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Sample records for bulgaria

  1. Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    1983-04-01

    This discussion of Bulgaria focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy (economic reforms and plans, industry and agriculture, and trade); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Bulgaria. The population in December 1980 numbered 8,876,652; the annual growth rate was 3.6/1000. The infant mortality rate was 20.2/1000 with life expectancy 69 years for men and 74 years for women. Bulgaria, which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, extends from the western shore of the Black Sea to Yugoslavia in the west. In the north, the Danube River is a common boundary with Romania. Greece and European Turkey lie to the south and southeast. Population density is 1 of the lowest in Eastern Europe, about 80 persons per square kilometer. More than half of the population lives in urban areas, compared to 1/3 in 1956. Bulgarian is the primary language spoken. Religious activity is discouraged by the Bulgarian communists. Education is free and compulsory to age 15. A fully independent Bulgarian kingdom was proclaimed September 22, 1908. Communist rule began September 9, 1944, when a communist dominated coalition, called the Fatherland Front, seized power from a coalition government formed to arrange an armistice with the Allies. The constitution stipulates that the Communist Party is the leading force in society and in the state. It also provides for a unicameral 400 member National Assembly. The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) controls all phases of Bulgarian life. Party organization parallels the government structure with a central apparatus at Sofia and subordinate organizations in provinces and communes. At the end of World War 2, Bulgaria was among the least industrialized European countries. Bulgaria's national income grew rapidly in the 1960s and early 1970s, but increased by only 5.7% in 1980, down from 6.5% in 1979. A major factor in Bulgaria's growth rate has been Soviet assistance. The economic system is

  2. Terrorism in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Shanduorkov, George

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria is one of the smallest countries in southeastern Europe and has little experience with terrorist acts. During the past 20 years, only nine terrorism-related events have been recorded in Bulgaria, and no unconventional weapons have been used. Factors contributing to terrorism in Bulgaria have been: (1) Communist Party domination of the government and political process from 1944 to 1989; (2) ethnic and religious conflicts between the Bulgarian Orthodox Christian majority and the Turkish Muslim minority from 1983 to 1987; and (3) the relatively high level of organized crime after the Communist regime ended in 1990. The structure and function of the Disaster Relief System in Bulgaria not only are focused on the prevention of terrorism, but also on preparedness for the emergency response to terrorism-related events. Institutional components of the Disaster Relief System structure responsible for the emergency response to terrorism-related events include: (1) the Government of Bulgaria; (2) the State Agency for Civil Protection with 28 regional directorates; (3) the Ministry of Health with five national hospitals, 28 regional hospitals, and 28 EMS systems; (4) the Ministry of Defense with special military units for response to unconventional terrorist events, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; (5) the Ministry of Internal Affairs with 28 police departments, 28 fire departments, and specialized anti-terrorist units; and (6) the Bulgarian Red Cross. A major future challenge in Bulgaria is the prevention of terrorism through political stability, economic prosperity, ethnic and religious tolerance, and more effective measures against organized criminal activities. A related challenge will be to improve the level of preparedness of all components of Disaster Relief. PMID:15074485

  3. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  4. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  5. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  6. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

  7. Bulgaria health system review.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  8. Country watch: Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, R I

    1995-01-01

    Eros and Psyche is a club for adolescents based in a youth center in Sofia, Bulgaria. Eros, the ancient Greek god of love, and Psyche, representing the human soul, symbolize the club's activities relating to the psychological and aesthetic aspects of sexuality. The club was started in December 1988 to provide sex education to out-of-school youth, the first attempt to move away from restrictive, medical approaches. Members include pupils, students, workers and even parents. The club meets twice a week for two hours, with specialists from different fields addressing the group, videos, readings and other activities that stimulate discussion. Anyone is free to come and go. Twice a year the club holds training sessions in psychosocial skills that aim to promote self-reflection and help people interact more openly with one another. Each individual is helped to find a personal route to understanding his or her own sexuality. Other clubs have been formed on the Sofia model. To help them organize, the Sofia club has prepared a leaders' manual and is developing a one-week course for club leaders. PMID:12346874

  9. [Demographic transformation processes in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Meyerfeldt, M

    1996-01-01

    "The economic transformation [in Bulgaria] since 1989 led to severe economic and social problems. The population development under these conditions was marked by a falling birth rate. In 1990, for the first time, there was no increase in population. As a result of the long-term tendency towards a drop in the birth rate and an increase in mortality, Bulgaria suffered a loss in population of 3,000 people in 1990. Between 1989 and 1994 approximately 550,000 people left Bulgaria; approximately 78% of these were under the age of 45. The main reasons for this wave of emigration can be found in the high level of unemployment and in the social and economic instability of the country. The outmigration had considerable effects on the falling birth rate." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12292243

  10. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Bulgaria consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on Bulgaria. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET, and legislative…

  11. The Slavonic Studies Seminar in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The Slavonic Studies Seminar is held for one month each summer at Kliment Okhridski University in Sofia, Bulgaria. The program consists of three weeks of Bulgarian language instruction and a one-week trip around Bulgaria through interesting medieval towns, monasteries, and coastal resorts. The participants are primarily college teachers,…

  12. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942

  13. English Language Cultures in Bulgaria: A Linguistic Sibling Rivalry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Laurie M.

    1998-01-01

    In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…

  14. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  15. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  16. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  17. Romania and Bulgaria Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosla, Bernice C.

    This document consists of six pages of course description accompanied by over 200 pages of reproduced material including the complete constitutions of Bulgaria, Romania, and the United States, respectively. This unit allows students to analyze primary and secondary sources, think critically about the documents, and reflect on whether a country's…

  18. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  19. A wooden calendar from southeastern Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Georgiev, Iliya

    Wooden calendars are a specific tool for preserving the church calendar in medieval Europe. The Christian symbols are skillfully interwoven with traditional signs, which mark the days of importance for the economic and ritual life in a year. The archaic method of time reckoning has turned into a tool for disseminating and establishing the Christian festival system, and is one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and the new religious ritualism. Bulgarian Christians used such objects until the beginning of the 20th century. The earliest date fixed on a wooden calendar is 1783. These calendars are also called rabosh in Bulgaria. The calendar presented here is based on the Julian (solar) calendar containing the major fixed feasts of the Orthodox Church. It has not been published so far and is kept in a private collection.

  20. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  1. Plant residues as renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Aladjadjian, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The relatively large part of arable (38%) and forest (35%) land in Bulgaria is the reason for searching for ways of processing plant residues for energy. The total sown area in Bulgaria increased in the past 5 years because of changes in Bulgarian economics. The total forest area changed more slowly. The energy equivalent of forestry residues per year in Bulgaria is about 4 PJ or 99,000 tOE (metric tons, hereafter tonnes, of oil equivalent, 1 tOE = 7.3 barrels of OE). The corresponding value of agricultural residues per year is about 81 PJ or 1,900,000 tOE. The utilization of plant residues as a renewable energy source is a good prospect but it requires some investment. The price of energy from biomass is higher than that of nuclear energy. This contradiction must be resolved by some changes in tax policy in Bulgaria.

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Presents part of a series that highlights this journal's interest in informing readers of international literacy research beyond what appears in featured articles. Discusses reports on literacy research in Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. (SG)

  3. Triassic lithostratigraphic correlation in the Moesian Platform (Bulgaria-Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemberski, H. I.; Botoucharov, N. D.

    2013-11-01

    The Moesian Platform occupies a wide area in Bulgaria and Romania, being surrounded to the north and west by the South Carpathians and to the south by the Balkans. The lithostratigraphic division of the representative cross-sections of the Triassic system is performed for both countries. The applied methodology in defining the lithostratigraphic units and their comparison is based on the internationally accepted, widely used stratigraphic rules. The key role of the present work is to unify positions and technical usage of the Triassic lithostratigraphic units. However, they are relatively different in Bulgaria and Romania, which hampers the cross correlation. The Bulgarian part of the Moesian Platform is examined according to the "Regional Lithostratigraphic Scheme of the Triassic sediments from borehole sections in North Bulgaria" compiled by Chemberski in 1985. The lithostratigraphic division for the Romanian part is based on Paraschiv's work completed in early 1980s. There are three Triassic complexes defined in the Moesian Platform which are divided into formations and horizons. They follow in order of deposition: Lower red bed complex represented by Petrohan Group (Bulgaria) and Rosiori Formation (Romania); Carbonate complex including Iskar Carbonate Group (Bulgaria) and Alexandria Formation and Putinei evaporates (Romania); Upper variegated complex consisting of Moesian Group (Bulgaria) and Segarcea Formation (Romania). The present correlation determines three types of comparative units: analogous units (subjective synonyms); units defined in Bulgarian territory and probably present also in Romania; units located only in the Bulgarian and respectively in the Romanian part of the Moesian Platform.

  4. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Rumena; Chakarov, Stoian; Kremensky, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%). Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%). Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A. PMID:15035673

  5. Tectonic position, hydrocarbon exploration, and future potential in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, P. ); Gochev, P. ); Ognyanov, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The oil- and gas-prospective areas in northern and southeastern Bulgaria and the adjacent regions on the Black Sea shelf are accepted as a part of the Carpatho-Balkan oil- and gas-bearing province. The peculiarities of the tectonic structures are conditioned by some specific, mostly collision processes during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary. They are deciphered now with the help of the depth seismic explorations, and magnetotelluric, thermal, gravimetric, and magnetic data, in combination with geological mapping of south Bulgaria. The usual type of seismic data and well control as well exist in north Bulgaria and the Black Sea shelf zone; parts of this information has been published. Now an attempt is made for general overview of the three regions built by some parts of the Moesian platform; ForeBalkan, Balkan, and Srednogorie region; and the western part of the Black Sea megadepression, as well. Prospects of the Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments in north Bulgaria have been comparatively well studied, but questions remain for southeastern Bulgaria and the Black Sea shelf zone, coming from unresolved problems concerning the geological structure. Future regional exploration is expected to discover new deposits in the reef trends of Paleozoic, Triassic, and Late Jurassic-Valanginian age, and connected with usual local Tertiary and Mesozoic structures and vast overthrust structures of the Balkan and southward, in both the offshore and onshore.

  6. Selected aspects of tobacco control in Bulgaria: policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to outline the challenges of tobacco consumption control in the transitional economy of Bulgaria. It focuses on issues of taxation, high unemployment, and smuggling while attempting to meet European Union (EU) requirements for tobacco control legislation that reduces smoking consumption. The issue of tobacco control is not a simple one and requires a multi-pronged approach. While Bulgaria has made some progress in adopting legislation, it needs to strengthen its efforts in terms of enforcement, stronger legislation and increased taxation of cigarettes. PMID:22571023

  7. Field Susceptibility of Quince Hybrids to Fire Blight in Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spread of fire blight in Bulgaria during the last 20 years has nearly eliminated commercial production of pear and quince. Damage has increased in both nurseries and orchards, yet susceptible cultivars continue to be planted. Quince is the host most frequently attacked by Erwinia amylovora in Bulgar...

  8. Women in physics in Bulgaria-Enhancing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Bulgaria currently has a relatively high number of women in top positions at the governmental level, yet the presidents of the important universities and most of the directors of research institutions are male. Gender balance is driven by the need to improve research quality in interdisciplinary fields, where the similarities and differences between men and women in creativity and thought play a crucial role.

  9. First report of Colletotrichum dracaenophilum on Dracaena sanderiana in Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter of 2007, severe damage was observed on indoor potted plants of Dracaena sanderiana hort. Sander ex Mast. (“lucky bamboo”) in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, imported from a country of unknown origin. Initially, the internodes of infected stems appeared pale green with yellowish lesions. An upward-...

