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Sample records for bufo spinulosus anura

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingjun; Yang, Baotian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo stejnegeri was determined, which was 17 939 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop). The total length of D-loop region is 2533 bp, some tandem repeat units were found in this region. The phylogenetic trees of the 20 species from anura were reconstructed based on complete mtDNA sequences by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses. The result demonstrated that B. stejnegeri is the most closely related species with other Bufo species. PMID:26457914

  2. Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Sinsch, U

    1989-03-01

    The body temperature of free-ranging Andean toadsBufo spinulosus was measured either directly or radiotelemetrically during two 15-day periods at 3200 m elevation in the Mantaro Valley, Central Perú. All toads attempted to maintain their diurnal sum of body temperature within a narrow range. Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during 3-5 h in the morning. Core temperature increased up to 15° C above the air temperature in shade and reached maximum values of about 32° C. At air temperatures (in sun) exceeding 29° C, toads maintained body temperatures below 32° C by evaporative cooling. Following heliothermic heating during the moring toads retreated to the shade, thereby decreasing body temperature below air temperature. Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures at or slightly above ambient levels. Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads under the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for 64.6-77.9% of total variance whereas air temperature was of minor importance (1.5-4.4%). The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon the bladders were mostly empty. The bladder contents probably serve as water reserves during basking when evaporative water loss was high. Toads preferred sites that provided shady hiding places as well as sun-exposed bare soil within a radius of 5 m. However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in 20-70 m distance after periods of 2-5 days. The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad

  3. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than

  4. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Chen, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus is 17,719 bp in size, and shares a conserved gene arrangement, gene content and base composition with other Bufonidae species. The base composition of the H-strand is biased toward A + T content at 56.97% (T 28.14%, C 27.67%, A 28.83% and G 15.36%). Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) begin with ATG, while COX1 and ND2 initiate with ATA and ND1 starts at ATT. Seven PCGs have the complete stop codons AGA and TAA, whereas the remaining four PCGs end with TA or T. The putative control region possesses two repeat motifs, and four termination-associated sequences and six conserved sequence blocks at the 5' and 3' ends. PMID:25856517

  5. The genetics of amphibian declines: Population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite Toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Shaffer H.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Randal, Voss S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  6. Molecular Description of Macroorchis spinulosus (Digenea: Nanophyetidae) Based on ITS1 Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Yun, Yong Woon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 μm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 μm long and 320-450 μm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea. PMID:26951989

  7. Molecular Description of Macroorchis spinulosus (Digenea: Nanophyetidae) Based on ITS1 Sequences.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Yun, Yong Woon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2016-02-01

    We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 μm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 μm long and 320-450 μm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea. PMID:26951989

  8. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  9. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  10. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. PMID:27133069

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  12. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ≥ 200 μg/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 μg/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 μg/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments. PMID:26091834

  13. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  14. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Brunelli, Elvira; Berg, Cecilia; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC(50)). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles. PMID:18243363

  15. Bufadienolides with cytotoxic activity from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Jing; Tian, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lei, Yu-He; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-09-01

    Twelve new bufadienolides (1-12), along with fourteen known analogues (13-26) were isolated from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was an unusual bufadienolide with 3,19-epoxy moiety and A/B trans ring junction. Compounds 2-4 were rare bufadienolides possessing 10-H or 10-carboxyl units. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects on HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Six new compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 10 and 12) displayed significant anti-proliferative activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.049 to 1.856 μM. Arenobufagin (24) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity with IC50 value 0.011 μM. In addition, the present data provided more insight into the structure-activity relationships of bufadienolides. PMID:26022446

  16. Phenotypic divergence of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient: evidence for local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; Miaud, C; Plénet, S

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the environment can induce different patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Both neutral processes and selection can influence phenotypic differentiation. Altitudinal phenotypic variation is of particular interest in disentangling the interplay between neutral processes and selection in the dynamics of local adaptation processes but remains little explored. We conducted a common garden experiment to study the phenotypic divergence in larval life-history traits among nine populations of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient in France. We further used correlation among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (QST) and neutral genetic divergence (FST from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as altitudinal difference, to estimate the relative role of divergent selection and neutral genetic processes in phenotypic divergence. We provided evidence for a neutral genetic differentiation resulting from both isolation by distance and difference in altitude. We found evidence for phenotypic divergence along the altitudinal gradient (faster development, lower growth rate and smaller metamorphic size). The correlation between pairwise QSTs–FSTs and altitude differences suggested that this phenotypic differentiation was most likely driven by altitude-mediated selection rather than by neutral genetic processes. Moreover, we found different divergence patterns for larval traits, suggesting that different selective agents may act on these traits and/or selection on one trait may constrain the evolution on another through genetic correlation. Our study highlighted the need to design more integrative studies on the common toad to unravel the underlying processes of phenotypic divergence and its selective agents in the context of environmental clines. PMID:25074572

  17. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  18. Visual optics in toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Mathis, U; Schaeffel, F; Howland, H C

    1988-06-01

    Aspects of visual optics were investigated in the American toad (Bufo americanus). The development of the refractive state of the eye during metamorphosis was followed with IR photoretinoscopy. Frozen sections documented the changes in optical parameters before and after metamorphosis. There is a difference in light sensitivity between juvenile and adult toads. Binocular accommodation in adult toads was observed. 1. IR photoretinoscopic measurements showed that the refractive state of the eye changed very rapidly during metamorphosis, about 10 D/h while the animal entered the terrestrial habitat. 2. Frozen sections showed that the almost spherical lens in a tadpole eye had flattened in a just metamorphosed toad's eye while at the same time the distance of the lens to the retina had decreased. However, the morphological measurements were not sufficiently sensitive to record the relatively small changes in ocular dimensions that were responsible for the rapid changes in refractive state during metamorphosis. 3. Schematic eyes, with homogeneous and non homogeneous lenses, were constructed for tadpoles, juvenile toads, and adult toads. 4. Nonparaxial raytracing studies in schematic eyes suggested that the lenses of animals of the three developmental stages tadpole, juvenile toad, and adult are not homogeneous but have a refractive index gradient. The raytracing studies indicated that the refractive index gradient is different for the different developmental stages, being highest in the tadpole lens. 5. The observations of toads during feeding behavior at different light levels showed an increased light sensitivity in the adult nocturnal toads in contrast to the juvenile animals, which are diurnal. The increased light sensitivity could partly be explained with an increase in aperture and an increase in red rod outer segments. To fully explain the higher light sensitivity in adult toads, changes in neuronal parameters had to be assumed. 6. Retinoscopic measurements of

  19. Sensitivity of toad tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Amphibian larval stages have several qualities which make them as a useful indicator of harmful levels of pollutants in bioassay tests. Amphibian tadpoles show a variety of sublethal responses such as changes in growth, development rates, pigmentation and expression of morphological deformities in a lesser time of exposure to the environmental pollutants. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to determine the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc to the tadpoles of toad Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), which is commonly available and breed in aquatic habitats exhibiting a wide range of temperature and varying water quality.

  20. Interaction between Pax6 and its novel mutant in Bufo raddei Strauch

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Furong; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhao, Yuanlin; Wang, Ying; Wen, Fan; Ye, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Exploration of the relationship between a novel paired box 6 (Pax6) mutant and Pax6 in Bufo raddei Strauch. Methods RT–PCR, yeast 2-hybrid system, and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the Pax6 protein and its mutant during embryonic eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. Results We have cloned the Pax6 ORF sequence from Bufo raddei Strauch. Here we report the cloning of a novel Pax6 homolog of Bufo raddei Strauch named Pax6 variant. Comparing the 2 genes, the homolog of ORF nucleotide sequence is more than 99% in Bufo raddei Strauch; only the proline-serine-threonine(PST)-rich transaction domain differs. The deduced amino acid sequences of PST region are 53.1% identical. An interaction was found between Pax6 and Pax6 variant via yeast 2-hybrid system; with further study, we found that they interacted in vivo via co-immunopricipitation. Conclusions A Pax6 mutant was first found in Bufo raddei Strauch. Interaction between Pax6 and Pax6 variant may play a critical role during eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. This suggests that expression of Pax6 variant may play a role and appears to be a necessity in eye development, but that Pax6 itself is still pivotal in eye development. PMID:22065923

  1. Analysis of Bufo arenarum oviductal secretion during the sexual cycle.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Claudia A; Ramos, Inés; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-11-01

    SummaryBufo arenarum oocytes are oviposited surrounded by jelly coats, one component of the extracellular matrix required for fertilization. The secretion, released to the oviductal lumen, was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The coomassie blue staining evidenced an electrophoretic pattern with molecules ranging between 300 and 19 kDa that showed variations in their secretion profiles during the sexual cycle. In the preovulatory period the densitometric analysis showed the presence of nine peaks with marked predominance of the 74 kDa molecule. Once ovulation has occurred, the jelly coats become arranged around the oocytes during their transit throughout the oviductal pars convoluta (PC), revealing the addition of three proteins only observed during this period, which suggests a differential secretion. Some of these proteins could not diffuse under any extraction treatment, indicating for them a structural or in situ function. Proteins of low molecular mass diffused totally while others showed a partial diffusing capacity. After ovulation a marked decrease in the relative amount of all the proteins released to the lumen, especially the 74 kDa protein, could be detected. During this period, unlike the other stages of the sexual cycle, a differential secretion pattern was observed along the PC. The histochemical analysis performed during the ovulatory period showed the presence of glycoconjugates including both acidic and neutral groups. The present results are in agreement with previous ultrastructural and histochemical studies that describe the role of Bufo arenarum jelly coats in fertilization. PMID:19500442

  2. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory. PMID:27059330

  3. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    PubMed

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion. PMID:27087930

  4. Effective number of breeding adults in Bufo bufo estimated from age-specific variation at minisatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Arntzen, J.W.; Burke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the effective number of breeding adults were derived for three semi-isolated populations of the common toad Bufo bufo based on temporal (i.e. adult-progeny) variance in allele frequency for three highly polymorphic minisatellite loci. Estimates of spatial variance in allele frequency among populations and of age-specific measures of genetic variability are also described. Each population was characterized by a low effective adult breeding number (N(b)) based on a large age-specific variance in minisatellite allele frequency. Estimates of N(b) (range 21-46 for population means across three loci) were ??? 55-230-fold lower than estimates of total adult census size. The implications of low effective breeding numbers for long-term maintenance of genetic variability and population viability are discussed relative to the species' reproductive ecology, current land-use practices, and present and historical habitat modification and loss. The utility of indirect measures of population parameters such as N(b) and N(e) based on time-series data of minisatellite allele frequencies is discussed relative to similar measures estimated from commonly used genetic markers such as protein allozymes.

  5. Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine. PMID:8895112

  6. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  7. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans. PMID:21882955

  8. The identity of Rana lutea Molina, 1782 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Daiana P; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2013-01-01

    Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799). PMID:24614468

  9. Stage-dependent uptake of cadmium by Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Preez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several years, environmental contamination with cadmium has significantly increased because of its extensive use In anthropogenic activities. This heavy metal is a very toxic xenobiotic producing reproductive and developmental impairments in a wide spectrum of organisms. Within the life cycle of organisms, the embryo is the most sensitive period to adverse conditions. Moreover, stage-dependent susceptibilities to toxic agents in amphibian embryos treated with lead, cadmium and aluminium were described. In the case of cadmium, this differential sensitivity could be related to changes in the metal accumulation through development or in the induction of defense mechanisms against cadmium toxicity, such as metallothionein (Mt) synthesis, which seems to be developmentally regulated. In the case of the toad Bufo arenarum, susceptibility to cadmium seems to follow a biphasic pattern during embryonic development. From the two-cell stage to the neurula stage an increase in susceptibility occurs, whereas from the last stage onwards a gradual increase in the resistance against this heavy metal seems to be achieved. This stage reports the uptake profile of cadmium at different post-hatching stages. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  11. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  12. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    PubMed

    Hansen, H J; Olsen, A G; Willumsen, N J

    1994-08-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent of transepithelial electrical potential in vitro. While all the incorporations in vitro showed (32P) and (14C) frog and toad skin phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylcholine-independent of adaptational temperature and salinity--corresponding phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were found in vivo, when toads adapted to Ringer solution were transferred to tap water containing tracer amounts of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate. PE could play a role in the formation of a "hydrophilic" environment and thereby, e.g. stabilise the integral membrane proteins that regulate the function of ion channels. PMID:7521276

  13. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  14. Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll

    1995-12-31

    As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

  15. Salt sensitivity and hydration behavior of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Maleek, R; Sullivan, P; Von Seckendorff Hoff, K; Baula, V; Hillyard, S D

    1999-11-01

    Toads, Bufo marinus, were placed on laboratory tissue saturated with water or with hyperosmotic (250 or 500 mM NaCl or KCl) solutions, and their behavior was observed for 5 min. Toads placed on water initially allowed their ventral skin to touch the surface without abducting the hind limbs. During this "seat patch down" (SPD) behavior toads appeared to be evaluating the suitability of a hydration source prior to initiating "water absorption response" (WR) behavior with the hind limbs fully abducted and the ventral skin pressed to the moist surface. Toads dehydrated by more than 10% showed significantly shorter periods of SPD behavior and initiated WR behavior more frequently than did hydrated toads. Dehydrated toads placed on 250 mM NaCl initiated WR behavior in only 18% of the trials, but spent significantly more time showing SPD behavior than they did on water, indicating that this concentration is marginally acceptable to them. Recordings from spinal nerve #6 showed an increase in activity when 250 mM NaCl or KCl solutions were perfused over the outer surface of the ventral skin. The response to KCl was significantly greater than NaCl. The addition of 10 microM amiloride to 250 mM NaCl resulted in a higher frequency of WR behavior and reversibly inhibited the neural response to 250 mM NaCl. These results suggest that epithelial Na+ channels in the skin serve a sensory function in this species. Neither the hydrated nor dehydrated toads initiated WR behavior on 250 or 500 mM KCl solutions, indicating that toads have a lower tolerance of K+ than of Na+ salts. PMID:10604846

  16. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation. PMID:24647111

  17. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  18. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    JI, Yu-Cheng; ZHUGE, Hui; ZHANG, Shan-Shan; ZHANG, Shu-Fang; YANG, Xian-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA library by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5′ untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3′ UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources. PMID:25297079

  19. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources. PMID:25297079

  20. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  1. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  2. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the Mojave

    Desert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toads

    collected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  3. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  4. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  5. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY )

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  6. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, Ningning; Yu, Danna; Storey, Kenneth B; Zheng, Rongquan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae) was sequenced. The genome is a circular molecule of 17,343 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a large non-coding region. The gene order and mitochondrial genome information of L. sylvaticus is similar to most other frogs. The overall AT content of L. sylvaticus mitochondrial DNA is 59.3%. In BI and MLtrees, we found L. sylvaticus is a sister clade to L. catesbeianus. The monophyly of Lithobates, Rana, Odorrana, Glandirana, Pelophylax, and Amolops is well supported, but the paraphyly of Babina is supported. PMID:26016875

  8. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning. PMID:25418553

  9. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  10. A volatile, heat-stable anesthetic is not present in the skin of Bufo asper (Gravenhorst).

