Science.gov

Sample records for building-integrated energy-producing components

  1. Building-integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of the issues and opportunities for building-integrated PV products, seen primarily from the perspective of the design community. Although some quantitative analysis is included, and limited interviews are used, the essence of the study is qualitative and subjective. It is intended as an aid to policy makers and members of the technical community in planning and setting priorities for further study and product development. It is important to remember that the success of a product in the building market is not only dependent upon its economic value; the diverse group of building owners, managers, regulators, designers, tenants and users must also find it practical, aesthetically appealing and safe. The report is divided into 11 sections. A discussion of technical and planning considerations is followed by illustrative diagrams of different wall and roof assemblies representing a range of possible PV-integration schemes. Following the diagrams, several of these assemblies are then applied to a conceptual test building which is analyzed for PV performance. Finally, a discussion of mechanical/electrical building products incorporating PVs is followed by a brief surveys of cost issues, market potential and code implications. The scope of this report is such that most of the discussion does not go beyond stating the questions. A more detailed analysis will be necessary to establish the true costs and benefits PVs may provide to buildings, taking into account PV power revenue, construction costs, and hidden costs and benefits to building utility and marketability.

  2. Plug and Play Components for Building-Integrated PV Systems: Phase I--Final Report, 20 February 2002--19 February 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the development by RWE Schott Solar, Inc., of innovative new products to facilitate the broad use of its PV systems in the current markets. RWE manufactures and sells the 300-watt ASE-300 PV module and also provides complete photovoltaic system engineering, design, and turnkey PV system installation services. RWE Schott Solar has many years of experience designing PV arrays and installing them on flat roofs and pitched roofs, and had plans to improve these designs. Specifically, wind-tunnel testing and analyses were needed for the new flat-roof PV array mounting system that avoids roof penetrations. In addition, to simplify large grid-tied PV systems for flat-roof applications, the company's line of wiring junction boxes needed to be updated with new components and higher-power multi-circuit configurations. For pitched-roof residential applications, testing was planned to determine the holding power of three different fasteners in a wide range of wood-sheathing types found in residential construction to help optimize fastening methods. A device for connecting PV to the grid at a meter socket was innovated and is also being developed.

  3. Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

  4. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-06-03

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  5. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2015-11-10

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  6. Optimal building-integrated photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.

    1995-11-01

    Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules are clean, safe and efficient devices that have long been considered a logical material for use in buildings. Recent technological advances have made PVs suitable for direct integration into building construction. PV module size, cost, appearance and reliability have advanced to the point where they can function within the architectural parameters of conventional building materials. A building essentially provides free land and structural support for a PV module, and the module in turn displaces standard building components. This report identifies the highest-value applications for PVs in buildings. These systems should be the first markets for BIPV products in the commercial buildings, and should remain an important high-end market for the foreseeable future.

  7. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  8. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  9. ACCURATE BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM (BIPV) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the leading areas of renewable energy applications for the twenty-first century is building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Integrating photovoltaics into building structures allows the costs of the PV system to be partially offset by the solar modules also serving a s...

  10. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  11. The solar cube: A building-integrated photovoltaic incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Perlin, J.

    2000-06-01

    A huge tipped glass tube provides instruction to visitors to the Discovery Science Center in Los Angeles, and an educational diversion to commuters on Interstate 5. The project revealed that photovoltaic industry has a lot to learn from those in the construction industry about building-integrated photovoltaics. The industry must develop products pleasing to the architect and the architect's client, and easily adaptable to the rest of the building. This market requires PV manufacturers to look at photovoltaics as a building material that just so happens to produce electricity, too. Hence, price per square rules in this application over cost per watt. Most importantly, of course, demonstrating as pioneers the potential of building-integrated photovoltaics has delighted the client, The Science Discovery Center.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Data for 26 major energy producing companies (coal, oil, gas, nuclear) for 1977 and 1978 are presented. Data were collected using the Financial Reporting System (FRS) reporting Form EIA-28 which collects disaggregated financial data on revenues and expenses, assets and liabilities, and sources and uses of funds. The overall corporate financial performance of 26 FRS companies are compared with the other major industrial companies. Differences in relative commitment and profitability associated with alternative lines of corporate activity are examined. The size composition and international character of FRS companies are examined. Oil and gas resource development efforts in 1978 are traced. Data on resource development expenditures are complemented by information on reserve holdings, changes in reserves, and characteristics of exploration and development efforts. Foreign activity is compared with domestic.

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  18. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  19. PV-BIDPAT: An evaluation and design tool for building-integrated photovoltaic installations

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.; Keoleian, G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development of a software tool called PV-BIDPAT, that is used to evaluate, design, and plan building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations. The tool consists of life cycle inventory and life cycle cost components and performs comprehensive calculations of the environmental costs and benefits of BIPV technology. These calculations compare BIPV to the functionally equivalent combination of conventional building materials and grid electricity. Currently there are two roofing products and one module-level inverter in the PV-BIDPAT library. An example case for a 2kW array of PV shingles in the Detroit, MI area showed significant benefits for the BIPV system in lower resource and energy use, as well as reduced air emissions.

  20. Building integrated photovoltaic system: The Thoreau Center for Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H.A.; Taylor, P.E.; Hayter, S.J.; Maytum, M.; Christensen, J.; Coonen, S.; Rever, W.B. III; Vanderhoff, S.

    1997-12-31

    Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) power systems perform multiple functions in buildings. These systems produce electricity and serve as part of the building envelope. A wide variety of BIPV systems are available in the marketplace today. For example, there are BIPV facade systems including: curtain wall products, spandrel panels and glazings. And there are BIPV roofing systems including: tiles, shingles, standing seam products and skylights. Activities of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) are directed at providing technical assistance and alternative financing assistance to Federal agencies, so that agencies can meet the energy efficiency and renewable energy goals set by Executive Order 12902. The BIPV system at the Thoreau Center for Sustainability is an example of where the various services provided by FEMP were brought together of one project. The Thoreau Center for Sustainability is a historical building, located in the National Historic Landmark District, of the Presidio in San Francisco, California. Technical assistance included extensive DOE-2 modeling of the Thoreau Center for daylighting and thermal performance, and a Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment, which revealed an opportunity to integrate photovoltaics (PV) into the renovation of the front entryway.

  1. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Mark E.

    2010-07-10

    Although preliminary proof-of-principle of the efficacy of barrier materials and processes, first developed by Battelle at PNNL and commercialized by Vitex, has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, there are several challenges to the practical commercial implementation of these developments in the Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) market. Two important issues that are addressed in this project are identifying a low cost substrate material that can survive in the outside environment (rain, heat, dust, hail, etc.) for 25 years and developing an encapsulation method for the photovoltaic (PV) cells that can meet the required barrier performance without driving the cost of the total barrier package out of range (remaining below $3.00/Wp). Without these solutions, current encapsulation technologies will limit the use of PV for BIPV applications. Flexible, light-weight packaging that can withstand 25 years in the field is required for a totally flexible integrated PV package. The benefit of this research is to make substantial progress in the development of a cost-effective, viable thin film barrier package which will be a critical enabling technology to meet the Solar America Initiative cost and device reliability goals, and to make photovoltaics (PV) more cost-competitive with electricity generated using fossil fuels. Increased PV installations will enable increased US electrical capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil through increased utilization of a widely abundant source of renewable energy (sunlight).

  2. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  3. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  4. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  6. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Section: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 17, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the residential section and includes an analysis of installed rooftop prices.

  7. Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulavi, Tejas

    A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by

  8. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  9. See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

    2013-10-25

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. PMID:23966106

  10. Performance and modeling of amorphous silicon photovoltaics for building-integrated applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.

    1999-07-01

    Amorphous silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules offer several advantages for building-integrated applications. The material can be deposited on glass or flexible substrates, which allows for products like roofing shingles and integrated PV/building glass. The material also has a uniform surface, which is ideal for many architectural applications. Amorphous silicon modules perform well in warm weather and have a small temperature coefficient for power. Depending on the building load, this may be beneficial when compared to crystalline systems. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the authors are monitoring the performance of a triple-junction a-Si system. The system consists of 72 roofing shingles mounted directly to simulated roofing structures. This paper examines the performance of the building-integrated amorphous silicon PV system and applicability for covering residential loads. A simple model of system performance is also developed and is presented.

  11. Building integrated PV for commercial and institutional structures, a sourcebook for architects

    SciTech Connect

    Eiffert, P.; Kiss, G.

    2000-02-14

    This sourcebook on building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is intended for architects and designers interested in learning more about today's sustainable solar buildings. The booklet includes 16 design briefs describing actual structures; they illustrate how electricity-generating BIPV products (such as special roofing systems, vertical-wall systems, skylights, and awnings, all of which contain PV cells, modules, and films) can be integrated successfully into many different kinds of buildings. It also contains basic information about BIPV technologies, an overview of US product development activities and development programs, descriptions of major software design tools, and a bibliography.

  12. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Strong, S.; Strong, M.

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  13. Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, A.; Norton, B.; McCormack, S.J.; Huang, M.J.

    2010-09-15

    Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five PCMs were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures {proportional_to}25 {+-} 4 C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 C was achieved for 30 min while 10 C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at -1000 W/m{sup 2} insolation. (author)

  14. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  15. Energetic contribution potential of building-integrated photovoltaics on airports in warm climates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, Ricardo; Braun, Priscila

    2009-10-15

    Especially in warm climates, a considerable fraction of the electricity demand in commercial buildings is due to the intensive use of air-conditioning systems. Airport buildings in sunny and warm regions present a perfect match between energy demand and solar resource availability. Airport buildings are also typically large and horizontal, isolated and free of shading, and have a great potential for the integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this work, we assess the potential impact in energy demand reduction at the Florianopolis International Airport in Brazil (27 S, 48 W) with the use of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems. We analyse the building's hourly energy consumption and solar irradiation data, to assess the match between energy demand and potential generation, and we estimate the PV power necessary to supply both the total amount and fractions of the annual energy demand. Our results show that the integration of PV systems on airport buildings in warm climates can supply the entire electric power consumption of an airport complex, in line with the general concept of a zero-energy building (ZEB). (author)

  16. Semantic Bim and GIS Modelling for Energy-Efficient Buildings Integrated in a Healthcare District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, R.; Böhms, H. M.; Bonsma, P.; van den Helm, P. W.

    2013-09-01

    The subject of energy-efficient buildings (EeB) is among the most urgent research priorities in the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the broadest impact, innovative approaches to EeB need to resolve challenges at the neighbourhood level, instead of only focusing on improvements of individual buildings. For this purpose, the design phase of new building projects as well as building retrofitting projects is the crucial moment for integrating multi-scale EeB solutions. In EeB design process, clients, architects, technical designers, contractors, and end-users altogether need new methods and tools for designing energy-efficiency buildings integrated in their neighbourhoods. Since the scope of designing covers multiple dimensions, the new design methodology relies on the inter-operability between Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geospatial Information Systems (GIS). Design for EeB optimisation needs to put attention on the inter-connections between the architectural systems and the MEP/HVAC systems, as well as on the relation of Product Lifecycle Modelling (PLM), Building Management Systems (BMS), BIM and GIS. This paper is descriptive and it presents an actual EU FP7 large-scale collaborative research project titled STREAMER. The research on the inter-operability between BIM and GIS for holistic design of energy-efficient buildings in neighbourhood scale is supported by real case studies of mixed-use healthcare districts. The new design methodology encompasses all scales and all lifecycle phases of the built environment, as well as the whole lifecycle of the information models that comprises: Building Information Model (BIM), Building Assembly Model (BAM), Building Energy Model (BEM), and Building Operation Optimisation Model (BOOM).

  17. Performance and Modeling of Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics for Building-Integrated Applications (Preprint prepared for Solar 99)

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.

    1998-06-07

    Amorphous silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules offer several advantages for building-integrated applications. The material can be deposited on glass or flexible substrates, which allows for products like roofing shingles and integrated PV/building glass. The material also has a uniform surface, which is ideal for many architectural applications. Amorphous silicon modules perform well in warm weather and have a small temperature coefficient for power. Depending on the building load, this may be beneficial when compared to crystalline systems. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are monitoring the performance of a triple-junction a-Si system. The system consists of 72 roofing shingles mounted directly to simulated roofing structures. This paper examines the performance of the building-integrated amorphous silicon PV system and applicability for covering residential loads. A simple model of system performance is also developed and is presented.

  18. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  19. Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P G; Chutinan, A; Mahtani, P; Leong, K; Ozin, G A; Kherani, N P

    2011-08-29

    Wave-optics analysis is performed to show that selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystals (STCPCs) can be utilized as rear contacts to enhance the performance of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). For instance, the current generated in an a-Si:H cell with an STCPC functioning as its rear contact is comparable to that of a similar cell with an optimized ZnO/Ag rear contact. However, the solar lumens (~3.5 klm/m2) and power (~430W/m2) transmitted through the cell with the STCPC rear contact can potentially provide indoor heating and lighting, respectively. Moreover, experimental results show that STCPC rear contacts could be used to control the color temperature of light transmitted through BIPV panels. PMID:21935064

  20. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yang; O’Brien, Paul G.; Ozin, Geoffrey A. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-25

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135 nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295 W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

  1. Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal rear-contacts for thin-film silicon-based building integrated photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. G.; Chutinan, A.; Mahtani, P.; Leong, K.; Ozin, G. A.; Kherani, N. P.

    2011-08-01

    Wave-optics analysis is performed to show that selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystals (STCPCs) can be utilized as rear contacts to enhance the performance of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). For instance, the current generated in an a-Si:H cell with an STCPC functioning as its rear contact is comparable to that of a similar cell with an optimized ZnO/Ag rear contact. However, the solar lumens (~3.5 klm/m2) and power (~430W/m2) transmitted through the cell with the STCPC rear contact can potentially provide indoor heating and lighting, respectively. Moreover, experimental results show that STCPC rear contacts could be used to control the color temperature of light transmitted through BIPV panels.

  2. An overview of worldwide development activity in building-integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The last two decades have brought significant charges to the design profession. Architects with vision have come to understand it is no longer the goal of good design to simply create a building that is pleasing; buildings of the future must be environmentally responsive as well. Increased levels of thermal insulation, healthier interiors, higher-efficiency lighting, better glazings and HVAC equipment, air to air heat exchangers and heat recovery ventilation systems are important steps in the right direction. However, more needs to be done and the area of photovoltaics is one of the most promising renewable energy technologies. This paper is a country by country description of component and system development along with selected examples of Solar Electric architecture. Countries described include Japan, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, Italy, Canada, Norway.

  3. SunFlash -- An entirely new concept for building-integrated PV. Final technical report, October 1997--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This project team has investigated an innovative and entirely new building product concept, the SunFlash, incorporating a photovoltaic module with integral mounting and sealing for watertight building integration. It can be used as a roof-integrated shingle for slant roofs, for vertical curtain walls, or in other applications. Key features of the SunFlash include the following: an integrated module concept whereby the module, backskin, edge seal and mounting and sealing are all a single molded unit of the same material; an extension of this concept to include the possibility of molded-in electrical connections; a novel encapsulant material with better adhesion, sealing, thermal creep, and UV stability properties than EVA; a crystalline silicon, glass-front module incorporating the advanced string ribbon solar cells; and accessories and features, including a module-integrated inverter, laminated exit wiring, mounting, and raceway wiring, that provide high-performance consistent with building practice. The objective of the SunFlash is a standardized, cost-effective, long-lasting solution to integrating and water-sealing modules into residential and commercial buildings, both new and retrofit.

  4. Process for utilizing energy produced by the phase change of liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.

    1980-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for utilizing energy produced by the phase change of liquid, such as fluoronated hydrocarbon, light fraction hydrocarbon, lower alcohol and ethers using the heat coming from unused heat sources for example, the heat of the earth, the heat of hot springs, the heat of the warm waste water of factory and power plant. The present invention is applicable to transfer the heat of the unused heat source from the low place to the high place in order to use said heat for farming and cultivation at the high and cold places. The present invention is also applicable to transfer of the mass energy of the liquid from the low place to the high place by uniformly mixing the said liquid with the ascending saturated or supersaturated vapor of the said liquid.

  5. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  6. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  7. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  8. Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5 A resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B-ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13 A distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central alphabeta-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. PMID:19020348

  9. Building integral projection models: a user's guide

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Mark; Childs, Dylan Z; Ellner, Stephen P; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how changes in individual performance (growth, survival or reproduction) influence population dynamics and evolution, ecologists are increasingly using parameterized mathematical models. For continuously structured populations, where some continuous measure of individual state influences growth, survival or reproduction, integral projection models (IPMs) are commonly used. We provide a detailed description of the steps involved in constructing an IPM, explaining how to: (i) translate your study system into an IPM; (ii) implement your IPM; and (iii) diagnose potential problems with your IPM. We emphasize how the study organism's life cycle, and the timing of censuses, together determine the structure of the IPM kernel and important aspects of the statistical analysis used to parameterize an IPM using data on marked individuals. An IPM based on population studies of Soay sheep is used to illustrate the complete process of constructing, implementing and evaluating an IPM fitted to sample data. We then look at very general approaches to parameterizing an IPM, using a wide range of statistical techniques (e.g. maximum likelihood methods, generalized additive models, nonparametric kernel density estimators). Methods for selecting models for parameterizing IPMs are briefly discussed. We conclude with key recommendations and a brief overview of applications that extend the basic model. The online Supporting Information provides commented R code for all our analyses. PMID:24219157

  10. Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Neuroth, N.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

  11. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  12. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  13. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  14. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  15. Cvode component user guidelines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Allan, Benjamin A.; Smith, Kylene J.

    2003-05-01

    This report describes the wrapping of cvode, a serial library of BDF-based solvers for stiff ODE systems, into a CCA component. It also gives examples of how one loads In the Cvode Component into the CCA framework, (Sandia's dccafe) as well as how the interface to the component (called CvodePort) is used. The report concludes with some timing results whereby we empirically show that componentization results in a maximum 2% performance degradation on a single CPU. The component can be obtained from Jaideep Ray (jairav@ca.sandia.gov, 925-294-3638)

  16. Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to partial least squares for path analysis with components, called generalized structured component analysis. The proposed method replaces factors by exact linear combinations of observed variables. It employs a well-defined least squares criterion to estimate model parameters. As a result, the proposed method…

  17. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  18. The Elusive Third Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  19. IRRIGATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common components of a irrigation system are defined in terms of the diversion, delivery, distribution and drainage subsystems. Irrigation systems can be defined on at least three different levels: project, farm and field. Each level will have the same basic set of components regardless of sca...

  20. GCS component development cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  1. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to accurately structurally analyze engine components to assure that they can survive for their designed lifetime in an increasingly harsh environment is discussed. Under the HOST (HOt Section Technology) program, advanced component-specific modeling methods, with built-in analysis capability, will be developed separately for burner liners, turbine blades and vanes. These modeling methods will make maximum use of, but will not rely solely on, existing analysis methods and techniques, to analyze the three identified components. Nor will the complete structural analysis of a component necessarily be performed as a single analysis. The approach to be taken will develop complete software analysis packages with internal, component-specific, self-adaptive solution strategies. Each package will contain a set of modeling and analysis tools. The selection and order of specific methods and techniques within the set to be applied will depend on the specific-component, the current thermo-mechanical loading, and the current state of the component. All modeling and analysis decisions will be made internally based on developed decision criteria within the solution strategies; minimal user intervention will be required.

  2. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  3. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  4. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  5. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  6. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  7. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  8. Component Fixturing Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kling, Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An end-configuration of components to be moved or positioned is first obtained. This end-configuration determines the relative positioning and orientation of the components with respect to each other when in a final, desired configuration. A folding pattern is then obtained that is formed by interior vertices defining corresponding tessellation facets. The folding pattern can be induced to transition from a first folded configuration to a second folded configuration. When in the second folded configuration mounting facets, which are a subset of the tessellation facets, are arranged by the geometry of the folding pattern into positions and orientations with respect to each other that correspond to the end-configuration of the components. A foldable structure is then obtained that folds in accordance with the folding pattern, and the components are affixed to their respective mounting facets.

  9. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  10. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  11. Component fragility research program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  13. NASTRAN component-mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Procedure for dynamic substructuring analysis technique is generally as follows: calculation of component modes; selection of component normal modes, calculation of component generalized matrices, assembly of system matrices, and computation of normal modes; and retrieval of component response.

