed by the frontoparietal and prootic (stages 35 and 40, respectively). The major reconstruction of the chondrocranium begins at Stage 41. The ossification sequence of R. macrocnemis is distinguished from other ranids. Adult cranial osteology of R. macrocnemis is compared to that of P. bedriagae. Osteologically, R. macrocnemis is different from P. bedriagae by the shape and size of the vomer and number of teeth. Additionally, geometric morphometric methods are used to analyze chondrocranial size and shape changes of ranid larva of R. macrocnemis and P. bedriagae. Anat Rec, 299:711-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26950267

  14. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  15. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population’s distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  16. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  17. An evaluation of transcriptome-based exon capture for frog phylogenomics across multiple scales of divergence (Class: Amphibia, Order: Anura).

    PubMed

    Portik, Daniel M; Smith, Lydia L; Bi, Ke

    2016-09-01

    Custom sequence capture experiments are becoming an efficient approach for gathering large sets of orthologous markers in nonmodel organisms. Transcriptome-based exon capture utilizes transcript sequences to design capture probes, typically using a reference genome to identify intron-exon boundaries to exclude shorter exons (<200 bp). Here, we test directly using transcript sequences for probe design, which are often composed of multiple exons of varying lengths. Using 1260 orthologous transcripts, we conducted sequence captures across multiple phylogenetic scales for frogs, including outgroups ~100 Myr divergent from the ingroup. We recovered a large phylogenomic data set consisting of sequence alignments for 1047 of the 1260 transcriptome-based loci (~561 000 bp) and a large quantity of highly variable regions flanking the exons in transcripts (~70 000 bp), the latter improving substantially by only including ingroup species (~797 000 bp). We recovered both shorter (<100 bp) and longer exons (>200 bp), with no major reduction in coverage towards the ends of exons. We observed significant differences in the performance of blocking oligos for target enrichment and nontarget depletion during captures, and differences in PCR duplication rates resulting from the number of individuals pooled for capture reactions. We explicitly tested the effects of phylogenetic distance on capture sensitivity, specificity, and missing data, and provide a baseline estimate of expectations for these metrics based on a priori knowledge of nuclear pairwise differences among samples. We provide recommendations for transcriptome-based exon capture design based on our results, cost estimates and offer multiple pipelines for data assembly and analysis. PMID:27241806

  18. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group. PMID:24493953

  19. Redescription of Oswaldocruzia chambrieri (Strongylida: Molineidae) from Rhinella margaritifera (Anura: Bufonidae) in Caxiuanã National Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Willkens, Yuri; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; de Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago

    2016-09-01

    Oswaldocruzia chambrieri Ben Slimane et Durette-Desset, 1993 is redescribed from specimens collected from the small intestine of the South American common toad, Rhinella margaritifera, from Caxiuanã National Forest in Pará, Brazil, using light and scanning microscopy and molecular analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) - coding regions of DNA. The discovered nematodes are characterized by a type III caudal bursa with two papillae, rays 4 with a median groove, and spicules divided into a blade, a shoe and a fork. Cervical alae are absent, the cephalic vesicle is divided into two portions, and the synlophe has low ridges without chitinous supports. The present study establishes the Caxiuanã National Forest as a new location for O. chambrieri, which had previously been reported as a parasite of R. margaritifera in Ecuador, uses light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify new morphological characters of the species and represents the second molecular sequence deposited for the Oswaldocruzia genus. PMID:27447222

  20. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Thoropa taophora (Anura, Cycloramphidae), a frog endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Duryea, M C; Zamudio, K R; Brasileiro, C A

    2008-05-01

    Here we characterize nine microsatellite loci for Thoropa taophora collected from a coastal and an island population in southeastern Brazil. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 for the coastal population and from two to eight for the island population. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.308 to 0.778 for the coastal population and from zero to 0.737 for the island population. One locus did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg expectations on the coast, while two were in disequilibrium on the island. These markers are currently being used to examine genetic differentiation and patterns of dispersal in T. taophora. PMID:21585864

  1. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species.

  2. A species boundary within the Chinese Kurixalus odontotarsus species group (Anura: Rhacophoridae): New insights from molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Mingwang; Yang, Junxing

    2010-09-01

    We construct the phylogeny of the Kurixalus odontotarsus species group using two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes in an attempt to delimit species boundaries within the Chinese K. odontotarsus group. With strong support values, three major clades are obtained, and all phylogenetic analyses reject monophyly of K. odontotarsus. The Tibetan lineage of K. odontotarsus was clustered with Kurixalus verrucosus from Myanmar (labeled Clade I); K. odontotarsus haplotypes from the type locality and nearby regions formed a distinct clade (labeled Clade II), and K. odontotarsus haplotypes from other places, together with those from Kurixalus bisacculus, K. verrucosus from Vietnam, and Kurixalus hainanus, formed a distinct clade (labeled Clade III). Clade II is the sister taxon to Clade III. The average uncorrected p-distance of 16S rRNA sequences between these three major clades range from 3.11% to 7.88%, which is obviously higher than that within these three major clades (0.03-1.89%). We propose that K. odontotarsus, K. bisacculus, and K. verrucosus should be treated as three independent species. The Tibetan lineage of K. odontotarsus does not belong to K. odontotarsus, and we tentatively place it in K. verrucosus. Kurixalus hainanus is considered a synonym of K. bisacculus. The distribution range of K. bisacculus should be expanded widely to include most regions of South China, and in China the distribution of K. odontotarsus should be limited to its type locality and nearby regions. PMID:20472079

  3. Late Miocene diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the huge toads in the Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) species group (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of the Rhinella marina group, using molecular, morphological, and skin-secretion data, contributing to an understanding of Neotropical faunal diversification. The maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyzes of the combined data recovered a monophyletic R. marina group. Molecular dating based on Bayesian inferences and fossil calibration placed the earliest phylogenetic split within the R. marina group at ∼ 10.47 MYA, in the late Miocene. Two rapid major diversifications occurred from Central Brazil, first northward (∼ 8.08 MYA) in late Miocene and later southward (∼ 5.17 MYA) in early Pliocene. These results suggest that barriers and dispersal routes created by the uplift of Brazilian Central Shield and climatic changes explain the diversification and current species distributions of the R. marina group. Dispersal-vicariance analyzes (DIVA) indicated that the two major diversifications of the R. marina group were due to vicariance, although eleven dispersals subsequently occurred. PMID:20813190

  4. Two new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina: Molineoidea) parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Anura) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of Oswaldocruzia, O. manuensis sp. nov., and O. urubambaensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Peru, these are parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina. O. manuensis is characterized by having cervical alae which are not well developed, ridges without chitinous supports, caudal bursa type II and branches of fork of dissimilar length. O. urubambaensis is characterized by a caudal bursa of type I, ridges with chitinous supports, a thin cephalic vesicle and origin of rays 9 in tip of the dorsal trunk. PMID:23377910

  5. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  6. Sex-determining mechanism in Buergeria buergeri (Anura, Rhacophoridae). III. Does the ZZW triploid frog become female or male?

    PubMed

    Ohta, S; Sumida, M; Nishioka, M

    1999-02-15

    Both triploids and gynogenetic diploids (GDs) were produced to clarify the relationship between the sex-chromosome constitution and the expression of sex in the common bell-ring frog, Buergeria buergeri. The sex differentiation of triploids in B. buergeri is quite remarkable. Triploid frogs consisted of three sex genotypes, ZZZ, ZWW and ZZW. All ZZZ triploids were males, and all ZWW triploids were females. It is very interesting that half of the ZZW triploids became female, and the other half became male. The GD frogs consisted of two sex genotypes, ZW and ZZ, which did not differ from the controls in sex differentiation. Since the ratios of ZZ and ZW eggs were significantly different among female parents, it is assumed that most (approximately 80-90%) of the eggs made pre-reductional division in some females and post-reductional division in others during meiosis. It seems that ZW eggs were produced by the occurrence of recombination between the centromere and the sex-determining genes in B. buergeri. It was also found that the number of Z chromosomes in each cell of these triploids and GDs agreed with that of the nucleoli in each cell. PMID:9933938

  7. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population's distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  8. Morphology, molecular genetics, and bioacoustics support two new sympatric Xenophrys toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  9. Systematic revision of the Taiwanese genus Kurixalus members with a description of two new endemic species (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Li; Lin, Te-En; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Wu, Sheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of rhacophorid tree frog were identified in Taiwan. In both new taxa, derived reproductive characteristics of laying eggs in tree holes and oophagous tadpoles are shared with Kurixalus eiffingeri, but they are divergent from each other in molecular genetics, mating calls, and tadpole and adult morphology. The morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic evidence support the hypothesis that the two new species, Kurixalus berylliniris sp. n. and Kurixalus wangi sp. n., are both monophyletic lineages. PMID:26877703

  10. Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of Chiromantis in Thailand using multiple lines of evidence (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Arsirapot, Sutipong; McLeod, David S

    2013-01-01

    Because of general phenotypic similarities and distribution of species across two continents, the genus Chiromantis has proven somewhat enigmatic. Among Indochinese species, the validity of C. hansenae has been questioned by some who consider it a junior synonym of C. vittatus. We employ three lines of evidence to elucidate the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of four congeneric species of Chiromantis frogs from Thailand. Results of molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic data analyses support at least four evolutionarily distinct and monophyletic clades: C. doriae, C. nongkhorensis, C. vittatus and C. hansenae. Genetic divergence between C. vittatus and C. hansenae is > 10%, significantly greater than C. doriae and C nongkhorensis (4.5%). Our results support the taxonomic validity of C. hansenae and suggest that there may be more diversity within C. hansenae and C. vittatus than is currently recognized. PMID:26146711

  11. Embryogenesis and tadpole description of Hyperolius castaneus Ahl, 1931 and H. jackie Dehling, 2012 (Anura, Hyperoliidae) from montane bog pools

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Edgar; Dehling, J. Maximilian; Greenbaum, Eli; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tadpoles of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie were found in the Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda and adjacent areas. Tadpoles of both species were identified by DNA-barcoding. At the shore of a bog pool three clutches of Hyperolius castaneus of apparently different age, all laid on moss pads (Polytrichum commune, Isotachis aubertii) or grass tussocks (Andropogon shirensis) 2–5 cm above the water level, were found. One clutch of Hyperolius castaneus was infested by larval dipterid flies. The most recently laid clutch contained about 20 eggs within a broad egg-jelly envelope. The eggs were attached to single blades of a tussock and distributed over a vertical distance of 8 cm. A pair of Hyperolius castaneus found in axillary amplexus was transported in a plastic container to the lab for observation. The pair deposited a total of 57 eggs (15 eggs attached to the upper wall of the transport container, 42 eggs floated in the water). Embryogenesis of the clutch was monitored in the plastic container at 20 ± 2 °C (air temperature) and documented by photos until Gosner Stage 25. The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius castaneus is based on a Gosner Stage 29 individual from a series of 57 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius jackie is based on a Gosner Stage 32 individual from a series of 43 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). Egg laying behavior and embryogenesis are unknown for Hyperolius jackie. The labial tooth row formula for both species is 1/3(1) with a narrow median gap of the tooth row. Variation in external morphology was observed in size and labial tooth row formula within the species. With the tadpole descriptions of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie, 36 tadpoles of the 135 known Hyperolius species have been described, including five of the eleven Hyperolius species known from Rwanda. PMID:26798309

  12. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H; Gvoždík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group. PMID:24493953

  13. No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Müller, Hendrik; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Barej, Michael F; Gvoždík, Václav; Schmitz, Andreas; Channing, Alan; Nagel, Peter; Loader, Simon P

    2016-08-01

    The niche-filling process predicted by the "ecological opportunity" (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date, we find that the diversification of lineages in Africa best conforms to a constant rate model throughout time and across subclades, with little support for EO. Evolutionary rates of life-history traits have similarly been constant over time. However, an analysis of generalists and specialists showed a shift toward higher speciation rates associated with habitat specialization. The overall lack of EO signal can be interpreted in a number of ways and we propose several explanations. Firstly, methodological issues might preclude the detection of EO. Secondly, colonizers might not experience true EO conditions and due to the size, ecological heterogeneity and age of landmasses, the diversification processes might be more complex. Thirdly, lower speciation rates of habitat generalists may have affected overall proliferation of lineages. PMID:27312525

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among four new complete mitogenome sequences of Pelophylax (Amphibia: Anura) from the Balkans and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-09-01

    We present the full-length mitogenome sequences of four European water frog species: Pelophylax cypriensis, P. epeiroticus, P. kurtmuelleri and P. shqipericus. The mtDNA size varied from 17,363 to 17,895 bp, and its organization with the LPTF tRNA gene cluster preceding the 12 S rRNA gene displayed the typical Neobatrachian arrangement. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed a well-resolved mtDNA phylogeny of seven European Pelophylax species. The uncorrected p-distance for among Pelophylax mitogenomes was 9.6 (range 0.01-0.13). Most divergent was the P. shqipericus mitogenome, clustering with the "P. lessonae" group, in contrast to the other three new Pelophylax mitogenomes related to the "P. bedriagae/ridibundus" lineage. The new mitogenomes resolve ambiguities of the phylogenetic placement of P. cretensis and P. epeiroticus. PMID:25806583

  15. Embryogenesis and tadpole description of Hyperolius castaneus Ahl, 1931 and H. jackie Dehling, 2012 (Anura, Hyperoliidae) from montane bog pools.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Edgar; Dehling, J Maximilian; Greenbaum, Eli; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Tadpoles of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie were found in the Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda and adjacent areas. Tadpoles of both species were identified by DNA-barcoding. At the shore of a bog pool three clutches of Hyperolius castaneus of apparently different age, all laid on moss pads (Polytrichum commune, Isotachis aubertii) or grass tussocks (Andropogon shirensis) 2-5 cm above the water level, were found. One clutch of Hyperolius castaneus was infested by larval dipterid flies. The most recently laid clutch contained about 20 eggs within a broad egg-jelly envelope. The eggs were attached to single blades of a tussock and distributed over a vertical distance of 8 cm. A pair of Hyperolius castaneus found in axillary amplexus was transported in a plastic container to the lab for observation. The pair deposited a total of 57 eggs (15 eggs attached to the upper wall of the transport container, 42 eggs floated in the water). Embryogenesis of the clutch was monitored in the plastic container at 20 ± 2 °C (air temperature) and documented by photos until Gosner Stage 25. The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius castaneus is based on a Gosner Stage 29 individual from a series of 57 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-41). The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius jackie is based on a Gosner Stage 32 individual from a series of 43 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-41). Egg laying behavior and embryogenesis are unknown for Hyperolius jackie. The labial tooth row formula for both species is 1/3(1) with a narrow median gap of the tooth row. Variation in external morphology was observed in size and labial tooth row formula within the species. With the tadpole descriptions of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie, 36 tadpoles of the 135 known Hyperolius species have been described, including five of the eleven Hyperolius species known from Rwanda. PMID:26798309

  16. Apoptosis, proliferation and presence of estradiol receptors in the testes and Bidder's organ of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Scaia, María Florencia; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Cervino, Nadia; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic equilibrium between spermatogonial proliferation and testicular apoptosis determines the progression of spermatogenesis in amphibians. Estrogens and their receptors play a central role in regulating spermatogenesis in vertebrates, and in some species of anurans, estradiol (E2 ) is involved in the regulation of spermatogonial proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells. Bidder's organ (BO) is a structure characteristic of Bufonidae that has historically been compared to an undeveloped ovary. In adult Rhinella arenarum males, BO is one of the main sources of plasma E2 . The aim of this study was 1) to describe the seasonal variations in testicular apoptosis, spermatogonial proliferation, and cellular proliferation in BO; and 2) to analyze the presence and localization of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in the testes and BO of R. arenarum. Testicular fragments and BOs from animals collected during the year were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU incorporation was determined using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in testicular sections was detected using the TUNEL method, and ERβ localization was assessed using immunohistochemistry in testes and BOs. The results indicate that spermatogonial proliferation is highest during the reproductive season and that cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids undergo apoptosis during the postreproductive season. Furthermore, the proliferation of follicular cells is highest during the reproductive and postreproductive seasons. ERβ was primarily detected by immunolocalization in Sertoli cells, follicular cells, and oocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that cysts that do not form spermatozoa are removed from testes by apoptosis and that estrogens regulate both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in adult males of R. arenarum. PMID:26719144

  17. The near-complete mitogenome sequence of the Omei Horned Toad Megophrys omeimontis Liu, 1950 (Anura, Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Wang, Ye; Li, Diyan; Yan, Qigui; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-07-01

    The nearly complete mitogenome of Megophrys omeimontis is 17,013 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a D-loop region, and it shares the identical gene arrangement with Atympanophrys shapingensis. The overall base composition of this mitogenome is biased toward AT content at 60.10%. Most PCGs begin with ATG, whereas ND1 starts with ATA, ND2 initiates from ATT, ND3 starts with ATC, and COX1 begins with GTG. Four PCGs (COX1, ATP8, ND4L and ND5) use complete stop codon TAR, and ND6 ends with AGG, but the remaining eight PCGs terminate in TA or T. The putative control region of M. omeimontis mitogenome holds two tandem repeat motifs at the 5' and 3' ends, which is different from that of A. shapingensis mtDNA. Megophrys omeimontis becomes the sister lineage to the two other species, B. carinense and A. shapingensis. PMID:25856516

  18. Preparation and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from green poison frogs, Dendrobates auratus, following hormonal induced spermiation (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Lipke, Christian; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Meyer, Wilfried; Meinecke, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    Few ultrastructural studies have been performed on members of the Dendrobatidae, although such investigations can be useful for the understanding of reproductive patterns, as a diagnostic method for males in breeding programs for endangered amphibians and for phylogenetic analysis. The sperm ultrastructure of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus, from Panama is described following induced spermiation in living animals. To date only testicular spermatozoa in other dendrobatid frogs have been analysed. Moreover, an electron microscopic preparation method (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) for dendrobatid sperm cells in low concentration is presented. Sperm cells from stimulated frogs (100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, twice at an interval of 1h) were recovered via cloaca lavage using 600 microl isotonic phosphate-free amphibian saline (IPS). Centrifuged flushings (5 min, 173 x g) were deposited on microscopic slides. Adherent spermatozoa were treated with Karnovsky fixative (overnight, 4 degrees C). After postfixation (2h, 1% osmium tetroxide), samples were dehydrated in series of ascending acetones (30-100%). For transmission electron microscopy sperm cells were encapsulated using Epon and 1.5% 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (DMP 30). Ultrathin sections (70 nm) were cut and stained with uranyl acetate (30 min) and lead citrate (5 min). Sperm cells are filiform with a 21.1+/-2.7 microm long and arcuated head and a single tail (35.0+/-4.2 microm length). Their acrosomal complex is located at the anterior portion of the head and consists of the acrosomal vesicle which has low electron density, and the subjacent electron-dense subacrosomal cone. In transverse section, the nucleus is circular (1.9+/-0.2 microm diameter) and conical in longitudinal section. It is surrounded by several groups of mitochondria. The chromatin is highly condensed and electron-dense but shows numerous electron-lucent inclusions. A short midpiece has a mitochondrial collar with a proximal and a distal centriole. The latter gives rise to the axoneme which alone forms the flagellum. The sperm ultrastructure of D. auratus differs from that of other Dendrobatidae because of the absence of a nuclear space and the absence of the undulating membrane associated with an axial fibre. This tail conformation is found in the Ranoidea but not in the Bufonoidea. These results show that the spermatozoa of D. auratus are the first within the Dendrobatidae without accessory tail structures. Methods of using sperm samples from hormonal treated frogs for ultrastructural studies is not only reasonable to examine e.g. amphibian phylogeny without killing frogs threatened with extinction but allows investigations in the field of assisted reproduction and male fertility for example in conservation programs for endangered amphibians. PMID:18657373