  10. Therapeutic Art Practices with Orphan Children in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Alexandra S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents therapeutic art practices carried out with 60 orphan children in the small town of Ugarchin in northern Bulgaria. In 1999, a group of artists and teachers developed a varied program of art activities for these children. These activities included two 1-week visits and the opening of five art workshops--Art History, Ceramics,…

  11. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleva, Iskra; Tzanov, Vasil; Noncheva, Teodora; Zareva, Iren

    A factual and descriptive analysis of the employment situation in Bulgaria showed that the transition to a market economy has led to a substantial reduction of employment. The economic restructuring begun in 1990 has proved very difficult, and the privatization of the large industrial enterprises faces problems mainly due to insufficient interest…

  12. New Trends in Initial Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganova, Penka

    2007-01-01

    Despite a fall in the percentage of young people choosing this course between 1993 and 1994 (58.17%) and 2003 and 2004 (55.23%), vocational training remains the main path chosen by young people in Bulgaria. The national programme for developing pre-school, school education and training (2006-15), adopted in 2006 due to major public interest in…

  13. Bulgaria: The Double Edge of Economy and Demography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgieva, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    The higher education and research sector in Bulgaria is undergoing a gradual change. Whether this transformation will bring success or failure depends on how prepared stakeholders are to meet associated challenges and opportunities. The mobility of academics and the related phenomenon of brain drain need careful investigation. Academic teachers…

  14. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  15. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  16. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  17. Epidemiology and molecular diversity of rabies viruses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Robardet, E; Ilieva, D; Iliev, E; Gagnev, E; Picard-Meyer, E; Cliquet, F

    2014-04-01

    A health emergency situation occurred in Bulgaria in 2007 when positive rabies cases were notified in Sofia district in the central-western part of the country, suggesting a southward spread of the disease for the first time in the last 10 years. Phylogenetic analysis on 49 isolates sampled between 2009 and 2011 showed, for the first time, evidence of the existence of NEE and D clustered lineages in Bulgaria. Their geographical distribution clearly reveals the permeability of natural barriers, as already suggested by the disease spread that occurred across the Balkan mountain range in 2007. The monitoring and passive surveillance programmes conducted since the first 2009 oral vaccination campaign, the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease in the country since 2007, and the need for further investigation of the role of jackals in virus dispersion are discussed. PMID:23830231

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Schuster, Isolde; Sas, Miriam A; Vatansever, Zati; Hubalek, Zdenek; Güven, Esin; Deniz, Ahmet; Georgiev, Georgi; Peshev, Raiko; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-09-01

    Infections of humans with the tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 80%. Most humans are infected by tick bite, crushing infected ticks by hand or by unprotected contact with blood of viremic mammals. Next to the notified human CCHF cases, the real distribution and the situation in animals in Southeastern Europe are nearly unknown. Since domestic ruminants play a crucial role in the life cycle of the vector ticks and the transmission and amplification of the virus, the antibody prevalence in those animals is a good indicator for the presence of CCHFV in a region. Therefore, the prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies was investigated in domestic ruminants of different regions of Bulgaria and Turkey. Sera of 1165 ruminants were tested and a prevalence of up to 90% was identified. The overall prevalence for Bulgaria was 26% and for Turkey 57%. The results highlight the risk of human infections in those regions and the importance of the investigation of the prevalence in animals for identification of risk areas. This article provides a unique overview about published CCHFV antibody prevalence in animals in comparison to human incidences in different areas of Bulgaria and Turkey. Although it will help to complete the understanding of the CCHFV situation in these countries, it also demonstrates the lack of unpublished and published data even in these highly endemic areas. PMID:27467142

  19. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  20. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  1. Chapter 5: Tertiary Short-Cycle Education in Bulgaria--In Search of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of short-cycle higher education in Bulgaria. An emphasis is placed on (a) the evolution of nonuniversity short-cycle institutes and (b) the challenges of bridging the gap between secondary and higher education and creating links between vocational and academic learning pathways. The case study of Bulgaria may…

  2. The Vocational Education and Training System in Bulgaria. Current Situation, Challenges and Reform Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleev, Tzako; Kalandarova, Natalia; Dineva, Nedka; Panev, Georgi; Petrova, Iskra

    This report reviews the current situation of Bulgaria's vocational education and training (VET) system to identify challenges facing the system and areas needing reform. Section 1 explores the following five aspects of Bulgaria's political and socioeconomic situation: (1) demography; (2) economic developments (privatization of state enterprises,…

  3. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria... ethnological material from Bulgaria dating to the Neolithic Period (7500 B.C.) through the nineteenth century...

  4. Reforming health care financing in Bulgaria: the population perspective.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Health financing reform in Bulgaria has been characterised by lack of political consensus on reform direction, economic shocks, and, since 1998, steps towards social insurance. As in other eastern European countries, the reform has been driven by an imperative to embrace new ideas modelled on systems elsewhere, but with little attention to whether these reflect popular values. This study explores underlying values, such as views on the role of the state and solidarity, attitudes to, and understanding of compulsory and voluntary insurance, and co-payments. The study identifies general principles (equity, transparency) considered important by the population and practical aspects of implementation of reform. Data were obtained from a representative survey (n=1547) and from 58 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups with users and health professionals, conducted in 1997 before the actual reform of the health financing system in Bulgaria. A majority supports significant state involvement in health care financing, ranging from providing safety net for the poor, through co-subsidising or regulating the social insurance system, to providing state-financed universal free care (half of all respondents). Collectivist values in Bulgaria remain strong, with support for free access to services regardless of income, age, or health status and progressive funding. There is strong support (especially among the well off) for a social insurance system based on the principle of solidarity and accountability rather than the former tax-based model. The preferred health insurance fund was autonomous, state regulated, financing only health care, and offering optional membership. Voluntary insurance and, less so, co-payments were acceptable if limited to selected services and better off groups. In conclusion, a health financing system under public control that fits well with values and population preferences is likely to improve compliance and be more sustainable. Universal health insurance

  5. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  6. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  7. Importation and circulation of poliovirus in Bulgaria in 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Gyurova, Snejana; Fiore, Lucia; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Kunchev, Angel; Vladimirova, Nadejda; Korsun, Neli; Filipova, Radosveta; Boneva, Roumiana; Gavrilin, Eugene; Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Oblapenko, George; Wassilak, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the circumstances in which poliomyelitis occurred among three children in Bulgaria during 2001 and to describe the public health response. METHODS: Bulgarian authorities investigated the three cases of polio and their contacts, conducted faecal and serological screening of children from high-risk groups, implemented enhanced surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and conducted supplemental immunization activities. FINDINGS: The three cases of polio studied had not been vaccinated and lived in socioeconomically deprived areas of two cities. Four Roma children from the Bourgas district had antibody titres to serotype 1 poliovirus only, and wild type 1 virus was isolated from the faeces of two asymptomatic Roma children in the Bourgas and Sofia districts. Poliovirus isolates were related genetically and represented a single evolutionary lineage; genomic sequences were less than 90% identical to poliovirus strains isolated previously in Europe, but 98.3% similar to a strain isolated in India in 2000. No cases or wild virus isolates were found after supplemental immunization activities were launched in May 2001. CONCLUSIONS: In Bulgaria, an imported poliovirus was able to circulate for two to five months among minority populations. Surveillance data strongly suggest that wild poliovirus circulation ceased shortly after supplemental immunization activities with oral poliovirus vaccine were conducted. PMID:12973639

  8. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  9. Human echinococcosis in Bulgaria: a comparative epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Boeva, V.

    1999-01-01

    The present article describes the importance of human echinococcosis as a public health problem in Bulgaria, outlines the control measures carried out and evaluates comparatively the situation over three periods spanning 46 years (1950-1995). During the first period (1950-62), a total of 6469 new surgically confirmed cases of hydatid disease were recorded in Bulgaria, with an annual incidence of 6.5 per 100,000 population, and the infestation rate in domestic animals and dogs was high. Echinococcosis was endemic throughout the country. The organization of a control campaign, initiated in 1960, led to a considerable improvement in the situation during the second period (1971-82). Morbidity among humans gradually decreased, with an average incidence of 2.0 per 100,000, and the proportion of infected animals also fell. The distribution of echinococcosis was characterized as sporadic or of low endemicity. During the third period (1983-95), owing to administrative irregularities and economic changes, funds for supporting the campaign were reduced and control structures were dismantled. As a result, the incidence rose to 3.3 per 100,000. Echinococcosis again became endemic, in some regions hyperendemic. The findings provide convincing evidence that cessation of control measures or reduction of campaign activity can lead to intensification in the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and to a resurgence in echinococcosis to previous levels. PMID:10083708

  10. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  11. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-16

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bulgaria. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit.

  12. Changes in Contraceptive Use in Bulgaria, 1995-2000

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Elwood; Lamb, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of results from national surveys conducted in Bulgaria in 1995 and 2000 reveal little overall change in use of modern contraceptives. Dramatic increases occurred, however, among women younger than 25 who entered their reproductive period after the end of the state socialist period. This finding suggests that contraceptive gains in the country will come largely as a cohort-replacement process. From these data, no separate program impact appears for special clinics established to provide direct, subsidized delivery of modern contraceptives to women in selected cities. The special clinics opened in cities where contraceptive use was already above the national average. During these five years, other cities lacking special clinics managed to gain in prevalence of modern contraceptive use, leaving a relatively homogenous urban-rural difference in levels of use throughout the country. PMID:11831051

  13. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  14. Operational pollution forecast for the region of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, D.; Etropolska, I.; Prodanova, M.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Slavov, K.

    2012-10-01

    An operational prototype of the Integrated Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecasting and Information System is presented. This version of the system is limited to relatively low resolution (10 km) but covers all Bulgaria. It is based on the US EPA Models-3 System (MM5, SMOKE and CMAQ). The meteorological input to the system is the Bulgarian operational numerical weather forecast. The boundary conditions are taken from analogous Greek system (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki). Bulgarian system runs automatically twice a day (00 and 12 UTC) and produces 48-hour forecast. The part of the results of each System's run is post-processed in a way to be visualized and uploaded to a respective web site. In the paper, description of the System is given together with a demonstration of its products. In addition highlights of Systems upgrade will be given.

  15. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity of polycystic kidney disease in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, N. |; Dragova, D.; Kalaydiieva, L.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder whose frequency in Bulgaria has been estimated at 1 in 950. One gene (PKD1) causing this disease has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 16 in 1985. Linkage analysis showed that in a considerable proportion of PKD families (approximately 14% in Europe) the disease is not linked to this locus, suggesting the existance of mutations in additional genes. In 1993 a PKD2-gene has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 4. Here we report data of the first extensive investigation of PKD in Bulgaria. Initially 35 families with 341 individuals (178 affected, 89 unaffected family members, 74 spouses) were included in the study. Clinical diagnosis, mainly based on ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys, has been performed for all individuals. Linkage analysis was performed on 22 large pedigrees with microsatellites 16SC2.5 (D16S291) and SM7 (D16S283), which are closely linked to the PKD1 locus, as well as microsatellites D4S392, D4S400, D4S231 (proximal to the PDK2 locus) and D4S423, D4S414, D4S411 (distal to PKD2 locus). The study showed that the disease is caused in 14 families by mutations within the PKD1 gene and was clearly linked to the PDK2 locus in 5 families. In 3 families no clear conclusions about the linkage could be reached and analysis of additional markers from this region is in progress. The investigation has revealed the highest proportion of PKD2 families reported so far in Europe (23%). In addition, comparison of the severity of the clinical course of PKD1 and PKD2 families failed to confirm statistically significant differences which have been reported.

  17. Field experiments to evaluate host plant specificity of prospective agents of Onopordum acanthium in Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium, is an invasive alien weed in North America that originates from Europe. Previous field observations in Bulgaria have confirmed the presence of prospective biological control agents including Cassida rubiginosa, Chaetostomella cylindrica, Eublemma amoena, Larinus ...

  18. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country. PMID:26537337

  19. Observations in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly with Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 during a geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoshev, M.M.; Gogosheva, TS.N.; Kostadinov, I.N.; Markova, T.I.; Kisovski, S.

    1985-01-01

    The region of South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly was investigated by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, launched on August 7, 1981. On the basis of data obtained from 15 orbits during increased geomagnetic activity in August 1981, a map of the Anomaly was elaborated. Two centers of activity were identified. By means of the EMO-5 electrophotometer on board the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, the atmosphere glow in lines 5577 A, 6300 A and 4278 A was studied. 11 references.

  20. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment. PMID:26019523

  1. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  2. Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2013-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4 %, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

  3. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  4. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  5. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent. PMID:21461727

  6. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  7. SVAT modelling in support to flood risk assessment in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanova, Julia S.; Georgiev, Christo G.

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the benefit that can be drawn from incorporating the diagnosis of initial soil moisture of the top vegetation/soil layer and its anomalies as parameters in support of operational weather forecasting. For that purpose, a 1D vertical numerical land surface scheme, referred to as Soil Vegetation Transfer Model (‘SVAT_bg’) has been developed to simulate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy transfer, accounting for local soil/climate features. The model is run daily for estimating soil moisture content and on this basis, a biogeophysical index designating Soil Moisture Availability Index (SMAI) to vegetation land cover is derived. SMAI is introduced as a measure of the proportion between the energy and water balances and their anomalies at different weather/climate conditions through a 6-level threshold scheme of land surface moistening. To facilitate the use of SMAI as a diagnostic tool for operational forecasting purposes, it is generated on a daily basis and visualised by colour-coded maps, covering the main administrative regions of Bulgaria in combination with a numerical part, which indicates the required flood-producing rainfall quantities (specific for each region). In case of overmoistening conditions, the numerical part denotes the rainfall excess above the soil saturation moisture content. The utility of this approach is illustrated in two case studies of severe weather produced by deep convection and a rapid cyclogenesis developed at initial ‘dry’/‘wet’ soil moisture anomalies, respectively. The thermodynamic conditions and space-time structure of the rainfall are analysed by NWP output fields and satellite information. The study contributes to a better definition of the role of vegetation-soil moistening in flood risk forecasting within strong synoptic scale forcing regimes. The utility of the results comes also from the recognition of soil moisture as a meteorological forcing factor, which may affect both severity

  8. National magnetic database for the topsoil samples from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Petrov, Petar

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of topsoil magnetic database on a national scale provides important source of information, necessary for the purposes of soil classification; soil drainage; as an indirect estimate of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. Five hundred and ten topsoil samples from the upper 20cm of natural unpolluted soils from the territory of Bulgaria have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility; frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, Anhysteretic remanence, Isothermal remanence and their ratios; hysteresis parameters and ratios; as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database reveal specific peculiarities and dependence from different factors. According to the results from the factor analysis, 77% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters. The second factor reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction; while the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material. The fourth factor is governed by the effects from the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The first two clusters separate soils, developed on volcanogenic/volcanic rocks and loess sediments. The third cluster is dominated by the soil type variable and includes mainly Cambisols, developed on different parent rocks. The fourth cluster separates soils developed on sedimentary rocks. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1sample/200km2.