  14. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  15. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  16. Encyclopedia of software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwarren, Lloyd (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  17. Behavioral components of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Christoph; Voss, Andreas; Schmitz, Florian; Nuszbaum, Mandy; Tüscher, Oliver; Lieb, Klaus; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Acting in accord with long-term goals requires control of interfering impulses, the success of which depends on several different processes. Using a structural-equation modeling approach, we investigated 5 behavioral components of impulsivity: the control of stimulus interference, proactive interference, and response interference, as well as decisional and motivational impulsivity. Results support the existence of 5 correlated but separable components of impulsive behavior. The present study is the 1st to demonstrate the separability of stimulus and response interference. It also supports the notion that control of response-related interference is not a unitary construct: Response-selection demands were separable from those of withholding or stopping. Relations between behavioral impulsivity components and self-report measures of impulsivity were largely absent. We conclude that as the construct of impulsivity has been extended to describe an increasingly diverse set of phenomena and processes, it has become too broad to be helpful in guiding future research. PMID:23957282

  18. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air cooled turbine blades, and air cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  19. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  20. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  1. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, J. Lambert

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes having the compositional formula: Y.sub.x (Mg.sub.y Cr.sub.z).sub.w Al.sub.(1-w) O.sub.3 where x=0.9 to 1.05, y=0.02 to 0.2, z=0.8 to 1.05 and w=1.0 to 0.5. The component is resistant to the formation of hydration products in an MHD environment, has good electrical conductivity and exhibits a lower electrochemical corrosion rate than do comparable compositions of lanthanum chromite.

  2. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  3. Revisiting Wilson's Moral Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughan, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the reasons why educational researchers and teachers never embraced the ideas of John Wilson as they related to his components of morality in moral education. States that through this examination, the strengths and weaknesses of Wilson's approach can be appraised. (CMK)

  4. Molecular Models Candy Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    An explanation of various principles of chemistry in a paper by Fanny Ennever by the use of candy is described. The paper explains components of sucrose and the invert sugar that results from the hydrolysis of sucrose and will help students in determining whether the products are indeed hydrates of carbon.

  5. Revealing Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) 1550 significantly reduces the time and cost of testing sophisticated optical components. The technology grew from the research Luna Technologies' Dr. Mark Froggatt conducted on optical fiber strain measurement while working at Langley Research Center. Dr. Froggatt originally developed the technology for non- destructive evaluation testing at Langley. The new technique can provide 10,000 independent strain measurements while adding less than 10 grams to the weight of the vehicle. The OVA is capable of complete linear characterization of single-mode optical components used in high- bit-rate applications. The device can test most components over their full range in less than 30 seconds, compared to the more than 20 minutes required by other testing methods. The dramatically shortened measurement time results in increased efficiency in final acceptance tests of optical devices, and the comprehensive data produced by the instrument adds considerable value for component consumers. The device eliminates manufacturing bottlenecks, while reducing labor costs and wasted materials during production.

  6. Liquid rocket valve components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

  7. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  8. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  9. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, efficient and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air-cooled turbine blades and air-cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  10. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  11. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  12. Components for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A requirement for the direct technological utilization of solar energy is a device for capturing and absorbing the available sunlight. These devices are commonly termed collectors. Because of the highly variable nature of sunlight, a facility for storing the collected energy is often essential. A device for direct conversion of light into electricity, which depends for operation on incident sunlight, is the photovoltaic cell. These components for solar energy systems are considered.

  13. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  14. MEA Component Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Frisk, J. W.; Hicks, M.T.; Atanasoski, R. T.; Boand, W. M.; Schmoeckel, A. K.; Kurkowski, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) lifetime of greater than 40,000 hours remains a goal of the fuel cell industry. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of MEA degradation. Specifically, the relationship between component physical property changes and MEA performance decay has not been established. We report preliminary data relating changes in gas diffusion layer (GDL) physical properties to fuel cell performance decay.

  15. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  16. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  17. Injection molded component

    SciTech Connect

    James, Allister W; Arrell, Douglas J

    2014-09-30

    An intermediate component includes a first wall member, a leachable material layer, and a precursor wall member. The first wall member has an outer surface and first connecting structure. The leachable material layer is provided on the first wall member outer surface. The precursor wall member is formed adjacent to the leachable material layer from a metal powder mixed with a binder material, and includes second connecting structure.

  18. Chondrites and Their Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    Chondrites are extraordinary mixtures of materials with diverse origins that formed around other stars, in the solar nebula, and in their parent asteroids. Most chondrites were so severely altered by aqueous fluids, thermal metamorphism, and impacts that the original characteristics of their components have been largely erased. But a few pristine chondrites have preserved an exquisite mineralogical, chemical, isotopic, and chronological record of the first few million years of solar system history. The properties of diverse types of carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites focusing on the most pristine samples are reviewed to establish the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical properties and origins of their components and to elucidate the asteroidal processes that modified them. Refractory inclusions - amoeboid olivine aggregates and Ca-Al-rich inclusions - were the first solids to form in the solar nebula near to the protosun. Chondrules and associated metallic Fe-Ni grains were still forming several million years later when the earliest planetesimals, which melted due to heat from 26Al decay, were colliding. In the least-altered chondrites, matrix material, which coats chondrules and other components, is largely composed of micrometer-sized silicates and amorphous materials, which formed at high temperatures, plus small amounts (up to 200 ppm) of presolar oxides and silicates.

  19. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  20. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  1. Energetic component treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, P.D.; Brandon, S.L.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-11-01

    The effectiveness of three environmentally sound processes for small energetic component disposal was examined experimentally in this study. The three destruction methods, batch reactor supercritical water oxidation, sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff were selected based on their potential for producing a clean solid residue and minimum release of toxic gases after component detonation. The explosive hazard was destroyed by all three processes. Batch supercritical water oxidation destroyed both the energetics and organics. Further development is desired to optimize process parameters. Sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff results indicated the potential for scrubbing gaseous detonation products. Further study and testing are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these later two processes for full-scale munition destruction. The preliminary experiments completed in this study have demonstrated the promise of these three processes as environmentally sound technologies for energetic component destruction. Continuation of these experimental programs is strongly recommended to optimize batch supercritical water oxidation processing, and to fully develop the sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff technologies.

  2. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  3. Impedance of accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed.

  4. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  5. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  6. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  7. Interactions between photodegradation components

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09), very low P-value (<.0.0001), non-significant lack of fit, the coefficient of R-squared (R2 = 0.999), adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998), predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994) and the adequate precision (95.94). Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (< 0.8 g/L) and 100 mg/L p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method. PMID:22967885

  8. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  9. [Donation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Ladrón Llorente, Yolanda; Rández Alvero, Mónica; Carrascosa Ridruejo, Ana Isabel; Bregua García, Judith; Blanco Sotés, Carmelo; Calavia Lacarra, Jesús

    2004-06-01

    The donation of blood by means of aphaeresis by means of a cellular separator is a procedure through which one obtains blood components in the most efficient manner, yielding the best quality in the final product although this procedure requires special characteristics on behalf of the donor and consequently has a higher cost. The authors have analyzed the characteristics of 81 donors who used this procedure and who voluntarily came to our blood bank over a 17 month period from January 2002 until May 2003; 287 such procedures were carried out. The quality of the product obtained, as a benefit for the possible receptor, compensates the greater dedication by the donor and the high cost of this technique. PMID:15315098

  10. Economic components of grief.

    PubMed

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

    2013-09-01

    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses to the death. Perceived decline in financial wellbeing was associated with increased risk of poor psychological health following bereavement. The findings underline the theoretical importance of financial risk factors for anticipating the duration, pattern, and timing of bereavement outcomes. A challenge for service providers and professionals is how to bring understanding of economic components within emotional and practical support for people preparing for death and those who are bereaved. PMID:24521030

  11. Component failure data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  12. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  13. The Single Component Superinsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getmanets, V. F.; Goncharenko, L. G.; Mikhalchenko, R. S.; Pershin, N. P.; Stears, H.

    Many up-to-date space and ground-based applications require a superinsulation characterized by low outgassing rate, minimal emission of particles and extremely low heat conductivity. All these qualities are featured by a single- component superinsulation blankets composed of metallized film-screens provided with small "dimples" and perforations of very specific size. Our team has optimized and produced material such as this as a result of a great number of multiple successful laboratory tests. We have characterized and documented all of the relevant parameters of such a superinsulation. We have also developed, manufactured and tested a machine intended for large- scale industrial production of "dimpled" and perforated superinsulation. Within this report are presented results of tests for the new superinsulation as related to cryovessels. Resultant data shows that this superinsulation type is the best appropriate one for outer space and terrestrial applications where maximum contamination concerns are present. Several US organizations are presently performing independent evaluation of our material.

  14. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  15. Optical communication components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  16. CO component estimation based on the independent component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA) is a component separation algorithm based on the levels of non-Gaussianity. Here we apply FastICA to the component separation problem of the microwave background, including carbon monoxide (CO) line emissions that are found to contaminate the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data. Specifically, we prepare 100 GHz, 143 GHz, and 217 GHz mock microwave sky maps, which include galactic thermal dust, NANTEN CO line, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) emissions, and then estimate the independent components based on the kurtosis. We find that FastICA can successfully estimate the CO component as the first independent component in our deflection algorithm because its distribution has the largest degree of non-Gaussianity among the components. Thus, FastICA can be a promising technique to extract CO-like components without prior assumptions about their distributions and frequency dependences.

  17. Three components of 'Taurids'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    Observations and the estimated activity profile both show the 'Taurids' are not a single entity but consist of three showers. It is necessary to study ecliptic streams such as 'Taurids' very carefully, because they are located near the ANT area, where sporadic or minor activities continue the whole year round. Nevertheless, photographic and CCD observations show a clear dip in the activity against the background and further analysis permits the discrimination of three components at the following solar longitudes and with the following radiants and geocentric velocities: SE activity (36.5 deg, +98 deg) Vgeo 28.6, mean solar longitude 202.6 deg SF activity (53.0 deg, +139 deg) Vgeo 27.0, mean solar longitude 223.4 deg Northern activity (55.5 deg, +213 deg) Vgeo 28.7, mean solar longitude 226.3 deg Observations might suggest other weaker activities exist but they are buried in the background activity. It is said that the 'Taurid' activity interval may extend from September to December, but the observations and analysis presented here argue against a single stream and in favor of a mixture of three independent streams and sporadic activities.

  18. Initial Ada components evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moebes, Travis

    1989-01-01

    The SAIC has the responsibility for independent test and validation of the SSE. They have been using a mathematical functions library package implemented in Ada to test the SSE IV and V process. The library package consists of elementary mathematical functions and is both machine and accuracy independent. The SSE Ada components evaluation includes code complexity metrics based on Halstead's software science metrics and McCabe's measure of cyclomatic complexity. Halstead's metrics are based on the number of operators and operands on a logical unit of code and are compiled from the number of distinct operators, distinct operands, and total number of occurrences of operators and operands. These metrics give an indication of the physical size of a program in terms of operators and operands and are used diagnostically to point to potential problems. McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity Metrics (CCM) are compiled from flow charts transformed to equivalent directed graphs. The CCM is a measure of the total number of linearly independent paths through the code's control structure. These metrics were computed for the Ada mathematical functions library using Software Automated Verification and Validation (SAVVAS), the SSE IV and V tool. A table with selected results was shown, indicating that most of these routines are of good quality. Thresholds for the Halstead measures indicate poor quality if the length metric exceeds 260 or difficulty is greater than 190. The McCabe CCM indicated a high quality of software products.

  19. Filter Component Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced particulate filtration systems are currently being developed at Westinghouse for use in both coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems. To date, Westinghouse has demonstrated 5855 hours of successful operation of first generation monolithic filter elements in PFBC applications when ash bridging or process thermal transient excursions are avoided. Alternate advanced monolithic and second generation fiber reinforced, filament wound and vacuum infiltrated filters are also being developed which are considered to have enhanced high temperature creep resistance, improved fracture toughness, or enhanced thermal shock characteristics, respectively. Mechanical and component fabrication improvements, as well as degradation mechanisms for each filter element have been identified by Westinghouse during exposure to simulated PFBC operating conditions and alkali-containing steam/air environments. Additional effort is currently being focused on determining the stability of the advanced monolithic high temperature creep resistant clay bonded silicon carbide (SiC) materials, alumina/mullite, and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC materials during operation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (W-APF) system at Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Select advanced filter materials are being defined for additional long-term exposure in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gas streams. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. 6 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Notch Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  1. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  2. Definition of Contravariant Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-moa; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed the basics of tensor analysis in an attempt to clarify some misconceptions regarding contravariant and covariant vector components as used in fluid dynamics. We have indicated that contravariant components are components of a given vector expressed as a unique combination of the covariant base vector system and, vice versa, that the covariant components are components of a vector expressed with the contravariant base vector system. Mathematically, expressing a vector with a combination of base vector is a decomposition process for a specific base vector system. Hence, the contravariant velocity components are decomposed components of velocity vector along the directions of coordinate lines, with respect to the covariant base vector system. However, the contravariant (and covariant) components are not physical quantities. Their magnitudes and dimensions are controlled by their corresponding covariant (and contravariant) base vectors.

  3. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  4. Cooling system for electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  5. Building integrated ontological knowledge structures with efficient approximation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms. PMID:26550571

  6. Building Integrated Skills--A Model for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Construction Industry Skills Improvement Council, New Westminster.

    When changing technology required that workers in the unionized sector of the British Columbia Construction Industry be able to read more difficult materials than had previously been necessary and to use complex mathematical concepts on the job, it became evident that a new approach was called for, and SkillPlan was developed in March 1991 to…

  7. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  8. Involving Stakeholders in Building Integrated Fisheries Models Using Bayesian Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  9. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  10. Tilt optimization of a building integrated solar concentrating unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemisana, D.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Lamnatou, Chr.; Souliotis, M.; Rosell, J. I.; Barrau, J.

    2012-10-01

    The concept of a static linear Fresnel concentrator with a tracking absorber has been simulated and well understood in the past. This paper bridges the gap between theoretical optical performances and operation in outdoor conditions. The effort focuses on the characterization of weather and tilt angle effects on the solar concentrator annual performance. Useful mathematical expressions are derived to show the dependence of the annual concentrated energy on latitude, global radiation, mean clearness index and tilt angle. An equation for the optimization of the annual yield is also proposed. The results are applied to a PVT generator and the annual production of thermal and electrical output energy is evaluated for an installation in Barcelona (Spain). A performance improvement above 5% is reached when the optimized tilt angle is used.

  11. TriBITS (Tribal Build, Integrate, and Test System)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-16

    TriBITS is a configuration, build, test, and reporting system that uses the Kitware open-source CMake/CTest/CDash system. TriBITS contains a number of custom CMake/CTest scripts and python scripts that extend the functionality of the out-of-the-box CMake/CTest/CDash system.

  12. Involving stakeholders in building integrated fisheries models using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts. PMID:23604267

  13. Building integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics: energy and daylighting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsis, Konstantinos; Athienitis, Andreas K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and evaluation of semi-transparent photovoltaic technologies integrated into a coolingdominated office building façade by employing the concept of three-section façade. An energy simulation model is developed, using building simulation software, to investigate the effect of semi-transparent photovoltaic transmittance on the energy performance of an office in a typical office building in Montreal. The analysis is performed for five major façade orientations and two façade configurations. Using semi-transparent photovoltaic integrated into the office façade, electricity savings of up to 53.1% can be achieved compared to a typical office equipped with double glazing with Argon filling and a low emissivity coating, and lighting controlled based on occupancy and daylight levels.e.c

  14. Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  15. Multi-component assembly casting

    SciTech Connect

    James, Allister W.

    2015-10-13

    Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.

  16. Magnetic Levitators With Superconductive Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic noncontact levitators that include superconductive components provide vibration-damping suspension for cryogenic instruments, according to proposal. Because superconductive components attached to levitated cryogenic instruments, no additional coolant liquid or refrigeration power needed. Also because vibration-damping components of levitators located outside cold chambers, in ambient environment, not necessary to waste coolant liquid or refrigeration power on dissipation of vibrational energy. At least three levitating magnets and three superconductors necessary for stable levitation.

  17. EP component identification and measurement by principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R M; McCrary, J W

    1995-04-01

    Between the acquisition of Evoked Potential (EP) data and their interpretation lies a major problem: What to measure? An approach to this kind of problem is outlined here in terms of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). An important second theme is that experimental manipulation is important to functional interpretation. It would be desirable to have a system of EP measurement with the following characteristics: (1) represent the data in a concise, parsimonous way; (2) determine EP components from the data without assuming in advance any particular waveforms for the components; (3) extract components which are independent of each other; (4) measure the amounts (contributions) of various components in observed EPs; (5) use measures that have greater reliability than measures at any single time point or peak; and (6) identify and measure components that overlap in time. PCA has these desirable characteristics. Simulations are illustrated. PCA's beauty also has some warts that are discussed. In addition to discussing the usual two-mode model of PCA, an extension of PCA to a three-mode model is described that provides separate parameters for (1) waveforms over time, (2) coefficients for spatial distribution, and (3) scores telling the amount of each component in each EP. PCA is compared with more traditional approaches. Some biophysical considerations are briefly discussed. Choices to be made in applying PCA are considered. Other issues include misallocation of variance, overlapping components, validation, and latency changes. PMID:7626278

  18. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  19. Methods of component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized substructure coupling, or component mode synthesis, procedure is described. Specific methods, applications, and such special topics as damping and experimental verification are surveyed.

  20. RTI Essential Components Integrity Worksheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Essential Components Integrity Rubric and the RTI Essential Components Integrity Worksheet are for use by individuals responsible for monitoring the school-level fidelity of Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation. They may also be used by schools for self-appraisal; however, they were not designed for…

  1. RTI Essential Components Integrity Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Essential Components Integrity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with "Essential Components of RTI: A Closer Look at Response to Intervention" (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010). Subjects covered…

  2. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  3. Heat treating of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2012-05-22

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material is disclosed. The system typically includes an insulating vessel placed within a microwave applicator chamber. A moderating material is positioned inside the insulating vessel so that a substantial portion of the exterior surface of each component for heat treating is in contact with the moderating material.

  4. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  5. Components of Successful Magnet Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Faye B.

    This paper identifies and discusses components of successful magnet programs. It is based on a review of existing research literature and information gathered directly from school districts. First, the paper discusses separately the following elements, which are considered "core components": (1) leadership; (2) organizational structure; (3)…

  6. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  7. Multi-Velocity Component LDV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter uses frequency shifting of a laser beam to provide signal information for each velocity component. A composite electrical signal generated by a light detector is digitized and a processor produces a discrete Fourier transform based on the digitized electrical signal. The transform includes two peak frequencies corresponding to the two velocity components.

  8. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  9. Development of hermetic, fiberoptic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Beckman, T.M.; Ewick, D.W.

    1990-04-30

    The fabrication of hermetic, fiberoptic components using a variety of novel processing techniques has been demonstrated. These processing techniques are based on standard sealing technologies and include the sealing of optical ``pin`` feedthrough components and the sealing of lengths of optical fibers. Various types of optical fibers including typical, plastic-buffered fibers and metal-coated fibers, have been hermetically sealed into components. Background research has disclosed that the temperatures necessary for seal formation do not degrade the properties of the optical fibers. A series of pyrotechnic test components has been fabricated using one of the newly developed processing techniques, and the firing characteristics of these ``full- up`` components have been determined. 7 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Multi-Component Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-11-01

    We explore multi-component dark matter models where the dark sector consists of multiple stable states with different mass scales, and dark forces coupling these states further enrich the dynamics. The multi-component nature of the dark matter naturally arises in supersymmetric models, where both R parity and an additional symmetry, such as a Z{sub 2}, is preserved. We focus on a particular model where the heavier component of dark matter carries lepton number and annihilates mostly to leptons. The heavier component, which is essentially a sterile neutrino, naturally explains the PAMELA, ATIC and synchrotron signals, without an excess in antiprotons which typically mars other models of weak scale dark matter. The lighter component, which may have a mass from a GeV to a TeV, may explain the DAMA signal, and may be visible in low threshold runs of CDMS and XENON, which search for light dark matter.

  11. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Harihar, Vivek; Kothudum, Ashwini Rajareddy; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  12. Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208

  13. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  14. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  15. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications.

  16. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  17. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  18. Ceramic component for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, Junior L.