    PubMed

    Ratanabanangkoon, K

    1988-01-01

    A study was made concerning the possible existance of a volatile, heat-stable anesthetic popularly believed by the Thai people to be in the skin of Bufo asper. The skin together with the paratoid glands of two toads were dried and pyrolyzed. Mice and rats inhaling a continuous stream of the smoke or injected with a high dose of the volatile material showed signs of extreme irritation with no loss of consciousness. It is concluded that the skin of this toad does not contain a volatile, heat-stable anesthetic. PMID:3363570

  11. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  12. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  13. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  14. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  15. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  16. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  17. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  18. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  19. Common toads (Bufo arenarum) learn to anticipate and avoid hypertonic saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2007-11-01

    Toads (Bufo arenarum) were exposed to pairings between immersion in a neutral saline solution (i.e., one that caused no significant variation in fluid balance), followed by immersion in a highly hypertonic saline solution (i.e., one that caused water loss). In Experiment 1, solutions were presented in a Pavlovian conditioning arrangement. A group receiving a single neutral-highly hypertonic pairing per day exhibited a greater conditioned increase in heart rate than groups receiving either the same solutions in an explicitly unpaired fashion, or just the neutral solution. Paired toads also showed a greater ability to compensate for water loss across trials than that of the explicitly unpaired group. Using the same reinforcers and a similar apparatus, Experiment 2 demonstrated that toads learn a one-way avoidance response motivated by immersion in the highly hypertonic solution. Cardiac and avoidance conditioning are elements of an adaptive system for confronting aversive situations involving loss of water balance. PMID:18085926

  20. Ionophoretically applied acetylcholine and vagal stimulation in the arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed Central

    Bramich, N J; Brock, J A; Edwards, F R; Hirst, G D

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine (ACh), applied by ionophoresis, on the isolated arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus, were examined. 2. At each position where ACh was applied across the surface of sinus venosus preparations, a hyperpolarization was produced. These responses were abolished by hyoscine, indicating that muscarinic cholinoceptors are widely distributed over the surface of these muscle cells. 3. Vagal stimulation produced hyperpolarizations which were mimicked, to some extent, by ionophoretically applied ACh. 4. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were abolished by adding barium ions to the perfusion fluid, whereas responses to vagal stimulation persisted. 5. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were consistently slower than those to vagal stimulation. It is argued that the pathways activated by neural and applied ACh have different kinetics of activation. PMID:7965847

  1. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  2. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  3. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391

  4. Phylogenetic relationships linking Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) species based on 12S and 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Manojit; Deuti, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Genus Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) is endemic to southwestern and southern China and throughout southern Asia. Duttaphrynus phylogeny was also under debate for many years. 12S and 16S rDNAs help us to elucidate Duttaphrynus phylogeny. PMID:26155970

  5. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:24570052

  6. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  7. Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas.

    PubMed

    Marco; Kiesecker; Chivers; Blaustein

    1998-06-01

    In field-based choice experiments, we examined sex recognition and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of equal size, males did not discriminate between the sexes and attempted to amplex a male or a female with equal frequency. When a test male clasped a stimulus male, the stimulus male uttered a release call that caused the test male to release the stimulus male. Male-male amplexus never lasted more than 3 s, but male-female amplexus was tenacious and prolonged. Furthermore, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones, but they did not discriminate between gravid females or non-gravid females of equal size. In choice tests that excluded chemical cues, males jumped more frequently towards large females than small ones. Given that females are significantly larger than males, selecting larger individuals as potential mates increases the probability that males amplex with a female. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9642006

  8. Sex recognition and mate choice by male Bufo gargarizans in central China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong Lei; Sharma, Manmohan D

    2012-06-01

    Mate choice is important for successful reproduction, and consequently species have evolved various ways to choose potential high-quality mates. Anuran mate choice and underlying processes have been the subject of several recent investigations, however we are far from a complete understanding of mate choice in this system. In the present study, when given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of identical size, males did not discriminate between the sexes, and attempted to clasp a male or a female with equal frequency. Test males only released the stimulus toad when a release call was emitted by the stimulus male. When two males with distinct size differences were provided with a male, the male chose the larger one. Moreover, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones. These results suggest that male Bufo gargarizans can discriminate between the sexes, probably based on male release calls, and prefer to mate with larger individual using visual cues. PMID:22639803

  9. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  10. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  11. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Experimental repatriation of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) eggs, metamorphs, and adults in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Johnson, T.L.; Corn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) is an endangered species in Colorado and is considered a candidate species for federal listing by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Boreal toads are absent from many areas of suitable habitat in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado presumably due to a combination of causes. We moved boreal toads from existing populations and from captive rearing facilities to habitat which was historically, but is not currently, occupied by toads to experimentally examine methods of repatriation for this species. Repatriation is defined as the release of individuals into areas currently of historically occupied by that species (Dodd and Seigel, 1991). This effort was in response to one of the criteria for delisting the boreal toad in Colorado stated in the conservation plan and agreement for the management and recovery of the Southern Rocky Mountain population of the boreal toad (Loeffler, 1998:16); a??a?|there must be at least 2 viable breeding populations of boreal toads in each of at least 9 of 11 mountain ranges of its historic distribution.a?? Without moving eggs from established wild populations, or from captivity to historical localities, it is doubtful whether the recovery team will attain this ambitions goal.

  13. Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana B; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-08-01

    The localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity in Bufo arenarum oocytes was investigated by ultracytochemical techniques during progesterone-induced nuclear maturation, under in vitro conditions. No Ca2+ deposits were detected in either control oocytes or progesterone-treated ones for 1-2 h. At the time when nuclear migration started, electron dense deposits of Ca2+ were visible in vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and in the space between the annulate lamellae membranes. Furthermore, Ca-ATPase activity was also detected in these membrane structures. As maturation progressed, the cation deposits were observed in the cytomembrane structures, which underwent an important reorganization and redistribution. Thus, they moved from the subcortex and became located predominantly in the oocyte cortex area when nuclear maturation ended. Ca2+ stores were observed in vesicles surrounding or between the cortical granules, which are aligned close to the plasma membrane. The positive Ca-ATPase reaction in these membrane structures could indicate that the calcium deposit is an ATP-dependent process. Our results suggest that during oocyte maturation calcium would be stored in membrane structures where it remains available for release at the time of fertilization. Data obtained under our experimental conditions indicate that calcium from the extracellular medium would be important for the oocyte maturation process. PMID:19397840

  14. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. PMID:26587739

  15. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

    PubMed

    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. PMID:24648036

  16. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  17. [Characterization of an experimental model of monosodium- glutamate-induced convulsions in the amphibian Bufo spp].

    PubMed

    Alfaro, F; Blas, O; Gutiérrez-Padilla, R; Feria-Velasco, A

    1990-01-01

    In previous reports, Feria-Velasco et al. characterized an experimental model of convulsions in rats induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) with evaluation of the motor behavior and neurochemical parameters. In the present work, MSG injected in toads (Bufo spp) reproduced the model of convulsions with some peculiarities. The electrocorticographic recordings in toads after MSG injection were similar to those obtained in rats after administration of convulsant agents. Most of the toads injected with MSG (81.8%) showed convulsions preceded by an episode of stereotyped movements and signs of hyperexcitability. Latency for convulsions and frequency of convulsive episodes were similar to what has been reported in rats injected with MSG. However, the duration of convulsive period was larger than that seen in rats, and no deaths were recorded in toads. The peculiar feature of amphibia regarding their cerebral structures and their blood-brain barrier (BBB) make the amphibian model, an interesting and valuable one in studying experimentally induced convulsions, as well as the role of BBB in these phenomena. PMID:1669233

  18. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  19. Plasma steroid concentrations change in response to sexual behavior in Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, M; Licht, P; Crews, D

    1988-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations change in response to social or environmental stimuli in many vertebrates. To test this phenomenon in an amphibian, we examined plasma androgen (A) and corticosterone (B) concentrations in male marine toads (Bufo marinus), a tropical species exhibiting intermale competition, amplectic clasping of females, and bouts of breeding behavior following rains. When males clasped females for 0, 1, 2, or 3 hr, plasma A concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with hours spent in amplexus. In field-sampled males, plasma A concentrations were higher in amplexing males than in single males. Among single males those found closer to breeding ponds had higher A concentrations than those more distant. These data support the hypothesis that sexual stimuli enhance plasma A concentrations in this amphibian. In 3-hr experimental tests and field-sampled males, B concentrations were higher in amplexing than in single males. Unlike some amphibians, short-term elevations of B apparently are not associated with decreased reproductive function. However, as in other amphibians in which high B concentrations are associated with stress-induced inhibition of reproduction, after 48-72 hr in captivity male toads showed high B concentrations and low plasma androgen concentrations. The bursts of sexual activities exhibited by B. marinus following heavy rains were associated with no changes in A concentration and with increased B concentration. PMID:3139541

  20. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  1. Single-dose metronidazole clears Opalina sp. from juvenile Bufo woodhousii.

    PubMed

    Nickol, Devin R; Tufts, Danielle M

    2013-06-01

    Protozoans of the family Opalinidae are intestinal commensals in amphibians. To test the hypothesis that these organisms are susceptible to the antiprotozoal antibiotic metronidazole, we randomly assigned 60 juvenile Woodhouse's toads ( Bufo woodhousii ) to receive a single oral dose of metronidazole or water. In pilot trials, the prevalence of opalinids in untreated members of this population was over 70%. One-third of the study population was dissected at each of 3 time points: 18 hr, 1 wk, and 2 wk post-treatment. An examiner blinded to the toad's treatment history determined the presence or absence of opalinids using a dissecting microscope. Opalinids were found in 3/10 toads in the treatment group and 9/10 in the control group after 18 hr (P < 0.02), in none of the treatment group and 8/10 in the control group after 1 wk (P < 0.001), and in none of the treatment group and 10/10 in the control group after 2 wk (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that a single-dose of metronidazole quickly and reliably clears opalinids from juvenile Woodhouse's toads with no evidence of short-term recurrence. The treatment was well tolerated, with no apparent morbidity and no mortality in either group. Future exploration of opalinid-related host fitness consequences may be facilitated by this simple method of developing a protozoan-free host population. PMID:23339344

  2. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    PubMed

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  3. Physiological basis for diurnal activity in dispersing juvenile Bufo granulosus in the Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carlos A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Carvalho, José E; Suzuki, Hana; Jared, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Diurnal activity is characteristic of many toad species, including Bufo granulosus from the Brazilian semi-arid biome called the Caatinga. Because of their patterns of activity, juvenile toads are exposed to hot and dehydrating conditions. Our investigation focuses on temperature and water relationships, and is based on the prediction that anuran diurnal activity in a semi-arid environment must be associated with morphological, physiological and behavioral traits enhancing thermal tolerances, capacity for performance at high temperatures and water balance. To test specific hypothesis related with this prediction, we investigated postmetamorphic B. granulosus and collected data on thermal tolerances and preferences, thermal safety margins, thermal dependence of locomotor behavior, thermal and kinetic properties of citrate synthase (CS), and skin morphophysiology. This information was compared with additional data from adult conspecifics and adult toads from sympatric species or from species from more moderate environments. We found that juvenile B. granulosus exhibit the highest critical maximum temperature reported for toads (44.2 degrees C) and are well suited to move at high temperatures. However, and in contrast with juveniles of other Bufo species, they do not show thermal preferences in a gradient and appear to hydroregulate more than thermoregulate. The CS of adult and juvenile toads shows typical patterns of thermal sensibility, but the thermal stability of this enzyme is much higher in juveniles than in adult Bufo of any other species studied. The inguinal skin exhibits a complex folding pattern and seems highly specialized for capillary water uptake. Diurnal activity in juvenile B. granulosus is possible given high thermal tolerances, keen ability to detect and uptake water, and avoidance behaviors. PMID:17234442

  4. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  5. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  6. Role of cations as components of jelly coats in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela Fátima; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2010-02-01