  9. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    PubMed

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  10. Challenges and Perspectives of the Adult Vocational Training System in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Elka

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of recent developments and problems in adult training of the employed and unemployed in Bulgaria. It is presented in three parts: information on legislation and the institutions; information on current problems with vocational training of the employed and unemployed; and some future measures for improving…

  11. First report of Freesia sneak virus associated with foliar necrosis of Freesia refracto in Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early spring of 2011, and the same period of 2012, severe necrotic symptoms were observed on freesia (Freesia refracta, Iridaceae) in several greenhouses around Plovdiv (South-central Bulgaria). The disease spread and symptom severity in several cultivars (Medeo, Calvados and Pink Fountain), ...

  12. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  13. Leadership Training in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership…

  14. Inclusive Education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current…

  15. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  16. Components of Environmental Literacy in Elementary Science Education Curriculum in Bulgaria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Kostova, Zdravka; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which science education objectives in elementary schools addressed to the six basic components of environmental literacy (EL), and how this attention differed from Bulgaria to Turkey. The main method in the study involved comparative content analysis of these objectives. The courses sampled…

  17. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  18. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    PubMed

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  19. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    PubMed Central

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

    2012-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the

  1. Socio-economic restructuring and vulnerability to environmental hazards in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yarnal, B

    1994-06-01

    The restructuring of Bulgaria's social, economic and political system includes a change in the way it handles disaster preparation and response. During the Cold War, the entire country drilled regularly in civil defense, which was under the control of the army. A recent decree and pending legislation transfers civil defense from the military to the Council of Ministers, which has developed a national plan for defense against environmental hazards. This research shows that the transformation from command to market economy, plus the country's severe economic crisis, is degrading existing civil defense structures, preventing the implementation of the proposed new organization and increasing the population's vulnerability to hazards. Case studies of a small city, a petrochemical complex, coastal-zone hazards management, earthquake hazards regulation and the Kozloduy nuclear facility demonstrate Bulgaria's increasing vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:8076162

  2. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. PMID:24697714

  3. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  4. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  5. Downscaling of Bulgarian chemical weather forecast from Bulgaria region to Sofia city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, D.; Etropolska, I.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Ljubenov, T.

    2013-10-01

    In the paper, Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecast System (BgCWFS), version 3, will be described end the respective end-user products will be demonstrated. Chemical Weather is understood as concentration distribution of some key pollutants in a particular area and its changes during some forecast period. In Bulgaria, a prototype of such a system was built in the frame of a project with the National Science fund. It covers a relatively small domain including Bulgaria that requires the use of chemical boundary conditions (CBC) from similar foreign systems. The last version of the System is built in the frame of EU FP7 project PASODOBLE. Following its requirements, concentration data (CBC) for the region of Bulgaria are provided by SILAM System of Finish Meteorological Institute. It operates over the whole European region but is able to provide data for any European sub-domain by its THREDDS service. The customer makes an Internet request containing all necessary parameters - sub-region dimensions, pollutants, period of forecast etc. In a few minutes, the request is proceeded and all required data is downloaded as a single NetCDF file. This file is post-processed as to obtain the necessary boundary conditions. The new version of the system is built on the base of the nesting approach - two other domains with increasing resolution are nested in the Bulgaria one downscaling to 1 km space resolution over Sofia city. The System is fully atomized. Computations start at 00 UTC every day and the forecast period is 72 hours. It is based on the well known models WRF (Mesometeorological Model) and US EPA dispersion model CMAQ (Chemical Transport Model). As emission input the 2010 inventory data prepared by Bulgarian environmental authorities is exploited. The results are presented in the System's web-site (http://www.niggg.bas.bg/cw3/).

  6. Initial steps to the early warning systems in Bulgaria - earthquakes, tsunamis, marine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, Boyko

    2013-04-01

    Several projects on the early warning systems in Bulgaria are presented - some of them in phase of execution, some - in preparation and assessment. The work presents these projects related to the early warning systems (EWS). They are under execution in Bulgaria with wide participation of the international teams. The projects' parameters - partners involved, coordinators, main tasks and objectives, time duration, intended equipment, specific objectives and beneficiaries are discussed. The progress of these projects is presented. The projects themselves - according their acronyms are: MARINEGEOHAZARDS (mainly focused on marine hazards in the Black Sea - earthquakes and tsunamis). DACEA (about possibility of Vrancea seismic source earthquakes to be warned in Bulgaria and Romania). ESNET (about support of decision makers in case of earthquakes and other coastal hazards). SIMORA (about a local monitoring system of strong ground motions and its relevancy to the EWS). A comparison study about the level of reliability and security, as well as, some legislation issues are under investigations. The web-sites and other dissemination tools (like newsletters,webs,etc.) are also under presentation. The goal is to show the specific objectives, their effective execution and the research support to the society and decision makers.

  7. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water supplies of Russia and Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Sotiriadou, I; Kartashev, V; Kourenti, C; Tsvetkova, N; Stojanova, K

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate water supplies in southern Russia and Bulgaria, in order to estimate the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water resources from these countries. A total of 166 water samples of different origin (surface, tap, bottled, well, spring and waste water) were collected from Rostov (southern Russia), Sofia and Varna (Bulgaria) Greater Areas and screened for the detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method incorporated concentration of water samples by filtration and flocculation, sucrose purification, (oo)cyst detection/identification by immunofluorescence test and differential interference contrast. Sixteen out of 166 samples (9.6%) were positive for Giardia and 30 (18.1%) positive for Cryptosporidium. Both Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in tap, river, well and waste waters. Giardia cysts were additionally detected in bottled water. Particularly some river, waste and well water samples were highly contaminated with (oo)cysts. This study has shown that drinking water supplies in Russia and Bulgaria are subject to contamination with Giardia and Cryptosporidium, with potential hazards for the public health. PMID:16780829

  8. Environmental correlates of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever incidence in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted by ixodid tick bites, mainly of Hyalomma spp., or through contact with blood/tissues from infected people or animals. CCHF is endemic in the Balkan area, including Bulgaria, where it causes both sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Methods We described trends of CCHF in Bulgaria between 1997 and 2009 and investigated the associations between CCHF incidence and a selection of environmental factors using a zero-inflated modelling approach. Results A total of 159 CCHF cases (38 women and 121 men) were identified between 1997 and 2009. The incidence was 0.13 cases per 100,000 population/year with a fatality rate of 26%. An epidemic peak was detected close to the Turkish border in the summer of 2002. Most cases were reported between April and September. Increasing mean temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), savannah-type land coverage or habitat fragmentation increased significantly the incidence of CCHF in the CCHF-affected areas. Similar to that observed in Turkey, we found that areas with warmer temperatures in the autumn prior to the case-reporting year had an increased probability of reporting zero CCHF cases. Conclusions We identified environmental correlates of CCHF incidence in Bulgaria that may support the prospective implementation of public health interventions. PMID:23270399

  9. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  10. Education in Multi-Ethnic Societies of Central and Eastern Europe. A Skills Exchange Workshop (Bulgaria, November 7-10, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    To address problems in public education for majority and minority ethnic groups in Central and Eastern Europe, Minority Rights Group International and the Inter Ethnic Initiative for Human Rights Foundation organized a skills exchange workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria in November 1997. Representatives from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovkia…

  11. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  12. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  13. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  14. Late Cretaceous UHP metamorphism recorded in kyanite-garnet schists from the Central Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, David; Savov, Ivan; Maneiro, Kathryn; Baxter, Ethan; Harvey, Jason; Dimitrov, Iliya

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the first discovery of microdiamond inclusions in kyanite-garnet schists from the Central Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria. These inclusions occur in garnets from metapelites that are part of a meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary mélange hosted by Variscan (Hercynian) orthogneiss. Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) conditions are further supported by the presence of exsolved needles of quartz and rutile in the garnet and by geothermobarometry estimates that suggest peak metamorphic temperatures of 750-800 °C and pressures in excess of 4 GPa. The discovery of UHP conditions in the Central Rhodopes of Bulgaria compliments the well-documented evidence for such conditions in the southernmost (Greek) part of the Rhodope Massif. Dating of garnets from these UHP metapelites (Chepelare Shear Zone) using Sm-Nd geochronology indicates a Late Cretaceous age (70.5-92.7 Ma) for the UHP metamorphic event. This is significantly younger than previously reported ages and suggests that the UHP conditions are associated with the Late Mesozoic subduction of the Vardar Ocean northward beneath the Moesian platform (Europe). The present-day structure of the RM is the result of a series of subduction-exhumation events that span the Cenozoic, alongside subsequent post-orogenic extension and metamorphic core complex formation.

  15. Study of fog in Bulgaria by using the GNSS tropospheric products and large scale dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoycheva, A.; Guerova, G.

    2015-10-01

    The fog formation, development, and dissipation are studied by employing the synergy between surface observations and vertically Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Selected are three fog cases in February and November 2012 and the fog development in 4 locations in north Bulgaria is analysed. It is found that the IWV tends to decrease during fog formation, and densification. Increase of IWV leads to fog dispersion and can be a result of evaporation or advection of new humid air mass. The mixing ratio also decreases during the fog formation and increases during dissipation but has a distinct diurnal variability, which limits its short range forecasting potential. IWV is found to have a very high sensitivity to both air mass transformation and/or advection at altitude. In one case it is found that the arrival time of a new air mass at altitude is of key importance for further fog development or suppression. The change of the air mass leads to change of the diurnal cycle of surface parameters like temperature thus controlling the fog life cycle. Further complication of fog diagnosis is introduced by a dynamic component, reflecting the orography difference in west and east part of Bulgaria. The behaviour of the IWV and mixing ratio can be a valuable additional tool in decision making processes for very short range fog diagnosis and prognosis. For monitoring fog life cycle hourly or sub-hourly data-sets will be an advantage.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Yurukova, L.; Kochev, K. )

    1994-08-01

    Man's impact on the environment has become global and presents an international problem. The selective ionic absorption by hydrophytes in littoral ecosystems may be used for indicating the chemistry of water medium and submersed soils. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the main species of aquatic macrophytes distributed in the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria. An evaluation of the anthropogenic contamination of this area will be made before the area is declared a protected locality. Aldomirovsko is one of the few inland swamps which is well preserved in Bulgaria. The swamp is situated to the northwest of Slivnica town, at the foot of the Tri Usi hills, around 650 m above sea level. It is of Karst origin. The area is about 2.5 km[sup 2]. The water capacity of the swamp varies throughout the year. Its depth decreases down to 1.10 m and is maintained by rainfall. The pH varies from 7.5 to 8.0. There is a considerable layer of silt at the bottom, with a pH of about 8.5. Thus far the swamp has been mainly a study area for floristic, faunistic, phytocoenological and ecological investigations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.; Stefanova, I.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  18. Higher Education in Bulgaria and Education for Peace, Disarmament, and the Observance of Human Rights and Freedoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihailov, Nikolaj

    1984-01-01

    Education for peace and human rights in Bulgaria is approached through interdisciplinary study and not as a separate discipline in higher education, emphasizing the broad social and cultural growth of the individual student at all levels of the university curriculum. (MSE)

  19. Slow Fires Still Burn: Results of a Preservation Assessment of Libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian J.; Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the threat of disintegration of library collections in East Central Europe focuses on a study of collection condition surveys and preservation operations of three major academic libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria. Considers inferior materials used to produce most Slavic publications and inadequate facilities to house the…

  20. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  1. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  2. Intergenerational Communication Satisfaction and Age Boundaries in Bulgaria and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Christopher; Stoitsova, Tolya; Choi, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Bulgarian and American young adults’ perceptions of prior experiences of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of target increased from young adult to middle-aged and elderly adult, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. However, American youth reported more of a tendency to avoid, but expressed more respect when communicating with, older adults than their Bulgarian counterparts. In both settings, young adults’ avoidant communication with older people negatively, and the norm of politeness positively, predicted intergenerational communication satisfaction. In Bulgaria only, age stereotypes also predicted communication satisfaction whereas only in the USA was communicative respect a predictor. PMID:20393794

  3. Pilot study of patient and phantom breast dose measurements in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova-Cholakova, Simona; Vassileva, Jenia

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of breast dose measurements on two mammography units in Bulgaria was conducted. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) to samples of approximately 60 women per unit were measured. MGD with a standard PMMA phantom was measured as well. The MGDs were calculated according to the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography as well as to the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening. The measured women's MGDs were divided into three groups depending on the compressed breast thicknesses. The results for the group of thicknesses in the interval 40-60 mm were compared with the results from the measurements on the standard 45 mm PMMA phantom. Some differences were found which could be due to errors in breast thickness measurements, differences in breast and phantom densities and other factors. A standardized procedure was elaborated for patient dose measurement and calculation both from patient and phantom studies.

  4. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  5. Formation conditions of paleovalley uranium deposits hosted in upper Eocene-lower Oligocene rocks of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Strelkova, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The uranium deposits of Bulgaria related to the Late Alpine tectonomagmatic reactivation are subdivided into two groups: exogenic-epigenetic paleovalley deposits related to the basins filled with upper Eocene-lower Oligocene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and the hydrothermal deposits hosted in the coeval depressions. The geological and lithofacies conditions of their localization, the epigenetic alteration of rocks, mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium ore are exemplified in thoroughly studied paleovalley deposits of the Maritsa ore district. Argumentation of the genetic concepts providing insights into both sedimentation-diagenetic and exogenic-epigenetic mineralization with development of stratal oxidation zones is discussed. A new exfiltration model has been proposed to explain the origin of the aforementioned deposits on the basis of additional analysis with consideration of archival factual data and possible causes of specific ningyoite uranium ore composition.