    1981-01-01

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf.sub.x In.sub.y A.sub.z O.sub.2 where x=0.1 to 0.4, y=0.3 to 0.6, z=0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  19. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  20. Electronic Components Subsystems and Equipment: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Developments in electronic components, subsystems, and equipment are summarized. Topics discussed include integrated circuit components and techniques, circuit components and techniques, and cables and connectors.

  1. Three-component homeostasis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Hong, Hyunsuk; Jo, Junghyo

    2014-03-01

    Two reciprocal components seem to be sufficient to maintain a control variable constant. However, pancreatic islets adapt three components to control glucose homeostasis. They are α (secreting glucagon), β (insulin), and δ (somatostatin) cells. Glucagon and insulin are the reciprocal hormones for increasing and decreasing blood glucose levels, while the role of somatostatin is unknown. However, it has been known how each hormone affects other cell types. Based on the pulsatile hormone secretion and the cellular interactions, this system can be described as coupled oscillators. In particular, we used the Landau-Stuart model to consider both amplitudes and phases of hormone oscillations. We found that the presence of the third component, δ cell, was effective to resist under glucose perturbations, and to quickly return to the normal glucose level once perturbed. Our analysis suggested that three components are necessary for advanced homeostasis control.

  2. Airframe noise component interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine the noise-generating processes of an airframe during approach flight. The airframe model was a two-dimensional wing section, to which highlift leading and trailing edge devices and landing gear could be added. Far field conventional microphones were utilized to determine component spectrum levels. An acoustic mirror directional microphone was utilized to examine noise source distributions on airframe components extended separately and in combination. Measured quantities are compared with predictions inferred from aircraft flyover data. Aeroacoustic mechanisms for each airframe component are identified. Component interaction effects on total radiated noise generally were small (within about 2 dB). However, some interactions significantly redistributed the local noise source strengths by changing local flow velocities and turbulence levels. Possibilities for noise reduction exist if trailing edge flaps could be modified to decrease their noise radiation caused by incident turbulent flow.

  3. Definition of Contravariant Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Mao; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is an old issue in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). What is the so-called contravariant velocity or contravariant velocity component? In the article, we review the basics of tensor analysis and give the contravariant velocity component a rigorous explanation. For a given coordinate system, there exist two uniquely determined sets of base vector systems - one is the covariant and another is the contravariant base vector system. The two base vector systems are reciprocal. The so-called contravariant velocity component is really the contravariant component of a velocity vector for a time-independent coordinate system, or the contravariant component of a relative velocity between fluid and coordinates, for a time-dependent coordinate system. The contravariant velocity components are not physical quantities of the velocity vector. Their magnitudes, dimensions, and associated directions are controlled by their corresponding covariant base vectors. Several 2-D (two-dimensional) linear examples and 2-D mass-conservation equation are used to illustrate the details of expressing a vector with respect to the covariant and contravariant base vector systems, respectively.

  4. Analyzing growth components in trees.

    PubMed

    Guédon, Yann; Caraglio, Yves; Heuret, Patrick; Lebarbier, Emilie; Meredieu, Céline

    2007-10-01

    Observed growth, as given, for instance, by the length of successive annual shoots along the main axis of a plant, is mainly the result of two components: an ontogenetic component and an environmental component. An open question is whether the ontogenetic component along an axis at the growth unit or annual shoot scale takes the form of a trend or of a succession of phases. Various methods of analysis ranging from exploratory analysis (symmetric smoothing filters, sample autocorrelation functions) to statistical modeling (multiple change-point models, hidden semi-Markov chains and hidden hybrid model combining Markovian and semi-Markovian states) are applied to extract and characterize both the ontogenetic and environmental components using contrasted examples. This led us in particular to favor the hypothesis of an ontogenetic component structured as a succession of stationary phases and to highlight phase changes of high magnitude in unexpected situations (for instance, when growth globally decreases). These results shed light in a new way on botanical concepts such as "phase change" and "morphogenetic gradient". PMID:17631316

  5. Perceptual quantization of chromatic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadane, Abdelhakim; Bedat, Laurent; Barba, Dominique

    1998-07-01

    In order to achieve a color image coding based on the human visual system features, we have been interested by the design of a perceptually based quantizer. The cardinal directions Ach, Cr1 and Cr2, designed by Krauskopf from habituation experiments and validated in our lab from spatial masking experiments, have been used to characterize color images. The achromatic component, already considered in previous study, will not be considered here. The same methodology has been applied to the two chromatic components to specify the decision thresholds and the reconstruction levels which ensure that the degradations induced will be lower than their visibility thresholds. Two observers have been used for each of the two components. From the values obtained for Cr1 component one should notice that the decision thresholds and reconstruction levels follow a linear law even at higher levels. However, for Cr2 component the values seem following a monotonous increasing function. To determine if these behaviors are frequency dependent, further experiments have been conducted with stimulus frequencies varying from 1cy/deg to 4cy/deg. The measured values show no significant variations. Finally, instead of sinusoidal stimuli, filtered textures have been used to take into account the spatio-frequential combination. The same laws (linear for Cr1 and monotonous increasing for Cr2) have been observed even if a variation in the quantization intervals is reported.

  6. Subsystems component definitions summary program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A. Don; Thomas, Carolyn C.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program, the Subsystems Component Definitions Summary (SUBCOMDEF), was developed to provide a quick and efficient means of summarizing large quantities of subsystems component data in terms of weight, volume, resupply, and power. The program was validated using Space Station Freedom Program Definition Requirements Document data for the internal and external thermal control subsystem. Once all component descriptions, unit weights and volumes, resupply, and power data are input, the user may obtain a summary report of user-specified portions of the subsystem or of the entire subsystem as a whole. Any combination or all of the parameters of wet and dry weight, wet and dry volume, resupply weight and volume, and power may be displayed. The user may vary the resupply period according to individual mission requirements, as well as the number of hours per day power consuming components operate. Uses of this program are not limited only to subsystem component summaries. Any applications that require quick, efficient, and accurate weight, volume, resupply, or power summaries would be well suited to take advantage of SUBCOMDEF's capabilities.

  7. Failure Analysis of Ceramic Components

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. Morris

    2000-06-29

    Ceramics are being considered for a wide range of structural applications due to their low density and their ability to retain strength at high temperatures. The inherent brittleness of monolithic ceramics requires a departure from the deterministic design philosophy utilized to analyze metallic structural components. The design program ''Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life'' (CARES/LIFE) developed by NASA Lewis Research Center uses a probabilistic approach to predict the reliability of monolithic components under operational loading. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the theories used by CARES/LIFE to predict the reliability of ceramic components and to assess the ability of CARES/LIFE to accurately predict the fast fracture behavior of monolithic ceramic components. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the temperature and stress distribution of a silicon carbide O-ring under diametral compression. The results of the finite element analysis were supplied as input into CARES/LIFE to determine the fast fracture reliability of the O-ring. Statistical material strength parameters were calculated from four-point flexure bar test data. The predicted reliability showed excellent correlation with O-ring compression test data indicating that the CARES/LIFE program can be used to predict the reliability of ceramic components subjected to complicated stress states using material properties determined from simple uniaxial tensile tests.

  8. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  9. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  10. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  11. Space storable propulsion components development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  12. [Allergy to bone cement components].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Eben, R; Thomsen, M

    2008-02-01

    Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses may lead to allergological diagnostics, which focus mainly on metal allergy. However, bone cement may also contain potential allergens, e.g. acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide (BPO), N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, and antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). In the Munich implant allergy clinic, we found that 28 of 113 patients (24.8%) with cemented prostheses had contact allergies to bone cement components, mostly to gentamicin (16.8%) and BPO (8.0%). The clinical significance of test results cannot always be shown, but we still recommend including bone cement components in the allergological diagnostics of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty. PMID:18227996

  13. The NACA Three Component Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H J E

    1922-01-01

    A new instrument known as the NACA three component accelerometer is described in this note. This instrument was designed by the technical staff of the NACA for recording accelerations along three mutually perpendicular axes, and is of the same type as the NACA single component accelerometer with the addition of two springs and a few minor improvements such as a pump for filling the dash-pots and a convenient method for aligning the springs. This note includes a few records as well as photographs of the instrument itself.

  14. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  15. MCFC component development at ANL.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.

    1998-09-15

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathode and electrolyte components for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Working in support of the MCFC developers, the goal of this effort is to extend the life of the MCFC cell and to improve its performance.

  16. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  17. Complement component 3 (C3)

    MedlinePlus

    C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor people with an ... normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. For example, ...

  18. New component in protein fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Longworth, J W

    1980-01-01

    Tryptophyl residues in proteins absorb at longer wavelengths than tyrosyl residues and thus the tryptophyl fluorescence can be selectively excited. In addition, tryptophyl residues have a fluorescence maximum at much longer wavelengths than tyrosyl residues and are the predominant source of fluorescence at the long wavelength region. The contribution of tyrosyl fluorescence to protein fluorescence can be determined by exploiting these spectral properties. The tyrosyl fluorescence of native human serum albumin is different than the fluorescence of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide. The spectral maximum is at longer wavelength and the spectral width is greater. This is caused by a second component with a maximum at 345 nm. The excitation spectrum of the 345 nm component is similar to the excitation spectrum of the normal 304 nm tyrosyl component. The 345 nm is largely absent from denatured serum albumin. An excited singlet state protolysis from the buried tyrosyl residues explains the appearance of the 345 nm component. A possible acceptor base is an amino group of buried lysyl residue.

  19. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  20. Spacecraft communications terminal breadboard components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The C-band translator, transmitter, and attenuator are described for the spacecraft communication terminal breadboard components. The block diagram is also included for the C-band receiver. The system performance data and the mechanical properties of the system are briefly considered.

  1. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  2. Placement of the acetabular component.

    PubMed

    Beverland, D E; O'Neill, C K J; Rutherford, M; Molloy, D; Hill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Ideal placement of the acetabular component remains elusive both in terms of defining and achieving a target. Our aim is to help restore original anatomy by using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) to control the height, depth and version of the component. In the normal hip the TAL and labrum extend beyond the equator of the femoral head and therefore, if the definitive acetabular component is positioned such that it is cradled by and just deep to the plane of the TAL and labrum and is no more than 4mm larger than the original femoral head, the centre of the hip should be restored. If the face of the component is positioned parallel to the TAL and psoas groove the patient specific version should be restored. We still use the TAL for controlling version in the dysplastic hip because we believe that the TAL and labrum compensate for any underlying bony abnormality. The TAL should not be used as an aid to inclination. Worldwide, > 75% of surgeons operate with the patient in the lateral decubitus position and we have shown that errors in post-operative radiographic inclination (RI) of > 50° are generally caused by errors in patient positioning. Consequently, great care needs to be taken when positioning the patient. We also recommend 35° of apparent operative inclination (AOI) during surgery, as opposed to the traditional 45°. PMID:26733639

  3. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  4. Component Processes in Task Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching…

  5. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  6. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software toolmore » will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance« less

  7. Component characterization and development 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacqueline D.

    1993-09-01

    The effort entitled, 'Component Characterization and Development II' was established in the Rome Lab Photonics Center Analog & Lightwave Photonics Branch as part of the overall in-house program plan to advanced the state-of-the-art in optics and electrooptics. The objective of the effort is to specify, acquire, and/or develop components for Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) applications. The source of prototype devices was designated to include academia, industry, and government organizations. Actual performance data was measured for both electro-optic and fiber-optic based devices that were of interest to communications, spatial laser control, and optical beamforming applications. Additionally, several novel approaches to device fabrication were investigated through a BAA contract with Syracuse University.

  8. Processing of Activated Core Components

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

    2003-02-26

    Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

  9. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  10. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  11. [Inulin: a valuable nutritional component].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Anna; Klimowicz, Adam; Bielecka-Grzela, Stanisława; Piechota, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Inulin, a natural oligomer of fructose, is classified as a food component. It can be found in some plants and vegetables, i.e. chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, elecampane, and dandelion. Following ingestion, inulin reaches the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract where it is fermented increasing the bifidobacterial population of the colon. The growth of bifidobacteria regulates cholesterol concentration and absorption of minerals. Inulin added to food may prevent the spread of civilization diseases, like diabetes and obesity. PMID:23547397

  12. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    PubMed

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  13. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  14. Kernel Near Principal Component Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARTIN, SHAWN B.

    2002-07-01

    We propose a novel algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First, we present an interesting approximation of PCA using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization. Next, we combine our approximation with the kernel functions from Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to provide a nonlinear generalization of PCA. After benchmarking our algorithm in the linear case, we explore its use in both the linear and nonlinear cases. We include applications to face data analysis, handwritten digit recognition, and fluid flow.

  15. Driven one-component plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan

    2009-08-15

    A statistical theory is presented that allows the calculation of the stationary state achieved by a driven one-component plasma after a process of collisionless relaxation. The stationary Vlasov equation with appropriate boundary conditions is reduced to an ordinary differential equation, which is then solved numerically. The solution is then compared with the molecular-dynamics simulation. A perfect agreement is found between the theory and the simulations. The full current-voltage phase diagram is constructed.

  16. Advanced micromoulding of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hans-Dieter; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Paatzsch, Thomas; Smaglinski, Ingo; Weber, Lutz

    1999-09-01

    There is a growing need for micro-optical components in the field of tele- and datacom applications. Such components have to be very precise and should be available in reasonable numbers. Microtechnology provides manufacturing techniques that fulfill both requirements. Using micro electro discharge machining, laser micromachining, ultra precision milling and deep lithography with subsequent electroforming methods, complex tools for the replication of highly precise plastic parts have been manufactured. In many cases a combination of methods enumerated above gives a tool which shows both functionality and cost-efficiency. As examples we present the realization of integrated-optical components with passive fiber-waveguide coupling used as components in optical networks and as velocity sensors for two-phase flows, like liquids containing small gas bubbles or particles. In the first case multimode 4 X 4 star couplers have been manufactured in a pilot series that show excess loss values below 3 dB and a uniformity better than 3 dB at 830 nm. This performance becomes possible by using a compression molding process. By stamping the microstructured mold into a semifinished PMMA plate exact replication of the molds as well as very low surface roughness of the waveguide side walls could be observed. In the second case the waveguide channels of the flow sensors show dimensions of between 20 micrometer and 100 micrometer and an aspect ratio of about 20. These structures have been replicated by injection molding of PMMA using variotherm process treatment with a cycle time of about 2 - 3 min.

  17. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  18. Diamond turning microstructure optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenda

    2009-05-01

    Microstructure optical components in the form of Fresnel, TIR, microgroove, micro lens array provide a lot design freedom for high compact optical systems. It is a key factor which enables the cutting edge technology for telecommunication, surveillance and high-definition display system. Therefore, the demand of manufacturing such element is rapidly increasing. These elements usually contain high precision, tiny structure and complex form, which have posed many new challenges for tooling, programming as well as ultra-precision machining. To cope with the fast development of the technology and meet the increasing demand of the market, we have developed our own manufacturing process to fabricate microstructure optical components by way of Diamond tuning, Shaping, Raster cutting, Slow Slide Servo (SSS), Diamond milling and Post polishing. This paper is to focus on how we employed these methods to produce complex prototype of microstructure optical components and precision mold inserts which either contains aspheric lens array or freeform V grooves. The high quality finish of these surfaces meets application requirements. Measurement results are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared and discussed in the paper.

  19. Component-Based Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    A software system has been developed that gives engineers and operations personnel with no "formal" programming expertise, but who are familiar with the Microsoft Windows operating system, the ability to create visualization displays to monitor the health and performance of aircraft/spacecraft. This software system is currently supporting the X38 V201 spacecraft component/system testing and is intended to give users the ability to create, test, deploy, and certify their subsystem displays in a fraction of the time that it would take to do so using previous software and programming methods. Within the visualization system there are three major components: the developer, the deployer, and the widget set. The developer is a blank canvas with widget menu items that give users the ability to easily create displays. The deployer is an application that allows for the deployment of the displays created using the developer application. The deployer has additional functionality that the developer does not have, such as printing of displays, screen captures to files, windowing of displays, and also serves as the interface into the documentation archive and help system. The third major component is the widget set. The widgets are the visual representation of the items that will make up the display (i.e., meters, dials, buttons, numerical indicators, string indicators, and the like). This software was developed using Visual C++ and uses COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) software where possible.

  20. Design for pressure regulating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design development for Pressure Regulating Components included a regulator component trade-off study with analog computer performance verification to arrive at a final optimized regulator configuration for the Space Storable Propulsion Module, under development for a Jupiter Orbiter mission. This application requires the pressure regulator to be capable of long-term fluorine exposure. In addition, individual but basically identical (for purposes of commonality) units are required for separate oxidizer and fuel pressurization. The need for dual units requires improvement in the regulation accuracy over present designs. An advanced regulator concept was prepared featuring redundant bellows, all metallic/ceramic construction, friction-free guidance of moving parts, gas damping, and the elimination of coil springs normally used for reference forces. The activities included testing of actual size seat/poppet components to determine actual discharge coefficients and flow forces. The resulting data was inserted into the computer model of the regulator. Computer simulation of the propulsion module performance over two mission profiles indicated satisfactory minimization of propellant residual requirements imposed by regulator performance uncertainties.

  1. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  2. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  3. Hydrocarbon components in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Y. V.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, the presence of free n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes in carbonaceous meteorites is usually explained either by microbial contamination during the period between the meteorite fall and collection or by contamination from the environment of analytical laboratories and museums. The goal of this research was to repeat analysis of hydrocarbon components in meteorites and to investigate possible meteorite contamination routes discussed in the literature. Experimental analysis of free organic constituents in five carbonaceous meteorites by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods confirmed the presence of extractable aliphatic components, n-alkanes in the C 15H 32-C 27H 56 range and isoprenoid alkanes (phytane, pristane, and norpristane), in some of these meteorites. The contents of these compounds vary depending on the source. Insoluble organic components of two meteorites (meteorite kerogens) were isolated, and their composition was analyzed by IR and cracking/GC methods. Comparison with the data on several terrestrial contamination sources proposed in the literature shows that the presence of free saturated hydrocarbons in meteorites and the composition of the meteorite kerogen could not be explained either by microbial contamination or by contamination from the laboratory environment. The types of the hydrocarbons in meteorites resemble those typical of ancient terrestrial deposits of organic-rich sediments, except for the absence of lighter hydrocarbons, which apparently slowly evaporated in space, and multi-ring naphthenic compounds of the biologic origin, steranes, terpanes, etc. The prevailing current explanation for the presence of free linear saturated hydrocarbons in carbonaceous meteorites, apart from contamination, is the abiotic route from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. However, the data on the structure of meteorite kerogens require a search for different routes that initially produce complex polymeric structures containing

  4. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  5. TFTR CAMAC systems and components

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, W.A.; Bergin, W.; Sichta, P.

    1987-08-01

    Princeton's tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) utilizes Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) to provide instrumentation for real and quasi real time control, monitoring, and data acquisition systems. This paper describes and discusses the complement of CAMAC hardware systems and components that comprise the interface for tokamak control and measurement instrumentation, and communication with the central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) system. It also discusses CAMAC reliability and calibration, types of modules used, a summary of data acquisition and control points, and various diagnostic maintenance tools used to support and troubleshoot typical CAMAC systems on TFTR.