  19. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans. PMID:23409941

  20. A new small frog species of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern paramos of Colombia.

    PubMed

    González-Durán, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    I describe a new species of a small-sized frog of the genus Pristimantis found in the paramo ecosystem (3700 masl) on the northern slope of Los Nevados National Park, Cordillera Central, department of Caldas, Colombia. This new species is assigned to the Pristimantis leptolophus species-group, given that Toe V is much longer than Toe III and extends to the distal edge of the distal subarticular tubercle on Toe IV. The new species differs from other taxa by its dorsal golden or yellowish color patterns, the absence of nuptial pads, lateral fringes on its fingers and toes, and the absence of vomerine odontophores. Discriminant analyses of morphometric characters of females of P. leptolophus, P. uranobates, and the new species separate the new species by snout-vent length, tibia length, eye diameter, eye-to-nostril distance, tympanum diameter, and length of toe III. Vomer terms frequently used to describe species are reviewed, such as the oblique keels of the vomer and the different forms of the dentigerous process. Species belonging to the high Andean Pristimantis leptolophus species-group are allopatric, suggesting vicariant speciation in different areas of the paramos. PMID:27395844

  1. Systematics of the Rhinellamargaritifera complex (Anura, Bufonidae) from western Ecuador and Panama with insights in the biogeography of Rhinellaalata.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sueny P; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ron, Santiago R

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinellamargaritifera species group consists of 17 species of toads distributed in tropical and subtropical South America and eastern Central America. The identity of some of its species is poorly understood and there are numerous undescribed cryptic species. Among them, the status of Rhinellamargaritifera is one of the most problematic. Its range includes lowland rainforests separated by the Andes, the Chocoan rainforest to the west and the Amazonian rainforest to the east. This distribution is puzzling because the Andes are an old and formidable barrier to gene flow and therefore should generate vicariant speciation between disjunct lowland populations. Herein we clarify the taxonomy of populations of the Rhinellamargaritifera complex from Central America and the Chocó region of South America. The morphological and genetic variation of Rhinellamargaritifera was examined from 39 populations from Chocó, 24 from the upper Amazon region of Ecuador, and 37 from Panama, including the holotype of the Panamanian Rhinellaalata. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the nuclear gene Tyrosinase (Tyr). The genetic and morphological data show that Panamanian and Chocoan populations are conspecific. In the phylogeny, populations from Chocó and Panama form a well-supported clade. The morphology of the holotype of Rhinellaalata falls within the variation range of Panamanian and Chocoan populations. Based on all this evidence, we assign the populations from western Ecuador and Panama to Rhinellaalata and demonstrate that the unusual distribution pattern of "Rhinellamargaritifera" on both sides of the Andes was an artifact of incorrectly defined species boundaries. PMID:25987881

  2. A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades.  PMID:25543734

  3. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of some species of the Dendropsophus microcephalus group (Anura, Hylidae) in the light of phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendropsophus is a monophyletic anuran genus with a diploid number of 30 chromosomes as an important synapomorphy. However, the internal phylogenetic relationships of this genus are poorly understood. Interestingly, an intriguing interspecific variation in the telocentric chromosome number has been useful in species identification. To address certain uncertainties related to one of the species groups of Dendropsophus, the D. microcephalus group, we carried out a cytogenetic analysis combined with phylogenetic inferences based on mitochondrial sequences, which aimed to aid in the analysis of chromosomal characters. Populations of Dendropsophus nanus, Dendropsophus walfordi, Dendropsophus sanborni, Dendropsophus jimi and Dendropsophus elianeae, ranging from the extreme south to the north of Brazil, were cytogenetically compared. A mitochondrial region of the ribosomal 12S gene from these populations, as well as from 30 other species of Dendropsophus, was used for the phylogenetic inferences. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Results The species D. nanus and D. walfordi exhibited identical karyotypes (2n = 30; FN = 52), with four pairs of telocentric chromosomes and a NOR located on metacentric chromosome pair 13. In all of the phylogenetic hypotheses, the paraphyly of D. nanus and D. walfordi was inferred. D. sanborni from Botucatu-SP and Torres-RS showed the same karyotype as D. jimi, with 5 pairs of telocentric chromosomes (2n = 30; FN = 50) and a terminal NOR in the long arm of the telocentric chromosome pair 12. Despite their karyotypic similarity, these species were not found to compose a monophyletic group. Finally, the phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses did not cluster the specimens of D. elianeae according to their geographical occurrence or recognized morphotypes. Conclusions We suggest that a taxonomic revision of the taxa D. nanus and D. walfordi is quite necessary. We also observe that the number of telocentric chromosomes is useful to distinguish among valid species in some cases, although it is unchanged in species that are not necessarily closely related phylogenetically. Therefore, inferences based on this chromosomal character must be made with caution; a proper evolutionary analysis of the karyotypic variation in Dendropsophus depends on further characterization of the telocentric chromosomes found in this group. PMID:23822759

  4. A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Mt. Gaoligongshan of western Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chen, Guo-Ling; Rao, Ding-Qi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Leptolalax is described from the Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The new species, Leptolalax tengchongensis sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) small size (SVL 23.9-26.0 mm in males, 28.8-28.9 mm in females); (2) dorsal skin shagreened and scattered with fine, round reddish tubercles; (3) toes with rudimentary webbing and narrow lateral fringes; (4) tympanum distinctly discernible, almost entirely black; (5) ventrolateral glands indistinct; (6) flanks with several distinct and large dark blotches; (7) ventral surfaces white, scattered with distinct irregular dark speckling; (8) iris not bicolored, uniformly dark brown and scattered with minute, coppery reticulations throughout. To date, the new species has only been found at its type locality in evergreen broadleaf forests at elevations between 2000-2100 m. PMID:27394346

  5. Red hot chili pepper. A new Calluella stoliczka, 1872 (Lissamphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo).

    PubMed

    Das, Indraneil; Min, Pui Yong; Hsu, Wayne W; Hertwig, Stefan T; Haas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A new brightly-coloured (olive and red) species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka 1872 is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to 36.0 mm; dorsum weakly granular; a faint dermal fold across forehead; toe tips obtuse; webbing on toes basal; lateral fringes on toes present; outer metatarsal tubercle present; and dorsum greyish-olive, with red spots; half of venter bright red, the rest with large white and dark areas. The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south-east Asia.  PMID:24872245

  6. Climate Change and the Distribution of Neotropical Red-Bellied Toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): How to Prioritize Species and Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term. PMID:24755937

  7. Blood Cell Profiles of the Tadpoles of the Dubois's Tree Frog, Polypedates teraiensis Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Das, Madhusmita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a sequential study of the leukocyte profiles and the changes in morphometry and morphology of erythrocytes in the tadpoles of Polypedates teraiensis during their development and metamorphosis, that is, transfer from an aquatic mode to a terrestrial mode of life. Blood smears of 21 different stages (Gosner stage 26 to 46) of tadpoles were investigated. Population of erythrocytes was heterogeneous in population represented by various forms (oval, elliptical or rounded cells, comma shaped, teardrop shaped, schistocytes, senile erythrocytes, crenulated RBCs). Correlation between various morphometric values of erythrocytes was determined with different developing stages of tadpoles. Amongst the leucocytes, the lymphocytes were the most abundant cells followed by neutrophils. Neutrophils and monocytes showed varied morphologic forms. The percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils showed a negative whereas percentage of eosinophil, basophil, and monocytes showed a positive correlation with the developmental stages of tadpoles. Blood platelets were also observed, which were rounded in shape and found in aggregates. PMID:22649312

  8. From Clinging to Digging: The Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny of the Indian Purple Frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (Anura: Nasikabatrachidae).

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Gayani; Thomas, Ashish; Kerney, Ryan; Hanken, James; Biju, S D; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    The Indian Purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, occupies a basal phylogenetic position among neobatrachian anurans and has a very unusual life history. Tadpoles have a large ventral oral sucker, which they use to cling to rocks in torrents, whereas metamorphs possess adaptations for life underground. The developmental changes that underlie these shifts in habits and habitats, and especially the internal remodeling of the cranial and postcranial skeleton, are unknown. Using a nearly complete metamorphic series from free-living larva to metamorph, we describe the postembryonic skeletal ontogeny of this ancient and unique monotypic lineage. The torrent-dwelling larva possesses a dorsoventrally flattened body and a head with tiny dorsal eyes, robust lower and upper jaw cartilages, well-developed trabecular horns, and a definable gap between the trabecular horns and the tip of the snout. Unlike tadpoles of many other frogs, those of Nasikabatrachus retain larval mouthparts into late metamorphic stages. This unusual feature enables the larvae to maintain their clinging habit until near the end of metamorphosis. The subsequent ontogenetic shift from clinging to digging is correlated with rapid morphological changes and behavioral modifications. Metamorphs are equipped with a shortened tibiafibula and ossified prehallical elements, which likely facilitate initial digging using the hind limbs. Subsequently, the frogs may shift to headfirst burrowing by using the wedge-shaped skull, anteriorly positioned pectoral girdle, well-developed humeral crests and spatula-shaped forelimbs. The transition from an aquatic life in torrents to a terrestrial life underground entails dramatic changes in skeletal morphology and function that represent an extreme in metamorphic remodeling. Our analysis enhances the scope for detailed comparative studies across anurans, a group renowned for the diversity of its life history strategies. PMID:27028113

  9. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features. PMID:17918374

  10. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future. PMID:12489399

  11. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  12. From Clinging to Digging: The Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny of the Indian Purple Frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (Anura: Nasikabatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Senevirathne, Gayani; Thomas, Ashish; Kerney, Ryan; Hanken, James; Biju, S. D.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    The Indian Purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, occupies a basal phylogenetic position among neobatrachian anurans and has a very unusual life history. Tadpoles have a large ventral oral sucker, which they use to cling to rocks in torrents, whereas metamorphs possess adaptations for life underground. The developmental changes that underlie these shifts in habits and habitats, and especially the internal remodeling of the cranial and postcranial skeleton, are unknown. Using a nearly complete metamorphic series from free-living larva to metamorph, we describe the postembryonic skeletal ontogeny of this ancient and unique monotypic lineage. The torrent-dwelling larva possesses a dorsoventrally flattened body and a head with tiny dorsal eyes, robust lower and upper jaw cartilages, well-developed trabecular horns, and a definable gap between the trabecular horns and the tip of the snout. Unlike tadpoles of many other frogs, those of Nasikabatrachus retain larval mouthparts into late metamorphic stages. This unusual feature enables the larvae to maintain their clinging habit until near the end of metamorphosis. The subsequent ontogenetic shift from clinging to digging is correlated with rapid morphological changes and behavioral modifications. Metamorphs are equipped with a shortened tibiafibula and ossified prehallical elements, which likely facilitate initial digging using the hind limbs. Subsequently, the frogs may shift to headfirst burrowing by using the wedge-shaped skull, anteriorly positioned pectoral girdle, well-developed humeral crests and spatula-shaped forelimbs. The transition from an aquatic life in torrents to a terrestrial life underground entails dramatic changes in skeletal morphology and function that represent an extreme in metamorphic remodeling. Our analysis enhances the scope for detailed comparative studies across anurans, a group renowned for the diversity of its life history strategies. PMID:27028113

  13. Further notes on the natural history of the South American pepper frog, Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824) (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, W R; Giaretta, A A

    2008-05-01

    Leptodactylus labyrinthicus tadpoles reach a large size in the nest through consumption of trophic eggs. We previously suggested that the trophic eggs are laid just after amplexus has finished, but our new data do not support this hypothesis. We also present further details on the natural history of the species with regard to breeding activity, spawning site, retreats and the ability of tadpoles in preying upon fully-growth heterospecific tadpoles. We also show that the tadpoles are mainly nocturnal and take diurnal refuges. We collected the data in Brazil in three localities within the Cerrado Biome. We examined burrows used by L. labyrinthicus males, verified if females still contained mature eggs just after released from amplexus, and tested the ability of tadpoles in preying fully-growth heterospecific tadpoles. Field observations and experiments were conducted on tadpole activity time, hiding behaviour and level of susceptibility to predation by the bird leaf-scrapers in four sheltering situations. Reproduction could start before the first rains; this may be advantageous by allowing the tadpoles to exploit eggs of other frogs. We found one floating nest built in a temporary pool. The nest of the species is normally circumscribed in an excavated basin beside the water body. Adult males were found during the day with their head-out of the entrance of underwater burrows, which were perforations through dense root mats beside calling/spawning sites. Probably, these burrows in permanently water-filled soil are actively excavated by males. Females released all their eggs during the amplexus, so trophic eggs are not produced by the currently-accepted mechanism. Fully-grown heterospecific tadpoles were not preyed upon by L. labyrinthicus tadpoles, which can prey only slow-moving newly hatched ones. Field tadpoles took shelter under mud/dead leaves during daylight and became exposed on the bottom at night. Free-ranging leaf-scrapers removed dead leaves from a pool with their beaks and preyed upon tadpoles. In the experiments, the tadpoles sheltered under gravel/leaves during daylight, but they were exposed at night. Leaf-scrapers ate all exposed tadpoles, but no tadpole of the gravel/leaves trays was consumed. Hence the nocturnal habits and use of diurnal refuges may protect the tadpoles from visual predators, such as the leaf-scrapers. PMID:18660971

  14. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  15. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Valencia, Jorge H; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J; Ron, Santiago R; Cannatella, David C

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia. PMID:26600198

  16. Cytogenetic studies in six species of Scinax (Anura, Hylidae) clade Scinax ruber from northern and northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Zanoni, Juliani Bruna; Solé, Mirco; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Siqueira, Sérgio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2015-05-01

    Scinax species are still underrepresented in cytogenetic studies, mainly with respect to populations from northeastern and northern Brazil. In this study, we provide new chromosomal information on Scinax boesemani, S. camposseabrai, S. garbei, S. pachycrus, S. trilineatus and S. x-signatus, all belonging to clade S. ruber. They were collected at two locations in the Caatinga biome (northeastern Brazil) and at one in the Amazon (northern Brazil) biomes. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, and fluorochrome staining. All species shared a modal diploid value of 2n = 24 and fundamental arm number (FN) of 48. Moreover, both chromosomal size and morphology were similar to other species in this Scinaxclade. C-banding revealed centromeric heterochromatin in all species, along with terminal species-specific C-bands in some species. Active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) were identified at 11q in most species, except for S. boesemani and S. garbei (Ag-NORs at interstitial region of 8q). Differing from most anurans, GC-rich regions were not restricted to NORs, but also coincident with some centromeric and terminal C-bands. These data contribute to the cytotaxonomy of Scinax by providing chromosomal markers and demonstrating the occurrence of microstructural rearrangements and inversions on chromosomal evolution of Scinax. PMID:26273218

  17. Cytogenetic studies in six species of Scinax (Anura, Hylidae) clade Scinax ruber from northern and northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Zanoni, Juliani Bruna; Solé, Mirco; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Siqueira, Sérgio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2015-01-01

    Scinax species are still underrepresented in cytogenetic studies, mainly with respect to populations from northeastern and northern Brazil. In this study, we provide new chromosomal information on Scinax boesemani, S. camposseabrai, S. garbei, S. pachycrus, S. trilineatus and S. x-signatus, all belonging to clade S. ruber. They were collected at two locations in the Caatinga biome (northeastern Brazil) and at one in the Amazon (northern Brazil) biomes. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, and fluorochrome staining. All species shared a modal diploid value of 2n = 24 and fundamental arm number (FN) of 48. Moreover, both chromosomal size and morphology were similar to other species in this Scinaxclade. C-banding revealed centromeric heterochromatin in all species, along with terminal species-specific C-bands in some species. Active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) were identified at 11q in most species, except for S. boesemani and S. garbei (Ag-NORs at interstitial region of 8q). Differing from most anurans, GC-rich regions were not restricted to NORs, but also coincident with some centromeric and terminal C-bands. These data contribute to the cytotaxonomy of Scinax by providing chromosomal markers and demonstrating the occurrence of microstructural rearrangements and inversions on chromosomal evolution of Scinax. PMID:26273218

  18. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H. S.; Ravikanth, G.; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members—R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8–2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  19. A new genus and species of arboreal toad with phytotelmonous larvae, from the Andaman Islands, India (Lissamphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, S. R.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Harikrishnan, S.; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Janani, S. Jegath; Sharma, Richa; Das, Indraneil; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new bufonid amphibian, belonging to a new monotypic genus, is described from the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, Republic of India, based on unique external morphological and skeletal characters which are compared with those of known Oriental and other relevant bufonid genera. Blythophryne gen. n. is distinguished from other bufonid genera by its small adult size (mean SVL 24.02 mm), the presence of six presacral vertebrae, an absence of coccygeal expansions, presence of an elongated pair of parotoid glands, expanded discs at digit tips and phytotelmonous tadpoles that lack oral denticles. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of the new taxon (that we named as Blythophryne beryet gen. et sp. n.) was ascertained by comparing its 12S and 16S partial genes with those of Oriental and other relevant bufonid lineages. Resulting molecular phylogeny supports the erection of a novel monotypic genus for this lineage from the Andaman Islands of India. PMID:26877687

  20. Osteological Observations on the Alytid Anura Latonia nigriventer with Comments on Functional Morphology, Biogeography, and Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Biton, Rebecca; Boistel, Renaud; Rabinovich, Rivka; Gafny, Sarig; Brumfeld, Vlad; Bailon, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The Hula Painted Frog (Latonia nigriventer) is a rare frog species endemic to the Hula Valley, Israel. The species is the sole relict of a clade that was widespread mainly in Europe from the Oligocene until the beginning of the Pleistocene. The osteological characteristics of L. nigriventer are described based on X-ray microtomography scans of extant specimens and Pleistocene bones from the Hula Valley, to elucidate the evolutionary history of Alytidae and more specifically of Latonia. Based on the osteological description of L. nigriventer, we now better understand the differences, between Latonia and its sister taxon Discoglossus. They differ mainly in their cranial structure with the reinforced skull of Latonia having powerful jaws. Latonia nigriventer can achieve great force while closing its jaws, due to increased adductor muscle insertion surfaces as expressed by the presence of an additional paracoronoid process and an enlarged upper margin of the postero-lateral wall of the lower jaw. In addition, a wider pterygoid fossa and higher canthus postero-lateralis of the frontoparietal, compared to that of Discoglossus, also suggest the presence of well-developed adductor muscles. Furthermore, L. nigriventer have particularly strong skulls as expressed by: long articulations between different skull elements, interdigitation in the contact area between the nasals and between nasals and the frontoparietals, and fused frontoparietals. Both males and females L. nigriventer have very robust forelimbs, as indicated by well-developed medial crests of the humerus. Based on limited eastern Mediterranean paleontological data, we can only suspect that the dispersal of Latonia into the Levant from Asia Minor occurred at some point during the Miocene or later. The first appearance of L. nigriventer in the Hula Valley, its current habitat, dates to approximately 780 thousand years ago at the archaeological site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. J. Morphol. 277:1131-1145, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27188540

  1. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  2. One or two species? On the case of Hyperolius discodactylus Ahl, 1931 and H. alticola Ahl, 1931 (Anura: Hyperoliidae).