  6. Health hazards in the production and processing of some fibers, resins, and plastics in Bulgaria.

    PubMed Central

    Spassovski, M

    1976-01-01

    Results of the toxicological studies of working conditions, general and professional morbidity, and complex examinations carried out on workers engaged in the production of polyamides, polyacrylonitrile fibers, polyester fibers and poly (vinyl chloride) resin, urea-formaldehyde glue, glass fibre materials and polyurethane resins are given. An extremely high occupational hazard for workers in the production of poly (vinyl chloride) resin and porous materials from polyurethane resins and urea-formaldehyde glue has been established. Cases of vinyl chloride disease, poisoning from formaldehyde, isocyanates, and styrene were noted. Prophylactic measures were taken in Bulgaria to lessen the occupational hazard in the productions as set forth included limitation of the work day to 6 hr, free food, additional bonus and leave, and annual physical examinations of workers. PMID:1026405

  7. Radioactive Releases Impact from Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Bulgaria into the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G. T.; Kuleff, I.; Tanev, N. T.; Delistoyanova, E. S.; Guentchev, T.

    2002-02-26

    The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the radioactive releases impact generated by Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), Bulgaria to the environment and public. The liquid releases presented are known as the so called controlled water discharges, that are generated after reprocessing of the inevitable accumulated liquid radioactive waste in the plant operation process. The radionuclides containing in the liquid releases are given in the paper as a result of systematic measuring. Database for radiation doses evaluation on the public around Kozloduy NPP site is developed using IAEA LADTAP computerized program. The computer code LADTAP represents realization of a model that evaluates the public dose as a result of NPP releases under normal operation conditions. The results of this evaluation were the basic licensing document for a new liquid release limit.

  8. Regulatory barriers to equity in a health system in transition: a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health reforms in Bulgaria have introduced major changes to the financing, delivery and regulation of health care. As in many other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, these included introducing general practice, establishing a health insurance system, reorganizing hospital services, and setting up new payment mechanisms for providers, including patient co-payments. Our study explored perceptions of regulatory barriers to equity in Bulgarian child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results The participants in our study reported a variety of regulatory barriers which undermined the principles of equity and, as far as the health insurance system is concerned, solidarity. These included non-participation in the compulsory health insurance system, informal payments, and charging user fees to exempted patients. The participants also reported seemingly unnecessary treatments in the growing private sector. These regulatory failures were associated with the fast pace of reforms, lack of consultation, inadequate public financing of the health system, a perceived "commercialization" of medicine, and weak enforcement of legislation. A recurrent theme from the interviews was the need for better information about patient rights and services covered by the health insurance system. Conclusions Regulatory barriers to equity and compliance in daily practice deserve more attention from policy-makers when embarking on health reforms. New financing sources and an increasing role of the private sector need to be accompanied by an appropriate and enforceable regulatory framework to control the behavior of health care providers and ensure equity in access to health services. PMID:21923930

  9. Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (46.3 %) and G2P[4] (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains. PMID:25596126

  10. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Results: Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009–2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). Conclusion: The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies. PMID:27252921

  11. Budget impact of rare diseases: proposal for a theoretical framework based on evidence from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Iskrov, G; Jessop, E; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, T; Stefanov, R

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of rare disease (RD) drugs on Bulgaria's National Health Insurance Fund's (NHIF) total drug budget for 2011-2014. While standard budget impact analysis is usually used in a prospective way, assessing the impact of new health technologies on the health system's sustainability, we adopted a retrospective approach instead. Budget impact was quantified from a NHIF perspective. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse cost details, while dynamics was studied, using chain-linked growth rates (every period preceding the accounting period serves as a base). NHIF costs for RD therapies were expected to increase up to 74.5 million BGN in 2014 (7.8% of NHIF's total pharmaceutical expenditure). Greatest increase in cost per patient and number of patients treated was observed in conditions, for which there were newly approved for funding therapies. While simple cost drivers are well known - number of patients treated and mean cost per patient - in real-world settings these two factors are likely to depend on the availability and accessibility of effective innovative therapies. As RD were historically underdiagnosed, undertreated and underfunded in Bulgaria, improved access to RD drugs will inevitably lead to increasing budget burden for payers. Based on the evidence from this study, we propose a theoretical framework of a budget impact study for RD. First, a retrospective analysis could provide essential health policy insights in terms of impact on accessibility and population health, which are significant benchmarks in shaping funding decisions in healthcare. We suggest an interaction between the classical prospective BIA with the retrospective analysis in order to optimise health policy decision-making. Second, we recommend budget impact studies to focus on RD rather than orphan drugs (OD). In policy context, RD are the public health priority. OD are just one of the tools to address the complex issues of RD. Moreover, OD is a dynamic

  12. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  13. Space Research in Bulgaria: Achievements in the Space Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Kostov, P.; Sapunova, S.; Simeonov, S.; Dandolov, I.

    2002-01-01

    The organized participation of the Bulgarian scientists in the space research started in 1969 when a Group of Space Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) was established. The first Bulgarian space equipment for ionosphere parameters measurement was created and launched on board satellite Intercosmos - 8 on 1 December 1972. Bulgaria became the 18th space country. Later in 1975 the Central Laboratory for Space Research (CLSR) was founded and the Bulgarian researchers participated successfully in the East European Intercosmos Program, developing equipment and carrying out experiments on the satellites Intercosmos - 12, 14, 19 and the heavy geophysical rockets Vertical - 3, 4, 6, 7, 10. The first Bulgarian cosmonaut George Ivanov was launched in space on board Soyuz-33 in 1979. The scientific program and equipment for this flight were entirely designed by Bulgarian scientists. The two satellites Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300-I and II were entirely (I) or partially (II) furnished with Bulgarian scientific equipment designed to study the ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions and for remote sensing of the Earth. In 1987 the CLRS became Space Research Institute (SRI). The accumulated experience and scientific knowledge helped the Bulgarian scientists to develop a new scientific program SHIPKA for the flight of the second Bulgarian cosmonaut Alexander Alexandrov in 1988. Fifteen research devices and complexes, that continued working onboard the MIR Orbital Station (OS) long after the Bulgarian flight, were developed and 49 scientific experiments in the field of the space physics, remote sensing, space biology and medicine and space materials were conducted. The Bulgarian scientists also participated successfully in international programs such as VENUS-HALLEY (1985), PHOBOS (1988), AKTIVEN (1989), APEX (1990) and INTERBOL (1995, 1996). The achievements of the Bulgarian scientists from SRI in the field of the Space Biology and Medicine during the last 15 years are

  14. Time and duration of metamorphism and exhumation of the central Rhodopian core complex, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovtcharova, M.; von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Neubauer, F.; Heinrich, C. A.; Kaiser, M.

    2003-04-01

    The evolution of central Rhodopian dome (Bulgaria) is interpreted in terms of an extensional collapse of thickened crust (Ivanov at al., 2000). U-Pb isotope dating (single Zr and Mnz), Rb-Sr (W.R., Bt and Ap) and Ar-Ar (on Bt) were carried out on different rocks from the central Rhodope, Bulgaria, to constrain the timing and duration of the metamorphism and exhumation of the core complex. The beginning of extensional stage is marked by intrusion of earliest non-penetratively deformed granite bodies at 53Ma (U-Pb on single Zr and Mnz). The late Alpine extensional evolution of the massif is marked by a detachment system connected with exhumation of the migmatites in the core part of the dome (lower plate). U-Pb analyses on Mnz and Zr from mesosome and discordant leucosome yield a Variscan protolith age of the gneiss (311 Ma) and Eocene age (37Ma) of crystallization of the newly formed anatectic melt that corresponds with the peak of the Alpine metamorphic event (P 4.5-6kbar and T 720-750^oC; Georgieva et al., 2002). Rb-Sr mineral system of the weakly deformed gneisses from lower plate of the core complex gives evidence for a cooling age of 34.5±0.34Ma. This result is confirmed by Ar-Ar on Bt from the same rock: 35.5±0.4Ma. Ar-Ar data on biotite from gneisses of the upper plate yield an age of 34.9±0.6Ma. The same age is reflected by an Rb-Sr isochron (W.R., Bt and Ap) of 35.22±0.35Ma. The post-collisional extension was followed by graben depressions filled with sediments of Eocene-Oligocene age and active volcanism and ore mineralization (Zn-Pb and Cu-Pb-Zn ore deposits). Connected with the most intensively "stretched" sections of the extensional system is emplacement of rhyolitic dikes at 32.8±0.41Ma (U-Pb on single Zr, Xe). The available data constrain narrow time bracket between timing of high-grade metamorphism event (37Ma, >600^oC), cooling (35Ma, 300ºC) of the core complex and volcanic activity (32Ma) that corresponds with rapid exhumation tectonic regime

  15. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  16. System of Earthquakes Alert (SEA) on the territory of Bulgaria developed as a result of DACEA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Dimitrova, Liliya; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Metodiev, Metodi

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of the natural disasters and the performing management of reactions to crisis are common problems for many countries. The Romania-Bulgaria border region is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both territories: on the one-hand, Vrancea seismic source, with intermediate-depth events and on the other hand, crustal seismicity recorded in the northern part of Bulgaria (Shabla, Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza). The general objective of DACEA (2010-2013) project is to develop an system of earthquake alert in order to prevent the natural disasters caused by earthquakes in the cross-border area, taking into account the nuclear power plants and other chemical plants located along the Danube on the territories of Romania and Bulgaria. An integrated warning system is designed and implemented in the cross-border area. A seismic detection network is put in operation in order to warn the bodies in charge with emergency situations management in case of seismic danger. The main purpose of this network is: • monitoring of the four seismogenic areas relevant for the cross-border area, in order to detect dangerous earthquakes • sending the seismic warning signals within several seconds to the local public authorities in the cross-border area On the territory of Bulgaria the seismic network belonging to SEA is consists of: • 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor and BB seismometer KS2000. • 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor, warning and visual monitoring equipment. The stations are spanned allover the North Bulgaria. The sites were thoroughly examined and the most important requirement was the low level of noise or vibrations. SEA centers were established both in Sofia (in National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography - NIGGG) and Bucharest (in National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics). Both centers are equipped with servers for data analyses

  17. Numerical study of the wind energy potential in Bulgaria - Some preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanov, G.; Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

    2012-10-01

    The new energy efficiency politics of the EU requires till year 2020 16% of Bulgarian electricity to be produced from renewable sources. The wind is one of renewable energy sources. The ecological benefits of all the kinds of "green" energy are obvious. It is desirable, however, the utilization of renewable energy sources to be as much as possible economically effective. This means that installment of the respective devices (wind farms, solar farms, etc.) should be based on a detailed and reliable evaluation of the real potential of the country. Detailed study of the wind energy potential of the country - spatial distribution, temporal variation, mean and extreme values, fluctuations and statistical characteristics; evaluation from a point of view of industrial applicability can not be made only on the basis of the existing routine meteorological data - the measuring network is not dense enough to catch all the details of the local flow systems, hence of the real wind energy potential of the country spatial distribution. That is why the measurement data has to be supplemented by numerical modeling. The wind field simulations were performed applying the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-Meteorological Model MM5 for years 2000-2007 with a spatial resolution of 3 km over Bulgaria. Some preliminary evaluations of the country wind energy potential, based on the simulation output are demonstrated in the paper.

  18. Interactive Web-Mapping System for Satellite Based Agricultural Applications in Bulgaria and Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Stancalie, Gheorghe; Roumenina, Eugenia; Kazandjiev, Valentin; Jelev, Georgi; Filchev, Lachezar; Savin, Elena; Catana, Simona; Mihailescu, Denis

    2012-06-01

    The interactive web-mapping system for satellite based agricultural application in Bulgaria and Romania was developed in the frame if the PROA GROB URO project. To achieve the project objectives a large amount of geospatial data was collected in the form of satellite images, maps and vector layers. Furthermore, the field measurements and descriptions were linked with the exact location where they have been made. There was a strong need to be able to analyse the data in an integrated way. Thus, a geodatabase was necessary with corresponding web-interface and applications providing data access to each of the partners. Using the newest Internet technologies a set of tools for creating and online publishing of geospatial data was successfully implemented The system components were developed entirely with standard compliant free and open source software like GDAL/OGR. GeoServer, OpenLayers and PostgreSQL+PostGIS. GMES recommendations and INSPIRE directive were taken into account when designing and implementing the system.