  6. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  7. Inorganic Components of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Anthony Stein

    The inorganic components comprise 15% to 50% of the mass of atmospheric aerosols. For about the past 10 years the mass of these components was predicted assuming thermodynamic equilibrium between the volatile aerosol -phase inorganic species NH_4NO _3 and NH_4Cl and their gas-phase counterparts NH_3, HNO_3, and HCl. In this thesis I examine this assumption and prove that (1) the time scales for equilibration between the gas and aerosol phases are often too long for equilibrium to hold, and (2) even when equilibrium holds, transport considerations often govern the size distribution of these aerosol components. Water can comprise a significant portion of atmospheric aerosols under conditions of high relative humidity, whereas under conditions of sufficiently low relative humidity atmospheric aerosols tend to be dry. The deliquescence point is the relative humidity where the aerosol goes from a solid dry phase to an aqueous or mixed solid-aqueous phase. In this thesis I derive the temperature dependence of the deliquescence point and prove that in multicomponent solutions the deliquescence point is lower than for corresponding single component solutions. These theories of the transport, thermodynamic, and deliquescent properties of atmospheric aerosols are integrated into an aerosol inorganics model, AIM. The predictions of AIM compare well to fundamental thermodynamic measurements. Comparison of the prediction of AIM to those of other aerosol equilibrium models shows substantial disagreement in the predicted water content at lower relative humidities. The disagreement is due the improved treatment in AIM of the deliquescence properties of multicomponent solutions. In the summer and fall of 1987 the California Air Resources Board conducted the Southern California Air Quality Study, SCAQS, during which atmospheric aerosols were measured in Los Angeles. The size and composition of the aerosol and the concentrations of their gas phase counterparts were measured. When the

  8. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  9. Structural Studies of Ciliary Components

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Naoko; Taschner, Michael; Engel, Benjamin D.; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are organelles found on most eukaryotic cells, where they serve important functions in motility, sensory reception, and signaling. Recent advances in electron tomography have facilitated a number of ultrastructural studies of ciliary components that have significantly improved our knowledge of cilium architecture. These studies have produced nanometer‐resolution structures of axonemal dynein complexes, microtubule doublets and triplets, basal bodies, radial spokes, and nexin complexes. In addition to these electron tomography studies, several recently published crystal structures provide insights into the architecture and mechanism of dynein as well as the centriolar protein SAS-6, important for establishing the 9-fold symmetry of centrioles. Ciliary assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that moves macromolecules between the tip of the cilium and the cell body. IFT relies on a large 20-subunit protein complex that is thought to mediate the contacts between ciliary motor and cargo proteins. Structural investigations of IFT complexes are starting to emerge, including the first three‐dimensional models of IFT material in situ, revealing how IFT particles organize into larger train-like arrays, and the high-resolution structure of the IFT25/27 subcomplex. In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes. PMID:22683354

  10. Skylab Components in Launch Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This cutaway drawing illustrates major Skylab components in launch configuration on top of the Saturn V. In an early effort to extend the use of Apollo for further applications, NASA established the Apollo Applications Program (AAP) in August of 1965. The AAP was to include long duration Earth orbital missions during which astronauts would carry out scientific, technological, and engineering experiments in space by utilizing modified Saturn launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. Established in 1970, the Skylab Program was the forerurner of the AAP. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  11. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    PubMed

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  12. Three-component gyrotropic metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Tralle, Igor Ziȩba, Paweł; Paśko, Wioletta

    2014-06-21

    All of the proposed ever since designs of metamaterials are characterized by ever-increasing sophistication of fabrication methods. Here, a comparatively simple recipe for the fabrication of a metamaterial, which is both gyrotropic and of the simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, is proposed. The idea is to make a mixture of three ingredients, where one of them would be responsible for the negativity of μ, while the other two would be responsible for the negativity of ε. The first component of the mixture is the “swarm” of single-domain ferromagnetic nano-particles, immersed in a mixture of other two, silver and mercury cadmium telluride. By carrying out the computer simulations, the domains of gyromagnetic metamaterial exist, relative to all parameters characterizing the model, that is, the temperature, external magnetic field, parameters of nano-particles, and the fraction of cadmium in Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te-compound as well as relative concentrations of the mixture components are established.

  13. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  14. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  15. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  16. Method for vacuum pressing electrochemical cell components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Assembling electrochemical cell components using a bonding agent comprising aligning components of the electrochemical cell, applying a bonding agent between the components to bond the components together, placing the components within a container that is essentially a pliable bag, and drawing a vacuum within the bag, wherein the bag conforms to the shape of the components from the pressure outside the bag, thereby holding the components securely in place. The vacuum is passively maintained until the adhesive has cured and the components are securely bonded. The bonding agent used to bond the components of the electrochemical cell may be distributed to the bonding surface from distribution channels in the components. To prevent contamination with bonding agent, some areas may be treated to produce regions of preferred adhesive distribution and protected regions. Treatments may include polishing, etching, coating and providing protective grooves between the bonding surfaces and the protected regions.

  17. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P.; Becker, D.J.

    1997-09-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  18. The magnet components database system

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, M.J. ); Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  20. Two-component auroral electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y.

    1982-10-01

    By using the AL index for one year as well as some of the IMS meridian chain records, the longitudinal center of the substorm westward electrojet is examined. Although on the average AL is most often dominated by stations located near 0300 MLT, the westward electrojet during the expansion and maximum phase of substorms tends to be centered in the premidnight to early morning sector, and, during the recovery phase, it is most intense in morning hours. It is suggested that the substorm-associated westward electrojet consists of two components which have different characteristic times; one produced mainly by Hall condutivity enhancements which dominate in the midnight sector and the other one by southward electric fields in the morning sector.

  1. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, M. S.; Goda, M. P.; Becker, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10(sup 15) floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  2. Training of component reading skills.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, C A

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen reading-disabled boys, classified according to reading subskill deficits, formed three subgroups: Oral Reading, Associative, and Sequential. On the rationale that training procedures emphasizing accuracy and speed of response to letters, syllables, and words would improve reading skills, the children were trained daily for two and one-half months. Two schedules of testing and training allowed for an untrained control group and a follow-up group. The results indicated that the computer-assisted training procedures were not only effective in improving component reading skills, but in addition there was a transfer of training to achievement measures of reading word recognition. This study lends support to the hypothesis that training according to subgroup classification, using training procedures which incorporate an application of the automaticity theory and a combination of task-analytic and process-oriented models, is an effective training approach for reading-disabled children. PMID:24243467

  3. NEXT Thruster Component Verification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Sovey, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Component testing is a critical part of thruster life validation activities under NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project testing. The high voltage propellant isolators were selected for design verification testing. Even though they are based on a heritage design, design changes were made because the isolators will be operated under different environmental conditions including temperature, voltage, and pressure. The life test of two NEXT isolators was therefore initiated and has accumulated more than 10,000 hr of operation. Measurements to date indicate only a negligibly small increase in leakage current. The cathode heaters were also selected for verification testing. The technology to fabricate these heaters, developed for the International Space Station plasma contactor hollow cathode assembly, was transferred to Aerojet for the fabrication of the NEXT prototype model ion thrusters. Testing the contractor-fabricated heaters is necessary to validate fabrication processes for high reliability heaters. This paper documents the status of the propellant isolator and cathode heater tests.

  4. Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  6. Analysis of wind farm energy produced in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electricity generated by wind farms in almost every state in the United States with over 10 MW of wind turbine capacity was analyzed over a five-year period (2002 to 2006). The total amount of wind generated electricity in the United States for 2006 was estimated at 26.3 terawatt-hours which wa...

  7. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  8. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  9. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  10. Airframe noise component interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted of a two-dimensional wing section with removable high-lift leading and trailing edge devices and a removeable two-wheel landing gear with open cavity. An array of far field conventional microphones and an acoustic mirror directional microphone were utilized to determine far field spectrum levels and noise source distribution. Data were obtained for the wing with components deployed separately and in various combinations. The basic wing model had 0.305 m (1.00 ft) chord, which is roughly 1/10 scale for a one-hundred passenger transport airplane. Most of the data were obtained at 70.7 and 100 m/sec (232 and 328 ft/sec) airspeeds, which bracket the range of practical approach speeds for such aircraft. Data were obtained at frequence to 40 kHz so that, when scaled to s typical full-airframe, the frequency region which strongly influences preceived noise level would be included.

  11. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  12. Automated assembly of VECSEL components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Mueller, T.

    2013-02-01

    Due to the architectural advantage of an external cavity architecture that enables the integration of additional elements into the cavity (e.g. for mode control, frequency conversion, wavelength tuning or passive mode-locking) VECSELs are a rapidly developing laser technology. Nevertheless they often have to compete with direct (edge) emitting laser diodes which can have significant cost advantages thanks to their rather simple structure and production processes. One way to compensate the economical disadvantages of VECSELs is to optimize each component in terms of quality and costs and to apply more efficient (batch) production processes. In this context, the paper presents recent process developments for the automated assembly of VECSELs using a new type of desktop assembly station with an ultra-precise micromanipulator. The core concept is to create a dedicated process development environment from which implemented processes can be transferred fluently to production equipment. By now two types of processes have been put into operation on the desktop assembly station: 1.) passive alignment of the pump optics implementing a camera-based alignment process, where the pump spot geometry and position on the semiconductor chip is analyzed and evaluated; 2.) active alignment of the end mirror based on output power measurements and optimization algorithms. In addition to the core concept and corresponding hardware and software developments, detailed results of both processes are presented explaining measurement setups as well as alignment strategies and results.

  13. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  14. IT Infrastructure Components for Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Prokosch, H.U.; Beck, A.; Ganslandt, T.; Hummel, M.; Kiehntopf, M.; Sax, U.; Ückert, F.; Semler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Within translational research projects in the recent years large biobanks have been established, mostly supported by homegrown, proprietary software solutions. No general requirements for biobanking IT infrastructures have been published yet. This paper presents an exemplary biobanking IT architecture, a requirements specification for a biorepository management tool and exemplary illustrations of three major types of requirements. Methods We have pursued a comprehensive literature review for biobanking IT solutions and established an interdisciplinary expert panel for creating the requirements specification. The exemplary illustrations were derived from a requirements analysis within two university hospitals. Results The requirements specification comprises a catalog with more than 130 detailed requirements grouped into 3 major categories and 20 subcategories. Special attention is given to multitenancy capabilities in order to support the project-specific definition of varying research and bio-banking contexts, the definition of workflows to track sample processing, sample transportation and sample storage and the automated integration of preanalytic handling and storage robots. Conclusion IT support for biobanking projects can be based on a federated architectural framework comprising primary data sources for clinical annotations, a pseudonymization service, a clinical data warehouse with a flexible and user-friendly query interface and a biorepository management system. Flexibility and scalability of all such components are vital since large medical facilities such as university hospitals will have to support biobanking for varying monocentric and multicentric research scenarios and multiple medical clients. PMID:23616851

  15. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jensen, D.R.; Ruland, R.E.; Walz, H.V.; Williams, S.H.

    1992-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented.

  16. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  17. Explosive components facility certification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D.

    1995-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

  18. 42 CFR 84.251 - Required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Required components. (a) Each vinyl chloride respirator described in § 84.250 shall, where its design...) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each vinyl chloride respirator shall meet the minimum...

  19. 42 CFR 84.251 - Required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Required components. (a) Each vinyl chloride respirator described in § 84.250 shall, where its design...) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each vinyl chloride respirator shall meet the minimum...

  20. 42 CFR 84.251 - Required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Required components. (a) Each vinyl chloride respirator described in § 84.250 shall, where its design...) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each vinyl chloride respirator shall meet the minimum...

  1. 42 CFR 84.251 - Required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Required components. (a) Each vinyl chloride respirator described in § 84.250 shall, where its design...) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each vinyl chloride respirator shall meet the minimum...

  2. 42 CFR 84.251 - Required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Required components. (a) Each vinyl chloride respirator described in § 84.250 shall, where its design...) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each vinyl chloride respirator shall meet the minimum...

  3. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  5. Attitude Control Propulsion Components, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude control propulsion components are described, including hydrazine thrusters, hydrazine thruster and cold gas jet valves, and pressure and temperature transducers. Component-ordered data are presented in tabular form; the manufacturer and specific space program are included.

  6. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.; Odinek, Judy G.

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  7. Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented.

  8. The Coordination of Components for Educational Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    The coordination of the building components of educational facilities is discussed. The resulting components will be used for a wide range of building types in addition to schools and the recommendation should therefore be seen as part of a widespread move toward establishing a national British 'pool' of dimensionally related components. The two…

  9. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann; Day, Robert D; Espinoza, Brent F; Hatch, Doug; Patterson, Brian M; Feng, Shihai

    2008-01-01

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  10. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  11. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  12. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  13. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  14. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.209 Funding component. Funding component means any organizational unit of the...

  15. 6 CFR 7.11 - Components' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Administration § 7.11 Components' responsibilities. Each DHS component shall appoint a security... security information; (b) Report violations of the provisions of this regulation to the Chief Security... component acquire adequate security education and training, as required by the DHS classified...

  16. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Whitson, Barry G.; Blue, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  17. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  18. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe R.

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  19. Micromotion of cemented and uncemented femoral components.

    PubMed

    Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Jasty, M; Harris, W H

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial stability of cemented and uncemented femoral components within the femoral canals of cadaver femurs during simulated single limb stance and stair climbing. Both types were very stable in simulated single limb stance (maximum micromotion of 42 microns for cemented and 30 microns for uncemented components). However, in simulated stair climbing, the cemented components were much more stable than the uncemented components (76 microns as against 280 microns). There was also greater variation in the stability of uncemented components in simulated stair climbing, with two of the seven components moving 200 microns or more. Future implant designs should aim to improve the initial stability of cementless femoral components under torsional loads; this should improve the chances of bony ingrowth. PMID:1991771

  20. Optical components damage parameters database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Jin, Yuquan; Xie, Dongmei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    Optical component is the key to large-scale laser device developed by one of its load capacity is directly related to the device output capacity indicators, load capacity depends on many factors. Through the optical components will damage parameters database load capacity factors of various digital, information technology, for the load capacity of optical components to provide a scientific basis for data support; use of business processes and model-driven approach, the establishment of component damage parameter information model and database systems, system application results that meet the injury test optical components business processes and data management requirements of damage parameters, component parameters of flexible, configurable system is simple, easy to use, improve the efficiency of the optical component damage test.

  1. Making Ceramic Components For Advanced Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Ezis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, oxidation-resistant silicon nitride components containing intricate internal cooling and hydraulic passages and capable of withstanding high operating temperatures made by ceramic-platelet technology. Used to fabricate silicon nitride test articles of two types: components of methane-cooled regenerator for air turbo ramjet engine and components of bipropellant injector for rocket engine. Procedures for development of more complex and intricate components established. Technology has commercial utility in automotive, aircraft, and environmental industries for manufacture of high-temperature components for use in regeneration of fuels, treatment of emissions, high-temperature combustion devices, and application in which other high-temperature and/or lightweight components needed. Potential use in fabrication of combustors and high-temperature acoustic panels for suppression of noise in future high-speed aircraft.

  2. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor-acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts.

  3. Cold worked ferritic alloys and components

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid metal fast breeder reactor and steam generator precipitation hardening fully ferritic alloy components which have a microstructure substantially free of the primary precipitation hardening phase while having cells or arrays of dislocations of varying population densities. It also relates to the process by which these components are produced, which entails solution treating the alloy followed by a final cold working step. In this condition, the first significant precipitation hardening of the component occurs during high temperature use.

  4. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  5. OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.

  6. Component architecture of the Tecolote framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, M.; Hall, J.; Painter, J.; O`Rourke, S.

    1998-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Tecolote Framework is used in conjunction with other libraries by several physical simulations. This paper briefly describes the design and use of Tecolote`s component architecture. A component is a C++ class that meets several requirements imposed by the framework to increase its reusability, configurability, and ease of replacement. The authors discuss both the motives for imposing these requirements upon components and the means by which a generic C++ class may be integrated into Tecolote by satisfying these requirements. They also describe the means by which these components may be combined into a physics application.

  7. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  8. Component mode synthesis of large rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, D. F.; Gunter, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A scheme is presented for calculating the vibrations of large multi-component flexible rotor systems based on the component mode synthesis method. It is shown that, by a modal expansion of the elastic interconnecting elements, the system modal equation can be conveniently constructed from the undamped eigen representations of the component subsystems. The capability of the component mode method is demonstrated in two examples: a transient simulation of a two-spool gas turbine engine equipped with a squeeze-film damper; and an unbalance response analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump in which the dynamics of the rotor and the housing are both considered.

  9. High performance backplane components for modular avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Goodwin, M. J.; Hall, J. P.; Glynn, G.; Hankey, J.; Salik, M. D.; Goodfellow, R. C.; Jibb, D. J.

    1994-10-01

    The design and development of optoelectronic transceiver and optical pathway components for application in a modular avionics backplane demonstrator system are described and initial performance results are presented.

  10. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  11. Component A of the methyl coenzyme M methylreductase system of Methanobacterium: resolution into four components.

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, D P; Wolfe, R S

    1983-01-01

    Component A, the oxygen-sensitive protein fraction of the methyl coenzyme M methylreductase system of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, has been stabilized and resolved into three protein fractions and one cofactor that are required to reconstitute component A activity. Component A1 is oxygen-stable and contains hydrogen-dependent deazaflavin (coenzyme F420)-reducing activity. Component A2 is acidic; components A2 and A3 are oxygen sensitive. The specific functions of each component in methyl group reduction are unknown. Resolution of component A revealed a new cofactor requirement of the methylreductase system for FAD. Hydrogen-dependent reduction of methyl coenzyme M to methane and coenzyme M, the terminal step of CO2 reduction by methanogenic bacteria, requires protein components A1, A2, A3, and C in addition to component B, FAD, ATP, and Mg2+. PMID:6403944

  12. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015.

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, Avery T.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  13. Component Cost Analysis of Large Scale Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Yousuff, A.

    1982-01-01

    The ideas of cost decomposition is summarized to aid in the determination of the relative cost (or 'price') of each component of a linear dynamic system using quadratic performance criteria. In addition to the insights into system behavior that are afforded by such a component cost analysis CCA, these CCA ideas naturally lead to a theory for cost-equivalent realizations.

  14. 21 CFR 890.5350 - Exercise component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exercise component. 890.5350 Section 890.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5350 Exercise component....

  15. 21 CFR 890.5350 - Exercise component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exercise component. 890.5350 Section 890.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5350 Exercise component....

  16. 21 CFR 890.5350 - Exercise component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exercise component. 890.5350 Section 890.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5350 Exercise component....

  17. 21 CFR 890.5350 - Exercise component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exercise component. 890.5350 Section 890.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5350 Exercise component....

  18. Bacteriostatic conformal coating for electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, C.; Le Doux, F. N.

    1967-01-01

    Coating for electronic components used in space applications has bacteriostatic qualities capable of hindering bacterial reproduction, both vegetative and sporulative viable microorganisms. It exhibits high electrical resistivity, a low outgassing rate, and is capable of restraining electronic components when subjected to mechanical vibrations.

  19. Giant components in directed multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2014-11-01

    We describe the complex global structure of giant components in directed multiplex networks that generalizes the well-known bow-tie structure, generic for ordinary directed networks. By definition, a directed multiplex network contains vertices of one type and directed edges of m different types. In directed multiplex networks, we distinguish a set of different giant components based on the existence of directed paths of different types between their vertices such that for each type of edges, the paths run entirely through only edges of that type. If, in particular, m=2, we define a strongly viable component as a set of vertices in which for each type of edges each two vertices are interconnected by at least two directed paths in both directions, running through the edges of only this type. We show that in this case, a directed multiplex network contains in total nine different giant components including the strongly viable component. In general, the total number of giant components is 3^{m}. For uncorrelated directed multiplex networks, we obtain exactly the size and the emergence point of the strongly viable component and estimate the sizes of other giant components. PMID:25493836

  20. Components of Verbal Intelligence. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    A theory of the components of verbal intelligence is developed and tested in this series of experiments. After reviewing alternative theoretical frameworks for understanding verbal intelligence, a componential theory of verbal comprehension is proposed. This theory specifies the information-processing components, context cues, and mediating…

  1. 21 CFR 225.42 - Components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Components. 225.42 Section 225.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Product Quality Control § 225.42 Components. (a) A medicated feed, in addition to...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5350 - Exercise component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exercise component. 890.5350 Section 890.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5350 Exercise component....

  3. Tribology and Mechanical Components Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of NASA Glenn Research Center's Tribology & Mechanical Components Branch is provided. Work in space mechanisms, seals, oil-free turbomachinery, and mechanical components is presented. An overview of current research for these technology areas is contained in this overview.

  4. Giant components in directed multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the complex global structure of giant components in directed multiplex networks that generalizes the well-known bow-tie structure, generic for ordinary directed networks. By definition, a directed multiplex network contains vertices of one type and directed edges of m different types. In directed multiplex networks, we distinguish a set of different giant components based on the existence of directed paths of different types between their vertices such that for each type of edges, the paths run entirely through only edges of that type. If, in particular, m =2 , we define a strongly viable component as a set of vertices in which for each type of edges each two vertices are interconnected by at least two directed paths in both directions, running through the edges of only this type. We show that in this case, a directed multiplex network contains in total nine different giant components including the strongly viable component. In general, the total number of giant components is 3m. For uncorrelated directed multiplex networks, we obtain exactly the size and the emergence point of the strongly viable component and estimate the sizes of other giant components.