    The role of monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) cations in Bufo arenarum fertilization was analysed. Our results showed that the highest fertilization percentages were obtained when strings of uterine oocytes (UO) were inseminated. Under these conditions, full jelly (FJ), which represents the jelly coats surrounding the oocytes at the time of deposition, contained 68.5 +/- 7.0 mM Na+, 27.4 +/- 2.4 mM K+, 6.3 +/- 0.9 mM Ca2+ and 6.9 +/- 0.9 mM Mg2+. When the strings of oocytes were washed in deionized water, these cations diffused into the liquid medium surrounding them. There was a marked similarity between the loss of Ca2+ in the jelly and the decrease in the fertilizability of the UO. Furthermore, the use of chelating agents of divalent cations showed the importance of the Ca2+ contained in the jelly. When Ca2+ was sequestered from the jelly coats by the addition of the chelating agents to the insemination medium as well as by pretreatment of the UO strings, a decrease in fertilization percentages occurred, this effect being dose dependent and more marked with EGTA. These results demonstrate that the Ca2+ in the jelly plays a role in fertilization. Nevertheless, taking into account that during the washing of the jelly other jelly coat components were diffused and considering that the addition of Ca2+ to the insemination medium reverted significantly, but only partially, the loss of fertilizability of jellied UO (washed), the participation of other components in the fertilization mechanism is suggested. PMID:19664308

  7. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  8. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  9. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2002-07-01

    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport. PMID:12077171

  10. Participation of inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors in Bufo arenarum oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2011-05-01

    Calcium is considered the most important second messenger at fertilization. Transient release from intracellular stores is modulated through both agonist-gated channels, IP₃Rs and RyRs, which can be found individually or together depending on the oocyte species. Using the four commonly used compounds (thimerosal, caffeine, heparin and ruthenium red), we investigated the existence and interdependence of both IP₃Rs and RyRs in mature Bufo arenarum oocytes. We found that caffeine, a well known specific RyRs agonist, was able to trigger oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of 10 mM caffeine showed 100% of oocytes exhibiting characteristic morphological criteria of egg activation. Ruthenium red, the specific RyR blocker, was able to inhibit oocyte activation induced either by sperm or caffeine. Our present findings provide the first reported evidence of the existence of RyR in frogs. We further explored the relationship between IP₃Rs and RyRs in B. arenarum oocytes by exposing them to the agonists of one class after injecting a blocker of the other class of receptor. We found that thimerosal overcame the inhibitory effect of RyR on oocyte activation, indicating that IP₃Rs function as independent receptors. In contrast, previous injection of heparin delayed caffeine-induced calcium release, revealing a relative dependence of RyRs on functional IP₃Rs, probably through a CICR mechanism. Both receptors play a role in Ca²+ release mechanisms although their relative contribution to the activation process is unclear. PMID:20880424

  11. Fine-scale population structure in a desert amphibian: landscape genetics of the black toad (Bufo exsul).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ian J

    2009-09-01

    Environmental variables can strongly influence a variety of intra- and inter-population processes, including demography, population structure and gene flow. When environmental conditions are particularly harsh for a certain species, investigating these effects is important to understanding how populations persist under difficult conditions. Furthermore, species inhabiting challenging environments present excellent opportunities to examine the effects of complex landscapes on population processes because these effects will often be more pronounced. In this study, I use 16 microsatellite loci to examine population structure, gene flow and demographic history in the black toad, Bufo exsul, which has one of the most restricted natural ranges of any amphibian. Bufo exsul inhabits four springs in the Deep Springs Valley high desert basin and has never been observed more than several meters from any source of water. My results reveal limited gene flow and moderately high levels of population structure (F(ST) = 0.051-0.063) between all but the two closest springs. I found that the geographic distance across the arid scrub habitat between springs is significantly correlated with genetic structure when distance accounts for topography and barriers to dispersal. I also found very low effective population sizes (N(e) = 7-30) and substantial evidence for historical population bottlenecks in all four populations. Together, these results suggest that the desert landscape and B. exsul's high habitat specificity contribute significantly to population structure and demography in this species and emphasize the importance of considering behavioural and landscape data in conservation genetic studies of natural systems. PMID:19708887

  12. Heavy metal contamination in the river toad, Bufo juxtasper (Inger), near a copper mine in East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yook Heng; Stuebing, R.B. )

    1990-08-01

    Mining of metals creates a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the environment. An open pit copper mine situated in the Northwest of Sabah, East Malaysia has been known to pollute its surroundings especially with discharges involving heavy metals. Although extensive investigations of heavy metal pollution has been carried out, none of the studies performed so far has included amphibians as indicator of heavy metal contamination in the area. As amphibians live both on land and in water, a study on the heavy metal content of these animals will thus enable a more extensive evaluation of the degree of contamination by heavy metals. Bufo juxtasper was chosen since it inhabits the rocky streams and rivers which exist in both a polluted and non-polluted condition in Sabah. Its' tadpoles are herbivorous feeding mainly on plant detritus, while adults feed principally on ants (which are polyphagous). Furthermore the large adult size of Bufo juxtasper, in which the size of the liver has an allometric relationship with body size, may allow for differentiation between larval and adult uptake through regression analysis. Thus concentration of pollutants acquired only during the larval phase should show a declining or negative slope as a function of body size in adults.

  13. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  14. Ionic mechanism for the photoreceptor potential of the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Pinto, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials were recorded from single rods in the isolated retina of Bufo marinus while the ionic composition of the extracellular medium was rapidly changed. Substitution of 2 mM aspartate- for Cl- produced a prompt depolarization of horizontal cells, but no modification of either resting potential or response to light in receptor cells. This implies that feed-back from horizontal cells to receptor cells was not active. 2. During substitution of choline+ or Li+ for Na+, and during isosmotic substitution of sucrose for NaCl, the resting potential of receptor cells became more negative and responses to light were abolished. During exposure to K+-free medium, the resting potential became slightly more negative and the responses to light became larger and developed small after-depolarizations. Exposure to [K+]out of four times normal resulted in permanent diminution of response magnitude and permanent change of response waveshape. Removal of Mg2+, four times normal [Mg2+]out or substitution of methylsulphate- for Cl- had no effect on resting potential or responses to light. With the exception of the small effects seen with altered [K+]out these results are consistent with the receptor potential being generated by a light-induced decrease of membrane conductance to Na+. 3. Exposure to decreased [Ca2+]out caused both a depolarization of the receptor membrane in the dark and an increase in the magnitude of the maximal response that could be evoked by a test stimulus. The magnitude of the increase in response equalled the magnitude of the depolarization. Exposure to increased [Ca2+]out or steady background light caused both a steady hyperpolarization and a decrease in the magnitude of the maximal response that could be evoked by a test stimulus. For steady hyperpolarizations greater than 3·5 mV, whether caused by elevated [Ca2+]out or steady background light, the decrease in response magnitude exceeded the magnitude of the hyperpolarization. These results

  15. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  16. Interactions of temperature and steroids on larval growth, development, and metamorphosis in a toad (Bufo boreas).

    PubMed

    Hayes, T; Chan, R; Licht, P

    1993-07-01

    The effects of temperature and steroids [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (B)] on premetamorphic growth and development were investigated in the toad (Bufo boreas). The effects of steroids were both temperature and age dependent. In the first experiment, steroids (1.1-1.4 microM) were administered by dissolving them in the water beginning 1 day after hatching at 22 degrees C or 27 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, B inhibited growth (P < 0.001) but had no significant effect on development. Forelegs never emerged in B-treated animals and all died before complete tail resorption. Discontinuation of B treatment allowed normal growth and metamorphosis, but the resulting post-metamorphic animals were significantly shorter (snout-vent length, P < 0.001) than after other treatments. At 22 degrees C, T and E2 had no effect on larval growth and development or size at metamorphosis (P > 0.05), but T induced early foreleg emergence (FLE) (P < 0.005). At 27 degrees C, B was fatal after 2 weeks of treatment, and T and E2 inhibited growth (P < 0.001) and development (P < 0.001), but did not affect time to FLE. In a second experiment at 27 degrees C, treatment with 1.1 microM B starting 15 days after hatching induced early metamorphic events (P < 0.001), such as tail resorption and emergence of the left foreleg (but not the right), but jaw and head restructuring failed to occur. All B-treated animals died before complete tail resorption. In a third experiment, 0.275 and 1.11 microM B, starting at day 43 (stage 43), induced early FLE (P < 0.05) and decreased snout-vent length at tail resorption (P < 0.005) without a dose effect. A higher dose of B (4.44 microM) decreased snout-vent length at tail resorption and time to FLE (P < 0.05) but did not affect body weight at metamorphosis (P > 0.05). Animals in this experiment survived to complete tail resorption and transformed normally. The actions of B in these experiments closely resemble those observed with

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed. PMID:24938085

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhacophorus dennysi (Anura: Rhacophoridae) and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Lv, Tong; Duan, Renyan; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    Rhacophorus dennysi is one species of the family Rhacophoridae. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi was 17 572 bp in length (GenBank accession number KT191129). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of R. dennysi contained two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and one D-loop region. The complete mitogenome sequence data in R. dennysi would provide a basis and important molecular data for studying the phylogenetic relationship, molecular identification and evolutionary analysis in anura species. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Rhacophoridae. PMID:26329505

  19. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  20. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  1. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  2. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  3. The King of the Dwarves: a new cryptic species of Dainty Frog (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows the presence of a cryptic species of Cacosternum (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa, supporting the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of vertebrate endemism. Bioacoustic and morphological characteristics, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of this cryptic species. Tadpoles and details of life history are described. PMID:24872236

  4. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, H.B.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Voss, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  5. Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mestre, I; Tejedo, M

    2005-07-01

    The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) shows variation in embryonic and larval salinity tolerance across populations in southern Spain. However, its aquatic/terrestrial biphasic life cycle, together with remarkable differences in salinity tolerance between Spanish and UK freshwater populations suggest an alternative hypothesis to local adaptation. Drought resistance during the terrestrial phase and salinity tolerance during the aquatic phase are both related to osmotic stress tolerance, and if there were an association between them, one could have evolved as an exaptation from the other. To test such an association, we reared B. calamita juveniles from three populations known to differ genetically in their salinity tolerance, under either dry or humid conditions. Drought decreased growth rate, enhanced burying behaviour, and decreased foraging activity and efficiency. No significant population x treatment interaction was found for any variable, i.e. populations were equally affected by drought. These results do not support the hypothesis of a genetic association between salinity and drought tolerance. PMID:16033556

  6. The natural heterohaemagglutinin in the serum of the toad Bufo regularis, and its relationship to lower vertebrate immunoglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, P; Gold, E R

    1976-01-01

    The serum of the toad Bufo regularis contains a natural heterohaemagglutinin for human erythrocytes, Which appears to have anti-(B + HP) specificity. Results of inhibition and absorption experiments indicate that only one agglutinin is present. The biochemical specificity of the agglutinin may be provisionally described as involving alpha-D-galactose residues linked (1-3) in the B determinant, of red cells possessing the H ANTIGEN. Unlike amphibian IgM, the agglutinin was insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol treatment; moreover, it could be eluted from the alpha1 globulin region on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. These results suggest that this naturally occurring heterohaemagglutinin has a structure similar to that of plant and animal lectins. The relationship of this observation to the phylogenetic evolution of immunity is discussed. PMID:58835

  7. Flurochloridone-based herbicides induced genotoxicity effects on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Nikoloff, Noelia; Natale, Guillermo S; Marino, Damián; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2014-02-01

    Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the flurochloridone (FLC)-containing commercial formulation herbicides Twin Pack Gold(®) (25 percent a.i.) and Rainbow(®) (25 percent a.i.) were evaluated on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. Lethal effect was evaluated as end point for lethality, whereas frequency of micronuclei (MN) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Lethality studies revealed equivalent LC-5096 h values of 2.96 and 2.85 mg/L for Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), respectively. Twin Pack Gold(®) did not induce DNA damage at the chromosomal level, whereas Rainbow(®) increased the frequency of MN only when the lowest concentration (0.71 mg/L) was used. However, all concentrations of Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®) increased the frequencies of primary DNA lesions estimated by alkaline SCGE. This study represents the first evidence of the acute toxic and genotoxic effects exerted by two FLC-based commercial formulations, Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of minimizing the impacts on nontarget living species exposed to agrochemicals. PMID:24239267

  8. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  9. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  10. Comparative Phylogeography of Direct-Developing Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) in the Southern Andes of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García-R, Juan C.; Crawford, Andrew J.; Mendoza, Ángela María; Ospina, Oscar; Cardenas, Heiber; Castro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Andes of South America hosts perhaps the highest amphibian species diversity in the world, and a sizable component of that diversity is comprised of direct-developing frogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae). In order to better understand the initial stages of species formation in these frogs, this study quantified local-scale spatial genetic structuring in three species of Pristimantis. DNA sequences of two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S and COI) were obtained from P. brevifrons, P. palmeri and P. jubatus at different locations in the Cordillera Occidental. We found high levels of genetic diversity in the three species, with highly structured populations (as measured by FST) in P. brevifrons and P. palmeri while P. jubatus showed panmixia. Large effective population sizes, inferred from the high levels of genetic diversity, were found in the three species and two highly divergent lineages were detected within P. jubatus and P. palmeri. Estimated divergence times among populations within P. brevifrons and P. palmeri coincide with the Pleistocene, perhaps due to similar responses to climatic cycling or recent geological history. Such insights have important implications for linking alpha and beta diversity, suggesting regional scale patterns may be associated with local scale processes in promoting differentiation among populations in the Andes. PMID:23049941

  11. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  12. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  13. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of reactive oxygen species in the herbicide acetochlor-induced DNA damage on Bufo raddei tadpole liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingmei; Liu, Jianghai; Huang, Dejun

    2006-06-10

    After exposure of Bufo raddei tadpoles to acetochlor (ACETO) for 14 days, malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA-single strand break (DNA-SSB) in livers were analyzed. An enhanced accumulation of MDA suggests that ACETO causes oxidative stress, and the significant increase in the level of DNA-SSB indicates that ACETO induces DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as well. On the basis of the fact that oxidative stress is caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the present results, we speculate that ACETO-induced DNA damage may be a consequence of the generation of ROS. To evaluate this hypothesis, tadpoles were treated with ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or melatonin (MEL), prior to ACETO exposure. The decrease of DNA-SSB level and the increase of total antioxidant capability (TAC) show that ACETO-caused DNA damage can be attenuated by NAC and MEL. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between the extent of DNA damage and the level of TAC in tadpole liver. In conclusion, the results suggest that ACETO-induced DNA damage is mediated by ROS. PMID:16513190

  15. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  16. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  17. Characteristics of cathelicidin-Bg, a novel gene expressed in the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Xu, W F; Tang, L P; Wang, M M; Wang, X J; Qian, Y C

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su (toad venom) comprises dried secretions of the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans. Chan Su is known for its small molecular components, which include telocinobufagin, marinobufagin, and bufalin, while in other amphibians, studies mainly focus on peptide components. Until recently, no genes expressed in the ear-side gland of B. gargarizans gland had been cloned. In this study, cathelicidin-Bg, a coding sequence of anti-microbial peptide (AMP), was cloned. The predicted amino acid sequence of cathelicidin-Bg was very similar to that from other amphibians, with a 34-amino acid mature peptide predicted in the C-terminus. The functions of this mature peptide were verified by microbe and tumor cell inhibition assays. Our results showed that the mature peptide of cathelicidin-Bg could inhibit the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mature peptide was also shown to selectively inhibit tumor cells. These results indicate that the identified coding sequence represents an active peptide of Chan Su. PMID:27525920

  18. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  19. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  20. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians. PMID:27392436

  1. Chronic effects of strobilurin fungicides on development, growth, and mortality of larval Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus).