    PubMed

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Hügli, Dominik; Dehling, J Maximilian; Pupin, Fabio; Menegon, Michele; Plumptre, Andrew J; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Loader, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    In 1931, Ernst Ahl described two species of reed frogs inhabiting montane forests of the Albertine Rift in East Africa, Hyperolius alticola and H. discodactylus, which were synonymized two decades later by Raymond Laurent. Since then, this revision has been questioned repeatedly, but taxonomists have been reluctant to make a conclusive decision on the matter, especially since the type material of H. alticola was reported as being lost. Here, we examine the rediscovered type material of H. alticola and reassess the validity of Laurent's synonymy using morphological data from historic and new collections including all available type material, call recordings and molecular data from animals collected on recent expeditions. We find evidence for a northern and southern genetic clade, a divide that is somewhat supported by diverging morphology as well. However, no distinction in advertisement calls could be recovered to support this split and both genetic and morphological differences between geographic units are marginal and not always congruent and thus more likely reflect population-level variation. We therefore conclude that H. alticola is not a valid taxon and should continue to be treated as a synonym of H. discodactylus. Finally, we also report on newly collected material from outside the species known range, with first records of this species from Burundi. PMID:24871178

  3. A new Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura: Hylidae) of the parviceps group from the lowlands of the Guiana Shield.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill; Ernst, Raffael; Blanc, Michel; Martinez, Quentin; Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Ouboter, Paul; Jairam, Rawien; Ron, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Many Amazonian frog species that are considered widely distributed may actually represent polyspecific complexes.. A minute tree frog from the Guiana Shield originally assigned to the allegedly widely distributed Dendropsophus brevifrons proved to be a yet undescribed species within the D. parviceps group. We herein describe this new species and present a phylogeny for the D. parviceps group. The new species is diagnosed from other Dendropsophus of the parviceps group by its small body size (19.6-21.7 mm in males, 22.1-24.5 mm in females), thighs dorsally dark grey with cream blotches without bright yellow patch, absence of dorsolateral and canthal stripe, and an advertisement call comprising trills (length 0.30-0.35 s) composed of notes emitted at a rate of 131-144 notes/s, generally followed by click series of 2-3 notes. Its tadpole is also singular by having fused lateral marginal papillae and absence of both labial teeth and submarginal papillae. Genetic distances (p-distance) are >5.3% on the 12S and >9.3% on the 16S from D. brevifrons, its closest relative. This species occurs from the Brazilian state of Amapá, across French Guiana and Suriname to central Guyana and is likely to also occur in adjacent Brazilian states and eastern Venezuela. This species is not rare but is difficult to collect because of its arboreal habits and seasonal activity peaks. PMID:26624776

  4. A new species of Allobates (Anura: Aromobatidae) from the Tapajós River basin, Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Albertina P; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Kaefer, Igor Luis

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Allobates from the south of eastern Amazonia, Brazil. This species inhabits fluvial springs and the banks of small streams in terra-firme forests along the Tapajós River basin. Average snout-to-vent length is 17.78 mm (range 16.09-19.59 mm) among males and 19.50 mm (range 17.97-20.84 mm) among females. Surface of dorsum is marked by a distinct dark color pattern, with three convex areas, triangle and diamond-shaped. The species has a diffuse pale dorsolateral line (absent in some specimens), while the oblique lateral bar is defined. Dark-brown transversal stripes are present on femoral and tibial dorsal surfaces, which align with each other in live specimens when at rest. Tadpoles have short papillae on anterior (8-10 papillae on each side) and posterior labium (>30 papillae). Posterior labium is projected to the front, hiding posterior tooth rows. Eggs are deposited in nests on rolled or cranked dead leaves on the forest floor. Egg membranes and jelly-nests are transparent. Advertisement calls are mainly characterized by the continuous emission of single notes that might shift sporadically to note-pairs, emitted during short periods. Notes are split by regular silent intervals, with peak frequency ranging between 4273-4867 Hz.  PMID:25544274

  5. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-01-01

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.). PMID:25543640

  6. A new species of the Craugastor podiciferus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the premontane forest of southwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arias, Erick; Chaveschaves, Gerardo; Crawford, Andrew J; Parra-Olea, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe a new species of the Craugastor podiciferus species group from the premontane forest of the Pacific versant along the Costa Rican-Panamanian border. Mitochondrial DNA and karyotype analyses previously showed a marked genetic divergence between populations of the premontane forest of the Fila Costeña and the lowlands South Pacific Costa Rica near Panama. Analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences and the morphological variation revealed significant differences between the populations of the premontane forest relative to the other populations of C. stejnegerianus, including the type locality. We recognize these premontane populations as a new species and show that they differ from the typical C. stejnegerianus in the coloration of the venter, the head and the body proportions, and mtDNA divergence. With the addition of this new species, the C. podiciferus species group now contains nine species. PMID:27395676

  7. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of the montane Craugastor podiciferus species complex (Anura: Craugastoridae) in Isthmian Central America.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Crawford, Andrew J; Edwards, Cody W

    2009-12-01

    The Craugastor podiciferus complex is a group of phenotypically polymorphic direct-developing frogs that inhabit the Talamancan highlands of Costa Rica and Panama. The montane distribution of this group creates natural allopatry among members and offers an excellent opportunity to explore geographic models of speciation. Using a multilocus approach, we obtained data from one nuclear (c-myc) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and COI) gene regions from 40 individuals within the C. podiciferus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a basal split that placed samples from western Panama as sister to Costa Rican (CR) samples, corroborating a previous suggestion that the former lineage may represent an undescribed species. Within the CR clades we found six distinct haplogroups whose distributions largely corresponded to geographic features and included instances of sympatry. Divergence estimates were used to develop a preliminary evolutionary timeframe for the diversification of the C. podiciferus complex. Based on collective evidence, we hypothesize that movement of the CR haplogroups has occurred between currently isolated areas of suitable habitat via second order climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The levels of genetic differentiation within the C. podiciferus complex are remarkable given the relatively small geographic area (ca. 8000 km(2)) of occurrence. This diversity emphasizes the need for further study and taxonomic revision to aid in conservation planning for this complex which, like many amphibians, has experienced recent population declines. PMID:19602442

  8. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change. PMID:27503738

  9. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C.

    2015-01-15

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban{sup ®}) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine.

  10. Effect of mercuric chloride on fertilization and larval development in the River Frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright) (Anura: Ranidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Punzo, F. )

    1993-10-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury can act as systemic toxicants in many species of wildlife. Although numerous studies have emphasized the effects of metals and pesticides on metabolism, growth, survivorship, neural processes and reproduction in a number of taxa, little information is available on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the reproductive physiology of amphibians. Industrial processes and mining activities can release substantial concentrations of heavy metals such as mercury into aquatic habitats. Since most amphibians have obligate aquatic larval stages, they are exposed to pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment. Amphibians can act as accumulators of heavy metals and their larval stages are useful indicators of pollution levels in the field. What little data are available, indicate that metals can significantly reduce viability in amphibians through their actions on metabolism, development and gametogenesis. The recent concerns over worldwide declines in amphibian populations and the susceptibility of amphibian populations to environmental toxicants, led me to assess the effect of mercuric chloride, one of the most common and persistent toxicants in aquatic environments, on fertilization and larval development in the river frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright). Although there is some information on fish, very little data are available on the effects of mercury on fertilization in amphibians generally, and no published data exist for R. heckscheri. This species is a conspicuous component of the aquatic fauna of parts of the southeastern United States where mercury levels have increased significantly over the last two decades. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    PubMed

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term. PMID:24755937

  12. Genetic structure in the Anaxyrus boreas species group (anura, Bufonidae): an evaluation of the Southern Rocky Mountain population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, John F.; Johnson, Robin L.; Lubinski, Barbara A.; King, Tim L.

    2009-01-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group is comprised of four species endemic to the western United States: A. boreas, A. canorus, A. exsul, and A. nelsoni. Disjunct populations of the widespread western toad Anaxyrus boreas from Colorado and southern Wyoming, the southern rocky mountain population (SRMP), were previously candidates for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a distinct population segment (DPS), but were removed due to a lack of significant genetic differentiation in preliminary studies. The purpose of this study was to conduct phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of A. boreas and three related species using mitochondrial DNA sequence data and nuclear microsatellite genotype data. The study is specifically focused on testing the evolutionary significance of the SRMP.

  13. The advertisement call of Bokermannohyla flavopicta Leite, Pezzuti & Garcia, 2012 (Anura: Hylidae) from the mountains of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carvalho; Thompson, Julia Resende; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta

    2016-01-01

    Bokermannohyla Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler (2005) is a Brazilian treefrog genus currently composed of 32 species (Brandão et al. 2012; Leite et al. 2012; Frost 2015). The genus comprehends four, putatively monophyletic, species groups: B. circumdata, B. claresignata, B. martinsi, and B. pseudopseudis (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The B. pseudopseudis group includes nine species: B. alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), B. flavopicta Leite et al. 2012, B. ibitiguara (Cardoso 1983), B. itapoty Lugli & Haddad 2006a, B. oxente Lugli & Haddad 2006b, B. pseudopseudis (Miranda-Ribeiro 1937), B. sagarana Leite et al. 2011, B. sapiranga Brandão et al. 2012, and B. saxicola (Bokermann 1964). PMID:27395500

  14. Mind the gaps: investigating the cause of the current range disjunction in the Cape Platanna, Xenopus gilli (Anura: Pipidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fogell, Deborah J.; Tolley, Krystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-lying areas of the Cape at Africa’s south-westernmost tip have undergone dramatic marine-remodelling, with regular changes in sea-level following glacial cycles. Species for which marine barriers are impenetrable underwent concomitant radical distribution changes which may account for current range disjunctions. The Cape platanna, Xenopus gilli, is a frog distributed in only three disjunt areas within low-lying regions of the southwestern Cape. We determined the relationship between frogs from these three disjunct areas, by using a combination of morphometric analysis and mtDNA (ND2 and 16S fragments) sequences of 130 frogs from eight ponds. Coalescent analyses on molecular data dated the divergence in two major clades to around 4.6 Mya, a period during which major uplifting on the eastern side of the subcontinent caused climate changes throughout southern Africa. Principal components analysis showed significant morphometric differences between each clade on head and limb measurements. Consistent differences in ventral colouration and patterning were also observed. We report on increased levels of hybridisation with X. laevis throughout the range of X. gilli, which reaches at least 27% hybrids in some ponds. Urgent conservation actions are required to control habitat loss from alien invasive vegetation, and prevent introgression with the domestic-exotic, X. laevis. PMID:24109551

  15. A novel third species of the Western Ghats endemic genus Ghatixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of its tadpole.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Robin Kurian; Mathew, Jobin K; Cyriac, Vivek Philip; Zachariah, Arun; Raju, David V; Zachariah, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot is a recognized center of rhacophorid diversity as demonstrated by several recent studies. The endemic genus Ghatixalus is represented by two species from two separate high-elevation regions within the Ghats. Here, we describe a third species that can be distinguished by morphological and larval characters, as well as by its phylogenetic placement. PMID:26624739

  16. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus. PMID:27617833

  17. Tests of phenotypic and genetic concordance and their application to the conservation of Panamanian golden frogs (Anura, Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Richards, Corinne L; Knowles, L Lacey

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) differ in the extent to which they capture, or even consider, adaptive variation, and most such designations are based solely on neutral genetic differences that may not capture variation relevant to species' adaptabilities to changing environmental conditions. While concordant patterns of divergence among data sets (i.e. neutral and potentially non-neutral characters) can strengthen ESU designations, determining whether such criteria are met for highly variable taxa is especially challenging. This study tests whether previously defined ESUs for endangered Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus varius and Atelopus zeteki) exhibit concordant variation among multiple phenotypic traits and mitochondrial DNA sequences, and the extent to which such divergence corresponds to environmental differences. Multivariate analyses identify phenotypic and genetic differentiation consistent with proposed ESUs and support the status of A. varius and A. zeteki as separate species. Moreover, the significant association detected between ESU co-membership and genetic similarity, which remained strong after removing the effect of geographic distance, also indicates that genetic differences are not simply due to isolation by distance. Two phenotypic characters (body size and the extent of dorsal black patterning) that differ among ESUs also co-vary with environmental differences, suggesting that to the extent that these phenotypic differences are heritable, variation may be associated with adaptive divergence. Lastly, discriminant function analyses show that the frogs can be correctly assigned to ESUs based on simultaneous analysis of multiple characters. The study confirms the merit of conserving the previously proposed golden frog ESUs as well as demonstrates the utility and feasibility of combined analyses of ecological, morphological and genetic variation in evaluating ESUs, especially for highly variable taxa. PMID:17651191

  18. Cytotoxic Activity and Antiproliferative Effects of Crude Skin Secretion from Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) on in vitro Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz e Carvalho, Andréa; Prías Márquez, César Augusto; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Joanitti, Graziella Anselmo; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Fontes, Wagner; Castro, Mariana S.

    2015-01-01

    Anuran secretions are rich sources of bioactive molecules, including antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of Physalaemus nattereri skin secretion against skin cancer cells, and to assess its cytotoxic action mechanisms on the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Our results demonstrated that the crude secretion reduced the viability of B16F10 cells, causing changes in cell morphology (e.g., round shape and structure shrinkage), reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in phosphatidylserine exposure, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Together, these changes suggest that tumor cells die by apoptosis. This skin secretion was also subjected to chromatographic fractioning using RP-HPLC, and eluted fractions were assayed for antiproliferative and antibacterial activities. Three active fractions showed molecular mass components in a range compatible with peptides. Although the specific mechanisms causing the reduced cell viability and cytotoxicity after the treatment with crude secretion are still unknown, it may be considered that molecules, such as the peptides found in the secretion, are effective against B16F10 tumor cells. Considering the growing need for new anticancer drugs, data presented in this study strongly reinforce the validity of P. nattereri crude secretion as a rich source of new anticancer molecules. PMID:26457717

  19. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Valencia, Jorge H.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J.; Ron, Santiago R.; Cannatella, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species—Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.—originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83–100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75–98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central–southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia. PMID:26600198

  20. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. PMID:25987527

  1. Two new species of Choerophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from the northern versant of Papua New Guinea's central cordillera.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Amy; Oliver, Paul; Richards, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of small microhylid frogs in the genus Choerophryne from the northern slopes of Papua New Guinea's central cordillera. Choerophryne epirrhina sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by the combination of moderately small size (SUL 14.9-15.0 mm), distinctly elongated snout (OHG/SUL 0.09-0.10), first finger without expanded disk, and advertisement call consisting of 3-4 distinctly pulsed notes repeated in long sequences. Choerophryne grylloides sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by the combination of very small size (SUL 12.5 mm), moderately long snout (OHG/SUL 0.08), long legs (TL/SUL 0.42), first finger without expanded disk and advertisement call consisting of 4-5 distinctly pulsed notes, the last of which has many more pulses than preceding notes (9-10 vs. 3-4). PMID:26701530

  2. Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria.

    PubMed

    Padial, José M; Grant, Taran; Frost, Darrel R

    2014-01-01

    Brachycephaloidea is a monophyletic group of frogs with more than 1000 species distributed throughout the New World tropics, subtropics, and Andean regions. Recently, the group has been the target of multiple molecular phylogenetic analyses, resulting in extensive changes in its taxonomy. Here, we test previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships for the group by combining available molecular evidence (sequences of 22 genes representing 431 ingroup and 25 outgroup terminals) and performing a tree-alignment analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion using the program POY. To elucidate the effects of alignment and optimality criterion on phylogenetic inferences, we also used the program MAFFT to obtain a similarity-alignment for analysis under both parsimony and maximum likelihood using the programs TNT and GARLI, respectively. Although all three analytical approaches agreed on numerous points, there was also extensive disagreement. Tree-alignment under parsimony supported the monophyly of the ingroup and the sister group relationship of the monophyletic marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae), while maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the MAFFT similarity-alignment did not. All three methods differed with respect to the position of Ceuthomantis smaragdinus (Ceuthomantidae), with tree-alignment using parsimony recovering this species as the sister of Pristimantis + Yunganastes. All analyses rejected the monophyly of Strabomantidae and Strabomantinae as originally defined, and the tree-alignment analysis under parsimony further rejected the recently redefined Craugastoridae and Pristimantinae. Despite the greater emphasis in the systematics literature placed on the choice of optimality criterion for evaluating trees than on the choice of method for aligning DNA sequences, we found that the topological differences attributable to the alignment method were as great as those caused by the optimality criterion. Further, the optimal tree-alignment indicates that insertions and deletions occurred in twice as many aligned positions as implied by the optimal similarity-alignment, confirming previous findings that sequence turnover through insertion and deletion events plays a greater role in molecular evolution than indicated by similarity-alignments. Our results also provide a clear empirical demonstration of the different effects of wildcard taxa produced by missing data in parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. Specifically, maximum likelihood analyses consistently (81% bootstrap frequency) provided spurious resolution despite a lack of evidence, whereas parsimony correctly depicted the ambiguity due to missing data by collapsing unsupported nodes. We provide a new taxonomy for the group that retains previously recognized Linnaean taxa except for Ceuthomantidae, Strabomantidae, and Strabomantinae. A phenotypically diagnosable superfamily is recognized formally as Brachycephaloidea, with the informal, unranked name terrarana retained as the standard common name for these frogs. We recognize three families within Brachycephaloidea that are currently diagnosable solely on molecular grounds (Brachycephalidae, Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae), as well as five subfamilies (Craugastorinae, Eleutherodactylinae, Holoadeninae, Phyzelaphryninae, and Pristimantinae) corresponding in large part to previous families and subfamilies. Our analyses upheld the monophyly of all tested genera, but we found numerous subgeneric taxa to be non-monophyletic and modified the taxonomy accordingly. PMID:24989881

  3. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern. PMID:27026115

  4. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V

    2015-06-01

    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution. PMID:25754457

  5. Acute toxic effects of cadmium in larvae of the green toad, pseudepidalea variabilis (pallas, 1769) (amphibia: anura).