  5. Automated reuseable components system study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilroy, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Reusable Components System (ARCS) was developed under a Phase 1 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract for the U.S. Army CECOM. The objectives of the ARCS program were: (1) to investigate issues associated with automated reuse of software components, identify alternative approaches, and select promising technologies, and (2) to develop tools that support component classification and retrieval. The approach followed was to research emerging techniques and experimental applications associated with reusable software libraries, to investigate the more mature information retrieval technologies for applicability, and to investigate the applicability of specialized technologies to improve the effectiveness of a reusable component library. Various classification schemes and retrieval techniques were identified and evaluated for potential application in an automated library system for reusable components. Strategies for library organization and management, component submittal and storage, and component search and retrieval were developed. A prototype ARCS was built to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the reuse process. The prototype was created using a subset of the classification and retrieval techniques that were investigated. The demonstration system was exercised and evaluated using reusable Ada components selected from the public domain. A requirements specification for a production-quality ARCS was also developed.

  6. Life prediction systems for critical rotating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of advanced materials in rotating gas turbine engine components, the methodologies for life prediction of these parts must also increase in sophistication and capability. Pratt & Whitney's view of generic requirements for composite component life prediction systems are presented, efforts underway to develop these systems are discussed, and industry participation in key areas requiring development is solicited.

  7. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  8. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  9. Atom optics with permanent magnetic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschede, Dieter; Bloch, Immanuel; Goepfert, A.; Haubrich, D.; Kreis, M.; Lison, F.; Schuetze, R.; Wynands, Robert

    1997-05-01

    We have fabricated and investigated efficient magnetic lenses, waveguides, and mirrors from rare earth permanent materials. They are affordable and maintenance free. In contrast to corresponding light force components they do not need any supplies, they have large apertures, high reflectivity, and there is no spontaneous emission. The cylindrical shape of magnetic components is furthermore well suited to steer atomic beams.

  10. Tweaking the Four-Component Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    By maintaining that moral functioning depends upon four components (sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character), the Neo-Kohlbergian account of moral functioning allows for uneven moral development within individuals. However, I argue that the four-component model does not go far enough. I offer a more accurate account of moral functioning…

  11. Three Critical Components of Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses three components deemed important for inclusion in every online learning resource. The three components under review are metacognition, feedback and schematic frameworks. Metacognition serves as a critical function of the learning process. Feedback buries new learning into long-term memory by enabling students to continually…

  12. Statistical modeling of electrical components: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    A method of forecasting production yields based on SPICE (University of California at Berkeley) circuit simulation and Monte Carlo techniques was evaluated. This method involved calculating functionally accurate component models using statistical techniques and using these component models in a SPICE electrical circuit simulation program. The results of the simulation program allow production yields to be calculated using standard statistical techniques.

  13. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  14. Cognitive Components of Developmental Writing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…

  15. Densified edge seals for fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    DeCasperis, Anthony J.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A porous fuel cell component, such as an electrode substrate, has a densified edge which forms an improved gas seal during operation when soaked with electrolyte. The edges are made from the same composition as the rest of the component and are made by compressing an increased thickness of this material along the edges during the fabrication process.

  16. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  17. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction for Ceramic Components

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, V.R.; Glass, S.J.; Monroe, S.L.; Neilsen, M.K.; Newton, C.

    1999-01-11

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in non-nuclear components in the weapons stockpile including neutron tubes, stronglinks, weaklinks, batteries, and current/voltage stacks. Ceramics also perform critical functions in electronics, passively as insulators and actively as resistors and capacitors, Glass and ceramic seals also provide hermetic electrical feedthrus in connectors for many weapons components.

  18. Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: Therapy Components

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D.; Newman, Elana

    2015-01-01

    Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. PMID:25225954

  19. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of composite helicopter structures, exposed to environmental effects, after four years of commercial service is presented. This assessment is supported by test results of helicopter components and test panels which have been exposed to environmental effects since late 1979. Full scale static and fatigue tests are being conducted on composite components obtained from S-76 helicopters in commercial operations in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. Small scale tests are being conducted on coupons obtained from panels being exposed to outdoor conditions in Stratford, Connecticut and West Palm Beach, Florida. The panel layups represent S-76 components. Moisture evaluations and strength tests are being conducted, on the S-76 components and panels, over a period of eight years. Results are discussed for components and panels with up to four years of exposure.

  20. Emotional stability components of human performance problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented.

  1. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  2. Predicting electronic component lifetime using thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Richard Q.; Vargas, Raymund; Eubanks, Charles

    1991-03-01

    The concept of using IR imaging technology in locating failures in populated and unpopulated printed circuit boards (PCB) has been around since the mid 70's. However, the use of IR imaging technology in predicting component failure has been almost nonexistent. An IR workstation was developed to identify components that had become degraded as a result of aging, stress, or 'wear and tear'. Unlike previous work in IR diagnostic which uses a 'gold' image for comparison, the image history is developed on an individual board basis. The boards were subjected to both thermal and voltage stress to induce component degradation and failure. Preliminary results indicate that some components show a consisted thermal profile that may be used in predicating the lifetime of some components; other components exhibit no consisted thermal pattern change. Due to the varying statistical nature of stress to PCB modules during use in the field and the complexity of designing thermal simulations for each type of PCB module, designing a low cost IR workstation to predict component lifetime is not practical. However, a related application of the effort offers the means to significantly enhance the reliability of PCB modules which have large populations.

  3. Using Cots Components in Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Abdul Khader

    2008-10-01

    As commercial off-the-shelf components starts used effectively, in building Component based Systems and new methodologies and processes not only for development and maintenance, but also for other lifecycle phases that are strongly affected. For example, some software vendors have begun to successfully sell and license commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and this fact leads to a considerable number of components being available for use. Thus, requirements engineering techniques have to change to deal with more flexible requirements to provide a match between stakeholder requirements and COTS component's services. In addition to changes in activities such as composition and component specification, that are specific to Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), there are also a number of managerial issues that require change. Many of these issues are not yet established in practice or even developed. The main goal of this article is to present some characteristics of a CBSD and discuss some of the current issues associated with applying CBSE.

  4. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  5. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  6. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of SSME structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.

    1991-05-01

    The application is described of Composite Load Spectra (CLS) and Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) family of computer codes to the probabilistic structural analysis of four Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) space propulsion system components. These components are subjected to environments that are influenced by many random variables. The applications consider a wide breadth of uncertainties encountered in practice, while simultaneously covering a wide area of structural mechanics. This has been done consistent with the primary design requirement for each component. The probabilistic application studies are discussed using finite element models that have been typically used in the past in deterministic analysis studies.

  8. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  9. Attitude Control Propulsion Components, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Effort was made to include as much engineering information on each component as possible, consistent with usefulness and catalog size limitations. The contents of this catalog contain components which were qualified for use with spacecraft monopropellant hydrazine and inert gas attitude control systems. Thrust ranges up to 44.5 N (10.0 lbf) for hydrazine and inert gas sytems were considered. Additionally, some components qualified for uses other than spacecraft attitude control are included because they are suitable for use in attitude controls systems.

  10. Fatigue analysis codes for WECS components

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.; Naassan, K.A.

    1987-10-01

    This Manuscript discusses two numerical techniques, the LIFE and the LIFE2 codes, that analyze the fatigue life of WECS components. The LIFE code is a PC-compatible Basic code that analyzes the fatigue life of a VAWT component. The LIFE2 code is a PC-compatible Fortran code that relaxes the rather restrictive assumptions of the LIFE code and permits the analysis of the fatigue life of all WECS components. Also, the modular format of the LIFE2 code permits the code to be revised, with minimal effort, to include additional analysis while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the use of the codes, an example problem is presented. 10 refs.

  11. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  12. Perceptual-components architecture for digital video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A perceptual-components architecture for digital video partitions the image stream into signal components in a manner analogous to that used in the human visual system. These components consist of achromatic and opponent color channels, divided into static and motion channels, further divided into bands of particular spatial frequency and orientation. Bits are allocated to an individual band in accord with visual sensitivity to that band and in accord with the properties of visual masking. This architecture is argued to have desirable features such as efficiency, error tolerance, scalability, device independence, and extensibility.

  13. Chemical components of the Apollo 15 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The lunar regolith is a complex mixture of many components. Compositional data is used to identify and estimate the relative importance of the various chemical components of the regolith. The results and conclusions of four methods that were applied to Apollo 15 regolith data were reviewed to determine the important chemical components: graphical techniques, analysis of individual soil particles, factor analysis, and multicomponent mixing models. This synthesis relies heavily on data and conclusions from the literature as well as new analyses on 28 regolith breccia samples, 28 soil samples, and 50 individual 1 to 2 mm particles from soil 15272.

  14. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  15. Components of the airport access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The organizations and agencies which make up or influence the airport access system are examined. These include the airport, the airline industry, the public and private transit agencies which provide ground access to the airport, and the regulatory agencies which affect all of these organizations and their actions. Each component, with the exception of the regulatory agencies is described in terms of its legal status, its sources of funds, and the nature of its relationship with the other components. Conclusions regarding the system components' effects on airport access and recommendations for changes which appear practical are presented.

  16. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  17. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  18. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  19. Fluorescent Labeling of Yeast Cell Wall Components.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells stained with a fluorescent dye that specifically binds to one of the cell wall components can be observed under a fluorescent microscope. Visualization of the components 1,3-β-glucan, mannoproteins, and/or chitin not only provides information concerning the cell wall, but also reveals clues about various cellular activities such as cell polarity, vesicular transport, establishment of budding pattern, apical and isotropic bud growth, and replicative cell age. This protocol describes a standard method for visualizing different components of the yeast cell wall. PMID:27480714

  20. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  1. Crystallization in two-component Coulomb systems.

    PubMed

    Bonitz, M; Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Levashov, P R; Fehske, H

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of Coulomb crystallization is extended from one-component to two-component plasmas. Critical parameters for the existence of Coulomb crystals are derived for both classical and quantum crystals. In the latter case, a critical mass ratio of the two charged components is found, which is of the order of 80. Thus, holes in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands are predicted to spontaneously order into a regular lattice. Such hole crystals are intimately related to ion Coulomb crystals in white dwarf and neutron stars as well as to ion crystals produced in the laboratory. A unified phase diagram of two-component Coulomb crystals is presented and is verified by first-principles computer simulations. PMID:16384315

  2. 49 CFR 228.203 - Program components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Program components. (a) System security. The integrity of the program and database must be protected by a... restricted to the employee or train crew or signal gang whose time is being recorded, with the...

  3. Systems and methods for measuring component matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courter, Kelly J. (Inventor); Slenk, Joel E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and methods for measuring a contour match between adjacent components are disclosed. In one embodiment, at least two pressure sensors are located between adjacent components. Each pressure sensor is adapted to obtain a pressure measurement at a location a predetermined distance away from the other pressure sensors, and to output a pressure measurement for each sensor location. An output device is adapted to receive the pressure measurements from at least two pressure sensors and display the pressure measurements. In one aspect, the pressure sensors include flexible thin film pressure sensors. In accordance with other aspects of the invention, a method is provided for measuring a contour match between two interfacing components including measuring at least one pressure applied to at least one sensor between the interfacing components.

  4. Photovoltaics: Basic Design Principles and Components

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This publication will introduce you to the basic design principles and components of PV systems. It will also help you discuss these systems knowledgeably with an equipment supplier or system installer.

  5. Components Needed to Support Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casarett, Alison

    1989-01-01

    Faculty involvement, research, and formal instruction are described as components of graduate education. The process of doctoral education and an outline of a doctoral program at Cornell University in the Division of Nutritional Sciences are discussed. (MLW)

  6. Remembering Components of Food in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gaurav; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies (MBs). This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. DANs are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here, we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila. PMID:26924969

  7. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  8. Collective fluctuations in networks of noisy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kawamura, Yoji; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    Collective dynamics result from interactions among noisy dynamical components. Examples include heartbeats, circadian rhythms and various pattern formations. Because of noise in each component, collective dynamics inevitably involve fluctuations, which may crucially affect the functioning of the system. However, the relation between the fluctuations in isolated individual components and those in collective dynamics is not clear. Here, we study a linear dynamical system of networked components subjected to independent Gaussian noise and analytically show that the connectivity of networks determines the intensity of fluctuations in the collective dynamics. Remarkably, in general directed networks including scale-free networks, the fluctuations decrease more slowly with system size than the standard law stated by the central limit theorem. They even remain finite for a large system size when global directionality of the network exists. Moreover, such non-trivial behavior appears even in undirected networks when nonlinear dynamical systems are considered. We demonstrate it with a coupled oscillator system.

  9. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  10. Component Evolution in General Random Intersection Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradonjić, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Percus, Allon G.

    Random intersection graphs (RIGs) are an important random structure with algorithmic applications in social networks, epidemic networks, blog readership, and wireless sensor networks. RIGs can be interpreted as a model for large randomly formed non-metric data sets. We analyze the component evolution in general RIGs, giving conditions on the existence and uniqueness of the giant component. Our techniques generalize existing methods for analysis of component evolution: we analyze survival and extinction properties of a dependent, inhomogeneous Galton-Watson branching process on general RIGs. Our analysis relies on bounding the branching processes and inherits the fundamental concepts of the study of component evolution in Erdős-Rényi graphs. The major challenge comes from the underlying structure of RIGs, which involves both a set of nodes and a set of attributes, with different probabilities associated with each attribute.

  11. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  12. 6 CFR 7.11 - Components' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... component acquire adequate security education and training, as required by the DHS classified information... information as a part of the continuous need-to-know evaluation, and initiate action to...

  13. Chiral Chlordane Components in Environmental Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlordane, a persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic organochlorine pesticide, has been studied for many years. Since the advent of chiral analysis for environmental samples, over 2,400 measurements have been made of various chiral chlordane components. Chlordane enantiomer fractio...

  14. Components of Effective Diversity Training Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 12 diversity experts uncovered components of effective diversity training programs: management commitment and support, inclusion in strategic planning, attention to specific organizational needs, qualified trainers, mandatory attendance, inclusiveness, trust and confidentiality, accountability, and clearly focused evaluation. (SK)

  15. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOEpatents

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  16. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION COMPONENT AND SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop the components required for catalytic combustion system operation and evaluation. The systems investigated (firetube boiler, watertube boiler, and gas turbine), when integrated with the catalytic combustor, have potential for both ...

  17. Nomenclature for human complement component C2*

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    This note describes the designations for variants of the human complement component C2, which were approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). PMID:1394787

  18. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 8 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Although meningitis can be life-threatening, individuals with complement component ... leaves affected individuals prone to recurrent episodes of meningitis. Learn more about the genes associated with complement ...

  19. Acoustic wave levitation: Handling of components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Vincent; Delchambre, Alain; Lambert, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Apart from contact micromanipulation, there exists a large variety of levitation techniques among which standing wave levitation will be proposed as a way to handle (sub)millimetric components. This paper will compare analytical formulas to calculate the order of magnitude of the levitation force. It will then describe digital simulation and experimental levitation setup. Stable levitation of various components (cardboard, steel washer, ball, ceramic capacity, water droplet) was shown along 5 degrees of freedom: The only degree of freedom that could not be mastered was the rotation about the symmetry axis of the acoustic field. More importantly, the present work will show the modification of the orientation of the radial force component in the presence of an object disturbing the acoustic field. This property can be used as a new feeding strategy as it means that levitating components are spontaneously pushed toward grippers in an acoustic plane standing wave.

  20. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  1. Hydrodynamic design of generic pump components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a generic generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  3. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors related to the acquisition and life-cycle cost, and mission reliability of helicopters is given. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Special attention is given to advanced propulsion systems and related component technologies, and system requirements, powerplants and component thrusts, compressor designs, combustion systems, turbine efficiency, blade tip treatment concepts and shaft dynamics are discussed in detail.

  4. Phase transitions three-component superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, Johan; Babaev, Egor

    2014-03-01

    We discuss phase transitions in three-component models of superfluidity and superconductivity. We present Monte Carlo simulations showing that for certain types of inter-component interactions, these systems exhibit novel types of first order phase transitions that are driven by spin-waves. Supported by NSF CAREER Award DMR-0955902, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences andSwedish Research Council.

  5. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  6. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  7. Two-component Abelian sandpile models.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, F C; Pyatov, P; Rittenberg, V

    2009-04-01

    In one-component Abelian sandpile models, the toppling probabilities are independent quantities. This is not the case in multicomponent models. The condition of associativity of the underlying Abelian algebras imposes nonlinear relations among the toppling probabilities. These relations are derived for the case of two-component quadratic Abelian algebras. We show that Abelian sandpile models with two conservation laws have only trivial avalanches. PMID:19518280

  8. RDCDS Meteorologoical Component Quick Installation Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2007-11-20

    This guide provides step-by-step instructions for the deployment of one of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) weather stations and central control system. Instructions for the deployment and operation of the Atmospheric Systems Corporation miniSODAR™ (SOnic Detection and Ranging) can be found in accompanying manuals developed by Atmospheric Systems Corporation. A detailed description of the system and its components can be found in the manual entitled Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component.

  9. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  11. Highly polarized components of integrated pulse profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Han, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Highly polarized components of pulse profiles are investigated by analyzing observational data and simulating the emission processes. The highly polarized components appear at the leading or trailing part of a pulse profile, which preferably have a flat spectrum and a flat polarization angle curve compared with the low polarized components. By considering the emission processes and propagation effects, we simulate the distributions of wave modes and fractional linear polarization within the entire pulsar emission beam. We show that the highly polarized components can appear at the leading, central, and/or trailing parts of pulse profiles in the models, depending on pulsar geometry. The depolarization is caused by orthogonal modes or scattering. When a sight line cuts across pulsar emission beam with a small impact angle, the detected highly polarized component will be of the O mode, and have a flat polarization angle curve and/or a flat spectrum as observed. Otherwise, the highly polarized component will be of the X mode and have a steep polarization angle curve.

  12. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor–acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts. PMID:27460607

  13. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E; Addicoat, Matthew A; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor-acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts. PMID:27460607

  14. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  15. Symposium on electroslag component casting: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Hobday, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Surface Coal Gasification, has established a Materials Program to develop and apply appropriate materials to coal gasification plant components. The overall goals of the Surface Gasification Materials Program (SGMP) are to improve operational reliability and system durability and to reduce fabrication and operating costs of coal gasification plant components. The SGMP Electroslag Component Casting Project is directed to the development of electroslag casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is to develop a sufficient data base to permit ESC to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. This symposium was planned to discuss not only the SGMP Electroslag Component Casting Project but the activities and experiences of other organizations as well. The symposium addressed descriptions of electroslag processes; a worldwide perspective on the status of ESC technology; and details of production, mechanical properties, economics, and use of ESC for coal gasification components. Ten papers were presented, and a panel discussion was held to provide participants an opportunity to express their opinions and to offer recommendations on the content of the DOE program. This document constitutes the proceedings of that symposium. The papers included here are minimally edited transcripts of the presentations made at the symposium. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  17. Multibody model reduction by component mode synthesis and component cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The classical assumed-modes method is widely used in modeling the dynamics of flexible multibody systems. According to the method, the elastic deformation of each component in the system is expanded in a series of spatial and temporal functions known as modes and modal coordinates, respectively. This paper focuses on the selection of component modes used in the assumed-modes expansion. A two-stage component modal reduction method is proposed combining Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) with Component Cost Analysis (CCA). First, each component model is truncated such that the contribution of the high frequency subsystem to the static response is preserved. Second, a new CMS procedure is employed to assemble the system model and CCA is used to further truncate component modes in accordance with their contribution to a quadratic cost function of the system output. The proposed method is demonstrated with a simple example of a flexible two-body system.

  18. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  19. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  20. Key optical components for spaceborne lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhring, J.; Winzen, M.; Faidel, H.; Miesner, J.; Plum, D.; Klein, J.; Fitzau, O.; Giesberts, M.; Brandenburg, W.; Seidel, A.; Schwanen, N.; Riesters, D.; Hengesbach, S.; Hoffmann, H.-D.