  19. Changes in the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Bulgaria (2006–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Borissova, Anna-Maria; Shinkov, Alexander; Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Vlahov, Jordan; Dakovska, Lilia; Todorov, Todor

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to compare two nationwide cross-sectional studies of diabetes prevalence in Bulgaria (2006 and 2012) and to assess its dynamics. MATERIAL AND METHODS The two studies included 2396 and 2033 subjects, respectively. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria were applied, and the data were weighed for type of settlement and age. RESULTS Diabetes prevalence was found to be 7.9% in 2006 and 9.55% in 2012, P = 0.06, showing an increase of 20.9%. The absolute increase was 0.9% in the females and 2.3% in the males (P < 0.09). The increase was the largest in those aged 50–59: [9.4%, 2006 vs. 15.7%, 2012, P < 0.01]. Diabetes prevalence increased in the 20–60-year olds by 6.8% and decreased in the elderly by 6.1%. Obesity increased from 26.7 to 32.7%, P < 0.02. CONCLUSIONS A significant increase in diabetes prevalence was found that necessitates healthcare measures and resources for community-based awareness and prevention programs. PMID:26005363

  20. Metal bioaccumulation in common carp and rudd from the Topolnitsa reservoir, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yancheva, Vesela; Stoyanova, Stela; Velcheva, Iliana; Petrova, Slaveya; Georgieva, Elenka

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water samples and five fish organs (gills, liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from the Topolnitsa reservoir (Bulgaria) in three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn). This water ecosystem is located in a copper mining and metallurgical region. Water metal concentrations were significantly higher in the summer than in the spring (p<0.05). Moreover, As, Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were higher than the national limits. Qualitative factors "element" and "fish organ" had a stronger influence on metal bioaccumulation than the factors "season" and "fish species". In fish, the highest metal levels were detected in the liver, spleen, kidney and gills, and the lowest in the dorsal muscle. Tissue levels were higher in the summer, but in general they were similar between the two Cyprinid fish. Fish muscles had the lowest metal levels at all times, but As and Pb exceeded the national and international standards. Therefore, we would not recommend fish consumption from Topolnitsa, as continuous metal contamination of the reservoir may seem to present human health risk. PMID:24620011

  1. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. PMID:25382194

  2. Cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria 1996-2013, with emphasis on childhood infections.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, D P; Harizanov, R N; Kaftandjiev, I T; Rainova, I G; Kantardjiev, T V

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some features of cystic echinococcosis among children and adolescents, such as epidemiology, diagnosis, organ localization, treatment, and social and environmental factors favoring transmission of the disease. The 18-year study period (1996-2013) includes officially registered primary cases treated surgically, and/or with drug therapy, and/or with the puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration technique. Organ localization of the cysts and the most common diagnostic procedures were studied from the patients' medical records. Groups of diseased and healthy children were surveyed to outline some of the environmental and social factors influencing morbidity. From 1996 to 2013, the average annual incidence of cystic echinococcosis in the country was 6.7 per 100,000, but with significant variations in the incidence between different age groups. The hydatid cysts in children aged 0 to 9 years may most frequently be found in the lungs, in contrast to patients from other age groups. Almost 90% of the affected children had sustained contact with dogs. At present, among the countries of the European Union, Bulgaria holds the highest incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis. Childhood echinococcosis remains a serious health problem for the country. Therefore, the study of cystic echinococcosis in children has important epidemiological significance concerning the intensity of transmission. PMID:25864190

  3. Serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in Bulgaria using the Lányi-Bergan combined scheme.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, P

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in hospitals in Bulgaria were serotyped according to the combined scheme of Lányi and Bergan, supplemented by Akatova and Smirnova and Homma, using agglutinating O-antisera prepared in the National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest. The most frequently encountered serogroup is O2 (29%) followed by O11 (28.5%), O6, O3, O10 etc. The results were compared with those obtained by using Difco antisera prepared according to Liu et al., and showed 96.5% coincidence. The strains were phage typed according to the scheme of Meitert and tested for antibiotic resistance to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, carbenicillin, tobramycin and amikacin). Phage groups 3 (3a and 3(3)) and 1 (1a) predominated. The strains exhibited sensitivity to amikacin (99%) and frequent resistance to gentamicin (45.8%, carbenicillin (40%) and tobramycin (28%). Subdivision of the serogroups into phage and resisto-types contributes to analysis of nosocomial infections. PMID:3115050

  4. Ceilometer observation of Saharan dust over mountain valley of Sofia, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Nikolay; Evgenieva, Tsvetina; Grigorov, Ivan; Deleva, Atanaska; Ivanov, Danko; Danchovski, Ventsislav; Savov, Plamen; Petkov, Doyno

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is known to considerably influence the Earth's radiative budget and to make an impact on air quality. The influence of aerosols strongly depends on their spatial distribution and optical properties. The aerosol has natural and anthropogenic origin. Aerosol types can be also classified according to their size, sources or geographical origin (desert, continental, marine etc.). Mineral dust is one of the natural aerosols presented in the atmosphere. Its main source is the Sahara desert region. Saharan aerosol layers are frequently observed in Europe by means of active and passive remote sensing devices, especially in the frame of EARLINET and ACTRIS 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In this paper, observations of vertical distribution of aerosols and assessment of their optical properties will be presented. Two-year (2013-2014) complex measurements were carried out by a ceilometer CHM-15k (Jenoptic) and two lidars in an urban area located in a mountain valley (Sofia, Bulgaria)1. The ceilometer works 24 hours in automatic mode. Part of the results is compared with results obtained by lidars operating in photon counting modes for specific periods of simultaneous work5. Supplementary data from: two meteorological stations; HYSPLIT back trajectory model4; BSCDREAM8b dust model9; and the database of atmospheric radio sounding profiles from Department of Atmospheric Engineering of Wyoming University (USA) are also used in the analysis of the obtained results.

  5. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees. PMID:26821353

  6. New archaeointensity results from Scandinavia and Bulgaria. Rock-magnetic studies inference and geophysical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Casas, Ll.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates archaeological artifacts from five sites in Europe: one from Switzerland (Cheyres—baked clay remains from an Iron Age kiln: 700-530 BC); one from Bulgaria (Drustur—Medieval kiln: 1200-1300 AD); two from Finland (Busö—Medieval kiln: 1570 AD and bricks from Helsinki: 1906 AD); and one from Russian Karelia (bricks from Valaam: 1856 AD). The goal of the paper is to determine palaeointensity from the archaeological sites mentioned above, as well as to compare the values obtained in different laboratories, and so to infer reliability to the results. Palaeointensity experiments were mainly carried out at the Division of Geophysics, University of Helsinki and at the Palaeomagnetic Laboratory of the Geophysical Institute in Sofia. Additionally, microwave palaeointensity determinations on few sister specimens from Helsinki bricks and from Drustur kiln were performed in Liverpool. Large amount of rock-magnetic studies accompanies the work in order to find possible explanations for the acceptance or failure of palaeointensity experiments. The encountered difficulties in obtaining reliable palaeointensity results are discussed and show a still incomplete state of art for determination of this important ancient geomagnetic field characteristic. The accepted new palaeointensity evaluations for different time and space will partly fill up considerable gaps in European palaeointensity databases. Geophysical inference is demonstrated on the basis of virtual axial dipole moment calculated from the new palaeointensity results and its relationship with the CALS7K.2 model calculation and the observatory measurements for the corresponding territories.

  7. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from Bulgaria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Iliana; Urshev, Zoltan; Hristova, Petya; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize genetically Bulgarian Erwinia amylovora strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Fifty E. amylovora strains isolated from different hosts, locations, as well as in different years were analysed by PFGE after XbaI, SpeI, and XhoI digestion of the genomic DNA. The strains were distributed into four groups according to their XbaI-generated profile. About 82% of the strains displayed a PFGE profile identical to that of type Pt2. Three strains belonged to the Central Europe Pt1 type. Two new PFGE profiles, not reported so far, were established--one for a strain isolated from Malus domestica and another for all Fragaria spp. strains. The same grouping of the strains was obtained after analysis of the SpeI digestion patterns. On the basis of PFGE profiles, after XbaI and SpeI digestion, a genetic differentiation between the strains associated with subfamily Maloideae and subfamily Rosoideae was revealed. The presence of more than one PFGE profile in the population of E. amylovora in Bulgaria suggests a multiple source of inoculum. PMID:22624335

  8. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  9. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children < 15 years old. Vaccination status was available for 52% (n = 12,630) of cases. Of children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  10. Diversity of human parechoviruses in Bulgaria, 2011: Detection of rare genotypes 8 and 10.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Dikova, Antoaneta; Thongprachum, Aksara; Petrov, Petar; Pekova, Liliq; Komitova, Radka; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections are commonly asymptomatic but are also found in association with symptoms of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, or central nervous system. In order to study their distribution and genetic diversity in Bulgaria, specimens from 229 children aged <5years old hospitalized due to neurological manifestations (n=104) and acute gastroenteritis (n=125) were analyzed. Stool samples were tested using reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction toward the 5'UTR region, and the HPeVs detected were identified by PCR directed to VP1 followed by sequencing. HPeV infection rates of 1.9% and 7.2% were found in children presented with neurological symptoms or with acute diarrhea, respectively. Four different HPeV genotypes, HPeV-3 (n=2), HPeV-5 (n=2), HPeV-8 (n=1) and HPeV-10 (n=1) were identified. All but two HPeVs were detected in acute diarrheal cases, while a single HPeV-3 strain and an HPeV-8 strain were detected in association with facial palsy and encephalitis, respectively. This is the first report of HPeV-8 and HPeV-10 in Europe. PMID:26453770

  11. Public hearings for EIAs in post-communist Bulgaria: do they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Almer, Heather L.; Koontz, Tomas M

    2004-07-01

    The participatory practices required as part of the established systems of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practiced in the United States, Canada, Western Europe as well as several international agencies are more recent to the countries of Eastern Europe. The most common official forum for citizen participation in EIAs is the public hearing, which can provide important benefits. However, public hearings have been criticized as exhibiting several problems that preclude meaningful citizen input. This research explores three cases of public hearings held for EIA projects in Bulgaria. It argues that the public participation process and the public hearing in particular share the same problems that have been observed in other countries (including the United States and Canada). At the same time, however, Bulgarian public hearings do provide important indirect benefits that can contribute to the capacity for democratic governance and an active civil society. In the face of substantial economic obstacles and dramatic governmental reforms the country has endured since the end of communism, forums such as the public hearing are important means to foster institutional restructuring of a newly democratized country.

  12. LPHYS'14: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-18 July 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyev, Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS14) will be held from 14 July to 18 July 2014 in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Ramada Sofia Hotel hosted this year by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS14 continues a series of workshops that took place in Dubna,1992; Dubna/Volga river tour, 1993; New York, 1994; Moscow/Volga river tour (jointly with NATO SILAP Workshop), 1995; Moscow, 1996; Prague, 1997; Berlin, 1998; Budapest, 1999; Bordeaux, 2000; Moscow, 2001; Bratislava, 2002; Hamburg, 2003; Trieste, 2004; Kyoto, 2005; Lausanne, 2006; Len, 2007; Trondheim, 2008; Barcelona, 2009; Foz do Iguau, 2010; Sarajevo, 2011; Calgary, 2012 and Prague, 2013. The total number of participants this year is expected to be about 400. In the past, annual participation was typically from over 30 countries. 2014 Chairpersons Sanka Gateva (Bulgaria), Pavel Pashinin (Russia) LPHYS14 will offer eight scientific section seminars and one general symposium: Seminar 1 Modern Trends in Laser Physics Seminar 2 Strong Field and Attosecond Physics Seminar 3 Biophotonics Seminar 4 Physics of Lasers Seminar 5 Nonlinear Optics and Spectroscopy Seminar 6 Physics of Cold Trapped Atoms Seminar 7 Quantum Information Science Seminar 8 Fiber Optics Symposium Extreme Light Technologies, Science and Applications Abstract of your presentation A one-page abstract should contain: title; list of all co-authors (the name of the speaker underlined); affiliations; correspondence addresses including phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses; and the text of the abstract. Abstracts should be sent to the following co-chairs of the scientific seminars and the symposium: Kirill A Prokhorov (Seminar 1) E-mail: cyrpro@gpi.ru Mikhail V Fedorov (Seminar 2) E-mail: fedorov@ran.gpi.ru Sergey A Gonchukov (Seminar 3) E-mail: gonchukov@mephi.ru Ivan A Shcherbakov (Seminar 4) E-mail: gbufetova@lsk.gpi.ru Vladimir A Makarov (Seminar 5) E-mail: makarov@msu.ilc.edu.ru Vyacheslav

  13. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  14. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  15. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  16. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  17. [Effect of monensin (USA, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria) on fermentation of animal feed in an artificial rumen (Rusitec)].

    PubMed

    Jalc, D; Baran, M; Petkov, A I; Oblakov, N C; Enev, E I

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was made with the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec) in which the fermentation of a mixed ration of hay (12.8 g/d) and bruised barley (3.2 g/d) was compared with the fermentation of the same diet in the presence of 5 mg monensin/d from the USA, CSFR and Bulgaria. The fermentation of the mixed ration was significantly affected by all three kinds of monensin. The digestibility of dry matter (DM) in the rations declined in the presence of monensin from 48% to 40% (tab. I). The digestibility of detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose also declined in the presence of monensin (tab. I). The production of methane decreased (-70%) and CO2 production dropped too, but this decrease could be accounted for by the changes in the production of volatile fatty acids and redistribution of metabolic hydrogen (tab. I). Monensin decreased the production of total volatile fatty acids (-21%), the production of acetic (-35%), n-butyric, n-valeric and isovaleric acids (tab. II) and increased the production of propionic acid (+60%). The production, utilization and recovery of metabolic hydrogen were significantly increased in the presence of all three kinds of monensin (tab. IV). The end products of fermentation were affected by an addition of monensin to the mixed ration. All three kinds of monensin increased energic efficiency of volatile fatty acids, decreased adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) production, the amounts of fermented hexose, organic matter fermented and utilization of glucose (tab. III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641932

  18. Population genetic studies of the pancreatic amylase (AMY2, E.C. 3.2.1.1) in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Baltova, Sofia; Scheil, Hans-Georg

    2004-01-01

    The pancreatic amylase (AMY2, E.C. 3.2.1.1) polymorphism has been studied in 2346 individuals from south-central and south-eastern Bulgaria. The allele frequencies have been determined as AMY2*1 = 0.9520 and AMY2*2 = 0.0480. The neighbor joining tree of seven subpopulations revealed only small genetic distances. Compared with other populations, the Bulgarian sample clustered with samples from Romania, Hungary, Germany and Switzerland, with larger distances to Albania, Greece and Macedonia. PMID:15571103

  19. Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) inoceramid bivalves of the genus Mytiloides from the Sredna Gora Mountains, north-western Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochev, Docho

    2015-03-01

    The inoceramid bivalves of the genus Mytiloides, from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Sredna Gora Mts (north-western Bulgaria), are studied. The material comes from three sections: Izvor, Filipovtsi, and Vrabchov dol. Eight species are described taxonomically, with one left in open nomenclature: M. cf. mytiloides (Mantell, 1822), M. mytiloidiformis (Tröger, 1967), M. incertus (Jimbo, 1894), M. scupini (Heinz, 1930), M. herbichi (Atabekian, 1969), M. striatoconcentricus (Gümbel, 1868), M. labiatoidiformis (Tröger, 1967) and M. carpathicus (Simionescu, 1899). Mytiloides incertus and Mytiloides scupini are index species for the eponymous Upper Turonian inoceramid biozones.