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Mert; Cetin, Ayşe; Hayretdaĝ, Sibel

    2014-09-01

    The environmental impact of cadmium use and its accumulation in nature have increased to alarming levels. This study aimed to morphologically and histologically investigate the acute toxic effects of cadmium on green toad, Pseudepidalea variabilis (Pallas, 1769) larvae. Embryos were obtained from specimens collected in amplexus from nature and kept under laboratory conditions until stage 26, when they were exposed to cadmium (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 Lig L⁻¹) for 96 h. The LC₁₀ LC₅₀, and LC₉₀ values of cadmium were calculated to be 26.98, 35.35, and 46.31 Lig L⁻¹, respectively. Our results showed that cadmium had a negative effect on the body size of P. variabilis larvae (over 1 ng L⁻¹). Histological examination detected a fusion of gill lamellae, liver haemorrhage, oedema in the abdominal cavity, and deformations of pronephric tubules (over 10 ng L⁻¹). Our findings suggest that the green toad was sensitive to the cadmium treatment, with LC₅₀ values lower than those reported by other studies. Thus, this species could be considered a reliable indicator species of environmental stress in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25222576

  6. Estimates of DNA damage by the comet assay in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Laura Carolina; García, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Comet assay to assess genetic damage in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei. A DNA diffusion assay was used to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline, enzymatic and alkaline/enzymatic treatments for lysing E. johnstonei blood cells and to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis and necrosis. Cell sensitivity to the mutagens bleomycin (BLM) and 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) was also assessed using the Comet assay, as was the assay reproducibility. Alkaline treatment did not lyse the cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of E. johnstonei blood cells, whereas enzymatic digestion with proteinase K (40 μg/mL) yielded naked nuclei. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis (assessed by the DNA diffusion assay) to DNA damage was estimated to range from 0% to 8%. BLM and 4NQO induced DNA damage in E. johnstonei blood cells at different concentrations and exposure times. Dose-effect curves with both mutagens were highly reproducible and showed consistently low coefficients of variation (CV ≤ 10%). The results are discussed with regard to the potential use of the modified Comet assay for assessing the exposure of E. johnstonei to herbicides in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22215974

  7. A new Crossodactylodes Cochran, 1938 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Paratelmatobiinae) from the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Damasceno, Roberta Pacheco; Cassimiro, José; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-01-01

    A new Crossodactylodes is described from Serra das Lontras, in the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia. The new species can be distinguished from all other Crossodactylodes by having Finger I ending in an acute tip, a larger body size, by cranial features, and by molecular data. Like their congeners, the new species live in bromeliads but is widely geographically disjunct, being apparently restricted to the summit of a mountain range in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:26146739

  8. Diversity and abundance of forest frogs (Anura: Leptodactylidae) before and after Hurricane Georges in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vilella, F.J.; Fogarty, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Caribbean hurricanes often impact terrestrial vertebrates in forested environments. On 21 September 1998, Hurricane Georges impacted Puerto Rico with sustained winds in excess of 166 km/hr, causing damage to forests of the island's principal mountain range; the Cordillera Central. We estimated forest frog abundance and diversity from call counts conducted along marked transects before and after Hurricane Georges in two forests reserves of the Cordillera Central (Maricao and Guilarte). We used distance sampling to estimate density of Eleutherodactylus coqui and recorded counts of other species. After the hurricane, the abundance of E. coqui increased in both reserves compared to prehurricane levels while abundance of other frog species decreased. In Maricao, relative abundance of E. richmondi (P = 0.013) and E. brittoni (P = 0.034) were significantly lower after the hurricane. Moreover, species richness and evenness of the Maricao and Guilarte frog assemblages declined after the hurricane. Our results on abundance patterns of the forest frog assemblages of Maricao and Guilarte Forests were similar to those reported from the Luquillo Experimental Forest after Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. Long-term demographic patterns of the forest frog assemblages in the Cordillera Central may be associated with changes due to the ecological succession in post-hurricane forests. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  9. Systematic revision of the Taiwanese genus Kurixalus members with a description of two new endemic species (Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Li; Lin, Te-En; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Wu, Sheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of rhacophorid tree frog were identified in Taiwan. In both new taxa, derived reproductive characteristics of laying eggs in tree holes and oophagous tadpoles are shared with Kurixalus eiffingeri, but they are divergent from each other in molecular genetics, mating calls, and tadpole and adult morphology. The morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic evidence support the hypothesis that the two new species, Kurixalus berylliniris sp. n. and Kurixalus wangi sp. n., are both monophyletic lineages. PMID:26877703

  10. Early development of chondrocranium in the tailed frog Ascaphus truei (Amphibia: Anura): implications for anuran palatoquadrate homologies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, J O

    1997-01-01

    Chondrocranial development in Ascaphus truei was studied by serial sectioning and graphical reconstruction. Nine stages (21-29; 9-18 mm TL) were examined. Mesodermal cells were distinguished from ectomesenchymal (neural crest derived) cells by retained yolk granules. Ectomesenchymal parts of the chondrocranium include the suprarostrals, pila preoptica, anterior trabecula, and palatoquadrate. Mesodermal parts of the chondrocranium include the orbital cartilage, posterior trabecula, parachordal, basiotic lamina, and otic capsule. Development of the palatoquadrate is as follows. The pterygoid process first connects with the trabecula far rostrally; their fusion progresses caudally. The ascending process connects with a mesodermal bar that extends from the orbital cartilage to the otic capsule, and forms the ventral border of the dorsal trigeminal outlet. This bar is the "ascending process" of Ascaphus adults; it is a neurocranial, not palatoquadrate structure. The basal process chondrifies in an ectomesenchymal strand running from the quadrate keel to the postpalatine commissure. Later, the postpalatine commissure and basal process extend anteromedially to contact the floor of the anterior cupula of the otic capsule, creating separate foramina for the palatine and hyomandibular branches of the facial nerve. Based on these data, and on comparison with other frogs and salamanders, the anuran anterior quadratocranial commissure is homologized with the pterygoid process of salamanders, the anuran basal process (= "pseudobasal" or "hyobasal" process) with the basal process of salamanders, and the anuran otic ledge with the basitrabecular process of salamanders. The extensive similarities in palatoquadrate structure and development between frogs and salamanders, and lacking in caecilians, are not phylogenetically informative. Available information on fossil outgroups suggests that some of these similarities are primitive for Lissamphibia, whereas for others the polarity is uncertain. PMID:8946738

  11. Cranial ontogeny in the direct-developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae), analyzed using whole-mount immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hanken, J; Klymkowsky, M W; Summers, C H; Seufert, D W; Ingebrigtsen, N

    1992-01-01

    Direct development in amphibians is an evolutionarily derived life-history mode that involves the loss of the free-living, aquatic larval stage. We examined embryos of the direct-developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui (Leptodactylidae) to evaluate how the biphasic pattern of cranial ontogeny of metamorphosing species has been modified in the evolution of direct development in this lineage. We employed whole-mount immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against the extracellular matrix component Type II collagen, which allows visualization of the morphology of cartilages earlier and more effectively than traditional histological procedures; these latter procedures were also used where appropriate. This represents the first time that initial chondrogenic stages of cranial development of any vertebrate have been depicted in whole-mounts. Many cranial cartilages typical of larval anurans, e.g., suprarostrals, cornua trabeculae, never form in Eleutherodactylus coqui. Consequently, many regions of the skull assume an adult, or postmetamorphic, morphology from the inception of their development. Other components, e.g., the lower jaw, jaw suspensorium, and the hyobranchial skeleton, initially assume a mid-metamorphic configuration, which is subsequently remodeled before hatching. Thirteen of the adult complement of 17 bones form in the embryo, beginning with two bones of the jaw and jaw suspensorium, the angulosplenial and squamosal. Precocious ossification of these and other jaw elements is an evolutionarily derived feature not found in metamorphosing anurans, but shared with some direct-developing caecilians. Thus, in Eleutherodactylus cranial development involves both recapitulation and repatterning of the ancestral metamorphic ontogeny.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1371162

  12. Cranial ontogeny in Philautus silus (Anura: Ranidae: Rhacophorinae) reveals few similarities with other direct-developing anurans.

    PubMed

    Kerney, Ryan; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Hanken, James

    2007-08-01

    Direct development has evolved in rhacophorine frogs independently from other anuran lineages, thereby offering an opportunity to assess features associated with this derived life history. Using a developmental series of the direct-developing Philautus silus (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae) from Sri Lanka, we examine features of cranial morphology that are part of a suite of adaptations that facilitate feeding in free-living tadpoles, but have been changed or lost in other direct-developing lineages. Larval-specific upper jaw cartilages, which are absent from many non-rhacophorine direct-developing species (such as Eleutherodactylus coqui), develop in embryos of P. silus. Similarly, lower jaw cartilages initially assume a larval morphology, which is subsequently remodeled into the adult jaw configuration before hatching. However, the cartilaginous jaw suspension and hyobranchial skeleton never assume a typical larval morphology. The palatoquadrate, which suspends the lower jaw, lacks the posterior connections to the braincase found in many metamorphosing species. Unlike in metamorphosing species, bone formation in P. silus begins before hatching. However, the sequence of bone formation resembles that of metamorphosing anurans more than that of other direct developers. In particular, P. silus does not exhibit precocious ossification of the lower jaw, which is characteristic of some frogs and caecilians that lack a free-living tadpole. These data reveal some similarities between Philautus and other direct-developing anurans. However, the departure of Philautus embryos from the generalized tadpole skeletal morphology is less pronounced than that observed in other direct-developing taxa. PMID:17538972

  13. Systematics of the endangered toad genus Andinophryne (Anura: Bufonidae): phylogenetic position and synonymy under the genus Rhaebo.

    PubMed

    Ron, Santiago R; Mueses-Cisneros, Jonh Jairo; Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, Paul David Alfonso; Rojas-Rivera, Alejandra; Lynch, Ryan L; Rocha, Carlos F Duarte; Galarza, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Bufonidae is one of the most diverse amphibian families. Its large-scale phylogenetic relationships are relatively well understood with the exception of few Neotropical genera that may have diverged early in the evolution of the family. One of those genera is Andinophryne, a poorly known group of three toad species distributed in the western slopes of the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. Their phylogenetic position is unknown due to lack of genetic data. We estimated a new phylogeny (over 200 species) of the family Bufonidae based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes to assess the phylogenetic position of Andinophryne based on recently collected specimens of A. colomai and A. olallai from Ecuador and Colombia. We also examined external and internal morphology of Andinophryne to explore its congruence with the new phylogeny. The mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies show that Andinophryne is embedded within Rhaebo, a genus that belongs to a large clade characterized by the presence parotoid glands. Morphological characters confirmed the affinity of Andinophryne to Rhaebo and a close relationship between Andinophryne colomai and Andinophryne olallai. Rhaebo was paraphyletic relative to Andinophryne and to solve this problem we synonymize Andinophryne under Rhaebo. We discuss putative morphological synapomorphies for Rhaebo including Andinophryne. We provide species accounts for R. atelopoides new comb., R. colomai new comb. and R. olallai new comb. including assessments of their conservation status. We suggest that the three species are Critically Endangered. Their altitudinal distribution and association with streams are characteristic of endangered Andean amphibians. PMID:25947741

  14. Independent Evolution of Suction Feeding in Neobatrachia: Feeding Mechanisms in Two Species of Telmatobius (Anura:Telmatobiidae).

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, José Sebastián

    2016-02-01

    The most common feeding mechanism among aquatic vertebrates as fishes, turtles, and salamanders is inertial suction. However, among the more than 6,400 species of anurans, suction feeding occurs only in pipids. Pipidae is a small basal lineage relative to Neobatrachia, an enormous clade that contains about 96% of extant anurans. The Andean neobatrachian frogs of the genus Telmatobius include strictly aquatic and semiaquatic species. Diet analyses indicate that some species of Telmatobius feed on strictly aquatic prey, but until now their feeding mechanisms have been unknown. Herein, the feeding mechanisms in two species of Telmatobius, that represent the two predominant modes of life in the genus, are explored. The semiaquatic T. oxycephalus and the fully aquatic T. rubigo are studied using high-speed cinematography and standard anatomical techniques to provide a qualitative approach to feeding behavior and a detailed morphological description of the mouth, tongue, hyoid and related muscles. T. oxycephalus uses similar mechanisms of aquatic prey capture as do the vast majority of anurans that are capable of forage in water, whereas the fully aquatic T. rubigo is an inertial suction feeder. This is the first report of an objective record of this unique feeding behavior in a Neobatrachian. Several morphological characters seem to be related with this function and are convergent with those of pipids. PMID:26575038

  15. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000–1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region. PMID:27587978

  16. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Grismer, L. Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species’ are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  17. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Walker, Marina; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) and B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) belong to the B. cir-cumdata species group. The type locality of the former is Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço mountain range, and of the latter is Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range, both in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Differences on dorsal draw-ing pattern of adults, oral disc morphology of tadpoles, and temporal properties of calls were proposed to distinguish these two species. However, several specimens found between the two type localities remain unidentified because diagnostic characters and states occur in all of these populations. Thus, in order to assess these characters variations, we performed an analysis of the morphology and morphometry of adults, vocalization, and morphology of tadpoles. Specimens were divided into three operational taxonomic units (OTUs): B. nanuzae (Serra do Cipó and northwards, Espinhaço mountain range), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Espinhaço mountain range, south of Serra do Cipó), and B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range). Drawing patterns of the dorsum and limbs show clinal variation and the three units are morphometrically very similar. Temporal and spectral properties of calls overlap in these three units. The diagnostic differences originally proposed for tadpoles are intrapopulational variations and occur in specimens from all of the locations analyzed. We found that these three units are morphologically indistinguishable. Therefore, we designate Bok-ermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) as a junior synonym of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), extending its geographical distribution to the Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:25947466

  18. Advertisement call and morphological variation of the poorly known and endemic Bokermannohyla juiju Faivovich, Lugli, Lourenço and Haddad, 2009 (Anura: Hylidae) from Central Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taucce, Pedro P G; Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla juiju is a member of the B. martinsi species group and it was described based on one male specimen. In order to enhance the knowledge about the species, we describe its advertisement call and morphological variation, including for the first time data on females. We also provide additional comments about its natural history, geographic distribution, and conservation. The advertisement call of B. juiju consists of a single note, non-pulsed, harmonic structured call emitted several times in a row. Four out of five males were found calling in bromeliads. The female, as it is common in many Bokermannohyla species, presents some morphological features not shared with the males, like a non-hypertrophied forearm and less developed prepollex.  PMID:25662112

  19. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus. PMID:27394262

  20. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed.  PMID:25544468

  1. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, K S; Singal, Ramit; Priti, H; Ravikanth, G; Vidisha, M K; Saurabh, S; Pratik, M; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them. PMID:26960208

  2. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India

    PubMed Central

    Ravikanth, G.; Vidisha, M. K.; Saurabh, S.; Pratik, M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013–2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them. PMID:26960208

  3. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

  4. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  5. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution. PMID:26989637

  6. Genetic Structure across Broad Spatial and Temporal Scales: Rocky Mountain Tailed Frogs (Ascaphus montanus; Anura: Ascaphidae) in the Inland Temperate Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Genevieve; Espindola, Anahi; Waits, Lisette P; Sullivan, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary and historical processes interact to structure genetic variation, however discerning between these can be difficult. Here, we analyze range-wide variation at 13 microsatellite loci in 2098 Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, collected from 117 streams across the species distribution in the Inland Northwest (INW) and interpret that variation in light of historical phylogeography, contemporary landscape genetics, and the reconstructed paleodistribution of the species. Further, we project species distribution models (SDMs) to predict future changes in the range as a function of changing climate. Genetic structure has a strong spatial signature that is precisely congruent with a deep (~1.8 MY) phylogeographic split in mtDNA when we partition populations into 2 clusters (K = 2), and is congruent with refugia areas inferred from our paleorange reconstructions. There is a hierarchical pattern of geographic structure as we permit additional clusters, with populations clustering following mountain ranges. Nevertheless, genetic diversity is the highest in populations at the center of the range and is attenuated in populations closer to the range edges. Similarly, geographic distance is the single best predictor of pairwise genetic differentiation, but connectivity also is an important predictor. At intermediate and local geographic scales, deviations from isolation-by-distance are more apparent, at least in the northern portion of the distribution. These results indicate that both historical and landscape factors are contributing to the genetic structure and diversity of tailed frogs in the Inland Northwest. PMID:26285914

  7. Evolution and Conservation on Top of the World: Phylogeography of the Marbled Water Frog (Telmatobius marmoratus Species Complex; Anura, Telmatobiidae) in Protected Areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Pedro F; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carla; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo F; Muñoz-Ramírez, Carlos; Sallaberry, Michel; Fibla, Pablo; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The Andean Altiplano has served as a complex setting throughout its history, driving dynamic processes of diversification in several taxa. We investigated phylogeographic processes in the Telmatobius marmoratus species complex occurring in this region by studying the geographic patterns of genetic variability, genealogies, and historical migration, using the cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene as a marker. DNA sequences from Telmatobius gigas and Telmatobius culeus, Bolivian species with an uncertain taxonomic status, were also included. Additionally, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity (PD) represented within Chilean protected areas and the complementary contribution from unprotected populations. Phylogenetic reconstructions from 148 cyt-b sequences revealed 4 main clades, one of which corresponded to T. culeus. T. gigas was part of T. marmoratus clade indicating paraphyletic relationships. Haplotypes from Chilean and Bolivian sites were not reciprocally monophyletic. Geographic distribution of lineages, spatial Bayesian analysis, and migration patterns indicated that T. marmoratus displays a weaker geographic structure than expected based on habitat distribution and physiological requirements. Demographic and statistical phylogeography analyses pointed out to a scenario of recent population expansion and high connectivity events of a more recent age than the post Last Glacial Maximum, probably associated to more humid events in Altiplano. PD of T. marmoratus populations within protected areas represents 55.6% of the total estimated PD. The unprotected populations that would contribute the most to PD are Caquena and Quebe (21%). Recent evolutionary processes and paleoclimatic changes, potentially driving shifts in habitat connectivity levels and population sizes, could explain the phylogeographic patterns recovered herein. PMID:26245789

  8. A new and possibly critically endangered species of casque-headed tree frog Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Santana, Diego José; Da Silva, Fabiano Aguiar; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Feio, Renato Neves

    2013-01-01

    A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21°20'S, 42°45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris. PMID:26106793

  9. Genetic divergence and reproductive isolation in the genus Fejervarya (Amphibia: Anura) from Bangladesh inferred from morphological observations, crossing experiments, and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Kurose, Naoko; Khan, Mdmukhlesur Rahman; Nishizawa, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Hasan, Mahmudul; Kurniawan, Nia; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, morphological examinations, crossing experiments and molecular analyses were performed to elucidate the degree of genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Fejervarya from Bangladesh and other Asian countries. Morphological characteristics revealed that Fejervarya species from Bangladesh were divided into four distinct groups: large, medium, small, and mangrove types. Crossing experiments indicated the involvement of three reproductive isolating mechanisms: gametic isolation between the large type and mangrove type, hybrid inviability between the large type and two other types, and hybrid sterility between the medium and small types. Experimental results also indicated that these four types of frogs merit the status of individual species of Fejervarya . Molecular analyses based on mtDNA gene sequences showed that the Bangladesh Fejervarya species were largely divided into three groups: the mangrove type, large type, and others, with the last further subdivided into the medium and small types. Comparison with other Asian Fejervarya species revealed that the Bangladesh mangrove type (which resembled F. cancrivora in morphology) was closely related to F. cancrivora from India, Thailand, and the Philippines; the large type belonged to the F. iskandari group and closely resembled F. orissaensis ; the small type was included in the South Asian or Indian group, and was closest to F. syhadrensis from India and Sri Lanka, whereas the medium type was most closely related to F. limnocharis from Myanmar among all described species of this genus. PMID:19267620

  10. Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Zeidler, Lauren; Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2-3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11-1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species' range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade. PMID:27394251

  11. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999.