    PubMed

    Hartman, Emily A H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural fungicide application has increased tenfold since 2005 in the United States. Active ingredients and formulations of strobilurin fungicides at environmentally relevant concentrations cause mortality to larval and metamorph amphibians; however, little is known about chronic exposure effects in amphibians. We exposed larval amphibians (Bufo cognatus) throughout metamorphosis to the common fungicide formulations Headline(®), Stratego(®), Quilt(®), and a control to determine effects on development and growth. Formulations were tested at 1.7, 50, and 400 μg/L of the active strobilurin ingredient for Headline(®), Stratego(®), and Quilt(®), respectively. Fungicide exposure did not affect body mass or snout-vent length at metamorphosis. However, exposure to Headline(®) at 1.7 μg/L increased the development rate of tadpoles by approximately 5 days compared to the control, an effect not observed for Stratego(®) and Quilt(®). Stratego(®) also caused approximately 35 % cumulative mortality. Results from the experiment suggest that chronic effects of strobilurin fungicides on development, growth, and mortality to B. cognatus are apparent at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:24522617

  2. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Candice M; Starkweather, Peter L; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad (Bufo (Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T(b) range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T(b) as low as 3.1 degrees C and as high as 39.1 degrees C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested. PMID:18357398

  3. Behavioral responses to immune-system activation in an anuran (the cane toad, Bufo marinus): field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, D; Brown, G P; Thompson, M B; Shine, R

    2011-01-01

    The challenges posed by parasites and pathogens evoke behavioral as well as physiological responses. Such behavioral responses are poorly understood for most ectothermic species, including anuran amphibians. We quantified effects of simulated infection (via injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) on feeding, activity, and thermoregulation of cane toads Bufo marinus within their invasive range in tropical Australia. LPS injection reduced feeding rates in laboratory trials. For toads in outdoor enclosures, LPS injection reduced activity and shifted body temperature profiles. Although previous research has attributed such thermal shifts to behavioral fever (elevated body temperatures may help fight infection), our laboratory studies suggest instead that LPS-injected toads stopped moving. In a thermal gradient, LPS-injected toads thus stayed close to whichever end of the gradient (hot or cold) they were first introduced; the introduction site (rather than behavioral thermoregulation) thus determined body temperature regimes. Shifts in thermal profiles of LPS-injected toads in outdoor enclosures also were a secondary consequence of inactivity. Thus, the primary behavioral effects of an immune response in cane toads are reduced rates of activity and feeding. Thermoregulatory modifications also occur but only as a secondary consequence of inactivity. PMID:21128787

  4. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  5. Antioxidant responses to azinphos methyl and carbaryl during the embryonic development of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ana; Lascano, Cecilia I; Anguiano, Olga L; D'Angelo, Ana M Pechen de; Venturino, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Amphibian embryos are naturally exposed to prooxidant conditions throughout their development. Environmental exposure to contaminants may affect their capacity to respond to challenging conditions, to progress in a normal ontogenesis, and finally to survive and succeed in completing metamorphosis. We studied the effects of the exposure to two anticholinesterase agents, the carbamate carbaryl and the organophosphate azinphos methyl, on the antioxidant defenses of developing embryos of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased early by carbaryl, but were decreased by both pesticides at the end of embryonic development. The GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidases showed oscillating activity patterns that could be attributed to an induction of activity in response to oxidative stress and inactivation by excess of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione-S-transferases, which may participate in the conjugation of lipid peroxide products in addition to pesticide detoxification, showed an increase of activity at the beginning and at the end of development. Catalase also showed variations in the activity suggesting, successively, induction and inactivation in response to pesticide exposure-induced oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by carbaryl and transiently decreased by azinphos methyl exposure. Judging from the depletion in GSH levels and glutathione reductase inhibition at the end of embryonic development, the oxidative stress caused by azinphos methyl seemed to be greater than that caused by carbaryl, which might be in turn related with a higher number of developmental alterations caused by the organophosphate. GSH content is a good biomarker of oxidative stress in the developing embryos exposed to pesticides. The antioxidant enzymes are in turn revealing the balance between their protective capacity and the oxidative damage to the enzyme molecules, decreasing their

  6. Effects of copper, zinc and dragonfly kairomone on growth rate and induced morphology of Bufo arabicus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    It is well documented that many amphibian species can detect chemical signals from predatory invertebrates and subsequently develop alternate phenotypes that are protective against predation. The effects of metallic pollutants on the development of predator-induced morphology have not previously been reported. Tadpoles of the Arabian toad Bufo arabicus were exposed for 20 days to copper (0, 10 or 100 μg/L), zinc (0, 10 or 100 μg/L) and kairomones of larval dragonflies (Crocothemis erythrea 1 dragonfly/12 L) in a fully crossed design. The effects of these treatments of growth and body shape were measured. Measured copper concentrations after 24 h were 4.25 μg/L±1.30 (10 μg/L nominal) and 34.9 μg/L±2.15 (100 μg/L nominal). Measured zinc concentrations were 3.04 μg/L±0.1 (10 μg/L nominal) and 26.3 μg/L±12.3 (100 μg/L nominal). Tadpoles exposed to 34.9 μg/L copper were significantly lighter and had a shorter body length than other groups. There was no direct effect of zinc on growth or tadpole shape. Tadpoles exposed to dragonfly kairomones were heavier, wider and had deeper bodies when viewed laterally and had longer tails but overall length was not affected. At 4.25 μg/L copper differences between the control and predator-exposed phenotypes increased but at 34.9 μg/L the phenotypes converged, indicating that copper may inhibit the induced response. PMID:21251714

  7. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  8. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  9. Steroid-induced protein synthesis in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders. Correlation with natriferic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Geheb, M; Alvis, R; Owen, A; Hercker, E; Cox, M

    1984-01-01

    We have identified a group of proteins (Mr approximately 70 000-80 000; pI approximately 5.5-6.0) in giant-toad (Bufo marinus) urinary bladders whose synthesis appears to be related to aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport. Spironolactone, a specific mineralocorticoid antagonist in renal epithelia, inhibits the synthesis of these proteins as well as the natriferic effect of the hormone. Since a variety of other steroids (some of which are traditionally considered to be glucocorticoids) also stimulate Na+ transport in toad urinary bladders, we examined whether their natriferic activity was expressed in a fashion similar to that of aldosterone. Short-circuit current was used to measure Na+ transport, and epithelial-cell protein synthesis was detected with high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. At a concentration of approximately 100 nM, dexamethasone, corticosterone and aldosterone were equinatriferic. Dexamethasone and aldosterone had identical dose-response curves, maximal and half-maximal activity being evident at concentrations of approximately 100 nM and 10 nM respectively. In contrast, at a concentration of approximately 10 nM, corticosterone had no effect on Na+ transport. The natriferic activities of these three steroids correlate with their known affinities for the putative mineralocorticoid receptor in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic concentrations of dexamethasone and corticosterone (140 nM) induced the synthesis of proteins with characteristics identical with those induced by aldosterone. Spironolactone, at an antagonist/agonist ratio of 2000:1, inhibited steroid-induced Na+ transport and the synthesis of these proteins. Thus it appears that all natriferic steroids share a common mechanism of action in toad urinary bladders. Natriferic activity can be correlated not only with relative steroid-receptor affinity but also with the induction of a specific group of epithelial-cell proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig

  10. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  11. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Farias, C F; Azevedo, R A; Brito-Gitirana, L

    2006-02-01

    The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Lens culinaris (LCA), Erythrina cristagalli (ECA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I), Aleuria aurantia (AAA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), and Glycine maximum (SBA). The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary. PMID:16680305

  12. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  13. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region. PMID:18301990

  14. Plasma osmolality, urine composition and tissue water content of the toad Bufo viridis Laur. in nature and under controlled laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Katz, U; Pagi, D; Hayat, S; Degani, G

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of plasma and urine were studied in toads (Bufo viridis) which were collected from three locations in Israel, and compared with toads which were kept under constant laboratory conditions for nearly 2 years. Plasma osmolality was rather constant (over 310 mOsm kg-1 H2O) during the whole year in the active toads. Urea was the most variable osmolyte in the plasma, and accounted for the higher osmolality in southern population. Urine osmolality fluctuated in a circannual fashion both in freshly captured and in the toads under constant laboratory conditions. Water content of the tissues was constant throughout the year, independent of the plasma osmolality. It is concluded that high plasma urea concentration and the excretory system (kidneys and the urinary bladder) are important in sustaining constant plasma osmolality in active toads. Both mechanisms change annually and form the basis for the high terrestriality of this species. PMID:2879673

  15. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  16. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  17. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  18. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  19. Seasonal increase in olfactory receptor neurons of the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus, is paralleled by an increase in olfactory sensitivity to isoamyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hideo; Ichikawa, Masumi; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2009-10-01

    Japanese toads (Bufo japonicus) migrate to and from breeding sites in the early spring, possibly guided by olfactory cues. We previously showed that the electrical activity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the toads was enhanced in the breeding period. We undertook morphological and physiological studies of the olfactory epithelium to determine whether any cellular substrate of the epithelium underlies the enhanced electrical activity of ORNs. The ORNs of the toads were labeled by antiserum to olfactory marker protein (OMP), and the morphology of the labeled cells and their distribution in the epithelium were examined throughout the year. The OMP-positive cells, distributed mainly in the basal and intermediate layers of the epithelium, were most numerous in the early breeding period. Cell proliferation in the epithelium detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling was most elevated in this period. The electrical activity of ORNs was examined by recording the electroolfactogram (EOG) in the toads throughout the year. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the density of OMP-positive cells in the epithelium and the amplitude of the EOG responses. A greater number of ORNs in the breeding period possibly aids the toads in migrating to their breeding sites. PMID:19643818

  20. The role of the egg jelly coat in protecting Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus embryos from Ultraviolet B radiation during development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, L.J.; Fabacher, D.L.; Calfee, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the egg mass jelly provides photoprotection to the developing embryos. Methods. Direct spectrophotometric scans of egg jelly, scans of egg jelly methanol extracts, and experimental manipulation in a solar simulator during development were all used to assess the role of egg mass jelly as a photoprotective agent. Results/Discussion. For Hyla regilla, scans of egg jelly and methanolic extracts (for mycosporine-like amino acid content) both displayed no absorption in the UV range. Experimental manipulation (removal of egg mass jelly) with both Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus egg masses in a solar simulator demonstrated that egg mass jelly played no apparent role in photoprotection of either of these species. Conclusions. Based on the results in this study it seems unlikely that the egg jelly coat is playing a crucial role in protecting developing embryos from the impact of UVB radiation.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Rhacophoridae (Anura): A framework of taxonomic reassignment of species within the genera Aquixalus, Chiromantis, Rhacophorus, and Philautus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-tang; Che, Jing; Bain, Raoul H; Zhao, Er-mi; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among representative species of the family Rhacophoridae were investigated based on 2904bp of sequences from both mitochondrial (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, the complete t-RNA for valine), and nuclear (tyrosinase, rhodopsin) genes. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses were employed to reconstruct the phylogenetic trees. This analysis, combined with previous phylogenetic studies, serves as a framework for future work in rhacophorid systematics. The monophyly of Rhacophorus is strongly confirmed except for the species R.hainanus, which is the sister taxon to A.odontotarsus. The non-monophyly of the newly designated genus Aquixalus by Delorme et al. [Delorme, M., Dubois, A., Grosjean, S., Ohler, A., 2005. Une nouvelle classification générique et subgénérique de la tribu des Philautini (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 74, 165-171] is further confirmed. Aquixalus (Aquixalus) forms a well-supported monophyletic group within Kurixalus, whereas, Aquixalus (Gracixalus) is more closely related to species of Rhacophorus, Polypedates, and Chiromantis. Philautus as currently understood, does not form a monophyletic group. Philautus (Kirtixalus) is the sister group to the clade comprising Kurixalus and Aquixalus (Aquixalus), and more remotely related to Philautus (Philautus). Chiromantisromeri does not cluster with species of Chiromantis, and forms a basal clade to all rhacophorids save Buergeria. We propose some taxonomic changes that reflect these findings, but further revision should await more detailed studies, which include combined morphological and molecular analyses, with greater species sampling. PMID:18442928