    2016-03-01

    Spaceborne lidar (light detection and ranging) systems have a large potential to become powerful instruments in the field of atmospheric research. Obviously, they have to be in operation for about three years without any maintenance like readjusting. Furthermore, they have to withstand strong temperature cycles typically in the range of -30 to +50 °C as well as mechanical shocks and vibrations, especially during launch. Additionally, the avoidance of any organic material inside the laser box is required, particularly in UV lasers. For atmospheric research pulses of about several 10 mJ at repetition rates of several 10 Hz are required in many cases. Those parameters are typically addressed by DPSSL that comprise components like: laser crystals, nonlinear crystals in pockels cells, faraday isolators and frequency converters, passive fibers, diode lasers and of course a lot of mirrors and lenses. In particular, some components have strong requirements regarding their tilt stability that is often in the 10 μrad range. In most of the cases components and packages that are used for industrial lasers do not fulfil all those requirements. Thus, the packaging of all these key components has been developed to meet those specifications only making use of metal and ceramics beside the optical component itself. All joints between the optical component and the laser baseplate are soldered or screwed. No clamps or adhesives are used. Most of the critical properties like tilting after temperature cycling have been proven in several tests. Currently, these components are used to build up first prototypes for spaceborne systems.

  1. DECELERATING RELATIVISTIC TWO-COMPONENT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R. E-mail: Rony.Keppens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2009-11-10

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin and launching mechanism, making their effective inertia, magnetization, associated energy flux, and angular momentum content different as well. Their interface will develop differential rotation, where disruptions may occur. Here we investigate the stability of rotating, two-component relativistic outflows typical for jets in radio galaxies. For this purpose, we parametrically explore the long-term evolution of a transverse cross section of radially stratified jets numerically, extending our previous study where a single, purely hydrodynamic evolution was considered. We include cases with poloidally magnetized jet components, covering hydro and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. With grid-adaptive relativistic MHD simulations, augmented with approximate linear stability analysis, we revisit the interaction between the two jet components. We study the influence of dynamically important poloidal magnetic fields, with varying contributions of the inner component jet to the total kinetic energy flux of the jet, on their non-linear azimuthal stability. We demonstrate that two-component jets with high kinetic energy flux and inner jet effective inertia which is higher than the outer jet effective inertia are subject to the development of a relativistically enhanced, rotation-induced Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability. This instability plays a major role in decelerating the inner jet and the overall jet decollimation. This novel deceleration scenario can partly explain the radio source dichotomy, relating it directly to the efficiency of the central engine in launching the inner jet component. The FRII/FRI transition could then occur when the relative kinetic energy flux of the

  2. An apparatus for remotely handling components

    SciTech Connect

    Szkrybalo, G.A.; Griffin, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling barlike components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of t he first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus also includes a control mechanism for remotely controlling movement of the jaw in the locking mode to assume one of a plurality of locking positions corresponding to positioning one of the stepped portions opposite the base.

  3. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  4. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment is presented of ten composite tail rotor spars and four horizontal stabilizers exposed to the effects of in-flight commercial service for up to nine years to establish realistic environmental factors for use in future designs. This evaluation is supported by test results of helicopter components and panels which have been exposed to outdoor environmental effects since 1979. Full scale static and fatigue tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite components removed from Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters in commercial operations off the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. Small scale static and fatigue tests were conducted on coupons obtained from panels exposed to outdoor conditions in Stratford, CT and West Palm Beach, Florida. The panel materials and ply configurations were representative of the S-76 components. The results are discussed of moisture analyses and strength tests on both the S-76 components and composite panels after up to nine years of outdoor exposure. Full scale tests performed on the helicopter components did not disclose any significant reductions from the baseline strengths. The results increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials in helicopter structural applications.

  5. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E.; Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  6. Laminated ceramic components for microfluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Stewart, Donald C.; Bonham, Charles C.

    1999-08-01

    Applications for micro fluidic components continue to expand as the benefits resulting from the small volumes and light weight of such devices are recognized. Such benefits are particularly attractive for man-portable and automotive devices where reduction of weight is critical. As applications expand, so too does the need for the development of methods for producing micro fluidic components from unconventional materials (i.e., materials other than silicon). At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are currently developing processes for producing laminated multilevel ceramic components containing microchannel features that will find applications in micro fluidic chemical processing and energy management systems. Thin layers of green ceramic tape are patterned with micro fluidic flow features using one of a number of cutting processes. The patterned layers are then stacked and laminated with other layers of green tape, ceramic plate, or other materials using a series of processing steps. The resulting monolithic, leak-tight micro fluidic ceramic components are capable of tolerating high temperature or chemically corrosive environments. Fabrication issues associated with the use of the green ceramic tape for this type of application will be discussed, and examples of test components produced using these processes will be presented.

  7. Component evolution in general random intersection graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Hengartner, Nick; Percus, Allon G

    2010-01-01

    We analyze component evolution in general random intersection graphs (RIGs) and give conditions on existence and uniqueness of the giant component. Our techniques generalize the existing methods for analysis on component evolution in RIGs. That is, we analyze survival and extinction properties of a dependent, inhomogeneous Galton-Watson branching process on general RIGs. Our analysis relies on bounding the branching processes and inherits the fundamental concepts from the study on component evolution in Erdos-Renyi graphs. The main challenge becomes from the underlying structure of RIGs, when the number of offsprings follows a binomial distribution with a different number of nodes and different rate at each step during the evolution. RIGs can be interpreted as a model for large randomly formed non-metric data sets. Besides the mathematical analysis on component evolution, which we provide in this work, we perceive RIGs as an important random structure which has already found applications in social networks, epidemic networks, blog readership, or wireless sensor networks.

  8. Adaptive independent component analysis to analyze electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Seong-Bin; Szu, Harold H.

    2001-03-01

    In this work, we apply adaptive version independent component analysis (ADAPTIVE ICA) to the nonlinear measurement of electro-cardio-graphic (ECG) signals for potential detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. In principle, unsupervised ADAPTIVE ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. However, the nonlinear pre-amplification and post measurement processing make the linear ADAPTIVE ICA model no longer valid. This is possible because of a proposed adaptive rectification pre-processing is used to linearize the preamplifier of ECG, and then linear ADAPTIVE ICA is used in iterative manner until the outputs having their own stable Kurtosis. We call such a new approach adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA. Each component may correspond to individual heart function, either normal or abnormal. Adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA neural networks have the potential to make abnormal components more apparent, even when they are masked by normal components in the original measured signals. This is particularly important for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original measured ECG signals may be difficult to detect. This is the first known work that applies Adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA to ECG signals beyond noise extraction, to the detection of abnormal heart function.

  9. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshev, Dmitry; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-09-14

    We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of components etc., in order to separate them. In this paper we propose a method where one puts conditions on the spectra only. The advantages of our method are: 1) it is internal: the maps of the components are constructed as combinations of data in different energy bins, 2) the components may be correlated among each other, 3) the method is semi-blind: in many cases, it is sufficient to assume a functional form of the spectra and determine the parameters from a maximization of a likelihood function. As an example, we derive the CMB map and the foreground maps for seven yeas of WMAP data. In an Appendix, we present a generalization of the method, where one can also add a number of external templates.

  10. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking. PMID:25535413

  11. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.

  12. Component technology for Stirling power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, L.G.

    1994-09-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has organized a component technology program as part of the efforts to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling space power program is part of the NASA High Capacity Power Project of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). NASA Lewis is also providing technical management for a DOE/Sandia program to develop Stirling converters for solar terrestrial power producing electricity for the utility grid. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial programs develop component technologies directly related to their program goals. This Lewis component technology effort, while coordinated with the main programs, aims at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. This paper will present an overview of work on linear alternators, engine/alternator/load interactions and controls, heat exchangers, materials, life and reliability, and bearings.

  13. Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2009-01-01

    Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  14. Narrow Absorption Components in Be Star Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stars omega Ori (B2 IIIe), 66 Oph (B2 IVe), and 59 Cyg (B1.5 IVe) are discussed. The extent to which the narrow absorption components in these Be stars differs from narrow components in the O stars and gamma Cas is explored. Any models or mechanisms for the formation of narrow absorption features in the UV resonance lines of Be star spectra must account for the presence of multiple narrow absorption features which are variable in number, radial velocity, and strength. Models predicting a high and low density structure to the stellar wind caused by instabilities in a flow driven by radiation pressure or by variable mass loss may be more successful in describing the behavior of winds in early Be stars. These models appear to be capable of producing single absorption components in the velocity range observed for O stars and very early Be stars.

  15. Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W.

    1992-12-31

    A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

  16. Laser Micromachining Fabrication of THz Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DrouetdAubigny, C.; Walker, C.; Jones, B.; Groppi, C.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tavenier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laser micromachining techniques can be used to fabricate high-quality waveguide structures and quasi-optical components to micrometer accuracies. Successful GHz designs can be directly scaled to THz frequencies. We expect this promising technology to allow the construction of the first fully integrated THz heterodyne imaging arrays. At the University of Arizona, construction of the first laser micromachining system designed for THz waveguide components fabrication has been completed. Once tested and characterized our system will be used to construct prototype THz lx4 focal plane mixer arrays, magic tees, AR coated silicon lenses, local oscillator source phase gratings, filters and more. Our system can micro-machine structures down to a few microns accuracy and up to 6 inches across in a short time. This paper discusses the design and performance of our micromachining system, and illustrates the type, range and performance of components this exciting new technology will make accessible to the THz community.

  17. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    This first interim report presents the technical background for including environmental effects in the design of helicopter composite structures, and test results after approximately two year field exposure of components and panels. Composite structural components were removed from Sikorsky S-76 helicopters commercially operated in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. Fatigue tests were conducted for a graphite/epoxy tail rotor spar and static test for a graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy stabilizer. Graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy panels are being exposed to the outdoor environment in Stratford, Connecticut and West Palm Beach, Florida. For this reporting period the two year panels were returned, moisture measurements taken, and strength tests conducted. Results are compared with initial type certificate strengths for components and with initial laboratory coupon tests for the exposed panels. Comparisons are also presented with predicted and measured moisture contents.

  18. Component design bases - A template approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, L.F. ); Strickland, K.M. )

    1991-01-01

    A well-documented nuclear plant design basis can enhance plant safety and availability. Older plants, however, often lack historical evidence of the original design intent, particularly for individual components. Most plant documentation describes the actual design (what is) rather than the bounding limits of the design. Without knowledge of these design limits, information from system descriptions and equipment specifications is often interpreted as inviolate design requirements. Such interpretations may lead to unnecessary design conservatism in plant modifications and unnecessary restrictions on plant operation. In 1986, Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L's) Turkey Point plant embarked on one of the first design basis reconstitution programs in the United States to catalog the true design requirements. As the program developed, design basis users expressed a need for additional information at the component level. This paper outlines a structured (template) approach to develop useful component design basis information (including the WHYs behind the design).

  19. Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

    2011-10-01

    When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

  20. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  1. Manufacturing of lightweighted ZERODUR components at SCHOTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Thomas, Armin; Jedamzik, Ralf; Kohlmann, Heiko; Hartmann, Peter

    2007-09-01

    There is a broad range of applications for lightweighted components made from ZERODUR (R) glass ceramic. The main markets are secondary and tertiary mirrors for astronomical telescopes, mirrors and structural components for satellites, and mechanical structures for industrial applications, mainly in microlithography. Prominent examples from astronomy are VLT-M3, GEMINI-M2, SOFIA-M1, MAGELLAN-M2, MMT-M2, and METEOSAT-SEVIRI. At SCHOTT components with blind or undercut semiclosed holes are manufactured, typically with circular, hexagonal, rectangular or triangular shapes. The classical grinding process results in weight reduction factors of about 70 %. By additional acid etching technologies even higher lightweighting factors and rib thicknesses below 1 mm have been achieved.

  2. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  3. Component technology for stirling power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has organized a component technology program as part of the efforts to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling Space Power Program is part of the NASA High Capacity Power Project of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). NASA Lewis is also providing technical management for the DOE/Sandia program to develop Stirling converters for solar terrestrial power producing electricity for the utility grid. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial programs develop component technologies directly related to their goals. This Lewis component technology effort, while coordinated with the main programs, aims at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. An overview of work on linear alternators, engine/alternator/load interactions and controls, heat exchangers, materials, life and reliability, and bearings is presented.

  4. Component technology for Stirling power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has organized a component technology program as part of the efforts to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling Space Power Program is part of the NASA High Capacity Power Project of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). NASA Lewis is also providing technical management for the DOE/Sandia program to develop Stirling converters for solar terrestrial power producing electricity for the utility grid. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial programs develop component technologies directly related to their goals. This Lewis component technology effort, while coordinated with the main programs, aims at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. An overview of work on linear alternators, engine/alternator/load interactions and controls, heat exchangers, materials, life and reliability, and bearings is presented.

  5. Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

  6. The USAMP magnesium powertrain cast components project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Bob R.

    2002-02-01

    Despite the demonstrated ability of magnesium alloys to significantly reduce weight at acceptable costs in many areas of an automobile, powertrain components have not benefited from this metal, primarily because the high-temperature alloys that are required for engines and transmissions are too expensive. However, the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership have launched a project to evaluate several new, potentially low-cost magnesium alloys, design several pre-competitive power-train components for the best alloy properties, cast and dynamometer or vehicle test the components in assembled powertrains, develop a powertrain magnesium alloy design database and common alloy specification, and identify andpromote the funding of fundamental research into improved magnesium alloys and casting processes.

  7. COMPONENT VERSION IN MODULAR TOTAL HIP REVISION

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Michael A.; Pemberton, Aaron; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Allan, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic changes of the proximal femur make revision total hip arthroplasty challenging. Metaphyseal retroversion and diaphyseal varus are common in this scenario. Twenty-one total hip revisions using a modular femoral prosthesis were examined by obtaining three radiographs (A/P, surgical lateral, and true lateral of the femur) to assemble CAD models for determining the range of modular component positioning. An average of femoral neck anteversion was observed. Seventeen of 21 cases (81%) had retroverted metaphyseal segments (−23.2°+/−17.4°) and/or varus stems (−32.1°+/−13.0°). Neck anteversion averaged 21.4°(+/−10.0°). One of 21 cases (5%) resulted in component orientation similar to a non-modular prosthesis. Modular components provide options to accommodate proximal femoral remodeling not afforded by monobloc stems in total hip revision surgery. PMID:19742077

  8. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  9. Component placement optimization in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, C

    1994-04-01

    This computational neuroanatomy study evaluates how well some formalisms derived from combinatorial network optimization theory fit as models for brain structure. At multiple hierarchical levels--brain, ganglion, individual cell--physical placement of neural components appears consistent with a single, simple goal: minimize cost of connections among the components. The most dramatic instance of this "save wire" organizing principle is reported for adjacencies among ganglia in the nematode nervous system; among about 40,000,000 alternative layout orderings, the actual ganglion placement in fact requires the least total connection length. In addition, evidence supports a component placement optimization hypothesis for positioning of individual neurons in the nematode, and also for positioning of mammalian cortical areas. PMID:8158278

  10. Explosive Percolation with Multiple Giant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2011-03-01

    We generalize the random graph evolution process of Bohman, Frieze, and Wormald [T. Bohman, A. Frieze, and N. C. Wormald, Random Struct. AlgorithmsRSALFD1042-983210.1002/rsa.20038, 25, 432 (2004)]. Potential edges, sampled uniformly at random from the complete graph, are considered one at a time and either added to the graph or rejected provided that the fraction of accepted edges is never smaller than a decreasing function asymptotically approaching the value α=1/2. We show that multiple giant components appear simultaneously in a strongly discontinuous percolation transition and remain distinct. Furthermore, tuning the value of α determines the number of such components with smaller α leading to an increasingly delayed and more explosive transition. The location of the critical point and strongly discontinuous nature are not affected if only edges which span components are sampled.

  11. Component technology for Stirling power converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    NASA Lewis Research Center has organized a component technology program as part of the efforts to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling Space Power Program is part of the NASA High Capacity Power Project of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). NASA Lewis is also providing technical management for the DOE/Sandia program to develop Stirling converters for solar terrestrial power producing electricity for the utility grid. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial programs develop component technologies directly related to their goals. This Lewis component technology effort, while coordinated with the main programs, aims at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. An overview of work on linear alternators, engine/alternator/load interactions and controls, heat exchangers, materials, life and reliability, and bearings is presented.

  12. Intrinsic superstatistical components of financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamoş, Călin; Crăciun, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Time series generated by a complex hierarchical system exhibit various types of dynamics at different time scales. A financial time series is an example of such a multiscale structure with time scales ranging from minutes to several years. In this paper we decompose the volatility of financial indices into five intrinsic components and we show that it has a heterogeneous scale structure. The small-scale components have a stochastic nature and they are independent 99% of the time, becoming synchronized during financial crashes and enhancing the heavy tails of the volatility distribution. The deterministic behavior of the large-scale components is related to the nonstationarity of the financial markets evolution. Our decomposition of the financial volatility is a superstatistical model more complex than those usually limited to a superposition of two independent statistics at well-separated time scales.

  13. Protection of lithographic components from particle contamination

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    A system that employs thermophoresis to protect lithographic surfaces from particle deposition and operates in an environment where the pressure is substantially constant and can be sub-atmospheric. The system (thermophoretic pellicle) comprises an enclosure that surrounds a lithographic component whose surface is being protected from particle deposition. The enclosure is provided with means for introducing a flow of gas into the chamber and at least one aperture that provides for access to the lithographic surface for the entry and exit of a beam of radiation, for example, and further controls gas flow into a surrounding low pressure environment such that a higher pressure is maintained within the enclosure and over the surface being protected. The lithographic component can be heated or, alternatively the walls of the enclosure can be cooled to establish a temperature gradient between the surface of the lithographic component and the walls of the enclosure, thereby enabling the thermophoretic force that resists particle deposition.

  14. ARTICLES: Laser spectrochromatographic analysis of petroleum components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobeĭnik, G. S.; Letokhov, V. S.; Montanari, S. G.; Tumanova, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    A system combining a gas chromatograph and a laser optoacoustic spectrometer (with a CO2 laser and means for fast frequency scanning) was used to investigate model hydrocarbon mixtures, as well as some real objects in the form of benzine fractions of petroleum oil. The fast scanning regime was used to record optoacoustic spectra of hydrocarbons (in the range 9.2-10.8μ) during the travel time (1-10 sec) of the individual components of a mixture through an optoacoustic cell in the course of chromatrographic separation of these components. The spectra were used to carry out a group hydrocarbon analysis of benzine fractions of petroleum oil from various locations. The proposed method was relatively fast and was characterized by a good ability for identification of various components, compared with the usually employed method such as gas-liquid capillary chromatography.

  15. Radiation heating in selected NERVA engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtney, J. C.; Hertelendy, N. A.; Lindsey, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    The role of heating from nuclear radiation in design of the NERVA engine is treated. Some components are subjected to very high gamma heating rates in excess of 0.5 Btu/cubic inch/sec in steel in the primary nozzle or 0.25 Btu/cubic inch/sec in aluminum in the pressure vessel. These components must be cooled by a fraction of the liquid hydrogen propellant before it is passed through the core, heated, and expanded out the nozzle as a gas. Other components that are subjected to lower heating rates such as the thrust structure and the disk shield are designed so that they would not require liquid hydrogen cooling. Typical gamma and neutron heating rates, resulting temperatures, and their design consequences are discussed. Calculational techniques used in the nuclear and thermal analyses of the NERVA engine are briefly treated.

  16. Polarimetric characterization of birefringent filter components.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Mitchell, Keith; Tarbell, Theodore

    2015-01-10

    Over the past 75 years, birefringent filter technology has evolved significantly. For nearly that same period of time, these filters have been designed and used by solar scientists to study the Sun. Prior to assembling these types of filters, each component, e.g., polarizers and wave plates, is characterized to determine its polarimetric parameters to ensure the desired filter design performance. With time and cost becoming an ever increasing issue, it is imperative to test components designated for a birefringent filter efficiently. This article addresses a shift to increased efficiency when testing components of very low volume (<5 units) solar research filters that minimizes high-priced hardware expenditures, i.e., Mueller matrix spectropolarimeter. PMID:25967624

  17. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Daly, Jeffery E.

    2009-05-05

    A system for transmitting information between downhole components has a first downhole component with a first mating surface and a second downhole component having a second mating surface configured to substantially mate with the first mating surface. The system also has a first transmission element with a first communicating surface and is mounted within a recess in the first mating surface. The first transmission element also has an angled surface. The recess has a side with multiple slopes for interacting with the angled surface, each slope exerting a different spring force on the first transmission element. A second transmission element has a second communicating surface mounted proximate the second mating surface and adapted to communicate with the first communicating surface.