    PubMed

    Souza Lima, S; Marun, B; Alves, P V; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  12. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  13. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  14. A new species of Spinicauda (Nematoda: Heterakidae) and other endoparasites in Platymantis pelewensis (Anura: Ranidae) from the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, Oceanica.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2004-12-01

    Spinicauda fisheri n. sp. from the intestine of Platymantis pelewensis collected in the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, is described and illustrated. Spinicauda fisheri represents the 12th species assigned to the genus and the first from Oceanica. It is most similar to Spinicauda spinicauda in that the tail ends in a filament, but it has 19 pairs of caudal papillae as compared with 5 pairs in S. spinicauda. In addition to S. fisheri, 2 species of Cestoda, cysticercoids of Joyeuxiella sp. and tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp., 2 species of Nematoda, Oswaldocruzia bakeri and Physocephalus sp. (larvae in cysts), 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus bufonis, and 1 species of Pentastomida, nymphs of Kiricephalus pattoni were identified. PMID:15715239

  15. Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco).

    PubMed

    Lehr, Edgar; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We describe two new species of Phrynopus from a cloud forest of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in Peru and describe and document the first clutch and case of parental care for a species of Phrynopus. One of the new species of Phrynopus is described based on two females (SVL 19.1-21.0 mm) which were found in leaf litter and moss layer in a cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus bracki. The second new species of Phrynopus was found in the transitional formation between cloud forest and wet puna at 3000 m elevation. Its description is based on a single female (SVL 20.7 mm) that was observed guarding nine eggs under moss. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus nicoleae. The eggs had a diameter of 5.7-5.8 mm (n = 3) and froglets when hatched a SVL of 6.2-6.5 mm (n = 3). Sympatric anurans include Gastrotheca sp., Pristimantis aniptopalmatus, Pristimantis bromeliaceus, Pristimantis sp., and Rhinella yanachaga. PMID:23226963

  16. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, María J.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  17. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago. PMID:26016873

  18. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D; Udagama, Preethi V

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~5ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~9360pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P<0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P<0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges. PMID:27335164

  19. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the “adherent” ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the “suctorial” guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat. PMID:22539880

  20. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology.

    PubMed

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the "adherent" ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the "suctorial" guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat. PMID:22539880

  1. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  2. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae) populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A; Silva, R J

    2015-11-01

    Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda) and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea) while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala). Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures. PMID:26675914

  3. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, TG; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, DG; Nunes, MEM; Rodrigues, NR

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  4. Description of two new species of the genus Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Fengkai, Guangdong, China, based on molecular and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Long; Jin, Meng-Jie; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Zu-Yao; Wang, Ying-Yong; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Two new species, Megophrys acuta sp. nov. and Megophrys obesa sp. nov., are described based on a series of specimens collected from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Fengkai County, Guangdong Province, China. They can be distinguished from other known congeners occurred in southern and eastern China by morphological characters and molecular divergence in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. M. acuta is characterized by small and slender body with adult females measuring 28.1-33.6 mm and adult males measuring 27.1-33.0 mm in snout-vent length; snout pointed, strongly protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; canthus rostralis well developed and sharp; hindlimbs short, the heels not meeting, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward the pupil of eye. M. obesa is characterized by stout and slightly small body with adult females measuring 37.5-41.2 mm, adult male measuring 35.6 mm in snout-vent length; snout round in dorsal view; canthus rostralis developed; hindlimbs short, the heels not meeting, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward the posterior margin of eye. The discovery of these two new species further confirms that the diversity of this genus has been significantly underestimated. At present the genus Megophrys contains 56 species of which 35 species are distributed in China. PMID:24870489

  5. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin Onn; Grismer, L Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M; Abraham, Robin Kurian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species' are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  6. Cryptic Diversity in Metropolis: Confirmation of a New Leopard Frog Species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and Surrounding Atlantic Coast Regions

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Newman, Catherine E.; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data). PMID:25354068

  7. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago.

    PubMed

    Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Downie, Roger J; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Murphy, John C

    2015-08-01

    The presence of Hyalinobatrachium orientale in Tobago and in northeastern Venezuela is puzzling as this species is unknown from the island of Trinidad, an island often hypothesized to be a stepping-stone for the mainland fauna to colonize Tobago. A period of extended isolation on Tobago could result in the Hyalinobatrachium population becoming distinct from the mainland H. orientale. Here, we use 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from nine H. orientale specimens from Tobago and the mainland to assess their relationship and taxonomy, as well as the tempo and mode of speciation. The results suggest H. orientale from Venezuela and Tobago are monophyletic and the two populations diverged about 3 million years ago. This estimate corresponds with the drier climate and lower sea levels of the Pliocene glaciation periods. We hypothesize that lower sea levels resulted in land-bridge formations connecting the mainland and Tobago, with a corridor of habitat allowing H. orientale to colonize Tobago to the west of Trinidad. PMID:24491102

  8. A molecular phylogeny recovers Strabomantis aramunha Cassimiro, Verdade and Rodrigues, 2008 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824) (Anura: Terrarana) as sister taxa.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Renata C; Nunes, Ivan; Canedo, Clarissa; Napoli, Marcelo F; Juncá, Flora A; Verdade, Vanessa K; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic and biogeographic affinities of Strabomantis aramunha from the Campos Rupestres of Brazil are intriguing. A unique skull morphology of females suggest affinities with the broad-headed eleutherodactylines of Northwestern South America in the genus Strabomantis. Male and juvenile morphology nonetheless suggest S. aramunha could be related to members of the recently described genus Haddadus from eastern Brazil. We assess the affinities of S. aramunha using molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (12S, tRNAval, 16S, cyt b) and nuclear sequences (RAG-1and rhodopsin). Bayesian inference, likelihood, and parsimony analysis recover a highly supported clade with S. aramunha and H. binotatus as sister taxa. Accordingly, we transfer S. aramunha to Haddadus, and provide a new generic definition of the later. The distribution of species in Haddadus (highlands of the Espinhaço mountain Range and coastal eastern Brazil) is now concordant with the general pattern observed for other species in the area. PMID:25113007

  9. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution. PMID:26989637

  10. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus. PMID:25947837

  11. The karyotypes of five species of the Scinax perpusillus group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of southeastern Brazil show high levels of chromosomal stabilization in this taxon.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Marco Antônio Amorim; Lacerda, João Victor Andrade; Coelho-Augusto, Carolina; Feio, Renato Neves; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-12-01

    Based on morphological, bioacoustics, and morphological traits, the genus Scinax has been subdivided into two major clades: S. catharinae and S. ruber. The first clade includes S. catharinae and S. perpusillus groups, whereas the second clade includes S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups. Chromosome morphology, NOR and C-banding patterns of variation support these clades. This study aims the cytogenetic characterization of five species currently included in the S. perpusillus group: Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus), S. arduous, S. belloni, S. cosenzai, and S. v-signatus, including standard cytogenetic techniques and repetitive DNA FISH probes. All species had 2n = 24 chromosomes. Nucleolar organizing regions occurred in chromosome pair 6 in all species, but differed in their locations among some species, suggesting a putative synaponomastic character for the clade. In S. belloni, the first chromosome pair was a metacentric, contrasting with the submetacentric first pair reported in all other species of the genus. Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus) and S. v-signatus had similar karyotypic formulae, suggesting they are related species. Scinax cosenzai had a divergent C-banding pattern. Repetitive DNA probes hybridized more frequently in chromosomal subtelomeric regions in all species indicating recent cladogenesis in these species. Karyotypic evidence indicates unreported high levels of stabilization within S. perpusillus and in S. catharinae clade, resulting in a wealth of characters potentially informative for higher phylogenetic analyses. PMID:26497874

  12. Intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) with inclusion of five species from Central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana Carolina; de Mattos, Thais Lemos; Viana, Patrik; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Menin, Marcelo; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-02-01

    The genera Leptodactylus and Adenomera comprise 92 species distributed throughout the Neotropical region. These species have a modal diploid chromosome number 2n = 22. However, chromosome rearrangements are evident in the differentiation of five intra-generic groups in the genus Leptodactylus (L. fuscus, L. latrans, L. marmoratus (formally composed by the species of the genus Adenomera), L. melanonotus, L. pentadactylus), yet it is not clear if there is a karyotype pattern for each group. Aiming to understand the intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera, cytogenetic analyses were performed in A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, and L. riveroi using conventional staining, C-banding, nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and hybridization in situ fluorescent (FISH). The karyotype of Leptodactylus riveroi was described for the first time. Adenomera andreae had 2n = 26, while the remaining species 2n = 22. The NOR was found on pair No. 8 of A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, and L. riveroi, whereas L. petersii had it on pairs Nos. 6 and 10. These locations were confirmed by the FISH with 18S rDNA probe, except for pair No. 10 of L. petersii. The C-banding pattern was evident at the centromeres of chromosomes of all species and some interspecific variations were also observed. 2n = 22 was observed in the species of the L. latrans group, as well as in the intra-generic groups L. fuscus and L. pentadactylus; in the L. melanonotus group there were three diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 20, 22 and 24; and a larger variation in 2n was also evident in the L. marmoratus group. PMID:26650375

  13. Multilocus phylogeography of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans (Anura, Alytidae): Contrasting patterns of lineage diversification and genetic structure in the Iberian refugium.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H; Maia-Carvalho, B; Sousa-Neves, T; García-París, M; Sequeira, F; Ferrand, N; Martínez-Solano, I

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations on the evolutionary history of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) revealed high levels of geographically structured genetic diversity but also a situation where delineation of major historical lineages and resolution of their relationships are much more complex than previously thought. We studied sequence variation in one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes throughout the entire distribution range of all recognized A. obstetricans subspecies to infer the evolutionary processes that shaped current patterns of genetic diversity and population subdivision. We found six divergent, geographically structured mtDNA haplogroups diagnosing population lineages, and varying levels of admixture in nuclear markers. Given the timeframe inferred for the splits between major lineages, the climatic and environmental changes that occurred during the Pleistocene seem to have shaped the diversification history of A. obstetricans. Survival of populations in allopatric refugia through the Ice Ages supports the generality of the "refugia-within-refugia" scenario for the Iberian Peninsula. However, lineages corresponding to subspecies A. o. almogavarii, A. o. pertinax, A. o. obstetricans, and A. o. boscai responded differently to Pleistocene climatic oscillations after diverging from a common ancestor. Alytes o. obstetricans expanded northward from a northern Iberian refugium through the western Pyrenees, leaving a signal of contrasting patterns of genetic diversity, with a single mtDNA haplotype north of the Pyrenees from SW France to Germany. Both A. o. pertinax and A. o. boscai are widespread and genetically diverse in Iberia, the latter comprising two divergent lineages with a long independent history. Finally, A. o. almogavarii is mostly restricted to the north-eastern corner of Iberia north of the Ebro river, with additional populations in a small region in south-eastern France. This taxon exhibits unparalleled levels of genetic diversity and little haplotype sharing with other lineages, suggesting a process of incipient speciation. PMID:26282950

  14. Novel Data on the Ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the Importance of Protected Areas for This Critically Endangered Glassfrog in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km2 to 65,147 Km2 along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ∼8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (February–May); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (<10%); and (4) synergetic effects of habitat loss and climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as “Critically Endangered” species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E. PMID:24339973

  15. Evolutionary origins and genetic variation of the Seychelles treefrog, Tachycnemis seychellensis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, Simon T.; Day, Julia J.; Nussbaum, Ronald A.; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The hyperoliid frog Tachycnemis seychellensis, the only species of its genus, is endemic to the four largest granitic islands of the Seychelles archipelago and is reliant on freshwater bodies for reproduction. Its presence in the Seychelles is thought to be the product of a transoceanic dispersal, diverging from the genus Heterixalus, its closest living relative (currently endemic to Madagascar), between approximately 10–35 Ma. A previous study documented substantial intraspecific morphological variation among island populations and also among populations within the largest island (Mahé). To assess intraspecific genetic variation and to infer the closest living relative(s) of T. seychellensis, DNA sequence data were generated for three mitochondrial and four nuclear markers. These data support a sister-group relationship between T. seychellensis and Heterixalus, with the divergence between the two occurring between approximately 11–19 Ma based on cytb p-distances. Low levels of genetic variation were found among major mitochondrial haplotype clades of T. seychellensis (maximum 0.7% p-distance concatenated mtDNA), and samples from each of the islands (except La Digue) comprised multiple mitochondrial haplotype clades. Two nuclear genes (rag1 and tyr) showed no variation, and the other two (rho and pomc) lacked any notable geographic structuring, counter to patterns observed within presumably more vagile Seychelles taxa such as lizards. The low levels of genetic variation and phylogeographic structure support an interpretation that there is a single but morphologically highly variable species of Seychelles treefrog. The contrasting genetic and morphological intraspecific variation may be attributable to relatively recent admixture during low sea-level stands, ecophenotypic plasticity, local adaptation to different environmental conditions, and/or current and previously small population sizes. Low genetic phylogeographic structure but substantial morphological variation is unusual within anurans. PMID:24555995

  16. The adhesive skin exudate of Notaden bennetti frogs (Anura: Limnodynastidae) has similarities to the prey capture glue of Euperipatoides sp. velvet worms (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Lloyd D; Glattauer, Veronica; Li, Dongmei; Tyler, Michael J; Ramshaw, John A M

    2013-08-01

    The dorsal adhesive secretion of the frog Notaden bennetti and the prey-capture "slime" ejected by Euperipatoides sp. velvet worms look and handle similarly. Both consist largely of protein (55-60% of dry weight), which provides the structural scaffold. The major protein of the onychophoran glue (Er_P1 for Euperipatoides rowelli) and the dominant frog glue protein (Nb-1R) are both very large (260-500 kDa), and both give oddly "turbulent" electrophoresis bands. Both major proteins, which are rich in Gly (16-17 mol%) and Pro (7-12 mol%) and contain 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp, 4 mol%), have the composition of intrinsically unstructured proteins. Their propensities for elastomeric or amyloid structures are discussed in light of Er_P1's large content of intrinsically disordered long tandem repeats. The low carbohydrate content of both glues is consistent with conventional protein glycosylation, which in the N. bennetti adhesive was explored by 2D PAGE. The N-linked sugars of Nb-1R appear to prevent inappropriate self-aggregation. Some peptide sequences from Nb-1R are presented. Overall, there are enough similarities between the frog and the velvet worm glues to suspect that they employ related mechanisms for setting and adhesion. A common paradigm is proposed for amphibian and onychophoran adhesives, which, if correct, points to convergent evolution. PMID:23665109

  17. Lineage delimitation and description of nine new species of bush frogs (Anura: Raorchestes, Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Dinesh, K P; Prabhu, Mrugank V; Shanker, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are distributed mainly in the Western Ghats Escarpment of Peninsular India. The inventory of species in this genus is incomplete and there is ambiguity in the systematic status of species recognized by morphological criteria. To address the dual problem of taxon sampling and systematic uncertainty in bush frogs, we used a large-scale spatial sampling design, explicitly incorporating the geographic and ecological heterogeneity of the Western Ghats. We then used a hierarchical multi-criteria approach by combining mitochondrial phylogeny, genetic distance, geographic range, morphology and advertisement call to delimit bush frog lineages. Our analyses revealed the existence of a large number of new lineages with varying levels of genetic divergence. Here, we provide diagnoses and descriptions for nine lineages that exhibit divergence across multiple axes. The discovery of new lineages that exhibit high divergence across wide ranges of elevation and across the major massifs highlights the large gaps in historical sampling. These discoveries underscore the significance of addressing inadequate knowledge of species distribution, namely the "Wallacean shortfall", in addressing the problem of taxon sampling and unknown diversity in tropical hotspots. A biogeographically informed sampling and analytical approach was critical in detecting and delineating lineages in a consistent manner across the genus. Through increased taxon sampling, we were also able to discern a number of well-supported sub-clades that were either unresolved or absent in earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and identify a number of shallow divergent lineages which require further examination for assessment of their taxonomic status.  PMID:25544534

  18. Revision of the water-holding frogs, Cyclorana platycephala (Anura: Hylidae), from arid Australia, including a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Marion; Price, Luke C; Roberts, J Dale; Catalano, Sarah R; Hines, Harry B; Doughty, Paul; Donnellan, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    The water-holding frog, Cyclorana platycephala, occurs in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones but not in the central Australian deserts. Recent inspection of morphological variation in adults and larvae suggests that the taxon comprises three regional populations: eastern, northern and western that may each represent separate species. To assess the systematic status of these populations, we documented phylogenetic relationships using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, divergence in adult and larval morphology and male advertisement call. Our molecular genetic data demonstrates that the western population of C. platycephala is not the sister taxon of eastern and northern representatives of this nominate species, as the latter two are more closely related to another morphologically distinct species, C. verrucosa. Discriminant Function Analysis of 14 morphological traits in adults and 15 in larvae showed a high degree of morphological differentiation of western versus eastern/northern C. platycephala. Calls of eastern and western populations differed in duration, pulse rate, frequency and especially in amplitude modulation pattern across the call duration. We describe the western population as a new species, whose range is contained entirely within Western Australia. In addition, we redescribe Cyclorana platycephala, quantify morphological and genetic differences between the eastern and northern populations, and conclude that these data support recognition of a single species, Cyclorana platycephala, for populations found in New South Wales, the Barkly Tablelands and south-eastern Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia. PMID:27395600