  2. Delimiting the distribution range of Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae), an endemic threatened anuran of the Western Ghats, based on molecular and morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nikhil; Padhye, Anand; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae) is a frog species endemic to the Western Ghats and is categorized as Vulnerable according to IUCN red list. This species is currently considered to be widespread over the entire Western Ghats. Our study based on molecular data (using DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes and the nuclear rhodopsin gene), morphological analysis of topotypic material as well as material collected from a wide range within the northern Western Ghats, suggests that the species has instead a restricted range in the state of Maharashtra. Specimens identified as I. leithii from the southern Western Ghats as well as from outside the Western Ghats probably belong to hitherto undescribed species. To facilitate future studies in understanding the nature of this species complex and provide better means for identification and delimitation of species we provide molecular, morphological and osteological characters of I. leithii from topotyic material. PMID:24870665

  3. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3-1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5-1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  4. The effects of drought on population structure, activity, and orientation of toads Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris at a temporary pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, I monitored the populations of two species of toads, Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris, at a temporary pond in the xeric uplands of north-central Florida. A drift fence with pitfall traps completely encircled the pond basin; the fence was monitored 5 days per week throughout the year. The 5-year study coincided with a severe regional drought that resulted in generally short hydroperiods at unpredictable times of the year. More than 800 toads were captured. Successful metamorphosis never occurred at the pond although toads continued to visit it throughout the study. The sex ratio was male biased in B. quercicus but not in B. terrestris, although significant variation was observed from one year to the next. Likewise, the size-class structure and length-weight patterns varied among species, sexes, and years. Although fewer toads entered the pond basin as the study progressed, toads may have gone elsewhere to breed or they may have remained in refugia. Thus, decreased capture does not necessarily indicate that a drought-related population decline occurred. Drought may have disrupted normal arrival patterns and length of stay within the pond basin. Drought also could be responsible for variation in annual size-class structure of captured toads. The uncertainty of the hydroperiod both spatially and temporally in adjacent breeding sites, the ability of toads to move long distances with the potential for migration between breeding sites, and the lack of specificity in the choice of breeding sites (i.e. permanent versus different types of temporary wetlands) may lead to the formation of metapopulations in the xeric upland habitats of north-central Florida. Long-term monitoring under a variety of climatic conditions is needed to assess the effects of drought and other types of environmental stresses on toad populations.

  5. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  6. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gerchen, Jörn F.; Reichert, Samuel J.; Röhr, Johannes T.; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  7. Cryptic Neogene vicariance and Quaternary dispersal of the red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus): insights on the evolution of North American warm desert biotas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jef R; Riddle, Brett R; Bradford, David F

    2005-09-01

    We define the geographical distributions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages embedded within a broadly distributed, arid-dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus. These patterns were evaluated as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of desert biotas within western North America. We assessed mtDNA sequence variation among 191 samples from 82 sites located throughout much of the species' range. Parsimony-based haplotype networks of major identified lineages were used in nested clade analysis (NCA) to further elucidate and evaluate shallow phylogeographic patterns potentially associated with Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene) vicariance and dispersal. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three monophyletic lineages (clades) within B. punctatus. The geographical distributions of the clades showed little overlap and corresponded to the general boundaries of the Peninsular Desert, and two continental desert regions, Eastern (Chihuahuan Desert-Colorado Plateau) and Western (Mojave-Sonoran deserts), geographically separated along the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre Occidental. The observed divergence levels and congruence with postulated events in earth history implicate a late Neogene (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) time frame for separation of the major mtDNA lineages. Evaluation of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and interpretations from NCA reveal that populations on the Colorado Plateau resulted from a recent, likely post-Pleistocene, range expansion from the Chihuahuan Desert. Dispersal across historical barriers separating major continental clades appear to be recent, resulting in secondary contacts in at least two areas. Given the observed contact between major clades, we speculated as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials of the Pleistocene. PMID:16101772

  8. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  9. Immunolocalization and mRNA expression of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha-subunit in the kidney and urinary bladder of the marine toad, Bufo marinus, under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Konno, Norifumi; Hyodo, Susumu; Yamada, Toshiki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2007-06-01

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has previously been shown to be involved in the maintenance of body fluid volume and in Na(+) absorption across the skin and urinary bladder in amphibians. However, the function and distribution of ENaC have not been clearly described in amphibian kidney. We therefore cloned the ENaC alpha-subunit cDNA from kidney of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. The ENaC mRNA and protein were abundantly expressed in the kidney and in the urinary bladder and ventral pelvic skin. In an immunohistochemical study, the ENaC alpha-subunit protein was specifically localized to the apical membrane of the principal cells but not the intercalated cells from the late distal tubule to the collecting duct in the kidney or in the apical area of cells of urinary bladder epithelia. When toads were acclimated to dry and hyper-saline environments, the levels of ENaC mRNA expression in the kidney and urinary bladder decreased under hyper-saline acclimation, but not under dry conditions. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that the levels of ENaC protein expression were much lower in the apical area of renal distal tubules and urinary bladder epithelia of hyper-saline acclimated toad compared with controls. The present study suggests that Bufo ENaC is significantly expressed and functions during Na(+) reabsorption in the apical membrane domain in the distal nephron of normal and desiccated toads. Natriuresis may be caused by decreases in ENaC expression and its trafficking to the cell surface in the distal nephron, a response to prevent excessive Na(+) reabsorption in hyper-saline-acclimated toads. PMID:17333031

  10. Damage to the gills and integument of Litoria fallax larvae (Amphibia: Anura) associated with ionoregulatory disturbance at low pH.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Edward A; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2010-02-01

    In fish, exposure to waters of low pH causes significant damage to the gill resulting in fatal iono- and osmoregulatory disturbance. In amphibians, exposure to acid waters also disrupts ionic homeostasis, however the extent and nature of injuries to amphibian larvae from acid exposure are poorly understood. Changes in gross morphology and ultrastructure of the gills and integument were examined, together with measures of Na(+) efflux/uptake, in larval Litoria fallax (Amphibia: Anura) following acute acid exposure. Examination of tissues revealed significant changes in morphology and ultrastructure of both gills and the integument following acutely lethal exposure to low pH water. Changes to the gills of acid-exposed L. fallax larvae included lifting of the branchial epithelium and opening of tight junctions between pavement cells (with a consequent reduction in tight junction length). Damage to epithelial cell-cell tight junctions was also apparent at the integument along with widespread oncosis and localised epithelial necrosis. Mucous secretory activity at the gills and body surface was largely unaffected by acid exposure, with little or no difference in density, cross-sectional area and number of epithelial mucous secretory vesicles in acid-exposed and control larvae. Changes in morphology and ultrastructure at low pH were accompanied by significant Na(+) loss (up to 50% of the total body Na(+) content) attributable in large part to increased paracellular ionic efflux across the gills as well as increased transcellular and paracellular efflux of ions across the integument. PMID:19879955

  11. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rommel R; Chaparro, Juan C; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  12. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  13. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley. PMID:26250261

  14. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Samuel G.; Andreone, Franco; Crottini, Angelica; Holderied, Marc W.; Rakotozafy, Lovasoa Sylviane; Schwitzer, Christoph; Rosa, Gonçalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of treefrog of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) is described from the Sahamalaza – Iles Radama National Park in northwest Madagascar. This new species is green in colour with bright red speckling across its head and dorsum; similar in morphology to other species of this group including: B. bottae, B. rappiodes, B. erythrodactylus and B. tasymena. The new species can be distinguished by its advertisement call and by a genetic divergence of more than 4.9% in the analysed mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment. Its call consists of two note types: a trill and a click; although similar sounding to B. bottae, the trill note of the new species has a faster pulse rate while the click note is predominantly two-pulsed rather than three. All individuals were detected from the banks of two streams in Ankarafa Forest. The new species represents the only member of the B. rappiodes group endemic to Madagascar’s western coast, with the majority of other members known from the eastern rainforest belt. Despite its conspicuous call, it has not been detected from other surveys of northwest Madagascar and it is likely to be a local endemic to the peninsula. The ranges of two other amphibian species also appear restricted to Sahamalaza, and so the area seems to support a high level of endemicity. Although occurring inside a National Park, this species is highly threatened by the continuing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Due to these threats it is proposed that this species should be classified as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria. PMID:25152689

  15. Changes in the antioxidant metabolism in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Bufo arenarum: differential responses to pesticide in early embryos and autonomous-feeding larvae.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ana; Anguiano, Liliana; Lascano, Cecilia; Sotomayor, Verónica; Rosenbaum, Enrique; Venturino, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Amphibians may be critically challenged by aquatic contaminants during their embryonic development. Many classes of compounds, including organophosphorus pesticides, are able to cause oxidative stress that affects the delicate cellular redox balance regulating tissue modeling. We determined the progression of antioxidant defenses during the embryonic development of the South American common toad, Bufo arenarum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were high in the unfertilized eggs, and remained constant during the first stages of development. SOD showed a significant increase when the gills were completely active and opercular folds began to form. Reductase (GR) activity was low in the oocytes and increased significantly when gills and mouth were entirely developed and the embryos presented a higher exposure to pro-oxidant conditions suggesting an environmental control. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also initially low, and rose continuously pointing out an increasing participation of GSH-related enzymes in the control of oxidative stress. GSH peroxidases and GSH-S-transferases showed relatively high and constant activities, probably related to lipid peroxide control. B. arenarum embryos have plenty of yolk platelets containing lipids, which provide the energy and are actively transferred to the newly synthesized membranes during the early embryonic development. Exposure to the pro-oxidant pesticide malathion during 48 h did not significantly affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes in early embryos, but decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and the pool of GSH in larvae. Previous work indicated that lipid peroxide levels were kept low in malathion-exposed larvae, thus we conclude that oxidative stress is overcome by the antioxidant defenses. The increase in the antioxidant metabolism observed in the posthatching phase of development of B. arenarum embryo, thus constitutes a defense against natural and human-generated pro

  16. A New Indole Alkaloid from the Toad Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying-Hui; Shen, Bo; Xia, Ming-Yu; Wang, An-Dong; Chen, Yu-Lin; Liu, Dong-Chun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    A new indole alkaloid named bufobutarginine (1), along with three known bufotenines, namely, serotonin (2), bufotenidine (3), and bufotenine (4), were isolated from the water extract of toad venom. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods. This is the first time that arginine has been found to be involved in the biosynthesis of bufotenines in parotid of toad. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been assayed against A375 and A549 cell lines by the MTT method; however, they showed no cytotoxic activities. PMID:26999086

  17. [Quantitative evaluation of the genetic divergence of amphibian taxa of different rank by the spectra of total proteins and nonspecific esterases].

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, K I; Truveller, K A

    2007-01-01

    Based on the PAAG disc-electrophoretic spectra of water-soluble total proteins (Pr) and non-specific esterases (Est) from several types of tissues in representatives of Urodela (Triturus vulgaris vulgaris, T. v. lantzi, T. cristatus, T. montandoni, T. dobrogicus) and Anura amphibians (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. temporaria, R. arvalis; Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina; Xenopus laevis, X. borealis; Hymenochirus boettgeri), mean genetic distances (D = -ln[2i/(2i + d)], where i is the number of fractions identical and d is the number of fractions different by Rf-bands, were estimated within and between taxa of intra-, inter-, and superspecific ranks. The most stable estimates were obtained for Pr and Est spectra of skeletal muscles and eyes. In most cases, the spectra of tissues of the digestive system gave higher D values than those of the other organs. The levels of intraspecific differentiation by D (both Pr and Est) were higher in the studied representatives of the order Urodela, probably due to their lower migration ability and more conservative choice of water-bodies for spawning than in the representatives of the other order; the same trend is true for the interspecific differentiation by Pr spectra. Est, on the contrary, gave lighter interspecific differentiation level in Anura than in Urodela, evidently due to the prevalence of sympatric species pairs able to hybridize among the studied representatives of the latter order. PMID:17484154

  18. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides. PMID:26916578

  19. Chromosome evolution in dendropsophini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, P; Cardozo, D; Baldo, D; Pereyra, M O; Faivovich, J; Orrico, V G D; Catroli, G F; Grabiele, M; Bernarde, P S; Nagamachi, C Y; Haddad, C F B; Pieczarka, J C

    2013-01-01

    Dendropsophini is the most species-rich tribe within Hylidae with 234 described species. Although cytogenetic information is sparse, chromosome numbers and morphology have been considered as an important character system for systematic inferences in this group. Using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the previously unknown karyotypes of the genera Xenohyla, Scarthyla and Sphaenorhynchus and provide new information on Dendropsophus and Lysapsus. Our results reveal significant karyotype diversity among Dendropsophini, with diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 22 in S. goinorum, 2n = 24 in Lysapsus, Scinax, Xenohyla, and almost all species of Sphaenorhynchus and Pseudis, 2n = 26 in S. carneus, 2n = 28 in P. cardosoi, to 2n = 30 in all known Dendropsophus species. Although nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding patterns show a high degree of variability, NOR positions in 2n = 22, 24 and 28 karyotypes and C-banding patterns in Lysapsus and Pseudis are informative cytological markers. Interstitial telomeric sequences reveal a diploid number reduction from 24 to 22 in Scarthyla by a chromosome fusion event. The diploid number of X. truncata corroborates the character state of 2n = 30 as a synapomorphy of Dendropsophus. PMID:24107475

  20. Lineage divergence in Odorrana graminea complex (Anura: Ranidae: Odorrana).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rongchuan; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The confusing and unstable taxonomy of Odorrana livida (Rana livida) since its first record has made it a focal frog complex for systematics. In China, four species, Odorrana nebulosa, O. graminea, O. sinica, O. leporipes, were described to closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota based on their morphological similarities, accompanied by much taxonomic confusion because of ambiguities in the wide distribution and morphological variations. Currently O. graminea is being used as the name of a provisional monotypic species group to include all the populations in China that closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota. Here, we conducted a range-wide molecular phylogeographic analysis of the large green odorous frog (Odorrana graminea) complex across the majority of its range in China, based on 2780 bp DNA sequences of three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND2) in 107 samples from 20 sites. Our data recognized three distinct phylogeographic lineages of the Odorrana graminea (lato sensu) complex in China, and they together with a Thailand lineage formed a monophyletic group. Among the four lineages within O. graminea complex, the average genetic distances based on the concatenated sequences of 12S, 16S and ND2 were 7.5-8.8% and those based on 16S rRNA alone were 4.2-5.5%. Furthermore, canonical discriminant functions in morphometric analyses showed significant separations of all the paired lineage comparisons in China. The aforementioned genetic divergence and mismatched phenotypes among the lineages within the Odorrana graminea complex, in addition to their non-overlapping geographic distributions, imply extensive lineage diversification. However, precise taxonomic status of these lineages needs more studies based on adequate type information and more thorough species delimitation based on analysis of differentiaton in bioacoustic and nuclear genetic characters especially regarding gene flow and admixture in geographical contact zones. PMID:26249398

  1. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae).