  20. Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanka, Paskaleva; Mihaela, Kouteva; Franco, Vaccari; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2008-07-08

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

  1. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  2. Organisation and financing of the health care systems of Bulgaria and Greece – what are the parallels?

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Nikolaos M

    2005-01-01

    Background The Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems have been reformated the last fifteen years. The aim of this study was an examination and comparison of the Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care Systems. Methods This study was prepared by using all the published data related to both Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems. Besides, personal communications with related offices such as administration offices of hospitals and Ministries of Health were made. Results In both countries, besides the compulsory insurance there is also additional voluntary insurance which is provided by private companies. The most important difference is the family doctor (specialist in general medicine) existing in Bulgaria. Every insured person needs a 'referral form' completed by the family doctor before visiting a hospital for medical attention (except emergencies). In contrast, in Greece an insured person can directly visit any hospital without needing any forms and independent of the severity of their health problem. An important disadvantage of the Greek health system is the low number of hospitals (139), in relation to population. In contrast, there are 211 hospitals in Bulgaria, although its population is lower than in Greece. Conclusion In both Greek and Bulgarian health systems changes must be done to solve the problems related to informal payments, limited financing, large debts, lack of appropriate investment policy, lack of an objective method for the costing of medical activities and inefficient management. PMID:15921530

  3. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  4. Criteria for Drug Reimbursement Decision-Making: An Emerging Public Health Challenge in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: During times of fiscal austerity, means of reimbursement decision-making are of particular interest for public health theory and practice. Introduction of advanced health technologies, growing health expenditures and increased public scrutiny over drug reimbursement decisions have pushed governments to consider mechanisms that promote the use of effective health technologies, while constraining costs. Aims: The study’s aim was to explore the current rationale of the drug reimbursement decision-making framework in Bulgaria. Our pilot research focused on one particular component of this process – the criteria used – because of the critical role that criteria are known to have in setting budgets and priorities in the field of public health. The analysis pursued two objectives: to identify important criteria relevant to drug reimbursement decision-making and to unveil relationships between theory and practice. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study was realized through a closed-ended survey on reimbursement criteria among four major public health stakeholders – medical professionals, patients, health authorities, and industry. Empirical outcomes were then cross-compared with the theoretical framework, as defined by current Bulgarian public health legislation. Analysis outlined what is done and what needs to be done in the field of public health reimbursement decision-making. Results: Bulgarian public health stakeholders agreed on 15 criteria to form a tentative optimal framework for drug reimbursement decision-making. The most apparent gap between the empirically found preferences and the official legislation is the lack of consideration for the strength of evidence in reimbursement decisions. Conclusion: Bulgarian policy makers need to address specific gaps, such as formal consideration for strength of evidence, explicit role of efficiency criteria, and means to effectively empower patient and citizen involvement in public health

  5. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  6. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.

    2010-01-21

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (mus-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  7. Bulgarian Modern Poetry [and] Dracula - Fact and Fiction, for a Western World Literature Class. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rang, Barbara L.

    This project developed two units for secondary students, one dealing with the modern poetry of Bulgaria and one with the legend of Dracula. The first unit includes poems, discussion questions, and a background essay. The second unit includes discussion materials largely based on Brian Stoker's novel "Dracula," and an historical essay on Vlad…

  8. New records of the genus Diodontus Curtis, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) from Bulgaria, Montenegro and Poland, with a key to Central and Eastern European species.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Ljubomirov, Toshko; Wiśniowski, Bogdan; Kowalczyk, Jan Krzysztof; Krzyżyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    First records of Diodontus medius Dahlbom, 1844 and D. insidiosus Spooner, 1938 from Poland, and of D. handlirschi Kohl, 1888 from Bulgaria and Montenegro are provided. An illustrated key for the identification of Central and Eastern European species of the genus Diodontus is given. PMID:27395490

  9. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  10. What Do They Usually Do after School?: A Comparative Analysis of Fourth-Grade Children in Bulgaria, Taiwan, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Joan; Bidjerano, Temi; Ozdogru, Asil Ali; Kao, Chin-Cheng; Ozkose-Biyik, Cagri; Johnson, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The activities and self-direction allowed after school provide children in different countries with distinct developmental opportunities that promote culturally valued orientations and outcomes. Fourth-grade children in Bulgaria, Taiwan, and the United States (countries with contrasting social values and expectations) reported their usual…

  11. Education and Turkish Communities in Bulgaria in the Years of Transformation (1989-2007): A Negotiated Formal Balance of Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliycheva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper on the education of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria in the years of transformation (1989-2007) aims to discuss the perceptions and experiences of minority members in schooling. After a succinct introduction into the historical development of minority education, the article focuses on research conducted among the Turkish communities in…

  12. Exploiting GRID for Model Estimates of Regional Climate Changes and Its Impact on the Air Quality of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, D.; Spiridonov, V.; Ganev, K.; Prodanova, M.; Bogatchev, A.; Miloshev, N.; Slavov, K.; Katragkou, E.; Melas, D.; Poupkou, A.; Markakis, K.

    2010-11-01

    Intensive long-term meteorological modeling took place over an area covering Bulgaria with resolution of 10 km. The climatic version of the operational weather forecast model ALADIN was applied for simulating 3 time slices: 1960-2000, 2020-2050 and 2070-2100, following the IPCC scenario A1B. The differences of climatic fields for the 3 periods are presented and interpreted. The created met-data base is used to estimate the impact of climate changes on air quality, as well. A respective modeling System was created on the base of US EPA Models-3 tool (MM5, CMAQ and SMOKE). Calculations for the last 10 years of each time slice are performed. Grid technology in the frame of SEE-GRID-SCI project is used to perform this enormous volume of calculations as an application abbreviated to CCIAQ (Climate Change Impact on Air Quality). The results are presented and interpreted in the study.

  13. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    SciTech Connect

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I.

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  14. First cases of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in Bulgaria: novel mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Tincheva, Savina; Todorov, Tihomir; Todorova, Albena; Georgieva, Ralica; Stamatov, Dimitar; Yordanova, Iglika; Kadiyska, Tanya; Georgieva, Bilyana; Bojidarova, Maria; Tacheva, Genoveva; Litvinenko, Ivan; Mitev, Vanyo

    2015-12-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intractable seizures in neonates and infants. The seizures cannot be controlled with antiepileptic medications but respond both clinically and electrographically to large daily supplements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). PDE is caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene. Molecular genetic analysis of the ALDH7A1 gene was performed in seven patients, referred with clinical diagnosis of PDE. Mutations were detected in a dizygotic twin pair and a non-related boy with classical form of PDE. Direct sequencing of the ALDH7A1 gene revealed one novel (c.297delG, p.Trp99*) and two already reported (c.328C>T, p.Arg110*; c.584A>G, p.Asn195Ser) mutations. Here, we report the first genetically proven cases of PDE in Bulgaria. PMID:26232297

  15. Assessing tsunami hazard for the town of Varna (Bulgaria) by means of a worst-case scenario approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tonini, R.; Ranguelov, B.

    2012-04-01

    Although the tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is not comparable to other regions of the Euro-Mediterranean area, nonetheless tsunami catalogues indicate that it is far from being negligible as several historical events were recorded, some of which being locally damaging. Taking advantage of the results produced by the EU-FP6 TRANSFER project, which studied the tsunami hazard for the entire Black Sea starting from different tectonic sources located throughout the basin, we focus on the Bulgarian coasts and in particular on the coastal city of Varna, which is the third as regards population in Bulgaria and represents an important economic and touristic centre. We selected two tectonic sources placed just offshore the NE coast of Bulgaria (where Varna is located), sharing the same fault parameters except for the strike (90° and 40° respectively), one being almost parallel to the coast, the other intersecting the coast itself. The maximum expected magnitude for these faults is 7.5. We compute inundation maps by means of the in-house finite-differences shallow-water code UBO-TSUFD. We exploited a quite detailed topographic DEM of the city of Varna to build nested computational grids with resolutions resulting from a compromise between the DEM itself and the bathymetry data available close to the Bulgarian coast. The maximum values of water elevation, current speed, flow depth and momentum flux are calculated for each case and implemented in suitable maps. The last step of the work consists in building aggregated fields, i.e. maps obtained by combining the two different scenarios and taking the maximum of the relevant computed physical parameters in each grid node. These results will be used in a later work to integrate preliminary tsunami vulnerability and risk analyses focussed on Varna that were conducted in the frame of the EU-FP6 SCHEMA project.

  16. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age in primary care settings in Bulgaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849 PMID:27622162

  17. Clinical data from one year follow-up of victims of the radiation accident with 60Co in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Djounova, J; Guleva, I; Negoicheva, K; Mileva, I; Panova, D; Rupova, I

    2014-09-01

    A severe radiation accident occurred on 14 June 2011 in an industrial irradiation facility for medical equipment sterilization in Bulgaria. Five people were exposed for 5-10 min to a 60Co source containing 137 TBq. The Emergency Department of the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Bulgaria, put into practice the plans for providing medical care in radiation accidents and the procedures developed for assessment of injury severity, the decision-making algorithm regarding subsequent treatment, and the therapy for persons affected. The activities performed for initial assessment of the severity of injury of irradiated patients were published in 2012. Based on predictive assessments of the severity of radiation damage, it was decided that the victims required hospitalization at a specialized hematology clinic. Percy Hospital in Paris was chosen for this purpose. The aim of this report is to present the results of 1-y follow-up for three of the victims. Sadly, 1 mo after the accident, Patient 4 died from a heart attack. The medical opinion was that this was not a direct outcome of the irradiation. Patient 5 was only followed up for 4 mo (118 d) because medical follow-up is voluntary, and despite repeated calls, the patient did not respond. Medical examinations by a physician as well as hematology and biochemical tests were performed using standard laboratory methods. The obtained results were compared to the victims' personal reference limits obtained from annual health monitoring. After the accident, the recovery to normal content of peripheral blood cells was observed in all victims. Nevertheless, there were observed cases of thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and leucocytopenia at various times after exposure. During the period of observation, morphological changes in red blood cells such as anisomicrocitosis, macrocytes, megalocytes, and polychromatic erythrocytes were demonstrated. During the 1-y observation period, all victims showed

  18. On space-time distribution of tornado events in Bulgaria (1956-2010) with brief analyses of two cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Petio; Bocheva, Lilia; Gospodinov, Ilian

    2013-04-01

    The first part of this study deals with the available information (date, time, location) of 57 thunderstorms with tornado or with waterspout (9 of which have evolved near the Black Sea coast and 4 are formed over dams). These are about all cases that have been reported in Bulgaria between 1956 and 2010. About half of all tornadoes (49%) that occurred in land are formed over mountainous or hilly terrain and usually move over the near river valleys. Almost all tornado events occur during the warm half of the year with maximum in June, when about 25% of all tornado storms take place. There are only 4 cases from the cold half of the year - 1 in December, 1 in February, and 2 in March. The second part of the paper gives some basic analysis of two severe thunderstorms, connected with the development of tornado events. The typical synoptic situation associated with the formation of a tornado is a slow-moving cold atmospheric front with meridional stretch. It should have bigger than usual temperature gradient between the cold and the warm air masses. A less common synoptic scale structure that leads to the formation of tornado is an upper-air summer low centred over the Black Sea. The first analysed storm is a “winter” case. The tornado occurred in South-central Bulgaria on 24 March 2004. The other one is a typical “summer” case. It occurred in the north-west of the country on 2 June 2009. The data and information that are used in these analyses come from classic meteorological observations, radar images, records from post-event in-situ field investigation as well as various media sources. The characteristics of these tornadoes give us reason to classify them as moderate (class F2 according to the Fujita scale).