  19. A new species of Pseudopaludicola Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) from northwestern state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pansonato, André; Mudrek, Jessica Rhaiza; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Rossa-Feres, Denise De Cerqueira; Martins, Itamar Alves; Strüssmann, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Pseudopaludicola is described from human-altered areas originally covered by Semideciduous Forest in northwestern state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Morphologically, the new species differs from four species belonging to the P. pusilla group by the absence of either T-shaped terminal phalanges or toe tips expanded, and from all other congeners except P. canga and P. facureae by possessing an areolate vocal sac, with dark reticulation. The higher duration (300-700 ms) of each single, pulsed note (9-36 nonconcatenated pulses) that compose the call in the new species distinguishes it from all other 14 species of Pseudopaludicola with calls already described (10-290 ms). Absence of harmonics also differ the advertisement call of the new species from the call of its sister species P. facureae, even though these two species presented unexpected low genetic distances. Although we could not identify any single morphological character distinguishing the new species from P. facureae, a PCA and DFA performed using 12 morphometric variables evidenced significant size differences between these two species.  PMID:25283406

  20. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines. PMID:26624745

  1. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000-1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region. PMID:27587978

  2. A new red-eyed of stream treefrog of Hyloscirtus (Anura: Hylidae) from Peru, with comments on the taxonomy of the genus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; García-Burneo, Karla; Grant, Taran

    2016-01-01

    We describe a remarkable new species of monophyletic genus Hyloscirtus from northeastern Peru. The presence of an enlarged, curved, and protruding prepollical spine; hypertrophied forelimbs; large, thick supracloacal flap and supratympanic fold; large size; nuptial pad absent and iris dark red diagnose this species. We hypothesize that the new species is closely related to H. condor and H. tapichalaca of southern Ecuador due to the apparently synapomorphic occurrence in these species of an enlarged, curved prepollical spine, and small, conical vomerine odontophore processes with 3-6 prominent teeth each without contact between these. Additional research explicitly incorporating H. diabolus new species in a phylogenetic analysis is required to further test our hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the evolution of morphological attributes described herein. Finally we discuss some aspects concerning the taxonomy of the genus Hyloscirtus. PMID:27395477

  3. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Navarrete, María J; Venegas, Pablo J; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  4. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  5. A new species of Noblella (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Amazonian Slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes with Ccomments on Noblella lochites (Lynch).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael B; Almendariz, Ana; Brito M, Jorge; Batallas, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Noblella from wet, montane forest at the Sardinayacu Lake Complex between 1600-1920 m elevation in Morona Santiago, Ecuador. The new species differs from congeners in having three phalanges in the fourth finger, finely tuberculate skin on the dorsal body, pointed digital tips with marginal grooves on the fingers, a yellow to pale yellow venter, and a reduced facial mask not extending beyond the arm. The new species also lacks the pair of inguinal spots on the dorsal flanks of most congeners. Since its discovery in 1976, N. lochites has remained poorly known. We describe variation, color in life, and basic ecology of N. lochites based on a large series from the Cordillera del Condor. PMID:26097926

  6. Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreone, Franco; Rosa, Gonçalo M.; Noël, Jean; Crottini, Angelica; Vences, Miguel; Raxworthy, Christopher J.

    2010-06-01

    We describe a new mantelline frog of the genus Blommersia found in rainforest in North East Madagascar, from the protected areas of Ambatovaky, Betampona, Masoala, and Zahamena. Blommersia angolafa n.sp. is a small frog, with a body size of 17-21 mm, expanded finger and toe tips, and colouration ranging from yellow to dark brown, with pale-bluish spots on the flanks and light tips of fingers and toes. A peculiar aspect characterising this new species is its novel life history and reproductive mode. Both sexes live and breed in a phytotelmic habitat of water accumulated within fallen prophylls and fallen leaf sheaths of at least three species of Dypsis palms. Within these phytotelmata, egg laying and complete larval development occur. Thus, B. angolafa n.sp. represents a new evolutionary lineage of Malagasy frogs in which phytotelmy is known. Up to now, reproduction in phytotelmata in Malagasy frogs has been reported for many cophyline microhylids, most species of Guibemantis, Mantella laevigata, and possibly in a still-undescribed species belonging to the genus Spinomantis. We consider the reproductive mode of B. angolafa as a derived character, having evolved from the more typical reproduction in lentic water bodies. The general scarcity of lentic habitats in Malagasy rainforests may have provided the conditions that favoured the evolution of this phytotelmic breeding strategy. The new species, being specialised to a habitat represented by a few selected Dypsis species, potentially suffers the selective exploitation of these palms.

  7. The advertisement and aggressive calls of Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004) (Anura: Bufonidae) from Campo Largo, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Batista, Vinicius Guerra; Ramalho, Werther Pereira; Amaral, Diogo Ferreira Do; Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Rhinella abei is a medium-sized species (snout-to-vent length 57.0-76.4 mm in males; 60.4-83.9 mm in females-Baldissera et al. 2004) of the Rhinella crucifer species group, distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, from the State of Paraná to northern Rio Grande do Sul (Frost 2016). It is recorded in forested areas (Conte & Rossa-Feres 2007), or while breeding along forest edges and open habitats. Information on advertisement calls of species in the R. crucifer group is available for R. casconi, R. crucifer, R. inopina and R. ornata (Andrade et al. 2015; Heyer et al. 1990; Oliveira et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2014). Here we describe the advertisement and aggressive calls of R. abei recorded in the municipality of Campo Largo (25.507472° S, 49.376632° W, datum "WGS84"), southeast State of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:27394842

  8. Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco)

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Edgar; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of Phrynopus from a cloud forest of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in Peru and describe and document the first clutch and case of parental care for a species of Phrynopus. One of the new species of Phrynopus is described based on two females (SVL 19.1–21.0 mm) which were found in leaf litter and moss layer in a cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus bracki. The second new species of Phrynopus was found in the transitional formation between cloud forest and wet puna at 3000 m elevation. Its description is based on a single female (SVL 20.7 mm) that was observed guarding nine eggs under moss. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus nicoleae. The eggs had a diameter of 5.7–5.8 mm (n = 3) and froglets when hatched a SVL of 6.2–6.5 mm (n = 3). Sympatric anurans include Gastrotheca sp., Pristimantis aniptopalmatus, Pristimantis bromeliaceus, Pristimantis sp., and Rhinella yanachaga. PMID:23226963

  9. Taxonomy of the super-cryptic Hyperolius nasutus group of long reed frogs of Africa (Anura: Hyperoliidae), with descriptions of six new species.

    PubMed

    Channing, A; Hillers, A; Lötters, S; Rodel, M-O; Schick, S; Conradie, W; Rödder, D; Mercurio, V; Wagner, P; Dehling, J M; Du Preez, L H; Kielgast, J; Burger, M

    2013-01-01

    Specimens from across the range of the Hyperolius nasutus species group were sequenced for two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. Advertisement calls were recorded from the same specimens where possible, and morphological characters were compared. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood produced a tree indicating 16 clades. The clades show little or no overlap in combinations of 16S sequence difference, shared tyr haplotypes, advertisement call parameters, snout profiles and webbing. On the basis of these data we recognise H. acuticeps, H. adspersus, H. benguellensis, H. dartevellei, H. igbettensis, H. nasutus, H. nasicus, H. poweri, H. viridis and describe six new species: Hyperolius friedemanni sp. nov. Mercurio & Rödel, Hyperolius howelli sp. nov. Du Preez & Channing, Hyperolius inyangae sp. nov. Channing, Hyperolious jacobseni sp. nov. Channing, Hyperolius rwandae sp. nov. Dehling, Sinsch, R6del & Channing, and Hyperolius lupiroensis sp. nov. Channing. Hyperolius lamottei is confirmed to be outside the H. nasutus group clade. Hyperolius granulatus, H. oxyrhynchus, H. punctulatus and H. sagitta are assigned as junior synonyms. As our results are based on a small number of specimens, these hypotheses await testing with larger sample sizes and more characters. A species distribution model suggests where outlier populations might be found. PMID:26120712

  10. Designation and description of a neotype of Sclerophrys maculata (Hallowell, 1854), and reinstatement of S. pusilla (Mertens, 1937) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Poynton, John C; Loader, Simon P; Conradie, Werner; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Liedtke, H Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis indicates that African material previously referred to Amietophrynus maculatus (Hallowell, 1854; now Sclerophrys maculata), is divisible into two distinct clades: a Western Clade from Cameroon westwards and an Eastern Clade from Central African Republic eastwards, and Uganda southwards to South Africa, extending to Angola-Namibia. Preliminary morphological and bioacoustic data support this division. The two clades are recognised here as two separate species. The Western species retains the name S. maculata, with Hallowell's designated type locality of Liberia. The Eastern Clade retains the name published by Mertens (1937), S. pusilla. It is noted that a type specimen of S. maculata cannot be traced and is presumed lost; the so-called syntypes in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences are not the material described by Hallowell. None of these have been designated as a neotype, consequently a specimen from Liberia in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, is designated here as the neotype of S. maculata. PMID:27394575

  11. DNA Barcodes and Species Distribution Models Evaluate Threats of Global Climate Changes to Genetic Diversity: A Case Study from Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei-wei; Zhang, Bao-lin; Chen, Hong-man; Jin, Jie-qiong; Yang, Jun-xiao; Wang, Yun-yu; Jiang, Ke; Murphy, Robert W.; Zhang, Ya-ping; Che, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic global climate changes are one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Distribution modeling can predict the effects of climate changes and potentially their effects on genetic diversity. DNA barcoding quickly identifies patterns of genetic diversity. As a case study, we use DNA barcodes and distribution models to predict threats under climate changes in the frog Nanorana parkeri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Barcoding identifies major lineages W and E. Lineage W has a single origin in a refugium and Lineage E derives from three refugia. All refugia locate in river valleys and each greatly contributes to the current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. Species distribution models suggest that global climate changes will greatly influence N. parkeri, especially in the level of genetic diversity, because two former refugia will fail to provide suitable habitat. Our pipeline provides a novel application of DNA barcoding and has important implications for the conservation of biodiversity in southern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25093586

  12. Systematics of the Rhinella margaritifera complex (Anura, Bufonidae) from western Ecuador and Panama with insights in the biogeography of Rhinella alata

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sueny P.; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rhinella margaritifera species group consists of 17 species of toads distributed in tropical and subtropical South America and eastern Central America. The identity of some of its species is poorly understood and there are numerous undescribed cryptic species. Among them, the status of Rhinella margaritifera is one of the most problematic. Its range includes lowland rainforests separated by the Andes, the Chocoan rainforest to the west and the Amazonian rainforest to the east. This distribution is puzzling because the Andes are an old and formidable barrier to gene flow and therefore should generate vicariant speciation between disjunct lowland populations. Herein we clarify the taxonomy of populations of the Rhinella margaritifera complex from Central America and the Chocó region of South America. The morphological and genetic variation of Rhinella margaritifera was examined from 39 populations from Chocó, 24 from the upper Amazon region of Ecuador, and 37 from Panama, including the holotype of the Panamanian Rhinella alata. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the nuclear gene Tyrosinase (Tyr). The genetic and morphological data show that Panamanian and Chocoan populations are conspecific. In the phylogeny, populations from Chocó and Panama form a well-supported clade. The morphology of the holotype of Rhinella alata falls within the variation range of Panamanian and Chocoan populations. Based on all this evidence, we assign the populations from western Ecuador and Panama to Rhinella alata and demonstrate that the unusual distribution pattern of “Rhinella margaritifera” on both sides of the Andes was an artifact of incorrectly defined species boundaries. PMID:25987881

  13. Predictive-like distribution mapping using Google Earth: reassessment of the distribution of the bromeligenous frog, Scinax v-signatus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Helio Ricardo; Alves-Silva, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The hylid frog Scinax perpusillus species group comprises 13 species that share, in addition to a few morphological features, reproduction that occurs exclusively associated with bromeliads. Among the species in the group, Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968) is one of the few with a relatively large geographic distribution, occurring in association with bromeliads growing on granitic outcrops above 800 m along the Serra dos Órgãos (a local designation of Serra do Mar) in the Atlantic forest, State of Rio de Janeiro. Here we demonstrate that previous assessment of the distribution of this species was overestimated, and reevaluate the available data on its occurrence. The distributional data analyzed was based on three levels of evidence. First, we assessed the distribution of the bromeliad, Alcantarea imperialis (Carrière) Harms, which is used by S. v-signatus at the type locality. We plotted potential occurrence data for this plant using Google Earth (GE) by visually inspecting GE images in search of indications of granitic outcrops where groups and large individual bromeliads could be identified. Second, we plotted the distribution of these plants and that of the frog based on locality data taken from the literature and voucher specimens in natural history collections and checked for congruence between these sets of data. Third, as a second test of accuracy of this methodology we visited four new localities indicated by the bromeliad-occurrence GE prediction map and searched for the occurrence of both the frog and the bromeliad. This simple process has proven efficient and accurate in finding new collecting sites and determining the distribution of the two involved taxa. We discuss this and other possibilities of using Google Earth as a tool for mapping and discovering the distribution of organisms and habitats. Furthermore, this study has shed light on a more accurate and realistic estimate of the distribution of Scinax v-signatus with implications for the assessment of its conservation status. PMID:24699583

  14. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  15. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia : Anura : Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

  16. Assessment of laryngeal muscle and testicular cell types in Xenopus laevis (Anura Pipidae) inhabiting maize and non-maize growing areas of South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, E.E.; Du Preez, L.H.; Gentles, A.; Solomon, K.R.; Tandler, B.; Carr, J.A.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Kendall, R.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) inhabiting water bodies in maize-growing areas (MGA) of South Africa would exhibit differences in testicular structure compared to frogs from water bodies in non-maize-growing areas (NMGA) in the same locale. Adults of both sexes were collected during the autumn of 2002 in South Africa, and stereological analytical techniques were used to quantify the distribution of testicular cell types. In addition, total laryngeal mass was used as a gauge of secondary sex differences in animals from MGA and NMGA study sites. Evaluation of the total laryngeal mass revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between X. laevis of the same sex from the NMGA and MGA sites. Mean percent fractional-volume values for seminiferous tubule distribution of testicular cell types of mature X. laevis, ranged from 3-4% for spermatogonia, 26-28% for spermatocytes, 54-57% for spermatozoa, and 14-15% for other cells types. The mean percent volume for blood vessels ranged from 0.3-0.4%. These values did not differ significantly between frogs from NMGA and MGA areas. Collectively, these data demonstrated no differences in gonadal and laryngeal development in X. laevis collected in South Africa from MGA and NMGA areas and that there is little evidence for an effect of agricultural chemicals used in maize production functioning as endocrine disrupters in this species. Screening of X. laevis testes revealed a small incidence of Stage 1 testicular oocytes in adult male frogs collected from the NMGA (3%) and MGA (2%).

  17. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824) (Anura, Hylidae), revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Simone Lilian; Diniz, Débora; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Fausto Foresti; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Kasahara, Sanae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B) is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862). Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question. PMID:25349670

  18. Taxonomic revision of the Chinese Limnonectes (Anura, Dicroglossidae) with the description of a new species from China and Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Jin-Min; Hou, Mian; Zhao, Hai-Peng; Wang, Li-Jun; Nguyen, Truong Son; Nguyen, Truong Q; Murphy, Robert W; Sullivan, Jaqueline; Mcleod, David S; Che, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data play a central role in documenting the number of species in a complex. Such analyses are pointing to the existence of many cryptic species, especially in poorly understood groups such as the genus Limnonectes, and the L. kuhlii species complex in particular. To understand the Limnonectes frogs of China, we reconstruct the major matrilineal genealogy of Limnonectes from China and Southeast Asia based on 12S rRNA, tRNAVal and 16S rRNA gene sequences. Based on new data we recognize five species of Limnonectes in China including L. bannaensis, L. fujianensis, L. fragilis, L. taylori (new record), and a new species from southern China and Myanmar. Phylogenetically, the new species is more closely related to the clade comprising L. taylori, L. megastomias, L. isanensis, L. nguyenorum, and L. jarujini from Thailand than to other Chinese species. This study supports previous findings of sympatric members of a species complex that are not each other's closest relatives. PMID:27394489

  19. Novel data on the ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the importance of protected areas for this critically endangered glassfrog in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km(2) to 65,147 Km(2) along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ∼ 8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (February-May); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (<10%); and (4) synergetic effects of habitat loss and climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as "Critically Endangered" species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E. PMID:24339973

  20. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae) with the description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n.) occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy. PMID:24478591

  1. Genotoxic effect of a binary mixture of dicamba- and glyphosate-based commercial herbicide formulations on Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) (Anura, Bufonidae) late-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Soloneski, Sonia; Ruiz de Arcaute, Celeste; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2016-09-01

    The acute toxicity of two herbicide formulations, namely, the 57.71 % dicamba (DIC)-based Banvel(®) and the 48 % glyphosate (GLY)-based Credit(®), alone as well as the binary mixture of these herbicides was evaluated on late-stage Rhinella arenarum larvae (stage 36) exposed under laboratory conditions. Mortality was used as an endpoint for determining acute lethal effects, whereas the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was employed as genotoxic endpoint to study sublethal effects. Lethality studies revealed LC5096 h values of 358.44 and 78.18 mg L(-1) DIC and GLY for Banvel(®) and Credit(®), respectively. SCGE assay revealed, after exposure for 96 h to either 5 and 10 % of the Banvel(®) LC5096 h concentration or 5 and 10 % of the Credit(®) LC5096 h concentration, an equal significant increase of the genetic damage index (GDI) regardless of the concentration of the herbicide assayed. The binary mixtures of 5 % Banvel(®) plus 5 % Credit(®) LC5096 h concentrations and 10 % Banvel(®) plus 10 % Credit(®) LC5096 h concentrations induced equivalent significant increases in the GDI in regard to GDI values from late-stage larvae exposed only to Banvel(®) or Credit(®). This study represents the first experimental evidence of acute lethal and sublethal effects exerted by DIC on the species, as well as the induction of primary DNA breaks by this herbicide in amphibians. Finally, a synergistic effect of the mixture of GLY and DIC on the induction of primary DNA breaks on circulating blood cells of R. arenarum late-stage larvae could be demonstrated. PMID:27250090

  2. A new species of Hyla (Anura: Hylidae) from the Sierra Mixes, Oaxaca, Mexico, with comments on ontogenetic variation in the tadpoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ustach, P.C.; Mendelson, J.R., III; McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new species of Hyla that differs from the similar-loohng species H. pentheter by reaching a larger size, ha\\iing a smaller tympanum, more webbing on the feet, more extensive nuptial excrescences, and a different color pattern on the flanks. \\Ve tentatively place this new species in the phenetic assemblage commonly referred to as the H. bistincta group. \\Ve describe and illlistrate the tadpole and discuss ontogenetic variation among tadpoles, with reference to existing information on tadpoles of other species from the H. bistincta group.