  18. Principal component analysis for designed experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Principal component analysis is used to summarize matrix data, such as found in transcriptome, proteome or metabolome and medical examinations, into fewer dimensions by fitting the matrix to orthogonal axes. Although this methodology is frequently used in multivariate analyses, it has disadvantages when applied to experimental data. First, the identified principal components have poor generality; since the size and directions of the components are dependent on the particular data set, the components are valid only within the data set. Second, the method is sensitive to experimental noise and bias between sample groups. It cannot reflect the experimental design that is planned to manage the noise and bias; rather, it estimates the same weight and independence to all the samples in the matrix. Third, the resulting components are often difficult to interpret. To address these issues, several options were introduced to the methodology. First, the principal axes were identified using training data sets and shared across experiments. These training data reflect the design of experiments, and their preparation allows noise to be reduced and group bias to be removed. Second, the center of the rotation was determined in accordance with the experimental design. Third, the resulting components were scaled to unify their size unit. Results The effects of these options were observed in microarray experiments, and showed an improvement in the separation of groups and robustness to noise. The range of scaled scores was unaffected by the number of items. Additionally, unknown samples were appropriately classified using pre-arranged axes. Furthermore, these axes well reflected the characteristics of groups in the experiments. As was observed, the scaling of the components and sharing of axes enabled comparisons of the components beyond experiments. The use of training data reduced the effects of noise and bias in the data, facilitating the physical interpretation of the

  19. Complex Principal Components for Robust Motion Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, F. William; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Bias and variance errors in motion estimation result from electronic noise, decorrelation, aliasing, and inherent algorithm limitations. Unlike most error sources, decorrelation is coherent over time and has the same power spectrum as the signal. Thus, reducing decorrelation is impossible through frequency domain filtering or simple averaging and must be achieved through other methods. In this paper, we present a novel motion estimator, termed the principal component displacement estimator (PCDE), which takes advantage of the signal separation capabilities of principal component analysis (PCA) to reject decorrelation and noise. Furthermore, PCDE only requires the computation of a single principal component, enabling computational speed that is on the same order of magnitude or faster than the commonly used Loupas algorithm. Unlike prior PCA strategies, PCDE uses complex data to generate motion estimates using only a single principal component. The use of complex echo data is critical because it allows for separation of signal components based on motion, which is revealed through phase changes of the complex principal components. PCDE operates on the assumption that the signal component of interest is also the most energetic component in an ensemble of echo data. This assumption holds in most clinical ultrasound environments. However, in environments where electronic noise SNR is less than 0 dB or in blood flow data for which the wall signal dominates the signal from blood flow, the calculation of more than one PC is required to obtain the signal of interest. We simulated synthetic ultrasound data to assess the performance of PCDE over a wide range of imaging conditions and in the presence of decorrelation and additive noise. Under typical ultrasonic elasticity imaging conditions (0.98 signal correlation, 25 dB SNR, 1 sample shift), PCDE decreased estimation bias by more than 10% and standard deviation by more than 30% compared with the Loupas method and normalized

  20. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  1. Laser Beam Welding of Nitride Steel Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Yin, Guobin; Shulkin, Boris

    Laser beam welding is a joining technique that has many advantages over conventional GMAW welding, such as low heat input, short cycle time as well as good cosmetic welds. Laser beam welding has been widely used for welding powertrain components in automotive industry. When welding nitride steel components, however, laser beam welding faces a great challenge. The difficulty lies in the fact that the nitride layer in the joint releases the nitrogen into the weld pool, resulting in a porous weld. This research presents an industrial ready solution to prevent the nitrogen from forming gas bubbles in the weld.

  2. Electrical Contact Performance Degradation in Electromechanical Components

    SciTech Connect

    Peebles, D.E.; Dugger, M.T.; Neff, S.G.; Sorroche, E.H.; Robinson, J.A.; Fanska, J.; Ford, M.

    1999-03-23

    Detailed materials evaluations have been performed for MC2969 Intent Stronglink switch monitor circuit parts returned from the field out of retired weapon systems. Evaluations of local contact resistance, surface chemical composition and surface roughness and wear have been determined as a function of component level contact loop resistance testing position. Several degradation mechanisms have been identified and correlated with the component level measurements. Operational degradation produces surface smoothing and wear with each actuation of the monitor circuit, while aging degradation is observed in the segregation of contaminant species and alloy constituent elements to the surface in the stressed wear regions.

  3. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting the helicopter market for the past, present, and future are reviewed. Acquisition cost, mission reliability, life cycle cost and civil and military aspects are reviewed. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations and the component technology for the engine systems are discussed. The selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency is considered.

  4. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  5. Multi-Component Reactions in Heterocyclic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas J. J.; Orru, Romano V. A.; Chebanov, Valentin A.; Sakhno, Yana I.; Saraev, Vyacheslav E.; Muravyova, Elena A.; Andrushchenko, Anastasia Yu.; Desenko, Sergey M.; Akhmetova, V. R.; Khabibullina, G. R.; Rakhimova, E. B.; Vagapov, R. A.; Khairullina, R. R.; Niatshina, Z. T.; Murzakova, N. N.; Maslivets, Andrey N.; Voskressensky, Leonid G.; Danagulyan, Gevorg G.; Murtchyan, Armen D.; Tumanyan, Araksya K.; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; de Moliner, Fabio; Guanti, Giuseppe; Petricci, Elena; Riva, Renata; Taddei, Maurizio; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza; Mashkouri, Sara; Sharifi, Ali; Przhevalski, Nikolai M.; Rozhkova, Elena N.; Tokmakov, Gennadii P.; Magedov, Igor V.; Armisheva, M. N.; Rassudihina, N. A.; Vahrin, M. I.; Gein, V. L.; Shaabani, Ahmad; Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Sarvary, Afshin; Heidary, Marjan; Ng, Seik Weng; Beliaev, Nikolai A.; Mokrushin, Vladimir S.; Paramonov, Igor V.; Ilyin, Alexey; Garkushenko, Anna K.; Dushek, Maria A.; Sagitullina, Galina P.; Sagitullin, Reva S.; Kysil, Volodymyr; Khvat, Alexander; Tsirulnikov, Sergey; Tkachenko, Sergey; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre; Gein, Vladimir L.; Panova, Olga S.; Ilyn, Alexey P.; Kravchenko, Dmitri V.; Potapov, Victor V.; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V.; Vichegjanina, V. N.; Levandovskaya, E. B.; Gein, V. L.; Vahrin, M. I.; Vladimirov, I. N.; Zorina, A. A.; Nosova, N. V.; Gein, V. L.; Fedorova, O. V.; Vahrin, M. I.

    Multi-component and domino reactions are efficient and effective methods in the sustainable and diversity-oriented synthesis of heterocycles. In particular, transition metal-catalyzed multi-component sequences have recently gained considerable interest. Based upon the Sonogashira entry to alkynones, alkenones, and intermediate allenes, we have opened new avenues to the one-pot synthesis of numerous classes of heterocyclic frameworks in an MCR fashion. This methodological approach has now found various applications in one-pot syntheses of functional chromophores, pharmaceutically active compounds, and marine alkaloids and derivatives.

  6. Independent component analysis of parameterized ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Viik, Jari J; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2006-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) of measured signals yields the independent sources, given certain fulfilled requirements. Properly parameterized signals provide a better view to the considered system aspects, while reducing the amount of data. It is little acknowledged that appropriately parameterized signals may be subjected to ICA, yielding independent components (ICs) displaying more clearly the investigated properties of the sources. In this paper, we propose ICA of parameterized signals, and demonstrate the concept with ICA of ST and R parameterizations of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from ECG exercise test measurements from two coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:17945912

  7. Effects of nutritional components on aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongyeop; Hwang, Wooseon; Artan, Murat; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals regulate various physiological processes and are essential for the survival of organisms. Reduced overall caloric intake delays aging in various organisms. However, the role of each nutritional component in the regulation of lifespan is not well established. In this review, we describe recent studies focused on the regulatory role of each type of nutrient in aging. Moreover, we will discuss how the amount or composition of each nutritional component may influence longevity or health in humans. PMID:25339542

  8. Software Management Environment (SME): Components and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, Robert; Kistler, David; Valett, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the components and algorithms of the Software Management Environment (SME), a management tool developed for the Software Engineering Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of visually oriented experienced-based tools that can assist software development managers in managing and planning software development projects. This document describes and illustrates the analysis functions that underlie the SME's project monitoring, estimation, and planning tools. 'SME Components and Algorithms' is a companion reference to 'SME Concepts and Architecture' and 'Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Relationships, Models, and Management Rules.'

  9. Parameterizable Library Components for SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To facilitate quick fabrication of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors we have found it necessary to develop a library of parameterizable components. This library is the first module in our strategy towards a design tool that is integrated into existing Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. This library is similar to the standard cell libraries found in digital design packages. The library cells allow the user to input the design parameters which automatically generate a detailed layout of the SAW component. This paper presents the results of our development of parameterizable cells for an InterDigitated Transducer (IDT), reflector, SAW delay line, and both one and two port resonators.

  10. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  11. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2005-07-05

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  12. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  13. [Research into simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of components in cough syrup by principal component regression method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Wu, Xiao-hua; Tang, Xi; Zhu, Xian-liang; Su, Wen-ting

    2002-06-01

    Principal component regression (PCR) method is used to analyse five components: acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, caffeine, chlorphenamine maleate and guaifenesin. The basic principle and the analytical step of the approach are described in detail. The computer program of LHG is based on VB language. The experimental result shows that the PCR method has no systematical error as compared to classical method. The experimental result shows that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 96.43% to 107.14%. Each component obtains satisfactory result without any pre-separation. The approach is simple, rapid and suitable for the computer-aid analysis. PMID:12938324

  14. Instructional Components of Mediational Dynamic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Sonya E.; Vye, Nancy J.

    The instructional components of mediation, a teaching technique used in dynamic assessment, were evaluated with 100 four-year-old children attending daycare or preschools in London, Ontario. The effects of familiarization with task materials, task-specific rule teaching, and elaborated feedback were assessed using a pretest-posttest design.…

  15. Optimal read/write memory system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozma, A.; Vander Lugt, A.; Klinger, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two holographic data storage and display systems, voltage gradient ionization system, and linear strain manipulation system are discussed in terms of creating fast, high bit density, storage device. Components described include: novel mounting fixture for photoplastic arrays; corona discharge device; and block data composer.

  16. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  1. Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Panagakis, Yannis; Nicolaou, Mihalis A; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-08-01

    Recovering correlated and individual components of two, possibly temporally misaligned, sets of data is a fundamental task in disciplines such as image, vision, and behavior computing, with application to problems such as multi-modal fusion (via correlated components), predictive analysis, and clustering (via the individual ones). Here, we study the extraction of correlated and individual components under real-world conditions, namely i) the presence of gross non-Gaussian noise and ii) temporally misaligned data. In this light, we propose a method for the Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis (RCICA) of two sets of data in the presence of gross, sparse errors. We furthermore extend RCICA in order to handle temporal incongruities arising in the data. To this end, two suitable optimization problems are solved. The generality of the proposed methods is demonstrated by applying them onto 4 applications, namely i) heterogeneous face recognition, ii) multi-modal feature fusion for human behavior analysis (i.e., audio-visual prediction of interest and conflict), iii) face clustering, and iv) thetemporal alignment of facial expressions. Experimental results on 2 synthetic and 7 real world datasets indicate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed methodson these application domains, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods in the field. PMID:26552077

  2. Automated Induction Thermography of Generator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldammer, M.; Mooshofer, H.; Rothenfusser, M.; Bass, J.; Vrana, J.

    2010-02-01

    Using Active Thermography defects such as cracks can be detected fast and reliably. Choosing from a wide range of excitation techniques the method can be adapted to a number of tasks in non-destructive evaluation. Induction thermography is ideally suited for testing metallic components for cracks at or close to the surface. In power generation a number of components are subjected to high loads and stresses—therefore defect detection is crucial for a safe operation of the engines. Apart from combustion turbines this also applies to generators: At regular inspection intervals even small cracks have to be detected to avoid crack growth and consequently failure of the component. As an imaging technique thermography allows for a fast 100% testing of the complete surface of all relevant parts. An automated setup increases the cost effectiveness of induction thermography significantly. Time needed to test a single part is reduced, the number of tested parts per shift is increased, and cost for testing is reduced significantly. In addition, automation guarantees a reliable testing procedure which detects all critical defects. We present how non-destructive testing can be automated using as an example an industrial application at the Siemens sector Energy, and a new induction thermography setup for generator components.

  3. Public School Administrators: Components of Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Anne S.; Hales, Loyde W.

    The objectives of this study of public school administrators were to determine the level of burnout experienced by school administrators, the relationships between burnout and stress measures, the factors associated with burnout, and the relationships between administrative level and components of the Administrative Role Perception Inventory…

  4. Components of a Mod 3 Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    On overview of the Model 3 Communication Skills lexicon, consisting of three lists of words, developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for use in communication skills instruction in K-6 is presented in this document. Three components (described in three other documents) of the Model 3 communication skills lexicon are defined. The entry…

  5. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO{sub 2} as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results.

  6. Liquid rocket metal tanks and tank components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. A.; Keller, R. B. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Significant guidelines are presented for the successful design of aerospace tanks and tank components, such as expulsion devices, standpipes, and baffles. The state of the art is reviewed, and the design criteria are presented along with recommended practices. Design monographs are listed.

  7. Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

  8. Microwave heat treating of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  9. The array for EAS neutron component detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromushkin, D.; Alekseenko, V.; Petrukhin, A.; Shchegolev, O.; Stenkin, Yu; Stepanov, V.; Yashin, I.; Zadeba, E.

    2014-08-01

    The idea of a novel type detector array is the following: delayed thermal neutrons generated by hadronic component of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) can be detected over the whole array area using special electron-neutron detectors (en-detectors). The array PRISMA-32 consists of 32 en-detectors, deployed over the area of 450 m2. En-detectors are able to detect two main EAS components: electromagnetic one in a case of a synchronous passage of several charged particles, and hadronic component through thermal neutron captures. Detectors are based on a specialized inorganic scintillator, being a granulated alloy of ZnS(Ag) with LiF, enriched up to 90% with 6Li isotope. The array is triggered by the electromagnetic component of EAS, and provides information about the energy deposit (mostly electrons) and delayed neutrons accompanying the EAS within 20 ms after the trigger. During 2 years of operation more than 105 events were recorded. Examples of EAS detection are presented.

  10. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  11. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  12. Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudinin, Ivan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    It is now possible to fashion transparent crystalline materials into axisymmetric optical components having diameters ranging from hundreds down to tens of micrometers, whereas previously, the smallest attainable diameter was 500 m. A major step in the fabrication process that makes this possible can be characterized as diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining on an ultrahigh-precision lathe.

  13. Fuel and physical properties of biodiesel components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used oils. Specifically, biodiesel is the methyl or other alkyl esters of these oils or fats. Biodiesel also contains minor components such as free fatty acids and acylglycerols. Important fuel properties of biodi...

  14. Haitian Component Bibliography. Migrant Heritage Studies Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark-Calnek, Sue, Comp.

    This 587-item annotated bibliography, designed as a supplement to the Haitian Component of the Migrant Heritage Studies Kit, provides access to additional information, including audiovisual materials, on resources on Haiti and Haitian immigrants, published between 1877 and 1984. Part I is a "General Bibliography" which includes 313 sources on…

  15. 24 CFR 576.107 - HMIS component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HMIS component. 576.107 Section 576.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 576.107 - HMIS component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false HMIS component. 576.107 Section 576.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. 24 CFR 576.107 - HMIS component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true HMIS component. 576.107 Section 576.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  18. Variational bayesian method of estimating variance components.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Aisaku; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mikawa, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We developed a Bayesian analysis approach by using a variational inference method, a so-called variational Bayesian method, to determine the posterior distributions of variance components. This variational Bayesian method and an alternative Bayesian method using Gibbs sampling were compared in estimating genetic and residual variance components from both simulated data and publically available real pig data. In the simulated data set, we observed strong bias toward overestimation of genetic variance for the variational Bayesian method in the case of low heritability and low population size, and less bias was detected with larger population sizes in both methods examined. The differences in the estimates of variance components between the variational Bayesian and the Gibbs sampling were not found in the real pig data. However, the posterior distributions of the variance components obtained with the variational Bayesian method had shorter tails than those obtained with the Gibbs sampling. Consequently, the posterior standard deviations of the genetic and residual variances of the variational Bayesian method were lower than those of the method using Gibbs sampling. The computing time required was much shorter with the variational Bayesian method than with the method using Gibbs sampling. PMID:26877207

  19. 21 CFR 225.142 - Components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 225.142 Section 225.142 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... control (receipt and use) of all Type A medicated articles and Type B medicated feeds intended for use...

  20. 21 CFR 226.42 - Components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 226.42 Section 226.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Product Quality Control §...

  1. Principal component analysis implementation in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław; Sławiński, Tomasz; Parian, Mahnaz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we show how PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method can be implemented using Java programming language. We consider using PCA algorithm especially in analysed data obtained from Raman spectroscopy measurements, but other applications of developed software should also be possible. Our goal is to create a general purpose PCA application, ready to run on every platform which is supported by Java.

  2. 24 CFR 585.3 - Program components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program components. 585.3 Section 585.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  3. Packaging of structural health monitoring components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Shi, Yong; Dunn, Christopher T.

    2004-07-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies have the potential to realize economic benefits in a broad range of commercial and defense markets. Previous research conducted by Metis Design and MIT has demonstrated the ability of Lamb waves methods to provide reliable information regarding the presence, location and type of damage in composite specimens. The present NSF funded program was aimed to study manufacturing, packaging and interface concepts for critical SHM components. The intention is to be able to cheaply manufacture robust actuating/sensing devices, and isolate them from harsh operating environments including natural, mechanical, or electrical extremes. Currently the issues related to SHM system durability have remained undressed. During the course of this research several sets of test devices were fabricated and packaged to protect the piezoelectric component assemblies for robust operation. These assemblies were then tested in hot and wet conditions, as well as in electrically noisy environments. Future work will aim to package the other supporting components such as the battery and wireless chip, as well as integrating all of these components together for operation. SHM technology will enable the reduction or complete elimination of scheduled inspections, and will allow condition-based maintenance for increased reliability and reduced overall life-cycle costs.

  4. 21 CFR 226.42 - Components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Components. 226.42 Section 226.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... in the manufacture and processing of Type A medicated article(s), shall be received, examined...

  5. Overview of Glenn Mechanical Components Branch Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrajsek, James

    2002-09-01

    Mr. James Zakrajsek, chief of the Mechanical Components Branch, gave an overview of research conducted by the branch. Branch members perform basic research on mechanical components and systems, including gears and bearings, turbine seals, structural and thermal barrier seals, and space mechanisms. The research is focused on propulsion systems for present and advanced aerospace vehicles. For rotorcraft and conventional aircraft, we conduct research to develop technology needed to enable the design of low noise, ultra safe geared drive systems. We develop and validate analytical models for gear crack propagation, gear dynamics and noise, gear diagnostics, bearing dynamics, and thermal analyses of gear systems using experimental data from various component test rigs. In seal research we develop and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. We perform experimental and analytical research to develop advanced thermal barrier seals and structural seals for current and next generation space vehicles. Our space mechanisms research involves fundamental investigation of lubricants, materials, components and mechanisms for deep space and planetary environments.

  6. Metal binding components in human amniotic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Zlotkin, S.H.; Sarkar, B. )

    1990-02-26

    Amniotic fluid is a potential source of both nutritionally essential and toxic metals for the fetus. As the binding pattern of these metals in amniotic fluid may be one of the determining factors in their availability to the fetus, the objective of this study was to investigate metal binding in vitro. The binding of six trace metals, Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Fe(III), to components of human amniotic fluid was studied by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration at physiological pH, using radioisotopes as tracers and 50 mM TRIS/HCl as the elution buffer. The amniotic fluid was collected at 16-16.5 weeks gestation by amniocentesis and pooled for analysis. Extensive amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd and small amounts of Mn and Ni were bound to high molecular weight proteins with elution patterns similar to those seen for the binding of these metals in serum. In addition, large amounts of Fe, Mn, Ni and Cd and small amounts of Zn and Cu were associated with low molecular weight component(s). The identity of these latter components is unknown, but they play an important biological role in amniotic fluid.