  19. Innovative in-situ determination of unsaturated hydraulic properties in deep loess sediments in north-west Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Mallants, Dirk; Perko, Janez; Antonov, Dimitar; Karastanev, Doncho

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of selecting a suitable site for final disposal of low- and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL) in Bulgaria, site characterization is ongoing at the Marichin Valog site, North-West Bulgaria. The site is characterized by a complex sequence of loess, clayey gravel, and clay layers, of which the first 30-40 m are unsaturated. Proper knowledge about unsaturated water flow and concomitant radionuclide transport is key input to safety assessment calculations. Constant-head infiltrometer tests were carried out at several meters below ground surface to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of silty loess, clayey loess, and clayey gravel layers. Individual infiltrometers were equipped with 0.5-m-long filter sections; the shallowest filter was from 2 to 2.5 m depth, whereas the deepest was from 9.5 to 10 m depth. Infiltration tests provided data on cumulative infiltration and progression of the wetting front in the initially unsaturated sediments surrounding the infiltrometer. A cylindrical time-domain reflectometry TRIME probe was used to measure water content variations with time during progression of the wetting front. Access tubes for the TRIME probe were installed at 0.3 to 0.5 m from the infiltrometer tubes. By means of an inverse optimization routine implemented in the finite element code HYDRUS-2D, field-scale soil hydraulic parameters were derived for all layers. Results show a great consistency in the optimized parameter values, although the test sites were several meters apart. Apparently the size of the affected volume of soil was large enough to reduce the effect of spatial variability and to produce average field-scale hydraulic parameters that are relevant for large-scale predictions of flow patterns and radionuclide migration pathways. (authors)

  20. Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: a joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960-2004.

    PubMed

    Hoem, Jan M; Kostova, Dora

    2008-11-01

    We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately toward the end of our period. Cohabitation also tends to last progressively longer in more recent periods. The analysis shows that a pregnancy leads to a dramatic increase in the rate of both kinds of union formation: the increase is by a factor of almost 20 for marriage formation and about 10 for entry into cohabitation, ceteris paribus. Our findings suggest that, in Bulgaria at least, some manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition can be detected as early as the 1980s. PMID:18937141

  1. Comparative 1H NMR Metabolomic Urinalysis of People Diagnosed with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, and Healthy Subjects, in Romania and Bulgaria: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, Peter; Modalca, Mirela; Nicholls, Andrew; Tatu, Calin; Tatu, Diana; Toncheva, Draga

    2011-01-01

    1H NMR spectroscopy of urine has been applied to exploring metabolomic differences between people diagnosed with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), and treated by haemodialysis, and those without overt renal disease in Romania and Bulgaria. Convenience sampling was made from patients receiving haemodialysis in hospital and healthy controls in their village. Principal component analysis clustered healthy controls from both countries together. Bulgarian BEN patients clustered separately from controls, though in the same space. However, Romanian BEN patients not only also clustered away from controls but also clustered separately from the BEN patients in Bulgaria. Notably, the urinary metabolomic data of two people sampled as Romanian controls clustered within the Romanian BEN group. One of these had been suspected of incipient symptoms of BEN at the time of selection as a ‘healthy’ control. This implies, at first sight, that metabolomic analysis can be predictive of impending morbidity before conventional criteria can diagnose BEN. Separate clustering of BEN patients from Romania and Bulgaria could indicate difference in aetiology of this particular silent renal atrophy in different geographic foci across the Balkans. PMID:22069742

  2. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  3. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the southern Moesian platform and Balkan-Forebalken regions of northern Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M. ); Georgiev, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The major tectonic elements of northern Bulgaria are the east-west-trending Balkan-Forebalkan fold belt and the Moesian platform. Moderate hydrocarbon exploration potential exists in trapping geometries generated during the tectonic evolution of the region coupled with reservoir/seal pairs and source rocks within Mesozoic strata. The tectonic evolution of the region includes Early Triassic to Early Jurassic intracratonic rifting followed by multiphase compression that contracted the rift basin and produced a north vergent fold and thrust belt along the southern margin of the stable Moesian platform. Compression began during the Early Cretaceous, continued during the Paleocene, and concluded during the middle Eocene. Trap types generated during the tectonic evolution include normal fault-bounded rotated blocks in the autochthonous section and elongate, asymmetric anticlines in the allochthonous section. Triassic to Upper Jurassic Marine facies were deposited in an east-west-trending rift. Sediments deposited in a shallow foredeep, which evolved during Lower cretaceous compression, overlay the rift sequence. The Early Mesozoic rift sequence provides the depositional settings for Middle Triassic and lower Middle Jurassic source rock shales and sandstone/carbonate reservoirs ranging from Middle Triassic to Lower Cretaceous. Carbonate reservoirs generally are porous dolomites with intercrystalline, moldic, and vugular pore types interbedded with nonporous limestones. Clastic reservoirs are quartz-rich sandstones with pore types that are reduced intergranular, dissolution, and microporosity. These heterogeneous reservoir targets exhibit poor to good reservoir characteristics and are overlain with sealing lithologies of variable thicknesses.

  4. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from Bulgaria with an identification key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Nedelchev, Sevdan; Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Peter; Peneva, Vlada

    2014-01-01

    An unknown species belonging to the genusCalcaridorylaimus Andrássy, 1986 was collected from the litter of broadleaf forests dominated by Castanea sativa Mill. and mixed with Quercus daleshampii Ten. and Fagus sylvatica L. on Belasitsa Mountain, south-western Bulgaria. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. is characterised by its long body (1.4-2.1 mm), lip region practically not offset, vulva transverse, short odontostyle (14.5-16 μm) and tail (75.5-110.5 μm, c=14.7-23.6; c'=2.9-4.4) in females and 38-46 μm long spicules with small spur before their distant end in males. It is most similar to C. andrassyi Ahmad & Shaheen, 2004, but differs in having transverse vs pore-like vulva and shorter spicules (38-46 μm vs 52-57 μm). An identification key to the species of the genus Calcaridorylaimus is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 18S and D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA genes by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The phylograms inferred from 18S sequences showed closest relationships of the new species with some species belonging to the genus Mesodorylaimus. However, insufficient molecular data for members of both genera do not allow the phylogenetic relationships of Calcaridorylaimus and the new species described herein to be elucidated. PMID:24899849

  5. A Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruit Bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries) and Its Anti-Malarial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongtao; Han, Han; Li, Zonghong; Ni, Weihua; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Tingting; Hao, Miao; Zhou, Yifa

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BIWS-4b) was purified from the fruit bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries). It is composed of mannose (27.2%), glucose (15.5%) and galactose (57.3%). Its molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4 kDa (polydispersity index, Mw/Mn: 1.35). Structural analyses indicated that BIWS-4b mainly contains (1 → 6)-linked, (1 → 5)-linked and (1 → 5,6)-linked β-Galf units; (1 → 4)-linked and non-reducing terminal β-Glcp units; and (1 → 2)-linked, (1 → 6)-linked, (1 → 2,6)-linked and non-reducing terminal α-Manp units. When examined by the 4-day method and in a prophylactic assay in mice, BIWS-4b exhibited markedly suppressive activity against malaria while enhancing the activity of artesunate. Immunological tests indicated that BIWS-4b significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis and splenic lymphocyte proliferation in malaria-bearing mice and normal mice. The anti-malarial activity of BIWS-4b might be intermediated by enhancing immune competence and restoring artesunate-suppressed immune function. Thus, BIWS-4b is a potential adjuvant of anti-malaria drugs. PMID:21785644

  6. The genetic structure of wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) populations in eastern Bulgaria reflects introgressions from weedy populations.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Martos, Rocío; Pujadas-Salvà, Antonio J; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Stoyanov, Kiril; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms. PMID:25143963

  7. The route of transfer to the human population of lead from contaminated soil close to a smelter in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, J. R.; Dinev, N.; Stanislavova, L.; Penkov, D.; Willeke-Wetstein, C.

    2003-05-01

    Past emissions from a non-ferrous smelter at Kuklen, near Plovdiv, in Bulgaria have resulted in very high concentrations of heavy metals, in particular Cd and Pb, in agricultural soils close to the plant. An interdisciplinary research project, initiated under the auspices of the EU INCO-Copernius programme, has included investigation of the principal processes by which the heavy metals are being transferred from the contaminated soils to the children of the village who have abnormally high Cd and Pb blood concentrations. The primary source of Pb in blood is the land close to the smelter which bas elevated concentrations of Pb and which is used to grow food and fodder for livestock. Fodder with Pb concentrations as high as 48 mg/kg is consumed directly by the animals resulting in high Pb concentrations in livers and kidneys. These are then consumed by the human population. The evidence clearly indicates this to be one route of transfer through the food chain. Other, more direct, routes, e.g the use of flour prepared from locally produced grain or the direct ingestion of dust from school playgrounds, the street and homes, may also play an important role.

  8. Insights into epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 and detection of an unusual genotype 2 variant, Bulgaria, 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka Krumova; Mihneva, Zafira Georgieva; Toshev, Andon Krumov; Kovaleva, Valentina Pavlova; Andonova, Lubena Georgieva; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the role of human parvovirus В19 (B19V) as an aetiological agent in measles and rubella negative fever/rash patients from Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. A total of 1,266 sera from all over the country were tested for B19V IgM antibodies and all positives were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 280 sera (22%) were B19V IgM positive and 227 of these (81%) were also PCR positive. The highest number of IgM positives was found among five to nine year-old children (27%). Eight infected women gave birth to healthy children; one fetus was aborted with hydrops fetalis. Of the 55 genetic sequences obtained, 54 belonged to genotype 1a and one grouped as a genotype 2 outlier. Phylogenetic analysis of all available genotype 2 sequences covering the 994 nucleotide non-structural protein 1(NS1)/capsid viral protein 1 (VP1) unique region junction, showed that only one other sequence grouped with the outlier strain, forming a clearly distinct and well-supported cluster of genotype 2 (between-group genetic distance: 3.32%). In accordance with B19V nomenclature, this cluster may represent a new subgenotype 2b. The study showed that B19V infections may be falsely identified as rubella or measles in ca 22% of cases, emphasising the need for laboratory confirmation. PMID:26847955

  9. Content of exchangeable forms and mobility of Pb, Cu and Zn in reclaimed soils (Technosols) of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsolova, Venera; Hristova, Mariana; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria; Banov, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Reclaimed soils built in three main mining areas of Bulgaria - Maritsa East, Chukurovo and Asarel were studied. These soils are characterized by low total content of Pb and Zn and high total copper content in Asarel's soils. The copper content in these soils exceed more than three times the limit concentrations regulated by the Bulgarian legislation and significantly increased joint toxicity of studied metals (pollution index ranging from 1.3 to 1.9). The maximum content of exchangeable forms of lead determined in 1 M NH4NO3 and 1 M NH4Ac is 30.5 μg/g or 19% of the total lead content - 47.7 μg/g or 9.4% of the total copper content and zinc - 73.5 or 13.3%. Lead is nonspecifically adsorbed by soluble (extractable) fraction of organic matter (humic and fulvic acids, R2 = 0.995), silt fractions (particle size 0,01 - 0,005, R2 = 0.999 or 0.005 - 0.001 mm) and their complexes with organic matter - evidenced by the high correlations between the content of soluble (extractable) fraction of organic matter and content of silt fractions (R2 = 0.792). Copper in natural soils is dominantly nonspecifically adsorbed by organic matter and clay minerals, which is not typical for all studied reclaimed soils. The strong affinity of copper to the organic matter was observed only in cases when humic acids are highly condensed aromatic compounds, associated with calcium. Exchangeable zinc also shows a strong correlation with organic matter and a minor with different soil mechanical fractions.

  10. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Peneva, Vlada K; Lazarova, Stela S; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J F

    2013-01-01

    A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1-8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106-129 μm); lip region wide (21.5-24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2-4 adanal pairs and a row of 11-13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  11. Asynchronous timing of extension and basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex, SW Bulgaria, and northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Drost, Kerstin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Böhme, Madelaine; Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Upper crustal extensional structures range from steep normal faults to shallow-dipping detachments. The relationship between extension and formation of synkinematic hanging wall basins including their relative timing is not well understood. The South Rhodope core complex, Southern Balkans, has experienced extension for >40 Ma leading to a number of extensional structures and Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We present new bedrock and basin detrital zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Pirin and Rila Mountains and the Sandanski basin. Results identify three episodes of Cenozoic extension in SW Bulgaria accommodated by (1) the Eocene/Oligocene Mesta detachment; (2) the early to middle Miocene Gorno Spanchevo fault (circa 18-15 Ma), which is the northern prolongation of the Strymon low-angle detachment; and (3) the late Miocene West Pirin fault (≤10 Ma). Detachment faulting on the Strymon fault accommodated tens of kilometers of ENE-WSW extension and created ~1500 m topographic relief, but because the resulting hillslopes were gentle (≤10°), extension did not lead to enhanced footwall erosion or formation of a hanging wall basin. In contrast, the West Pirin normal fault resulted in mostly vertical motion of its footwall causing steep topography, rapid erosion, and formation of the synrift Sandanski basin. Digital topographic analysis of river channel profiles identifies the latest episodes of deformation including westward tilting of the Sandanski and Strymon basins and Quaternary N-S extension. This study demonstrates that basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex is related to normal faulting postdating the main episode of crustal stretching by detachment faulting.