  3. What's the Difference between Frogs and Toads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herrick

    2004-01-01

    The difference between frogs and toads can be determined scientifically but is based in the historic use of the terms frog and toad. These are Old English words for the common frog, "Rana temporaria," and the common toad, "Bufo bufo," both inhabitants of the British Isles. In the process of describing a new anuran species, scientists refer to it…

  4. Large-scale habitat associations of four desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayton, G.H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.

  5. Galatheid and chirostylid crustaceans (Decapoda: Anomura) from a cold seep environment in the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Li, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    Six species of squat lobsters from a cold seep field in the northeastern South China Sea are studied. Two new species, Uroptychus jiaolongae n. sp. and U. spinulosus n. sp., are described, and their distinctions from the related species are detailed. Two species, Munidopsis tuberosa Osawa, Lin & Chan, 2008 and M. verrilli Benedict, 1902, are herein reported for the first time from a cold seep/hydrothermal vent environment. The number of squat lobsters species associated with those chemosynthetic environments now stands at forty-one. PMID:26701467

  6. 77 FR 6815 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ..., after the September 4 through October 10, 2011, fire may be delayed or the endangered Houston toad (Bufo... they can be returned to the wild; or transported to the Houston toad captive breeding or...

  7. Acute toxicity of maneb in the tadpoles of common and green toad.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Mert; Hayretdağ, Sibel

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture can have hazardous effects on aquatic organisms, and amphibians are even more threatened than other aquatic vertebrates. Maneb is widely used to control fungal diseases on crops, fruits, and vegetables. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxic effects of maneb on the common (Bufo bufo) and green toad (Pseudepidalea viridis) tadpoles. Tadpoles at the development stage 21 were exposed to maneb (0-5 mg L(-1)) for 120 h. Maneb LC50 values at hour 120 were 1.966 mg L(-1) for B. bufo and 0.332 mg L-1 for P. viridis. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first published LC50 findings for the two species. Visceral oedema and tail deformations were observed in both species. We also observed liver necrosis, pronephric tubule deformations, somite deteriorations, and visceral oedema at maneb concentrations≥0.1 mg L(-1) for B. bufo and ≥0.05 mg L(-1) for P. viridis. Our results show that B. bufo tadpoles have a much higher resilience to maneb than P. viridis tadpoles. This resilience seems to be related to the larger size of the B. bufo tadpoles and their ability to metamorphose faster in adverse conditions. Future research should look into the mechanisms of toxic action of maneb in anurans. PMID:26444339

  8. A fifth species of the genus Euparkerella (Griffths, 1959), the advertisement calls of E. robusta Izecksohn, 1988 and E. tridactyla Izecksohn, 1988, and a key for the Euparkerella species (Anura: Brachycephaloidea: Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Hepp, Fábio; Carvalho-E-Silva, Sergio P De; Carvalho-E-Silva, Ana M P Telles De; Folly, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the anuran genus Euparkerella is described from a rainforest area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Morphologically, the species resembles E. brasiliensis and E. cochranae, but differs from them in acoustic features. Relative to its congeners, the new species is characterized by: (1) medium size; (2) slender body; (3) narrow head; (4) long Finger IV, Toes I and V; (5) tubercles of the hand and foot protuberant; (6) duration of advertisement call longer than three seconds; (7) pulse-section rate slower than two sections/second; and (8) exhibiting pulse clusters. The advertisement calls of E. robusta and E. tridactyla are described and a key based on morphological and acoustic characters is presented for species in the genus. PMID:26249858

  9. [Ecological studies on helminthic taxocenosis of sympatric Chaunus ictericus (Spix, 1824) and Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894) (Anura: Bufonidae) captured on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras county, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Estevam G Lux; Pedrassani, Daniela; Hoffmann-Inocente, Ana Cecília; Tebaldi, José H; Storti, Luis Fernando; Zanuzzo, Felipe S; Avancini, Neuri; Do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Fifty eight Chaunus ictericus and 42 C. schneideri specimens were collected on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras, SC for helminthological studies. Fourteen helminth species were diagnosed, from which only five species were found on both hosts. Chaunus ictericus showed higher values of species richness (2,8448+/-1,1516) and diversity (H = 1,374), with mild dominance (1-D = 0,642, J = 0,5528), in comparison with C. schneideri (0,6428+/-1,007; H = 1,165; 1-D = 0,5822 e J = 0,5985). Also, descriptors of helminthic infection were superior in the former host. Little number of shared species between the analyzed toad species suggests parasitic host-specificity. PMID:20059839

  10. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment. VII. The heat budget of Hyperolius viridiflavus nitidulus and the evolution of an optimized body shape.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, F; Linsenmair, K E

    1995-01-01

    Estivating reed frogs of the superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus are extraordinarily resistant to the highly adverse climatic conditions prevailing in their African savanna habitats during dry season (air temperature up to 45 degrees C, solar radiation load up to 1000 W.m-2, no water replenishment possible for up to 3 months). They are able to withstand such climatic stress at their exposed estivation sites on dry plants without evaporative cooling. We developed a heat budget model to understand the mechanisms of how an anuran can achieve this unique tolerance, and which allows us to predict the anuran's core and surface temperature for a given set of environmental parameters, to within 4% of the measured values. The model makes it possible to quantify some of the adaptive mechanisms for survival in semiarid habitats by comparing H. viridiflavus with anurans (H. tuberilinguis and Rana pipiens) of less stressful habitats. To minimize heat gain and maximize heat loss from the frog, the following points were important with regard to avoiding lethal heat stress during estivation: 1) solar heat load is reduced by an extraordinarily high skin reflectivity for solar radiation of up to 0.65 under laboratory and even higher in the field under dry season conditions. 2) The half-cylindrical body shape of H. viridiflavus seems to be optimized for estivation compared to the hemispheroidal shape usually found for anurans in moist habitats. A half-cylinder can be positioned relative to the sun so that large surface areas for conductive and convective heat loss are shielded by a small area exposed to direct solar radiation. 3) Another important contribution of body shape is a high body surface area to body mass ratio, as found in the estivating subadult H. viridiflavus (snout-vent lengths of 14-20 mm and body weights of 350-750 mg) compared to adult frogs (24-30 mm, 1000-2500 mg) which have never been observed to survive a dry season. 4) These mechanisms strongly couple core temperature to air temperature. The time constant of the core temperature is 29 +/- 10 s. Since air temperature can be 43-45 degrees C, H. viridiflavus must have a very unusual tolerance to transient core temperatures of 43-45 degrees C. 5) If air temperature rises above this lethal limit, the estivating frog would die despite all its optimizations, but moving from an unsuited to a more favorable site during estivation can be extremely costly in terms of unavoidably high evaporative water loss. Therefore, H. viridiflavus must have developed behavioral strategies for reliably choosing estivation sites with air temperature staying on average within the vital range during the whole dry season. PMID:7622673

  11. New insights to the molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura) based on five nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, with comments on the evolution of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Tang; Che, Jing; Murphy, Robert W; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Er-Mi; Rao, Ding-Qi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2009-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 12 genera of treefrogs (Family, Rhacophoridae), were investigated based on a large sequence data set, including five nuclear (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, proopiomelanocortin, recombination activating gene 1, tyrosinase, rhodopsin) and three mitochondrial (partial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA and the complete valine t-RNA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear gene sequences resolved three major clades. The first group included Philautus, Pseudophilautus, Kurixalus, Gracixalus, and Theloderma moloch; Pseudophilautus and Kurixalus were sister taxa. The second group consisted of Nyctixalus and Theloderma. The third group contained Feihyla, Polypedates, Rhacophorus, and Chiromantis vittatus; Polypedates and Feihyla were sister taxa. Analyses of the nuclear and mitochondrial genes supported the following results: (1) Genus Liuixalus formed the sister group of all other rhacophorines. (2) Philautus, Theloderma, and Chiromantis were not resolved as monophyletic genera. Four groups, including Philautus ocellatus and P. hainanus, P. longchuanensis and P. gryllus, P. banaensis, and P. quyeti nested well within the genera Liuixalus, Pseudophilautus, Kurixalus, and Gracixalus, respectively. (3) Theloderma moloch and Chiromantis vittatus did not cluster with other species of Theloderma and Chiromantis, respectively. Foam nesting evolved only once, as did laying eggs in a jelly-like matrix containing some bubbles. Terrestrial direct development evolved twice in the Rhacophoridae. PMID:19616637

  12. Relicts of a forested past: Southernmost distribution of the hairy frog genus Trichobatrachus Boulenger, 1900 (Anura: Arthroleptidae) in the Serra do Pingano region of Angola with comments on its taxonomic status.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Raffael; Nienguesso, Alvaro Bruno Toto; Lautenschläger, Thea; Barej, Michael F; Schmitz, Andreas; Scmitz, Andreas; Hölting, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The monotypic genus Trichobatrachus, with its sole representative, the hairy frog, Trichobatrachus robustus Boulenger, 1900, could be considered one of the most well-known frogs of Africa. Despite its broad recognition and the fact that it is considered wide-spread and locally common (Amiet & Burger 2004), surprisingly little is known about the actual distribution and the specific occurrence patterns of the species. It was originally described by Boulenger (1900) from the Benito River, previously erroneously stated to be located in Gabon. However, Lötters et al. (2001) clarified that the type locality was actually situated in Equatorial Guinea, then part of French Congo, and subsequently provided the first confirmed country record for Gabon. Hairy frogs were previously included in the herpetofaunal lists of Cameroon (Parker 1936; Perret & Mertens 1957), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Laurent 1956), and Nigeria (Schiøtz 1963). More recently published accounts list them for Cameroon (Euskirchen et al. 1999; Herrmann et al. 2005; Gonwouo & Rödel 2008), Equatorial Guinea (De la Riva 1994; Lasso et al. 2002), Gabon (Lötters et al. 2001; Rödel & Pauwels 2003; Burger et al. 2004; Pauwels & Rödel 2007; Bell et al. 2011), and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Fretey et al. 2011), and speculate about their potential occurrence in Congo and the Cabinda enclave of Angola (Amiet & Burger 2004). The DRC record so far represented the most southerly distribution, while the most northerly account comes from the Adamaoua Province of northern Cameroon (Tadpole voucher MHNG-AMP/ERPI-1035.006 from Bénoué source, Northern cliff Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua, Cameroon/Adamaoua Province, cf. Perret 1966). Specimens stored in the collection at the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren (RMCA) under collection numbers RMCA B 90060.0004-11 confirm the occurrence of the species in Congo. To our knowledge, these specimens represent yet unpublished first country records. PMID:24871726

  13. A cryptic heterogametic transition revealed by sex-linked DNA markers in Palearctic green toads.

    PubMed

    Stöck, M; Croll, D; Dumas, Z; Biollay, S; Wang, J; Perrin, N

    2011-05-01

    In sharp contrast to birds and mammals, most cold-blooded vertebrates have homomorphic (morphologically undifferentiated) sex chromosomes. This might result either from recurrent X-Y recombination (occurring e.g. during occasional events of sex reversal) or from frequent turnovers (during which sex-determining genes are overthrown by new autosomal mutations). Evidence for turnovers is indeed mounting in fish, but very few have so far been documented in amphibians, possibly because of practical difficulties in identifying sex chromosomes. Female heterogamety (ZW) has long been established in Bufo bufo, based on sex reversal and crossing experiments. Here, we investigate a sex-linked marker identified from a laboratory cross between Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup). The F(1) offspring produced by a female Bufo balearicus and a male Bufo siculus were phenotypically sexed, displaying an even sex ratio. A sex-specific marker detected in highly reproducible AFLP genotypes was cloned. Sequencing revealed a noncoding, microsatellite-containing fragment. Reamplification and genotyping of families of this and a reciprocal cross showed B. siculus to be male heterogametic (XY) and suggested the same system for B. balearicus. Our results thus reveal a cryptic heterogametic transition within bufonid frogs and help explain patterns of hybrid fitness within the B. viridis subgroup. Turnovers of genetic sex-determination systems may be more frequent in amphibians than previously thought and thus contribute to the prevalence of homomorphic sex chromosomes in this group. PMID:21338434

  14. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  15. [Method of determining visual pigments in situ and their study in some vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Govardovskiî, V I

    1975-01-01

    A simple electrophysiological method for determining of visual pigments in isolated retina is described. The method is based on registration of the early receptor potential amplitude which is proportional to the visual pigment content and on measurement of the rate of the decrease of this amplitude under the action of the bleaching light of a known wavelength and intensity. The results of the determining of rod and cone visual pigments in the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, teleosts Diplodus annularis and Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, toad Bufo bufo and guinea pig are presented. PMID:814749

  16. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  17. Chytridiomycosis risk among Central European amphibians based on surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Balá, Vojtech; Vojar, Jirří; Civi, Petr; Andera, Martin; Rozínek, Roman

    2014-11-13

    The Czech Republic hosts a surprisingly rich biodiversity of amphibians representing the majority of amphibian species present in all of Central and Eastern Europe. Surveillance data of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) collected during 2008 to 2012 were analysed for basic patterns of prevalence and infection intensity among species, age groups and localities. In addition, an investigation was made into possible data bias due to varying PCR inhibition. Infection prevalence in the genus Pelophylax was significantly higher than in other sampled taxa, while Bombina and Bufo were infected with intermediate prevalence. Individual mortalities putatively caused by chytridiomycosis were detected in Bombina and Bufo, but not in Pelophylax. Differences among localities were seen to modulate the pathogen's infection rate and influence overall individual infection intensities. PCR inhibition occurred significantly more often in samples from the genus Pelophylax than in other tested taxa (Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus and Rana dalmatina). Although we found no completely inhibited samples within the genus Bombina, the infection loads were lower in the sample set processed without bovine serum albumin, suggesting some level of PCR inhibition. The combination of high Bd prevalence with no apparent deleterious effect and the high dispersal abilities of water frogs predispose them to act as vectors for chytridiomycosis. It is possible that the role of Pelophylax frogs in the spread of Bd is overlooked due to a large proportion of unrecognized false negatives, but this issue needs further confirmation. PMID:25392037

  18. LOCAL SCALE FACTORS DETERMINE HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY RED-SPOTTED TOADS IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  19. Persistence of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis outside the amphibian host greatly increases the probability of host extinction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kate M; Churcher, Thomas S; Garner, Trenton W J; Fisher, Matthew C

    2008-02-01

    Pathogens do not normally drive their hosts to extinction; however, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been able to do so. Theory predicts that extinction can be caused by long-lived or saprobic free-living stages. The hypothesis that such a stage occurs in B. dendrobatidis is supported by the recent discovery of an apparently encysted form of the pathogen. To investigate the effect of a free-living stage of B. dendrobatidis on host population dynamics, a mathematical model was developed to describe the introduction of chytridiomycosis into a breeding population of Bufo bufo, parametrized from laboratory infection and transmission experiments. The model predicted that the longer that B. dendrobatidis was able to persist in water, either due to an increased zoospore lifespan or saprobic reproduction, the more likely it was that it could cause local B. bufo extinction (defined as decrease below a threshold level). Establishment of endemic B. dendrobatidis infection in B. bufo, with severe host population depression, was also possible, in agreement with field observations. Although this model is able to predict clear trends, more precise predictions will only be possible when the life history of B. dendrobatidis, including free-living stages of the life cycle, is better understood. PMID:18048287

  20. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  1. Amblyomma dissimile Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) attacking Primolius maracana Vieillot (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Amazon region, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A; Bahia, M; Martins, A L; Góes-Cavalcante, G; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B

    2011-01-01

    The tick Amblyomma dissimile Koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (Squamata), although amphibians (Anura) also seem to be important hosts. We report an A. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana, held in captivity in the Mangal das Garças Park, State of Pará, Brazil. Environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (Iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the A. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged macaw. We provide the second world record of a bird host for A. dissimile, and the first bird record for this species in South America. PMID:21952971

  2. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    PubMed

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog. PMID:26249416

  3. Limited immune diversity in urodela: chronic transplantation responses occur even with family-disparate xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kinefuchi, Kenjiroh; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Touma, Maki; Hosono, Masamichi

    2013-07-01

    Urodele amphibians are thought to have poorer immune responses than evolutionary more ancestral vertebrate classes, such as bony fish. We investigated skin graft rejection and transplantation immunity in Urodele amphibians, Japanese newts, and Asiatic salamanders, and compared these findings to those from transplants in several species of frogs. The skin grafts used in this study were either allogeneic or xenogeneic. The mean survival time of the first set of allografts at 20°C was approximately 60 days for chronic responses in Urodela and 20 days for acute responses in Anura. As the graft survival times of urodeles were significantly longer than those of anurans, even when urodeles were repeatedly grafted from identical donors, there appear to be substantial differences in transplantation immunity between Urodela and Anura. These slow responses in Urodela may not be accompanied by the expansion of cytotoxic T cells, as observed in fish and anuran species, which are known to have functional major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I systems. In our study, approximately five histo-incompatible immunogenic components were found to be involved in chronic responses in newts. Similar chronic responses were also observed in xenograft rejection in newts. In contrast, xenografts were rejected in frogs due to an accelerated acute response, possibly involving natural killer cells. Our findings that some anti-allogeneic components appear to be shared with xenogeneic components indicate that the diversification of the acquired immune system is poorly developed in Urodela. PMID:23829218

  4. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products. PMID:27328884

  5. Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail

    PubMed Central

    Heus, Ferry; Otvos, Reka A.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; van Elk, Rene; Halff, Jenny I.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J.; Wijmenga, Sybren; Smit, August B.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Kool, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR) affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected), ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus). Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with α7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands. PMID:24833338

  6. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  7. Toad Intoxication in the Dog by Rhinella marina : The Clinical Syndrome and Current Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnnides, Stephanie; Green, Tiffany; Eubig, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Oral exposure to the secretions of Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus ) can carry a high fatality rate without early and appropriate treatment. In dogs, the clinical syndrome, which is evident almost immediately, manifests in profuse ptyalism along with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs. Severe cardiac arrhythmias develop less frequently. This review will cover the history, toxicology, and clinical syndrome of Rhinella marina intoxication, and will discuss the recommended therapies for stabilization. PMID:27259028

  8. Interleukin 1 in oviductal tissues of viviparous, oviparous, and ovuliparous species of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Jantra, Silke; Bigliardi, Elisa; Brizzi, Rossana; Ietta, Francesca; Bechi, Nicoletta; Paulesu, Luana