  7. Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Larry J.; Rucker, Michelle A.; Dobbin, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Although oxygen is a chemically stable element, it is not shock sensitive, will not decompose, and is not flammable. Oxygen use therefore carries a risk that should never be overlooked, because oxygen is a strong oxidizer that vigorously supports combustion. Safety is of primary concern in oxygen service. To promote safety in oxygen systems, the flammability of materials used in them should be analyzed. At the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), we have performed configurational tests of components specifically engineered for oxygen service. These tests follow a detailed WSTF oxygen hazards analysis. The stated objective of the tests was to provide performance test data for customer use as part of a qualification plan for a particular component in a particular configuration, and under worst-case conditions. In this document - the 'Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests' - we outline recommended test systems, and cleaning, handling, and test procedures that address worst-case conditions. It should be noted that test results apply specifically to: manual valves, remotely operated valves, check valves, relief valves, filters, regulators, flexible hoses, and intensifiers. Component systems are not covered.

  8. Overview of Glenn Mechanical Components Branch Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James

    2002-01-01

    Mr. James Zakrajsek, chief of the Mechanical Components Branch, gave an overview of research conducted by the branch. Branch members perform basic research on mechanical components and systems, including gears and bearings, turbine seals, structural and thermal barrier seals, and space mechanisms. The research is focused on propulsion systems for present and advanced aerospace vehicles. For rotorcraft and conventional aircraft, we conduct research to develop technology needed to enable the design of low noise, ultra safe geared drive systems. We develop and validate analytical models for gear crack propagation, gear dynamics and noise, gear diagnostics, bearing dynamics, and thermal analyses of gear systems using experimental data from various component test rigs. In seal research we develop and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. We perform experimental and analytical research to develop advanced thermal barrier seals and structural seals for current and next generation space vehicles. Our space mechanisms research involves fundamental investigation of lubricants, materials, components and mechanisms for deep space and planetary environments.

  9. A principal components model of soundscape perception.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes. PMID:21110579

  10. Low-Temperature Electronic Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    In many future NASA missions, such as deep space planetary exploration and the Next Generation Space Telescope, electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in extremely low temperature environments. Most modern electronic components cannot operate below moderately low operating temperatures (-40 to -55 C). The low-temperature electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is focusing on the development and characterization of low-temperature components and the integration of the developed devices into demonstrable very low-temperature (-200 C) power systems such as dc-dc converters. Such low-temperature electronics will not only tolerate hostile environments but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating radioisotope heating units, thereby reducing launch cost, improving reliability and lifetime, and increasing energy densities. Low-temperature electronic components will also have a great influence on terrestrial applications such as medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic and antarctic exploration. Lewis researchers are now performing extensive evaluations of commercially available as well as custom-made devices. These include various types of energy storage and signal capacitors, power switching devices, magnetic and superconducting materials, and primary lithium batteries, to name a few.

  11. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  12. Component Latent Trait Models for Test Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan Whitely

    Latent trait models are presented that can be used for test design in the context of a theory about the variables that underlie task performance. Examples of methods for decomposing and testing hypotheses about the theoretical variables in task performance are given. The methods can be used to determine the processing components that are involved…

  13. Coal feed component testing for CDIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, C. V.; Snyder, B. K.; Fornek, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations conducted during the conceptual design of the Montana MHD Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) identified commercially available processing and feeding equipment potentially suitable for use in a reference design. Tests on sub-scale units of this equipment indicated that they would perform as intended.

  14. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  15. Predicting Lifetime of a Thermomechanically Loaded Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Mital, Subodh; Brewer, David N.

    2006-01-01

    NASALIFE is a computer program for predicting the lifetime, as affected by low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep rupture, of a structural component subject to temporally varying, multiaxial thermomechanical loads. The component could be, for example, part of an aircraft turbine engine. Empirical data from LCF tests, creep rupture tests, and static tensile tests are used as references for predicting the number of missions the component can withstand under a given thermomechanical loading condition. The user prepares an input file containing the creep-rupture and cyclic-fatigue information, temperature-dependent material properties, and mission loading and control flags. The creep rupture information can be entered in tabular form as stress versus life or by means of parameters of the Larson-Miller equation. The program uses the Walker mean-stress model to adjust predicted life for ranges of the ratio between the maximum and minimum stresses. Data representing complex load cycles are reduced by the rainflow counting method. Miner's rule is utilized to combine the damage at different load levels. Finally, the program determines the total damage due to creep and combines it with the fatigue damage due to the cyclic loading and predicts the approximate number of missions a component can endure before failing.

  16. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  17. Nanochemoprevention by Bioactive Food Components: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention through the use of bioactive food components is a practical approach for cancer control. Despite abundant efficacy data under preclinical settings, this strategy has resulted in limited success for human cancer control. Amongst many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly contribute to such a disconnect. We recently introduced a novel concept in which we utilized nanotechnology for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention (Cancer Res. 2009; 69:1712–6) and termed it nanochemoprevention. To establish the proof-of-principle of nanotechnology for cancer management, we determined the efficacy of a well-known chemopreventive agent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in polylactic acid (PLA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles in preclinical settings and observed that, compared to non-encapsulated EGCG, nano-EGCG retained its biological efficacy with over 10-fold dose advantage both in cell culture system and in vivo settings in athymic nude mice implanted with human prostate cancer cells. This study laid the foundation of nanochemoprevention by bioactive food components. Since oral consumption is the most desirable and acceptable form of delivery of bioactive food components, it will be important to develop nanoparticles containing bioactive food components that are suitable for oral consumption for which experiments are underway in this laboratory. PMID:20221894

  18. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  19. Disambiguating the Components of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Affective neuroscience and cognitive science approaches are useful for understanding the components of emotion regulation; several examples from current research are provided. Individual differences in emotion regulation and a focus on the context of emotion experience and expression provide additional tools to study emotion regulation, and its…

  20. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    Research conducted under NASA Grant NAG-1-537 focussed on the response and failure of advanced composite material structures for application to aircraft. Both experimental and analytical methods were utilized to study the fundamental mechanics of the response and failure of selected structural components subjected to quasi-static loads. Most of the structural components studied were thin-walled elements subject to compression, such that they exhibited buckling and postbuckling responses prior to catastrophic failure. Consequently, the analyses were geometrically nonlinear. Structural components studied were dropped-ply laminated plates, stiffener crippling, pressure pillowing of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells, axisymmetric response of pressure domes, and the static crush of semi-circular frames. Failure of these components motivated analytical studies on an interlaminar stress postprocessor for plate and shell finite element computer codes, and global/local modeling strategies in finite element modeling. These activities are summarized in the following section. References to literature published under the grant are listed on pages 5 to 10 by a letter followed by a number under the categories of journal publications, conference publications, presentations, and reports. These references are indicated in the text by their letter and number as a superscript.

  1. PHASE CHEMISTRY OF TANK SLUDGE RESIDUAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It will not be possible to recover all the contaminated sludge from the bottoms of decommissioned waste storage tanks. This research is directed at providing a credible model for the release of radionuclides from residual sludge. Sludge components that are the prime actors in ret...

  2. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  3. Software Component Technologies and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batory, Don

    1995-01-01

    In the near future, software systems will be more reconfigurable than hardware. This will be possible through the advent of software component technologies which have been prototyped in universities and research labs. In this paper, we outline the foundations for those technologies and suggest how they might impact software for space applications.

  4. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should be... affected environment and establish the environmental setting against which environmental effects...

  5. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should be... affected environment and establish the environmental setting against which environmental effects...

  6. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should be... affected environment and establish the environmental setting against which environmental effects...

  7. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should be... affected environment and establish the environmental setting against which environmental effects...

  8. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should be... affected environment and establish the environmental setting against which environmental effects...

  9. The Components of Sound Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Ernest C.

    Since education is big business, it should be conducted in a businesslike way. Without sound financial management, the best instructional program will fail. Several components make up a sound program of financial management. Resources are basic, and these vary from district to district. Before asking for additional support, school administrators…

  10. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  11. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  12. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  13. The Talent Development Middle School. Essential Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhere, Serge; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    The Talent Development approach to helping greater numbers of students succeed in middle school is based on a belief that all students can learn challenging material if the right types of support are given. This report presents the essential components of the Talent Development framework and describes their initial implementation in Evans Junior…

  14. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 3; Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  15. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 2; Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Team. Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  16. Geochemical provenance of Florida basement components

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherington, A.L.; Mueller, P.A. . Dept. of Geology); Dallmeyer, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The pre-Cretaceous basement of Florida is generally considered to be exotic with respect to Proterozoic Laurentia. Paleontologic and paleomagnetic evidence have suggested a Gondwanan provenance for the Floridan basement, as either a peri-Gondwanide terrane or as a rifted block of the West African craton. The report of generally similar lithologic sequences and a record of similar Ar-Ar cooling ages in some Floridan and West African lithologic units has led to very specific correlations between these units. U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr geochronologic studies as well as isotopic and elemental abundance data have been used to evaluate the validity of these correlations. Results indicate: (1) geochemical similarities between volcanic rocks of northeastern Florida and a Pan-African metavolcanic sequence (Niokola-Koba group) exposed in Senegal; (2) an absence of a Grenvillian-age (i.e., Laurentian) component in zircons separated from a Paleozoic Suwanee basin sandstone; and (3) whole-rock Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon evidence for an Archean ([approximately]3.0 Ga) component in the neo-Proterozoic Osceola granitoid(s). Although silicic rocks from throughout Florida have Nd model ages (T[sub DM]) that are predominantly Grenvillian (1.1--1.4 Ga), the absence of a Grenvillian component in zircons separated from granite and sandstone suggests that the model ages represent a mixture of older and younger components. Overall, the evidence for Birimian ([approximately]2.1 Ga) and Liberian ([approximately]3.0 Ga) age components in the Florida basement are consistent with its origin as a rifted block of cratonic Gondwana. In addition to demonstrating a strong affinity between the Florida basement and cratonic West Africa/northern South America, these data provide a basis for comparison with other circum-Atlantic terranes traditionally described as Avalonian/Cadomian, etc.

  17. Components in time-varying graphs.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis. PMID:22757508

  18. Components in time-varying graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  19. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ℓ = 2000. The parameter constraints on ΛCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about β = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (β< -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of β> -2.3 with

  20. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  1. FDC, rapid fabrication of structural components

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, M.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Weeren, R. van; Safari, A.; Danforth, S.C.; Langrana, N.A.; Jamalabad, V.R.; Whalen, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is used to make 3-D components directly from computer-aided design (CAD) files. Many SFF techniques have been developed to fabricate parts and prototypes from CAD without hard tooling, dies or molds. Most of these techniques have been commercialized for fabrication of polymer and plastic parts for design verification and form and fit. Other SFF techniques are being developed for production of ceramic components with functional properties. One such technique, called fused deposition of ceramics (FDC), has been developed and demonstrated for structural ceramics. FDC is based on existing fused deposition modeling (FDM{trademark}) technology, commercialized by Stratasys Inc. (Eden Prairie, Minn.), for processing of polymers and waxes. High-green-density, simple- and complex-shaped silicon nitride parts have been formed by fused deposition of ceramics.

  2. Advanced nozzle and engine components test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Delroso, Richard L.; Delrosario, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    A test facility for conducting scaled advanced nozzle and engine component research is described. The CE-22 test facility, located in the Engine Research Building of the NASA Lewis Research Center, contains many systems for the economical testing of advanced scale-model nozzles and engine components. The combustion air and altitude exhaust systems are described. Combustion air can be supplied to a model up to 40 psig for primary air flow, and 40, 125, and 450 psig for secondary air flow. Altitude exhaust can be simulated up to 48,000 ft, or the exhaust can be atmospheric. Descriptions of the multiaxis thrust stand, a color schlieren flow visualization system used for qualitative flow analysis, a labyrinth flow measurement system, a data acquisition system, and auxiliary systems are discussed. Model recommended design information and temperature and pressure instrumentation recommendations are included.

  3. Isolation and Purification of Leaf Starch Components

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chong W.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the separation and purification of amylose and amylopectin isolated from cotton leaves. Cotton leaves were homogenized in 0.02 molar phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 containing HgCl2 plus toluene. Crude starch granules were collected by centrifugation and partially purified by treating with acetone and toluene. The starch granules were then dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide and precipitated with ethyl alcohol. The precipitate was suspended in boiling water. Amylose was separated from amylopectin and cell wall particles on a Sepharose 2B column and further purified with thymol and butanol. Amylopectin was then separated from the colloidal cell wall contaminants by its specific interaction with concanavalin A. Purities of starch components were verified by specific biochemical and enzymic tests in addition to their iodine-binding capacity. This procedure should also be suitable for purification of starch components from other plant sources. PMID:16661064

  4. High rate fabrication of compression molded components

    DOEpatents

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Dykstra, William C.; Smith, Glen L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2016-04-19

    A method for fabricating a thermoplastic composite component comprises inductively heating a thermoplastic pre-form with a first induction coil by inducing current to flow in susceptor wires disposed throughout the pre-form, inductively heating smart susceptors in a molding tool to a leveling temperature with a second induction coil by applying a high-strength magnetic field having a magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors, shaping the magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors to flow substantially parallel to a molding surface of the smart susceptors, placing the heated pre-form between the heated smart susceptors; and applying molding pressure to the pre-form to form the composite component.

  5. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less

  6. System for inspecting large size structural components

    DOEpatents

    Birks, Albert S.; Skorpik, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

  7. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  8. Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Moleyar, V; Narasimham, P

    1992-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of fifteen essential oil components towards food borne Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. was studied by an agar plate technique. Cinnamic aldehyde was the most active compound followed by citral, geraniol, eugenol and menthol. At 500 micrograms/ml, cinnamic aldehyde completely inhibited the bacterial growth for more than 30 days at 30 degrees C that was comparable to 200 micrograms/ml of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). At lower temperatures, 25 and 20 degrees C, antibacterial activity of the five essential oil components increased. Addition of sodium chloride at 4% level (w/v) in the medium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of cinnamic aldehyde. In mixtures of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol or BHA an additive effect was observed. PMID:1457292

  9. Intrinsic component mode synthesis and plate vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, F.; D'Hennezel, F.

    1992-07-01

    A 'fixed-interface' method of component mode synthesis is presented and employed to compute error bounds for the case of Kirchhoff plates. The fixed-interface method exploits particular 'constraint modes' that are used as eigenfunctions for the Poincare-Steklov operator in the domain decomposition. The technique is applied to the computation of error bounds and coupling modes for several variants of plate problems. The definition and number of the component modes required for accurate mode synthesis does not depend on the selected discretization process. This allows the fixed-interface technique to be used for the effective treatment of large 3D elasticity problems with a large number of unknown interfaces.

  10. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department of Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.

  11. Failure analysis of aluminum alloy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johari, O.; Corvin, I.; Staschke, J.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of six service failures in aluminum alloy components which failed in aerospace applications is reported. Identification of fracture surface features from fatigue and overload modes was straightforward, though the specimens were not always in a clean, smear-free condition most suitable for failure analysis. The presence of corrosion products and of chemically attacked or mechanically rubbed areas here hindered precise determination of the cause of crack initiation, which was then indirectly inferred from the scanning electron fractography results. In five failures the crack propagation was by fatigue, though in each case the fatigue crack initiated from a different cause. Some of these causes could be eliminated in future components by better process control. In one failure, the cause was determined to be impact during a crash; the features of impact fracture were distinguished from overload fractures by direct comparisons of the received specimens with laboratory-generated failures.

  12. Welding mechanics for advanced component safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Dieter

    2011-06-01

    Numerical methods are nowadays a useful tool for the calculation of distortion and residual stresses as a result from the welding process. Modern finite element codes not only allow for calculation of deformations and stresses due to the welding process but also take into account the change of microstructure due to different heating and cooling rates. As an extension to the pure welding simulation, the field of welding mechanics combines the mechanics and the material behaviour from the welding process with the assessment of service behaviour of welded components. In the paper, new results of experimental and numerical work in the field of welding mechanics are described. Through examples from automotive, nuclear and pipe-line applications it is demonstrated that an equilibrated treatment and a close interaction of "process", "properties" and "defects" are necessary to come up with an advanced fitness-forservice assessment of welded components.

  13. Extraction of stationary components in biosignal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vargas, J D; Cardenas-Pena, D; Castellanos-Dominguez, G

    2012-01-01

    Biosignal recordings are widely used in the medical environment to support the evaluation and the diagnosis of pathologies. Nevertheless, the main difficulty lies in the non-stationary behavior of the biosignals, difficulting the obtention of patterns characterizing the changes in physiological or pathological states. Thus, the obtention of the stationary and non-stationary components of a biosignal is still an open issue. This work proposes a methodology to detect time-homogeneities based on time-frequency analysis with aim to extract the non-stationary behavior of the biosignal. Results show an increase in the stationarity and in the distance between classes of the reconstructions from the enhanced time-frequency representations. The stationary components extracted with the proposed approach can be used to solve biosignal classification problems. PMID:23365817

  14. Structural reliability analysis of laminated CMC components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Palko, Joseph L.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    For laminated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials to realize their full potential in aerospace applications, design methods and protocols are a necessity. The time independent failure response of these materials is focussed on and a reliability analysis is presented associated with the initiation of matrix cracking. A public domain computer algorithm is highlighted that was coupled with the laminate analysis of a finite element code and which serves as a design aid to analyze structural components made from laminated CMC materials. Issues relevant to the effect of the size of the component are discussed, and a parameter estimation procedure is presented. The estimation procedure allows three parameters to be calculated from a failure population that has an underlying Weibull distribution.

  15. Associated neural network independent component analysis structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keehoon; Kostrzweski, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Detection, classification, and localization of potential security breaches in extremely high-noise environments are important for perimeter protection and threat detection both for homeland security and for military force protection. Physical Optics Corporation has developed a threat detection system to separate acoustic signatures from unknown, mixed sources embedded in extremely high-noise environments where signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are very low. Associated neural network structures based on independent component analysis are designed to detect/separate new acoustic sources and to provide reliability information. The structures are tested through computer simulations for each critical component, including a spontaneous detection algorithm for potential threat detection without a predefined knowledge base, a fast target separation algorithm, and nonparametric methodology for quantified confidence measure. The results show that the method discussed can separate hidden acoustic sources of SNR in 5 dB noisy environments with an accuracy of 80%.

  16. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  17. Translator for Optimizing Fluid-Handling Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Mark; Perry, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    A software interface has been devised to facilitate optimization of the shapes of valves, elbows, fittings, and other components used to handle fluids under extreme conditions. This software interface translates data files generated by PLOT3D (a NASA grid-based plotting-and- data-display program) and by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software into a format in which the files can be read by Sculptor, which is a shape-deformation- and-optimization program. Sculptor enables the user to interactively, smoothly, and arbitrarily deform the surfaces and volumes in two- and three-dimensional CFD models. Sculptor also includes design-optimization algorithms that can be used in conjunction with the arbitrary-shape-deformation components to perform automatic shape optimization. In the optimization process, the output of the CFD software is used as feedback while the optimizer strives to satisfy design criteria that could include, for example, improved values of pressure loss, velocity, flow quality, mass flow, etc.

  18. Space Shuttle SRM metal case component fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krummel, C. H.; Thompson, O. N.

    1978-01-01

    The 146 in. diam metal case components of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) being developed have been successfully static-tested. The limitations placed on the program included current practice and facilities at the steel mills, forging suppliers, heat treaters, and machining operations. In addition, Thiokol had not previously fabricated metal components of this size with a minimum fracture toughness of 90 ksi-in. to 1/2 power. To insure that the SRM was producible within the established guidelines, it was necessary to coordinate all data heat by heat, forging by forging, and heat treat run by heat treat run. The basic fabrication sequences are outlined, and the data from the heat treat programs are presented.

  19. Degradation of optical components in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    This report concerns two types of optical components: multilayer filters and mirrors, and self-scanned imaging arrays using charge coupled device (CCD) readouts. For the filters and mirrors, contamination produces a strong reduction in transmittance in the ultraviolet spectral region, but has little or no effect in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Soft substrates containing halides are unsatisfactory as windows or substrates. Materials choice for dielectric layers should also reflect such considerations. Best performance is also found for the harder materials. Compaction of the layers and interlayer diffusion causes a blue shift in center wavelength and loss of throughput. For sensors using CCD's, shifts in gate voltage and reductions in transfer efficiency occur. Such effects in CCD's are in accord with expectations of the effects of the radiation dose on the device. Except for optical fiber, degradation of CCD's represents the only ionizing-radiation induced effect on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems components that has been observed.

  20. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.