    PubMed

    Duellman, William E; Marion, Angela B; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America. PMID:27394762

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Kaloula rugifera (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuyan; Wang, Shouhong; Liang, Xixi; Jiang, Jianping; Wang, Bin; Deng, Liangji

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Kaloula rugifera in this work. The mitogenome was 17,073 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The base composition of the light strand was 29.7% A, 30.4% T, 25.7% C and 14.2% G. The gene order and contents of it is identical to most amphibian mitogenome. All protein-coding genes began with ATG as start codon except ND1 gene beginning with GTG and COI gene beginning with ATA. Five protein-coding genes (COII, ATP 6, COIII, ND3 and ND4) ended with incomplete stop codon T. The 22 tRNA genes with the size ranging from 65 bp to 73 bp were interspersed along the whole genome. The D-loop region containing tandem repetition was 1675 bp in length and heavily biased to A + T nucleotides. PMID:25959137

  3. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length. PMID:26106718

  4. Reproductive biology of Pleurodema guayapae (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Baraquet, Mariana; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2014-03-01

    Pleurodema guayapae is a species that inhabits saline environments and semidesert zones from central Argentina. To date, the knowledge about the reproductive biology of this species is very poor, and our aim is to contribute to its knowledge with the description of some important reproductive aspects. For this, field work was undertaken in an area near to Patquia, La Rioja province. Sampling was undertaken during three summer periods (2006-2007; 2007-2008; 2008-2009) in Chamical-Patquia area, where we could find reproductively active populations. We observed and described breeding sites, type of clutch, process of foam nest construction, clutch and egg number and sizes, and hatching time and stage. Behaviour observations were performed from the time that males began to call until the pairs ended up the foam nests building, and layed the eggs. Additionally, one amplected pair was observed and filmed in the process of foam nest construction, and four amplectant pairs were collected and separatelly placed in plastic containers, for nests observations in the laboratory. Hatching time was based on three different foam nests of known age. We found that P. guayapae populations were acoustically active only after a rainfall. Its breeding sites were represented by ephemeral ponds of fresh water, product of rains. The males emitted their calls inside or outside these ponds. A detailed description of the foam nest construction process by both females and males was made. The clutches were in dome-shaped foam nest type of 6-9cm in diameter and 1-3cm in height, some of which were in communal nests. The nests had an average of 1 137 pigmented eggs. This species showed a short hatching time. Our results allow us to conclude that this species should be considered an extreme explosive breeder. Our results are discussed with others obtained for related species. PMID:24912352

  5. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis. PMID:27394273

  6. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  7. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  8. A New Species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Nilphamari, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Microhyla frog from the Nilphamari district of Bangladesh is described and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. Molecular phylogeny derived from mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that although the new species – designated here as Microhyla nilphamariensis sp. nov. – forms a clade with M. ornate, it is highly divergent from M. ornata and all of its congeners, with 5.7 – 13.2% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA gene. The new species can be identified phenotypically on the basis of a set of diagnostic (both qualitative and quantitative) characters as follows: head length is 77% of head width, distance from front of eyes to the nostril is roughly six times greater than nostril–snout length, internarial distance is roughly five times greater than nostril–snout length, interorbital distance is two times greater than internarial distance, and distance from back of mandible to back of the eye is 15% of head length. Furthermore, inner metacarpal tubercle is small and ovoid-shaped, whereas outer metacarpal tubercle is very small and rounded. Toes have rudimentary webbing, digital discs are absent, inner metatarsal tubercle is small and round, outer metatarsal tubercle is ovoid-shaped, minute, and indistinct. PMID:25806804

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops wuyiensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhu, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    In the organisms, mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the evolutionary studies, which can serve as a powerful molecular marker. Amolops wuyiensis, belongs to the family Ranidae that is known to occur in southeast China. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. wuyiensis was sequenced (17,797 bp in length, GenBank accession number KM386618). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of A. wuyiensis contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide composition was 25.9% A, 33.8% T, 28.0% C and 12.3% G. PMID:25238108

  10. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

  11. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007). PMID:27395723

  12. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  13. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Amolops tuberodepressus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohua; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2016-07-01

    Amolops tuberodepressus is a vulnerable torrent frog, and only know distributed in the Wuliang Mountain in southwestern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of A. tuberodepressus was determined. The genome was 18 348 bp in length, and it contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs), one partial control region and one light strand replication origin. The gene rearrangement was observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region, which similar to other Amolops species. In this paper, we utilized 13 protein-coding genes of A. tuberodepressus and other 10 closely ranid species to construct the species phylogenetic tree to verify the A. tuberodepressus was accuracy. PMID:26153745

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Telmatobufo australis (Amphibia: Anura: Calyptocephalellidae).

    PubMed

    Grau, José H; Nuñez, José J; Plötner, Jörg; Poustka, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of Telmatobufo australis is a circular molecule of 17,989 bp in length, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. Gene order and content are identical to those previously reported from other neobatrachian mt genomes. Two protein-coding genes (COI and ATP6) presumably used GTG as start codons while COIII possessed an incomplete stop codon. PMID:26094990

  15. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXII. The Genus Xenopus (Anura, Pipidae).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of 16 species of the frog genus Xenopus were prepared from kidney and lung cell cultures. In the chromosomes of 7 species, high-resolution replication banding patterns could be induced by treating the cultures with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and deoxythymidine (dT) in succession, and in 6 of these species the BrdU/dT-banded chromosomes could be arranged into karyotypes. In the 3 species of the clade with 2n = 20 and 4n = 40 chromosomes (X. tropicalis, X. epitropicalis, X. new tetraploid 1), as well as in the 3 species with 4n = 36 chromosomes (X. laevis, X. borealis, X. muelleri), the BrdU/dT-banded karyotypes show a high degree of homoeology, though differences were detected between these groups. Translocations, inversions, insertions or sex-specific replication bands were not observed. Minor replication asynchronies found between chromosomes probably involve heterochromatic regions. BrdU/dT replication banding of Xenopus chromosomes provides the landmarks necessary for the exact physical mapping of genes and repetitive sequences. FISH with an X. laevis 5S rDNA probe detected multiple hybridization sites at or near the long-arm telomeric regions in most chromosomes of X. laevis and X. borealis, whereas in X. muelleri, the 5S rDNA sequences are located exclusively at the long-arm telomeres of a single chromosome pair. Staining with the AT base pair-specific fluorochrome quinacrine mustard revealed brightly fluorescing heterochromatic regions in the majority of X. borealis chromosomes which are absent in other Xenopus species. PMID:26112092

  16. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed. PMID:27515627

  17. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops mantzorum (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Sichuan torrent frog, Amolops mantzorum (family Ranidae, suborder Neobatrachia), possesses heteromorphic sex chromosomes unusual characteristics among amphibians. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the A. mantzorum mitogenome. This genome is 17,744 bp in length and contains 37 genes, 1 control region, and 1 light strand replication origin typically found in vertebrate mtDNAs. In the A. mantzorum mitogenome, a novel gene arrangement is observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region. This mt gene arrangement seems to be usable as a molecular maker to distinguish to this species from other species in the genus Amolops. PMID:24810067

  19. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  20. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  1. A New Species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL) 30.44 – 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril–snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril–snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3), tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL. PMID:25651541

  2. Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  3. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act on January 17, 1984, with a recovery plan approved in 1991. Currently the total population of the Wyoming toad includes approximately 200 animals in the captive breeding program and as few as 62 toads surviving at reintroduction sites in the Laramie Basin based upon fall 2000 survey data (after releases of more than 10,000 toads and tadpoles since 1995). Necessary conservation measures include improving reproduction and survival in the captive breeding program, improving survival at reintroduction sites, developing techniques to control the effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus, and eliminating threats and further habitat degradation in the wild.

  4. Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in Montane Meadows

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Lind, Amy J.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Roche, Leslie M.; Frost, William E.; Grasso, Rob L.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models. PMID:24223919

  5. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  6. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  7. Electrolyte sensitivity of the skin in the toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Reboreda, J C; Segura, E T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on the responsiveness of the skin to solutions of different electrolytes and sucrose have been done in the toad in vivo and in vitro. Brain pithed animals showed a strong flexor "on" response of the hindlimb when the foot was plunged into a saline solution. The delay of this response was strictly proportional to the concentration of the bath from 0.5 to 1 M. The flexor response was invariably elicited by solutions of different salts: NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl, MgSO4 and choline chloride, but not by a solution of sucrose with the same osmolarity. On the other hand, a contrast "off" response with strong flexion was also systematically observed when a limb adapted to electrolyte solution was displaced to distilled water. Patches of skin were also exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl in vitro and the discharges of its afferent nerve were recorded. A clear cut correlation between the osmolarity of the bath and the rate of discharges was observed. The contrast "off" response to distilled water after exposure to NaCl was also observed in the patches of skin, as an increase in nervous discharges. The spontaneous basal firing observed in water, as well as the induced responses by electrolytes, were reversibly blocked by decreasing the temperature of the bath to 0 C. These results indicate that detectors of salinity are present in the skin of the toad. These detectors appear to be sensitive to the ionization but not to the osmolarity of the bath. PMID:6236671

  8. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  9. A new species of glassfrog, genus Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae), from the Caribbean foothills of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Brian; Salazar, Stanley; Puschendorf, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new glassfrog belonging to the genus Hyalinobatrachium from the tropical wet forests and premontane rainforests of the Caribbean foothills of Costa Rica, at elevations between 400-800 m. The type locality is approximately 4km west of Santa Clara, ca. 400 m a.s.l. (N 10.219, W 83.949). This new taxon is distinguished by its morphological characteristics, distinct advertisement call, and genetic distance (COI mRNA). The new species can be distinguished from other species of the genus Hyalinobatrachium by the combination of the following characters: (1) snout truncate in dorsal and lateral views; (2) granular dorsal skin; (3) parietal and cardial peritonea transparent; (4) hand webbing formula III 2--2+ IV; (5) in life having a uniform lime green dorsal surface that lacks any evident light or dark spots; (6) iris coloration silvery-white with fine dark spots or reticulation; (7) advertisement call consisting of a single tonal long metallic whistle-like note with a duration of 0.40-0.55 s (average 0.501 s) and a dominant frequency of 3.35-3.44 kHz (average 3.39 kHz); (8) highly divergent DNA sequences for the mitochondrial gene COI from other analysed members of the genus Hyalinobatrachium, with 12.4% divergence from its closest known species, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi. PMID:25781240

  10. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  11. The Green Clade grows: A phylogenetic analysis of Aplastodiscus (Anura; Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Haddad, Célio F B; Lyra, Mariana L; Cruz, Carlos A G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-04-01

    Green tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus occur in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes of South America. The genus comprises 15 medium-sized species placed in three species groups diagnosed mainly by cloacal morphology. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to: (1) test the monophyly of these species groups; (2) explore the phylogenetic relationships among putative species; and (3) investigate species boundaries. The dataset included eight mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments for up to 6642 bp per specimen. The results strongly support the monophyly of Aplastodiscus and of the A. albofrenatus and A. perviridis groups. Aplastodiscus sibilatus is the sister taxon of all other species of Aplastodiscus, making the A. albosignatus Group non-monophyletic as currently defined. At least six unnamed species are recognized for Aplastodiscus, increasing the diversity of the genus by 40%. A fourth species group, the A. sibilatus Group is recognized. Aplastodiscus musicus is transferred from the A. albofrenatus Group to the A. albosignatus Group, and A. callipygius is considered a junior synonym of A. albosignatus. Characters related to external cloacal morphology reveal an interesting evolutionary pattern of parallelisms and reversions, suggesting an undocumented level of complexity. We analyze, in light of our phylogenetic results, the evolution of reproductive biology and chromosome morphology in Aplastodiscus. PMID:26802207

  12. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  13. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    PubMed

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  14. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-12-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  15. Integrative taxonomy helps to reveal the mask of the genus Gynandropaa (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Junhua; Wang, Bin; Song, Zhaobin; Zhou, Caiquan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Gynandropaa within the family Dicroglossidae are typical spiny frogs whose taxonomic status has long been in doubt. We used integrative methods, involving morphological and molecular analyses, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships, and to determine identities and the geographic distribution of each valid species. We obtained DNA sequence data of 5 species of Gynandropaa (complete sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [ND2] gene, and 890 bp of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA partial sequences) from 37 localities (including the topotypes of 5 described species) and constructed Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees to examine the patterns of phylogeography. A total of 28 morphological variables were taken on 624 specimens. Three clades with clear geographic patterns were recognized: clade C (from south-western Sichuan Province and central Yunnan Province), clade E (western Guizhou Province and eastern to central Yunnan Province) and clade W (western to southern Yunnan Province). Integrating morphological characteristics and distribution information, the clades W, E and C represent Gynandropaa yunnanensis, G. phrynoides and G. sichuanensis, respectively. We draw the following conclusions: (i) the taxon G. phrynoides, formerly evaluated as a junior synonym of G. yunnanensis, is revalidated herein at the rank of species; (ii) G. liui is a junior synonym of G. sichuanensis; and (iii) G. yunnanensis is a valid species while G. bourreti is probably a subspecies of G. yunnanensis, with the distribution range from Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province. This study clears up the taxonomic status of Gynandropaa and provides important information for understanding the evolution and conservation of these spiny frogs. PMID:26531851

  16. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura : Bufonidae : Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serran Eslabon, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided.