    2007-06-01

    In previous reports, we have shown that interleukin 1 (IL1), a cytokine associated with implantation in mice, is also expressed in reproductive tissues of viviparous squamate reptiles and cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of IL1B and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) in amphibians, a class of vertebrates that is characterized by different reproductive modes, including internal and external fertilization. In particular, we investigated the oviductal tissues of the aplacental viviparous Salamandra lanzai, the oviparous Triturus carnifex, and the ovuliparous Bufo bufo. In immunohistochemistry with anti-human IL1B and IL1R1 polyclonal antibodies we found that in S. lanzai, most cells in the uterine mucosa were immunoreactive for IL1B and IL1R1. In T. carnifex, IL1B and IL1R1 were present in ciliated luminal cells, and there was evidence of IL1B in glandular cells. In B. bufo, the expression of IL1B and IL1R1 was limited to the apical cytoplasm of the ciliated oviductal cells. Western blot analysis showed that a putative mature form of IL1B, similar to that seen in mammals, was present in the oviductal tissues of S. lanzai, whereas different forms, which probably correspond to an inactive pro-IL1B protein, were found in T. carnifex and B. bufo. A band that corresponded to the predicted 80-kDa human IL1R1 was found in S. lanzai and T. carnifex. Although the present study shows that IL1B and IL1R1 expression occurs in all reproductive modes, the differential expression patterns noted between ovuliparity and oviparity and viviparity may reflect the different roles of IL1 in the various reproductive modes. PMID:17314310

  9. Sink or swim: a test of tadpole behavioral responses to predator cues and potential alarm pheromones from skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Maag, Nino; Gehrer, Lukas; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical signaling is a vital mode of communication for most organisms, including larval amphibians. However, few studies have determined the identity or source of chemical compounds signaling amphibian defensive behaviors, in particular, whether alarm pheromones can be actively secreted from tadpoles signaling danger to conspecifics. Here we exposed tadpoles of the common toad Bufo bufo and common frog Rana temporaria to known cues signaling predation risk and to potential alarm pheromones. In both species, an immediate reduction in swimming activity extending over an hour was caused by chemical cues from the predator Aeshna cyanea (dragonfly larvae) that had been feeding on conspecific tadpoles. However, B. bufo tadpoles did not detectably alter their behavior upon exposure to potential alarm pheromones, neither to their own skin secretions, nor to the abundant predator-defense peptide bradykinin. Thus, chemicals signaling active predation had a stronger effect than general alarm secretions of other common toad tadpoles. This species may invest in a defensive strategy alternative to communication by alarm pheromones, given that Bufonidae are toxic to some predators and not known to produce defensive skin peptides. Comparative behavioral physiology of amphibian alarm responses may elucidate functional trade-offs in pheromone production and the evolution of chemical communication. PMID:22972229

  10. [Comparison of chemical composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum by UPLC-TQ-MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-yue; Wang, Hong-lan; Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Gong, Yan; Yan, Wen-li; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Toad venom is the Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus after the ears of the gland secretion, used in the treatment of various cancers in recent years. Research shows that the main anti-tumor components in bufadienolide. Bufadienolide have free type structure and conjunct type structure. To identify and clarify the difference between bufogenin and bufotoxin contained in Bufonis Venenum, which was from B. bufo gargarizans, an UPLC-TQ-MS method has been established. UPLC-TQ-MS method was used to identify and quantify the major bufadienolides in Bufonis Venenum. UPLC-TQ-MS assay with positive ion mode was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C, (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% aqueous formic and acidacetonitrile in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL · min⁻¹ and the column temperature was set at 35 °C. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Bufonis Venenum extracts, 37 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were free-type bufadienolides (bufogenin), 11 of them were conjugated bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum. The study found that the chemical composition of toad venom through great changes after processing, conjunct type content is much less, free type content as well change. PMID:27062811

  11. Behavioural responses to electrical and visual stimulation of the toad tectum.

    PubMed

    McConville, James; Sterritt, Lorraine; Laming, Peter R

    2006-06-01

    Slow potential shifts in brain structures have been recorded and correlated with motivational state in several species. Previous studies have also found that application of an electrical current to the surface of brain tissue generates such slow potential shifts. The present study was conducted to examine if imposed dc shifts to the brain influenced motivation in the toad (Bufo bufo). Toads (B. bufo) had stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of each optic tectum. After 1 day of recovery combined dc stimuli and a prey-like visual stimulus were presented to the animal. A current-dependent increase in prey-catching activities occurred with dc currents from 0.1 to 500 micro A and in avoidance behaviours from 50 to 500 micro A. There is also evidence of additivity of dc and visually induced negativity increasing some behaviours. The dc current was applied in order to start a movement of ions through the brain structure but more specifically through radial glia. The resulting flux of ions is thought to be responsible for the recorded slow potential shift associated with motivation and these experiments hopefully shed further light on the possible neuromodulatory role played by radial glia through the spatial buffering of potassium and the associated slow potential shifts. PMID:16540183

  12. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  13. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  14. Pathological changes in African hyperoliid frogs due to a myxosporidian infection with a new species of Hoferellus (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Mutschmann, F

    2004-09-01

    A proliferous, polycystic and sometimes fatal kidney disease due to an infection with myxosporidia is reported in 24 of 28 hyperoliid frogs (Afrixalus dorsalis, Hyperolius concolor, Hyperolius sp.) from Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. In line with pathological changes in fish, the disease is described as 'frog kidney enlargement disease' (FKED). Myxosporidian plasmodia, different developmental stages and spores occurred in the kidney, ureter, and urinary bladder and in the intestine of the frogs. The parasite belongs to the genus Hoferellus and is presented as a new species: H. anurae n. sp. Spores are similar in size and structure to other Hoferellus species in fish but differ by the presence of a more prominent suture line and shorter caudal appendages. This is the first report on a Hoferellus species in amphibians as well as the first report of the genus Hoferellus in African vertebrates. PMID:15521320

  15. Fifty Shades of Grey: giving colour to the poorly known Angolan Ashy reed frog (Hyperoliidae: Hyperolius cinereus), with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Tolley, Krystal A

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows that geographically separated populations of the poorly known Hyperolius cinereus (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from Angola form two distinct clades. The description of H. cinereus was originally based on only a single preserved adult male. Fresh material of both sexes allowed a detailed redescription of the species, which is restricted mainly to the south-draining Cunene and Cubango river systems. Bioacoustic and morphological characters, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of a cryptic sister species from Lagoa Carumbo in north-eastern Angola, occurring in the Luele and Lovuo river systems of the Congo drainage basin. Tadpoles, for H. cinereus and the new species, are described. PMID:26097943

  16. Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

    2010-12-01

    Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (≥500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

  17. Intramuscular Single-dose Toxicity Test of Bufonis venonum Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Sun, Seung-Ho; Yu, Jun-Sang; Kwon, Ki-Rok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bufonis venonum (BV) is the dried white secretions of the auricular and skin glands of the toads Bufo bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanosticus Schneider. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of intramuscularly- administered Bufonis venonum pharmacopuncture (BVP) and to calculate its approximate lethality through a single-dose test with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty male and 20 female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intramuscularly with BVP or normal saline. The animals were divided into four groups with five female and five male rats per group: the control group injected with normal saline at 0.5 mL/animal, the low-dosage group injected with 0.125 mL/animal of BVP, the medium-dosage group injected with 0.25 mL/animal of BVP and the high-dosage group injected with 0.5 mL/animal of BVP. All injections were in the left thighs of the rats. After administration, we conducted clinical observations everyday and body weight measurements on days 3, 7 and 14 after the injection. We also carried out hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations on day 15 after treatment. Results: No mortalities were observed in any experimental group. No significant changes in weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations that could be attributed to the intramuscular injection of BVP were observed in any experimental group. Conclusion: Lethal dose of BVP administered via intramuscular injection in SD rats is over 0.5 mL/animal. PMID:26998390

  18. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  19. Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms—the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  20. Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  1. Four new species of frogs and one new species of snake from the Chapare region of Bolivia, with notes on other species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.P.; Foster, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report on a collection of 74 frogs, 11 lots of frog eggs or tadpoles, and two snakes collected from the Chapare Region in the yungas of the eastern Andean Cordillera de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Collecting localities range from approximately 300 m to >3200 m in elevation. The specimens pertain to 23 species, probably 10 of which are undescribed. We describe four new species of frogs, one each in the genera Bufo, Centrolenella, Colostethus, and Hyla, and one new species of snake, genus Dipsas. We place Atelopus rugulosus in synonymy with A. tricolor.

  2. Home range and movements of boreal toads in undisturbed habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.

    2003-01-01

    I sampled movements and amount of area used by boreal toads (Bufo boreas) between June and October for 3 yr. Females were found farther from the breeding site than were males, and mean home ranges, as calculated by the adaptive kernel method, were four times larger for females than for males. Temperature and snow accumulation were comparable over the study, but data collection was hampered by mortality of animals caused by an outbreak of amphibian chytridiomycosis in yr 2. These data provide insight into use of habitat by boreal toads in undisturbed areas but may not be typical of a completely healthy population.

  3. Influence of amphibian and reptile on the feeding preference, longevity and reproductive capacity of Egyptian Culex (Culex) pipiens Linneaus (Diptera-Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ebraheem, Mahmoud H; Rashdan, Nagwa A; Fayed, Hamed M; Galal, Fatma H

    2006-04-01

    Using Bufo regularis and ten reptile species as hosts for Culex pipiens under laboratory conditions revealed a great effect on feeding preference as a significant long feeding periods together with a significant reduction in the blood meal ratios were recorded. Female mosquitoes offered the experimental animals showed a short life span with different significant levels. A recognizable reduction in the reproductive fitness of Cx. pipiens females was recorded. Delayed oviposition and low ICI values was obtained. The percentage of egg hatching was not affected by the experimental animals. PMID:16605098

  4. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  5. Amphibians and disease: Implications for conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The decline of amphibian populations is a world-wide phenomenon that has received increasing attention since about 1990. In 2004, the World Conservation Union’s global amphibian assessment concluded that 48% of the world’s 5,743 described amphibian species were in decline, with 32% considered threatened (Stuart et al. 2004). Amphibian declines are a significant issue in the western United States, where all native species of frogs in the genus Rana and many toads in the genus Bufo are at risk, particularly those that inhabit mountainous areas (Corn 2003a,b; Bradford 2005).

  6. Demography of common toads after local extirpation of co-occurring midwife toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bosch, Jaime; Fernandez-Beaskoetxea, S; Scherer, R.; Amburgey, Staci; Muths, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating demographic parameters like survival or recruitment provides insight into the state and trajectory of populations, but understanding the contexts influencing those parameters, including both biotic and abiotic factors, is particularly important for management and conservation. At a high elevation national park in Central Spain, common toads (Bufo bufo) are apparently taking advantage of the near-extirpation of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), as colonization into new breeding ponds is evident. Within this scenario, we expected demographic parameters of common toad populations tobe affected favorably by the putative release from competition. However, we found the population growth rate was negative in 4 of 5 years at the long-standing population; survival probability at the long-standing population and newly-colonised breeding ponds was lower than reported for other toads living at high elevations and the probability of recruitment was inadequate to compensate for the survival rate in maintaining a positive trajectory for either of the breeding ponds. We assessed weather covariates and disease for their contribution to the context that may be limiting the common toad’s successful use of the niche vacated by the midwife toad.

  7. Diet of introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): Predation on and diet overlap with native frogs on Daishan Island, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhengjun; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Adams, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined diet of introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and three native frog species (Rana limnocharis, Rana nigromaculata, and Bufo bufo gargarizans) co-occurring at a group of ponds on Daishan Island, east of China, to gain insight into the nature of potential interactions between Bullfrogs and native frog species. For postmetamorphic Bullfrogs, aquatic prey items dominated volumetrically. Prey size, diet volume and volumetric percentage of native frogs in diet increased with Bullfrog body size. The number and volumetric percentage of native frogs in the diet were not different for female and male Bullfrogs, and both were higher for adults than for juveniles. Diet overlap between males and juveniles was higher than that between males and females and between females and juveniles. Diet overlap with each native frog species of male Bullfrogs was lower than that of female Bullfrogs and juvenile Bullfrogs. We did not exam effects of Bullfrogs on native frogs but our results suggest that the primary threat posed by juvenile Bullfrogs to native frogs on Daishan Island is competition for food, whereas the primary threat posed by male Bullfrogs is direct predation. Female Bullfrogs may threaten native frogs by both competition and predation. These differences among Bullfrog groups may be attributed to differences in body size and microhabitat use.

  8. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, C. K.; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Wei, Ming Q.

    2014-01-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini) which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies. PMID:24734105

  9. Bufalin inhibits migration and invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells through the inhibitions of NF-kB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis plays an important role in mortality of cancer patients. Migration and invasion are the major characteristics of tumor metastasis. The induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2 and -9 are particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Bufalin, a class of toxic steroids, was purified from the skin glands of Bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanostictus; it is known to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antiinvasive mechanisms of bufalin in the human hepatocellular cancer cell line SK-Hep1. Bufalin significantly reduced serum-induced cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, bufalin markedly inhibited MMP-2 and -9 activity, mRNA expression and protein levels in SK-Hep1 cells. Bufalin attenuated phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of AKT which was associated with reduced levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Bufalin also suppressed protein levels of FAK and Rho A, VEGF, MEKK3, MKK7, and uPA and it diminished NF-κB translocation. Based on these observations, we propose that bufalin is acts as an antiinvasive agent by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 and involving PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. Bufalin is a potential therapeutic agent that may have efficacy in preventing the invasion and metastasis of malignant liver tumors. PMID:23949904

  10. [Neuromuscular spindles of several amphibia and reptiles].

    PubMed

    Kurkina, E A

    1976-09-01

    The work presents data on the structure and innervation of the nerve-muscle spindles in the soleus of the lake from Rana ridibunda, Bufo bufo, turtle Testudo horsfieldi, lizzard Lacerta agilis. The animals under study were shown to have different structure and innervation of these receptors. The thickness of the spindle connective tissue capsule has certain correlation with the width of the subcapsular space. The innervation apparatus in the muscle spindles of reptiles and turtles are similar in the following: sensory nerve terminations in the equatorial area of the spindle are represented by reticulars, bushes, loops and in the lizzard there appear annulo-spirals with a small amount of coils. The character of motor nerve terminations in polar zones of intrafusal muscle fibres in the spindles of reptiles is similar to that of the extrafusal fibres: in the shape of "bayonets" and end bundles (Endbüuschel). In the muscle fibres of the turtle and lizzard in addition to typical motor plaques there occur trail endings. PMID:136238

  11. Predicting the unpredictable; evidence of pre-seismic anticipatory behaviour in the common toad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, T.

    2010-08-01

    The widespread belief that animals can anticipate earthquakes (EQs) is poorly supported by evidence, most of which consists of anecdotal post hoc recollections and relates to a very short period immediately before such events. In this study, a population of reproductively active common toads Bufo bufo were monitored over a period of 29 days, before, during and after the EQ (on day 10) at L'Aquila, Italy, in April 2009. Although our study site is 74 km from L'Aquila, toads showed a dramatic change in behaviour 5 days before the EQ, abandoning spawning and not resuming normal behaviour until some days after the event. It is unclear what environmental stimuli the toads were responding to so far in advance of the EQ, but reduced toad activity coincides with pre-seismic perturbations in the ionosphere, detected by very low frequency (VLF) radio sounding. We compare the response of toads to the EQ with the reported responses to seismic activity of several other species.

  12. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  13. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors. PMID:17024381

  14. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads.

    PubMed

    Pilliod, David S; Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Bartelt, Paul E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hossack, Blake R; Lambert, Brad A; McCaffery, Rebecca; Gaughan, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. PMID:20412086

  15. Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: Evidence of competition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of nonindigenous species on native ecosystems can be severe, sometimes leading to the extinction of native taxa. Interspecific competition is a potential mechanism of negative impact of invasive species, but few studies have conclusively demonstrated competition between native and nonindigenous taxa. In this study I used experimental manipulations to examine the competitive effects of the larvae of two widely introduced anurans, the cane toad, Bufo marinus, and the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, on the growth and development of the larvae of two native anurans (the southern toad, Bufo terrestris, and the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea). The presence of O. septentrionalis larvae consistently impacted growth and development of native larvae, resulting in reduced growth rates and delayed metamorphosis of both native species and smaller mass at metamorphosis of B. terrestris. Hyla cinerea larvae transformed at greater body masses when reared with the rapidly transforming nonindigenous species as a result of competitive release. The negative effects of O. septentrionalis on native larvae were generally significant whether native tadpoles were exposed to O. septentrionalis alone or in combination with B. marinus. In contrast, B. marinus tadpoles did not significantly impact the growth or development of either native species. Neither nonindigenous species significantly decreased the survivorship of native larvae, although a trend toward decreased survivorship was evident for H. cinerea. These results suggest that nonindigenous larval anurans may adversely impact native tadpole communities as a result of interspecific competition.

  16. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  17. Death of a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) after the ingestion of toads--evaluation of toad poisoning by toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Peters, Martin; Osmann, Christine; Pogoda, Werner; Mebs, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Animals in zoological gardens are at risk of severe and even lethal poisoning when they accidentally ingest toads. Here we report the case of an eleven month old male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) which was found dead in its outdoor enclosure in the zoo of Dortmund, Germany. Autopsy revealed the presence of two adult, partly digested common toads (Bufo bufo) in the stomach. Toxicological analysis of the stomach content using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS) proved the presence of bufadienolides, the major cardiotoxic components of toad poisons. Using electrochemical luminescens immunoassay (ECLIA) compounds equivalent to digitoxin were detected in the blood sample confirming the absorption of toad poison components from the intestines into the circulation potentially leading to cardiac failure. In zoological gardens special precautions are necessary to protect non-native animals from encountering toads and the risk of poisoning, particularly in early spring, the spawning period of the toads. PMID:26054232

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on boreal toads in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Field exposures of Bufo boreas embryos to fractions of ambient UV-B radiation at two sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, were conducted to evaluate UV-B as a possible cause of recent severe declines of this species. There were no differences in hatching success of B. boreas embryos exposed to 0-100% of ambient UV-B radiation at either study site, results that are different from those of recent studies in Oregon that found increased mortality of B. boreas embryos exposed to ambient UV-B. The reasons for these differing results are not apparent, and several possible explanations exist, including differences in experimental design, presence or absence of a pathogenic fungus, and geographic genetic variation. Bufo boreas embryos were probably not receiving higher doses of UV-B radiation during the experiments in Oregon compared to the experiments in this study. Results of this study do not support UV-B radiation alone as the cause of the decline of B. boreas during the past 20 yr in the southern Rocky Mountains, but UV-B cannot be dismissed because of the contradictory results from other studies.

  19. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts. PMID:24334078

  20. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    PubMed

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882