  17. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation. PMID:24872168

  18. [Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests].

    PubMed

    Valera-Leal, Javier; Acevedo, Aldemar; Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio; Vega, Jorge; Manzanilla, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m). This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international) and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP). Likewise, we carried out a systematic population monitoring of G. ovifera in historic and additional localities among the cloud forest of Rancho Grande, PNHP. We found 106 individuals in 11 zoological collections deposited during 1929-2007. After an effort of 646 hours/person we did not detect G. ovifera individuals in the evaluated localities; as well as no statistical significant associations between the annual precipitation average and the historic records of the species during 1941-1997 period (r = -0.054, p = 0.820, n = 19). We discussed the distribution, fluctuation and population changes of this species, analyzing it conservation status. PMID:21516654

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xizang Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Xizang Plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which distributes in southern and eastern Xizang, southern-most Qinghai in China, high elevations of north-central Nepal, Himalayan Bhutan, northeastern Kashmir and India. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. parkeri was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,837 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR). As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the N. parkeri is A: 27.7 % A, T: 30.1 % T, C: 26.6% and G: 15.6%. The alignment of the Nanorana species CRs exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. In comparison with the mtDNA sequences typical of vertebrates, a tandem duplication of the tRNA(Met) gene and a rearrangement of the tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) (CUN) genes were found. The complete mitogenome of N. parkeri can provided an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species. PMID:25758045

  20. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs. PMID:27374495

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of "Xenopus tropicalis" Asashima line (Anura: Pipidae), a possible undescribed species.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Tomomi; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ito, Yuzuru; Kurabayashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The diploid Xenopus tropicalis, with its small nuclear genomic size and short generation time compared to the traditional experimental amphibian X. laevis, is considered a next-generation model animal. Several experimental X. tropicalis lines have been used in research studies. Previous studies showed that the mtDNA sequence of the Asashima line is divergent from other lines and that this line may represent a distinct species. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this unique X. tropicalis experimental line. The genome is 17,700 bp in length and contains 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs. The 16S rRNA gene sequence in Asashima line differed by over 6% from the standard Nigerian lines (a 3% difference is considered the species threshold in anurans), suggesting that this experimental line is a distinct species from the true X. tropicalis. PMID:25714145

  2. Ontogenetic and structural variation of mineralizations and ossifications in the integument within ceratophryid frogs (anura, Ceratophryidae).

    PubMed

    Quinzio, Silvia; Fabrezi, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Ceratophryidae represent a monophyletic group of terrestrial and aquatic frogs inhabiting lowlands of South America where they are more diverse in semiarid environments of the Chaco region. Adult morphology of ceratophryids presents some features associated to terrestrial and fossorial life such as hyper-ossified skulls, spade feet for digging, among others. For anurans, different mineralized structures have been described in the integument as calcium reservoirs and related to the terrestrial life and water balance (e.g., the calcified layer and dermal ossifications). We describe the ontogeny of the integument in the three genera of ceratophryids (Chacophrys, Ceratophrys, and Lepidobatrachus) that inhabit in semiarid environments. Data obtained demonstrated the early acquisition of metamorphic transformations in the integument layers in larvae of Ceratophrys cranwelli and Lepidobatrachus spp. and a continuous increment in the thickness of them up to old postmetamorphic stages. The integument of ceratophryids develops calcium deposits as the calcified layer during postmetamorphic stages. Furthermore, dorsal shields are also present in adult stages independently of terrestrial versus aquatic lifestyles. While the calcified layer seems to be a feature of a fully developed integument, in which their layers have acquired the adult thickness, dorsal shields develop at premetamorphic stages in L. llanensis and postmetamorphic individuals of C. cranwelli. In ceratophryids, similar to other studied taxa (e.g., Brachycephalus spp.) dorsal shields develop via an intramembranous ossification in which the calcified layer does not precede its differentiation. Within anurans, the occurrence of dorsal shields in the monophyletic ceratophryids suggested a distinctive evolutionary history in the lineage. PMID:23074148

  3. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura: Bufonidae: Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serrania Eslabo??n, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  4. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups. PMID:27026545

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs. PMID:25329260

  6. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound encourages lower degradation rates of the Bidder's organ germ cells. PMID:27152939

  7. Development and morphological variation of the axial and appendicular skeleton in hylidae (Lissamphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Soliz, Mónica; Ponssa, María Laura

    2016-06-01

    The axial and appendicular skeleton, the associated musculature and tendons form a functional system related to specific modes of locomotion in anurans. Many transformations in the structures linked with the locomotor function of the adult occur during larval stages and metamorphosis. In this study, we present the larval ontogeny and adult morphology of the axial and appendicular skeletons of 14 species of frogs in the family Hylidae with different locomotor modes and habitat uses. Among Hylidae, a diversity of shapes, locomotory types occurs (e.g., walker, swimmer, jumper, hopper) and different habitat types occupied (shrubby, terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal). Many elements complete differentiation at the end of metamorphosis; others, such as sesamoids, still show an incomplete development at that stage. Sixty seven characters were scored and optimized in an available phylogeny. Nine characters of developmental timing and adult osteology are optimized as synapomorphies of specific groups. Some characters appear to be related to the locomotor type (e.g., the sacro-urostyle region configuration is highly linked with the jumping mode; nonexpanded diapophyses would related to aquatic habitat use). Nevertheless, the functional interpretations are quite particular to this family. Monophyletic clades are also groups with shared locomotory modes or habitat uses. Hence, the hypothesis of common ancestry or adaptation can be evaluated, taking into account the analysis level of the phylogenetic context, so that, when a character is inherited via common ancestry, it necessarily means that functional constraints could also be inherited. Here, we outline the basis for further work on: postmetamorphic development as a fundamental period for the complete differentiation of structures related to a full locomotor functionality; the biomechanical performance in relationship to the variation in ligaments and sesamoids; the importance of analyzing these topics within the frame of heterochrony. J. Morphol. 277:786-813, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012309

  8. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts.  PMID:25543621

  9. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S

    2014-05-01

    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5). PMID:25166328

  10. Phylogenetic systematics of egg-brooding frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and the evolution of direct development.

    PubMed

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; De La Riva, Ignacio; Pombal, José P; Da Silva, Helio R; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Medina-Méndez, Esteban; Frost, Darrel R

    2015-01-01

    Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies. PMID:26623754

  11. A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Filho, João A; Brito, Samuel V; Almeida, Waltécio De O; Morais, Drausio H; Ávila, Robson W

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngodon silvoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is described from the large and small intestine of the Muller's termite frog Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) from the biome Caatinga, Exu municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, Dermatonotus muelleri is a fossorial species with a specialized termite diet, and feeding and reproductive behavior occurring only during the wet season. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus Parapharyngodon by showing ovary not coiled around the esophagus, morphology of anterior cloacal lip, spicule size and number of caudal papillae. PMID:26623864

  12. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae) from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; García, Víctor Vargas; Lehr, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6) in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but Telmatobius intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from Telmatobius intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of Telmatobius intermedius), and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in Telmatobius intermedius). The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru. PMID:25685025

  13. Positive Darwinian selection results in resistance to cardioactive toxins in true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Halliday, Damien C. T.; Rowell, David M.; Robinson, Anthony J.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Family Bufonidae, true toads, are famous for their endogenously synthesized cardioactive steroids that serve as defensive toxins. Evolution of resistance to these toxins is not understood. We sequenced a key region of the toxin's binding site in the Na+/K+ ATPase for relevant taxa representing Hyloidea (including bufonids), Ranoidea and Archaeobatrachia and tested for positive selection in a phylogenetic context. Bufonidae were distinct from other Hyloidea at 4–6 of 12 sites and, with one exception, had a homologous amino acid sequence. Melanophryniscus stelzneri had a distinct sequence, consistent with other independent evidence for a differentiated toxin. Tests within Bufonidae detected positive selection within the binding region, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of this type for positive selection within Amphibia. There was no evidence for positive selection on Bufonidae or M. stelzneri lineages. Sequence change in Leptodactylus ocellatus, a leptodactylid predator of Bufonidae, provides a molecular basis for predator resistance possibly associated with gene duplication. PMID:19465576

  14. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus. PMID:26213769

  15. Histopathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues induced by carbaryl in Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl in liver and kidney tissues of Bufotes variabilis. After 96h following exposure to carbaryl (low dose: 0.05, medium dose: 0.1 and high dose: 0.2mg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected. In liver tissue, vacuolization in hepatocytes, necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, an increase in melanomacrophage number, enlargement of sinusoids, hemorrhage and congestion were determined in exposed toads. In kidney tissue, mononuclear cell infiltration, hypertrophied Bowman's capsule cells, deformation, vacuolization, karyolysis and necrosis of renal tubule epithelium, brush border destruction, glomerular shrinkage, hemorrhage and fibrosis were observed in carbaryl-treated groups. According to this investigation, carbaryl caused histopathologic damages in liver and kidney tissues of B. variabilis. PMID:25573057

  16. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile.  PMID:25662142

  17. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus. PMID:26250005

  18. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  19. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  20. Development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Královec, Karel; Žáková, Pavla; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2013-01-01

    Using histological techniques and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions of histological serial sections, we studied the development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in the discoglossid frog Discoglossus pictus. The olfactory epithelium in larval D. pictus represents one continuous unit of tissue not divided into two separate portions. However, a small pouch of olfactory epithelium (the "ventromedial diverticulum") is embedded into the roof of the buccal cavity, anteromedial to the internal naris. The lateral appendix is present in D. pictus through the entire larval period and disappears during the onset of metamorphosis. The disappearance of the lateral appendix at this time suggests that it is a typical larval organ related to aquatic life. The vomeronasal organ develops during hindlimb development, which is comparatively late for anurans. The development of the vomeronasal organ in D. pictus follows the same general developmental pattern recognized for neobatrachians. As with most anurans, the vomeronasal glands appear later than the vomeronasal organ. After metamorphosis, the olfactory organ of adult D. pictus is composed of a series of three interconnected chambers: the cavum principale, cavum medium, and cavum inferius. We suggest that the ventromedial diverticulum at the anterior border of the internal naris of larval D. pictus might be homologous with the ventral olfactory epithelium of bufonids and with the similar diverticulum of Alytes. PMID:22972712

  1. Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocroft, R.B.; McDiarmid, R.W.; Jaslow, A.P.; Ruiz-Carranza, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Vocalizations of frogs of the genus Atelopus include three discrete types of signals: pulsed calls, pure tone calls, and short calls. Repertoire composition is conservative across species. Repertoires of most species whose calls have been recorded contain two or three of these identifiable call types. Within a call type, details of call structure are very similar across species. This apparent lack of divergence in calls may be related to the rarity of sympatry among species of Atelopus and to the relative importance of visual communication in their social interactions.

  2. A comparative ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa in Pleurodema (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Julio C; Ferraro, Daiana P; Farías, Alejandro; Santos, Julio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Faivovich, Julián; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the spermatozoa of 10 of the 15 species of the Neotropical frog genus Pleurodema through transmission electron microscopy. The diversity of oviposition modes coupled with a recent phylogenetic hypothesis of Pleurodema makes it an interesting group for the study of ultrastructural sperm evolution in relation to fertilization environment and egg-clutch structure. We found that Pleurodema has an unusual variability in sperm morphology. The more variable structures were the acrosomal complex, the midpiece, and the tail. The acrosomal complex has all the structures commonly reported in hyloid frogs but with different degree of development of the subacrosomal cone. Regarding the midpiece, the variability is given by the presence or absence of the mitochondrial collar. Finally, the tail is the most variable structure, ranging from single (only axoneme) to more complex (presence of paraxonemal rod, cytoplasmic sheath, and undulating membrane), with the absence of the typical axial fiber present in hyloid frogs, also shared with some other genera of Leiuperinae. J. Morphol. 277:957-977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151937

  3. Two New Species of Liuixalus (Rhacophoridae, Anura): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Cai, Bo; Xie, Feng; Jiang, Jianping; Murphy, Robert W.; Li, Jia-Tang; Wang, Yuezhao

    2015-01-01

    Due to small body sizes, superficial similarities in morphologies, and obscure activity behaviors, the phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the genus Liuixalus were very troublesome. Some species might comprise a complex of cryptic species. To investigate the species of group, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of the genus using 16s rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences. Analyses recovered six well supported matrilines that involved L. romeri, L. ocellatus, L. hainanus, L. calcarius, Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. and Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov., though the historical relationships among them remained unresolved. Currently, Liuixalus included 4 species, distributed eastwards from northern Vietnam to Hong Kong, China. Based on genealogical and morphological distinctiveness, we described Liuixalus jinxiuensis sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Dayao, Jinxiu, China and Liuixalus shiwandashan sp. nov. from the type locality Mt. Shiwanda, China. A combination of morphological measurements, genetic, bioacoustic and osteological analysis was served to diagnose the new taxa. PMID:26305377

  4. A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; YAN, Fang; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of threefrog is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China based on morphological and phylogenetic data. The new genus can be distinguished from other treefrog genera by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate, 45.0 mm in male; (2) snout rounded; (3) canthus rostralis obtuse and raised prominently, forming a ridge from nostril to anterior corner of eyes; (4) web rudimentary on fingers; (5) web moderately developed on toes; (6) phalange "Y" shaped, visible from dorsal side of fingers and toes; (7) skin of dorsal surfaces relatively smooth, scatted with small tubercles; (8) iris with a pale yellow, "X" shaped pattern of pigmentation. PMID:26828030

  5. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; LI, Pi-Peng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  6. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Abstract I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region. PMID:24146562

  7. A new Leptolalax from the mountains of Sabah, Borneo (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto; Yambun, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Leptolalax is described from Kinabalu National Park in western Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The new species had been assigned to L. dringi, L. gracilis, or L. fritinniens in the past. It differs from all congeners, including these species, by a unique combination of morphological characters, including small body size, rounded snout, narrower interorbital than upper eyelid, basal toe webbing, smooth skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 1-149 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 6.90-7.35 kHz, without prominent frequency modulation. PMID:24869507

  8. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein. PMID:26250286

  9. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial. PMID:24304922

  10. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat. PMID:25543630

  11. Larval morphology and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus Bokermann, 1966 (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Thamires F; De Lima, Marcelo G; Do Nascimento, Filipe Augusto C; Dos Santos, Ednilza M

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the tadpole and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus, based on specimens from the Parque Nacional do Catimbau, in the municipality of Buíque, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The overall morphology of P. acuminatus tadpole is similar to that of most species of the genus. The presence of a double row of marginal papillae surrounding all the oral apparatus (except on most of the upper labium which has a dorsal gap) was a characteristic that differentiate P. acuminatus from the other species of the genus. Furthermore, the call structure of the species (unpulsed notes with harmonic structure) fits it in the group composed of P. kautskyi and P. melanomystax. PMID:24871716

  12. Reinterpreting features of the advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885; Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio; Vo, Pacific; Herche, Jesse; Tang, Justine Nicole; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri was originally described by Nelson (1973) in a brief section of a review on the mating calls of the Microhylinae. He used two calls from São Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil to determine that they have i) dominant frequency between 1.500-2.200 kHz (mean 1.854 + 0.216 kHz), and ii) harmonic intervals between 0.140 and 0.150 kHz (0.146 +/- 0.005 kHz). Nelson (1973) based his description on an audiospectrogram produced with high frequency resolution and did not quantify the pulse structure of the calls. More recently, Giaretta and colleagues (2013) expanded on the original description using a larger set of calls recorded from Gurinhat, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. They quantified the temporal structure of the call and confirmed that the dominant frequency is around 1.8 kHz. In addition, they identified a secondary low frequency band at 667 Hz. PMID:26249515

  13. New Material of Beelzebufo, a Hyperossified Frog (Amphibia: Anura) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Susan E.; Groenke, Joseph R.; Jones, Marc E. H.; Turner, Alan H.; Krause, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates. PMID:24489877

  14. Helminth community structure of Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae) from a South American subtropical area.

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I; Kehr, A I; González, C E

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relative influence of season, year of study, host body size, and host sex on abundance of helminth species parasitic in the frog Scinax nasicus. A total of 273 frogs was collected between December 2004 and November 2006 over all seasons in Corrientes City, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Helminth community included 21 taxa, and was dominated particularly by larval trematodes. Infected frogs harboured a maximum of 7 species. Host sex and season played no significant effect in determining infracommunity parasite species abundance. Similarly, species richness was similar for both host sexes, and across time (year and season). However, occurrence of the parasites Opisthogonimus sp. 2 and Travtrema aff. stenocotyle greatly varied over time. Host body size was the main factor for determining infrapopulation structure of Centrorhynchus sp. Species richness was significantly and positively correlated with host body size. Strong associations were observed mainly between metacercariae of some species. The transmission strategies of parasites suggest that this hylid acquires infections by ingestion of infective larvae and through direct contact with larval parasites from aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:21290898

  15. Feeding mechanisms in two treefrogs, Hyla nana and Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Vera Candioti, M F; Lavilla, E O; Echeverría, D D

    2004-08-01

    After the description of the chondrocranium, hyobranchial apparatus, associated musculature, buccal apparatus, buccopharyngeal cavity, digestive tract, and gut contents, it was possible to define the feeding modes of Scinax nasicus and Hyla nana tadpoles (Gosner Stages 31-36). Scinax nasicus larvae are "typical" microphagous tadpoles, with keratodonts and robust rostrodonts appropriate for rasping surfaces and mincing of food particles; the buccopharyngeal cavity is equipped with filtering structures and has a conspicuous glandular zone and a highly developed branchial basket. In contrast, H. nana tadpoles have a modified buccal apparatus; the reduction of the buccopharyngeal and branchial basket structures, together with the high lever-arm ratio and the great development of the depressor muscles of the buccal floor are indicative of macrophagous feeding. PMID:15216525

  16. The karyotype of three Brazilian Terrarana frogs (Amphibia, Anura) with evidence of a new Barycholos species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A recent substantial rearrangement of the 882 described eleutherodactyline frog species has considerably improved the understanding of their systematics. Nevertheless, many taxonomic aspects of the South American eleutherodactyline species remain unknown and require further investigation using morphological, cytogenetic and molecular approaches. In this work, the karyotypes of the Brazilian species Ischnocnema juipoca (Atibaia and Campos do Jordão, SP), Barycholos cf. ternetzi (Uberlândia, MG, and Porto Nacional, TO), and Pristimantis crepitans (Chapada dos Guimarães and São Vicente, MT) were analyzed using Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR labeling, and C-banding techniques. All individuals had a diploid number of 22 chromosomes, but the Fundamental Numbers were different among species. The herein described low chromosome number of Pristimantis crepitans is unique within this genus, suggesting that cytogenetically this species is not closely related either to its congeneric species or to Ischnocnema. In addition, karyotype differences, mainly in the NOR position, clearly distinguished the two Barycholos populations, besides indicating the existence of a so far undescribed species in this genus. A taxonomic review could clarify the systematic position of P. crepitans and verify the hypothetic new Barycholos species. PMID:21637508

  17. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic position of Osteocephalus festae (Anura, Hylidae) with description of its larva

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Toral, Eduardo; Venegas, Pablo J.; Barnes, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Osteocephalus festae is an Amazonian species recently resurrected from a synonymy with Osteocephalus buckleyi. Because few specimens are known, its morphological variation, diagnostic characters, and distribution are poorly understood. Herein we determine its phylogenetic relationships and provide a complete taxonomic account based on recently collected specimens (adults and larvae) from nine localities in Ecuador and Peru. Osteocephalus festae is most similar to Osteocephalus verruciger from which it differs in having less tuberculate dorsal skin on males, smaller tympanum, and more tooth rows in the oral disk of larvae. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, genes 12S and ND1, shows that Osteocephalus festae is closely related to Osteocephalus buckleyi, Osteocephalus mutabor and Osteocephalus verruciger. A clade consisting of Osteocephalus festae, Osteocephalus verruciger, and Osteocephalus buckleyi is characterized by stream dwelling tadpoles. Surprisingly, we found paraphyly among Ecuadorian populations of Osteocephalus buckleyi and Osteocephalus verruciger. The causes for paraphyly are unknown but in Osteocephalus buckleyi may result from the existence of cryptic species. PMID:21594044

  18. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  19. Unusual chromosomal distribution of a major satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Amor, N; Odierna, G; Chinali, G; Said, K; Picariello, O

    2009-01-01

    A new highly abundant satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Dp-sat1) was isolated and characterized. The repetitive unit (0.51 kb) has 2 HindIII sites and only one SpeI site: digestion of genomic DNA with HindIII produces 3 fragments: HA (0.17 kb), HB (0.34 kb), and HC = HA + HB (0.51 kb), while digestion with SpeI produces the whole repetitive unit (0.51 kb) that contains both HindIII sites. Sequence analysis of cloned repeats indicates an average A + T content of 71%, with many A- and T-runs. Southern blot analysis shows an arrangement of multiple bands of the 0.51 kb monomer in SpeI-digested DNA, while HindIII-digested DNA shows a ladder composed of all the possible combinations of the 3 digested fragments. Quantitative dot-blot indicates that Dp-sat1 accounts for about 6% of the D. pictus genome: this value represents about 1.5 x 10(6) copies of repetitive units per nucleus. This satellite DNA is also a major repetitive DNA in 4 other Discoglossus species, in which the repetitive unit presents the same size and restriction sites except in D. montalentii where it contains a unique HindIII site. This satellite DNA was absent in all the other tested archaeo- and neo-bratrachian species, as well as non-amphibian species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that Dp-sat1 is localized only in peri- and/or para-centromeric areas of the 7 small chromosome pairs, while no labeling was observed in the 7 large chromosome pairs. Remarkably, Dp-sat1 heterochromatin is found only at one pole of the nucleus, suggesting that during interphase all 7 small chromosome pairs are located in the same nuclear region. PMID:20110657

  20. Aspects of the reproductive ecology and behavior of the tepui toads, genus Oreophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Gorzula, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (-3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 females, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8-35. All viable clutches from Kukenan were attended by an adult. One clutch of 13 eggs from Ilu-tepui was without an attendant adult. Calls of Kukenan males consist of 9-16 partially pulsed notes given at a rate of 5-7 notes per second. Calls and notes were modulated and increased or decreased in frequency; dominant frequencies of the calls ranged between 2650-3650 Hz. Tepui toads are diurnal, rock dwellers with a slow, deliberate walking gait. An unusual balling and tumbling behavior and bright colored venter may be associated with predator avoidance in some populations. Remarkable parallels in reproductive ecology and behavior between Oreophynella and montane populations of the African bufonid Nectophrynoides are noted.

  1. Two new species of South American Centrolenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Glenn; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Perú, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  2. Two new species of South American Centrorlenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. Mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, G.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Peru, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  3. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Catherine E.; Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Rissler, Leslie J.; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp = 1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap = 99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. PMID:22321689

  4. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61–92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2–18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  5. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. PMID:22052622

  6. A new species of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Leptobrachium from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, Yunnan Province of China based on molecular and morphological evidences. The new species, Leptobrachium tengchongense sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) relatively small size (adult males SVL 41.7-51.5 mm); (2) head width slightly larger than head length; (3) tympanum indistinct; (4) two palmar tubercles oval and distinct, inner one larger than outer one; (5) sexually active males without spines on the upper lip; (6) dorsal skin smooth with distinct network of ridges; (7) dorsum pinkish grey and scattered with irregular black markings; (8) venter dark purplish-gray with numerous small white spots on tubercles, solid white chest; (9) iris bicolored, upper one-third light blue, lower two-third dark brown. With the description of the new species, the number of Leptobrachium species currently known from China adds up to ten. PMID:27515651

  7. Hematology of Wild Caught Dubois's Tree Frog Polypedates teraiensis, Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Blood was analyzed from eighty (forty males and forty females) adult individuals of Polypedates teraiensis to establish reference ranges for its hematological and serum biochemical parameters. The peripheral blood cells were differentiated as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and thrombocytes, with similar morphology to other anurans. Morphology of blood cells did not vary according to sex. The hematological investigations included morphology and morphometry of erythrocytes, morphometry of leucocytes, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin content (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) count, leukocyte or white blood cell (WBC) count, differential leukocyte count, and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio. Besides, protein, cholesterol, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine content of blood serum were assayed. Hematological parameters that differed significantly between sexes were RBC count, length and breadth of RBC, neutrophil %, N/L ratio, area occupied by basophils, and diameter of large lymphocyte and eosinophils. The level of glucose, urea, and creatinine in blood serum also significantly differed between sexes. PMID:24616633

  8. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  9. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  10. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value.

    PubMed

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, Renaud; Lenoir, Nicolas; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierce, Stephanie E; Rage, Jean-Claude; Smirnov, Sergei V; Schwermann, Achim H; Valentin, Xavier; Venczel, Márton; Wuttke, Michael; Zikmund, Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Palaeobatrachidae are extinct frogs from Europe closely related to the Gondwanan Pipidae, which includes Xenopus. Their frontoparietal is a distinctive skeletal element which has served as a basis for establishing the genus Albionbatrachus. Because little was known about developmental and individual variation of the frontoparietal, and its usefulness in delimiting genera and species has sometimes been doubted, we investigate its structure in Palaeobatrachus and Albionbatrachus by means of X-ray high resolution computer tomography (micro-CT). To infer the scope of variation present in the fossil specimens, we also examined developmental and interspecific variation in extant Xenopus. In adults of extinct taxa, the internal structure of the frontoparietal bone consists of a superficial and a basal layer of compact bone, with a middle layer of cancellous bone between them, much as in early amphibians. In Albionbatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone, consisting of small and large cavities, was connected with the dorsal, sculptured surface of the bone by a system of narrow canals; in Palaeobatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone and the canals connecting this layer with the dorsal surface of the frontoparietal were reduced. The situation in Palaeobatrachus robustus from the lower Miocene of France is intermediate-while external features support assignment to Palaeobatrachus, the inner structure is similar to that in Albionbatrachus. It may be hypothesized that sculptured frontoparietals with a well-developed layer of cancellous (i.e., vascularized) bone may indicate adaptation to a more terrestrial way of life, whereas a reduced cancellous layer might indicate a permanent water dweller. PMID:26235188