  12. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Peneva, Vlada K.; Lazarova, Stela S.; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 μm); lip region wide (21.5–24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30–37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96–120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  13. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from Bulgaria with an identification key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Nedelchev, Sevdan; Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Peter; Peneva, Vlada

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An unknown species belonging to the genusCalcaridorylaimus Andrássy, 1986 was collected from the litter of broadleaf forests dominated by Castanea sativa Mill. and mixed with Quercus daleshampii Ten. and Fagus sylvatica L. on Belasitsa Mountain, south-western Bulgaria. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. is characterised by its long body (1.4–2.1 mm), lip region practically not offset, vulva transverse, short odontostyle (14.5–16 μm) and tail (75.5–110.5 μm, c=14.7–23.6; c’=2.9–4.4) in females and 38–46 μm long spicules with small spur before their distant end in males. It is most similar to C. andrassyi Ahmad & Shaheen, 2004, but differs in having transverse vs pore-like vulva and shorter spicules (38–46 μm vs 52–57 μm). An identification key to the species of the genus Calcaridorylaimus is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 18S and D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA genes by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The phylograms inferred from 18S sequences showed closest relationships of the new species with some species belonging to the genus Mesodorylaimus. However, insufficient molecular data for members of both genera do not allow the phylogenetic relationships of Calcaridorylaimus and the new species described herein to be elucidated. PMID:24899849

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis. PMID:26839470

  15. An historical overview of the activities in the field of exposure and risk assessment of non-ionizing radiation in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The exposure and risk evaluation process in Bulgaria concerning non-ionizing radiation health and safety started in the early 1970s. Then, the first research laboratory "Electromagnetic fields in the working environment" was founded in the framework of the Centre of Hygiene, belonging to the Medical Academy, Sofia. The main activities were connected with developing legislation, new equipment for measurement of electromagnetic fields, new methods for measurement and exposure assessment, in vivo and human studies for developing methods, studying the effect of non-ionizing radiation on human body, developing exposure limits. Most of the occupations as metal industry, plastic welding, energetics, physiotherapy, broadcasting, telephone stations, computer industry, etc., have been covered by epidemiological investigations and risk evaluation. In 1986, the ANSI standard for safe use of lasers has been implemented as national legislation that gave the start for studies in the field of risk assessment concerning the use of lasers in industry and medicine. The environmental exposure studies started in 1991 following the very fast implementation of the telecommunication technologies. Now, funds for research are very insignificant, and studies in the field of risk assessment are very few. Nevertheless, Bulgaria has been an active member of the WHO International EMF Project, since 1997, and that gives good opportunity for collaboration with other Member states, and for implementation of new approach in the EMF policy for workers and people's protection against non-ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:26444191

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung Han; Christova, Iva; Jacob, Paulina; Vanasco, Norma B; Kang, Yeon-Mi; Woo, Ye-Ju; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Min-Kee; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis. PMID:26839470

  17. Treatment of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis in Patients from the Southeastern Rhodope Region of Bulgaria in 2004-2013: Comparison of Current Practices with Expert Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Muhtarov, Marin; Rainova, Iskra; Tamarozzi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a clinically complex chronic parasitic disease, management options for which include surgery, percutaneous treatments, and treatment with albendazole (ABZ) for active cysts, and the "Watch-and-Wait" approach for uncomplicated, inactive cysts. We examined, retrospectively, the clinical management of 334 patients with hepatic CE from the southeastern Rhodope region of Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. Cysts were reclassified according to the World Health Organization Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO-IWGE) on the basis of ultrasound reports and images. The majority (62.3%) of uncomplicated cysts were CE1, 66% of which were treated surgically. Of all interventions, 5% were performed on inactive uncomplicated CE4-CE5 cysts. About half (47.6%) of these cysts were therefore treated inappropriately, exposing patients to unnecessary treatment-related risks and the health system to unnecessary costs. No management change was observed after the publication of the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus recommendations in 2010. In Bulgaria, ABZ is still used in interrupted cycles as this is reimbursed, and peri-interventional chemoprophylaxis was not administered in the majority of surgical patients. Efforts are needed to introduce the WHO-IWGE classification and management recommendations and to encourage reception of state-of-the-art practices by public health regulatory bodies to improve patient quality of care and optimization of health resources. PMID:26834196

  18. Crop Investigation Using High-Resolution Worldview-1 and Quickbird-2 Satellite Images on a Test Site in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The paper aims to investigate the capabilities of using high-resolution satellite images: panchromatic WorldView-1 satellite image acquired on 30/11/2011 and multispectral QuickBird-2 satellite image acquired on 31/05/2009 for crop analysis, which includes crop identification, crop condition assessment and crop area estimates applications in Bulgaria using the power and flexibility of ERDAS IMAGINE tools. The crop identification was accomplished using unsupervised and supervised classification processing techniques using as reference ground data. After the supervised classification, fuzzy convolution filter was applied to reduce the mixed pixels using ERDAS Imagine software. Accuracy totals, error matrix and kappa statistics were calculated using accuracy assessment tool in ERDAS Imagine to assess the quality of the classification process. Crop condition assessment was accomplished using the derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image from the QuickBird-2 image, which was reclassified and was given meaningful estimations on the crop condition. Crop area was estimated using pixel counting approach. Pixel counting methods are known for introducing bias to the crop area estimates but using the high Overall Accuracy of 90.86% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.8538 for the classified QuickBird-2 image and Overall Accuracy of 86.71% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.7721% for the classified WorldView-1 allows that option to be utilized according to (Gallego, 2004). As a conclusion it can be stated that using the benefits that high-resolution satellite images gives in combination with the power and flexibility of ERDAS Imagine tools, crop identification can be achieved more accurately by increasing the identification accuracy and also by having the necessary ground information for selecting appropriate training samples. Crop identification by applying an arable mask is better practice, because it is reducing the mixed pixels problem i.e. also known as

  19. Colloidal origin of colloform-banded textures in the Paleogene low-sulfidation Khan Krum gold deposit, SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Irina; Ganev, Valentin; Titorenkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    We studied both colloform-banded macro- and micro-textures as well as the composition of electrum from the epithermal Khan Krum (or Ada Tepe) gold deposit, Bulgaria (5 Mt at 5.1 g/t Au + 2.7 g/t Ag) using optical and electron scanning microscopy, vibration spectroscopy, electron micro-probe analysis, and LA-ICP-MS. The individual textural bands differ in grain size, porosity, quartz-to-adularia ratio, and abundance of electrum, pyrite, and scattered dusty opaque micro-inclusions. The individual macro-bands have formed successively via intermittent fault dilation from episodic hydrothermal pulses, as a result of regional extension and most likely originated from colloidal solutions formed by vigorous boiling during rapid pressure drop and supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica in a closed or quasi-closed hydrothermal system. Electrum is highly concentrated in the finest quartz-adularia colloform micro-bands, which fill joints with widths up to 1-2 mm. We presume that the joints have filled in with more concentrated colloidal solutions than those in the macro-bands, most likely due to extreme boiling of fluids in open or quasi-open hydrothermal system. Electrum in the micro-bands forms transverse dendrite- and chain-like aggregates as well as oval clots along the banding, all of globular morphology. We explain these locations of electrum with reorientation of aggregated electrum globules during plastic deformation of a mixed electrum-silicate gel and in result from the consequent crystallization of silicates. At the same time, electrum is not present in pores and cracks of syneresis, which indicates that it had not been a soluble phase at the time of syneresis, rather colloidal particles. Electrum also forms dense sprinkles of globular morphology deposited in open space on the surfaces of some quartz-adularia bands, due to a condensation of gaseous phase, separated during the boiling of fluids. We found that the electrum-rich quartz-adularia micro

  20. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  1. Risk Methodologies for Technological Legacies : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Bourgas, Bulgaria from 2 to 11 May 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, Dennis C.; Droppo, James G.; Eremenko, Vitaly A.

    2003-05-01

    The Cold War Era left the major participants, the United States and the former Soviet Union (FSU), with large environmental legacies in terms of facility contamination and environmental degradation. Although the countries face similar issues from similar activities, important differences in waste management practices make the potential environmental and health risks of more immediate concern in the FSU and Eastern Europe. In the West, most nuclear and chemical waste is stored in known contained locations, while in the East much of the equivalent material is unconfined, contaminating the environment. The knowledge and experiences of the U.S. in these initial cleanup efforts are seen as important information in many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Partner countries, where the environmental problems are more severe and the cleanup budgets more limited. An Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on ''Risk Assessment Activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies'' was held in Bourgas, Bulgaria, May 2-11, 2000. The objective of the ASI was to provide information to facilitate and enable decision-making activities affecting the environment and human populations in the NATO and Partner countries. Specifically, the ASI provided a forum to communicate the current status of risk analysis and management methodologies and their appropriate application. It addressed scientific approaches and application experiences from the initial U.S. risk assessment activities. This book is the product of the ASI. The power of the text lies in linking information on legacies with an integrated view of controlling the risk of those legacies. Risk can only be effectively controlled by proper balance of three central concepts: risk analysis, risk perception, and risk management. The editors were drawn together by the joint recognition that risk analysis methods had matured over the past 30 years in several fields, relatively independent of each other. It was time to

  2. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  3. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

    2007-10-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

  4. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn. PMID:26606180

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected. PMID:26894493

  6. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates. PMID:25100620

  7. High-Risk Sexual Behavior, HIV/STD Prevalence, and Risk Predictors in the Social Networks of Young Roma (Gypsy) Men in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Kabakchieva, Elena; Antonova, Radostina; Vassileva, Sylvia; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Vassilev, Boyan; Petrova, Elena; Khoursine, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Roma (Gypsies), the largest and most disadvantaged ethnic minority group in Europe, are believed to be vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. This study’s aim was to examine HIV risk in 6 Roma male sociocentric networks (n=405 men) in Bulgaria. Methods Participants were interviewed concerning their risk practices and tested for HIV/STDs. Results High-risk sexual behaviors were common. Over 57% of men had multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months. Over one-third of men reported both male and female partners in the past year. Condom use was low. Greater levels of sexual risk were associated with lower intentions and self-efficacy for using condoms, drug use, having male partners, knowing HIV-positive persons, and having higher AIDS knowledge but no prior HIV testing. Two men had HIV infection, 3.7% gonorrhea, and 5.2% chlamydia. Discussion HIV prevention interventions directed toward high-risk social networks of Roma are needed before HIV infection becomes more widely established. PMID:22370730

  8. High-precision Pb isotopic measurements of teeth and environmental samples from Sofia (Bulgaria): insights for regional lead sources and possible pathways to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, George D.

    2008-08-01

    High-precision Pb isotopic measurements on teeth and possible sources in a given area can provide important insights for the lead (Pb) sources and pathways in the human body. Pb isotopic analyses on soils from the area of Sofia, Bulgaria show that Pb is contributed by three end-members represented by two natural sources and leaded gasoline. Sequential leaching experiments reveal that the alumosilicate fraction of the soils is mainly controlled by natural Pb derived from two mountain massifs bordering the city. Around 1/3 to a half of the Pb in the soil leachates, however, can be explained by contamination from leaded gasoline. Contemporary teeth from Sofia residents show very similar Pb isotopic compositions to the soil leachates, also indicating that around 1/3 to a half of the Pb can be explained by derivation from leaded gasoline. The remarkable isotopic similarities between the teeth and the most labile fractions of the local soils suggest that the lead can be derived from the latter. Pb incorporation in the human body via soil-plant-human or soil-plant-animal-human chains is unlikely due to the fact that no significant farming occurs in the city area. The isotopic compositions of the local soil labile fractions can be used as approximation of the bioaccessible lead for humans. Considering all possible scenarios it appears that soil and/or soil-born dust inhalation and/or ingestion is the most probable pathway for incorporation of local soil lead in the local population. The high-precision Pb isotope data presented in this work indicate that apparently the local soil is what plays major role in the human Pb exposure.

  9. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Simeonovski, Ivan; Levterova, Victoria; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Brankova, Nadia; Tankova, Kristin; Campbell, Katrina; Jacob, Pauline; Helmi, Karim; Boots, Bas; D’Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Mancini, Laura; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Mielke, Erik; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM) is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported. PMID:26133133

  10. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Simeonovski, Ivan; Levterova, Victoria; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Brankova, Nadia; Tankova, Kristin; Campbell, Katrina; Jacob, Pauline; Helmi, Karim; Boots, Bas; D'Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Mancini, Laura; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Mielke, Erik; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-07-01

    The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM) is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected-24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012-2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported. PMID:26133133

  11. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  12. Application of low-temperature thermochronology to hydrothermal ore deposits: Formation, preservation and exhumation of epithermal gold systems from the Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, István; Moritz, Robert; Spikings, Richard

    2010-03-01

    New low-temperature thermochronological data have been used to quantify the protracted, Eocene-Miocene cooling histories of upper and lower plate rocks of the Kesebir-Kardamos extensional dome, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. 40Ar/ 39Ar and apatite fission-track data reveal that the lower plate has experienced continuous cooling and exhumation, since the Late Eocene. Muscovite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 36.90 ± 0.16 Ma and 37.28 ± 0.19 Ma (2 σ) from metamorphic rocks of the footwall reveal the approximate time span during which they cooled below ˜ 350 °C during exhumation caused by detachment faulting. The sedimentary rock-hosted gold mineralization, which represents a thermal event at ˜ 250-220 °C, developed during the early stage of basin formation between 34.71 ± 0.16 Ma and 35.36 ± 0.21 Ma (adularia 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages; 2 σ). The termination of hydrothermal mineral deposition at Ada Tepe occurred contemporaneously with the earliest phase of calc-alkaline type magmatism at Iran Tepe (33.97 ± 0.36 Ma to 34.62 ± 0.46 Ma, hornblende and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages, 2 σ). Thermal history modelling of apatite fission-track data shows that the lower plate rocks cooled through ˜ 120 °C at ˜ 18.3 ± 1.9 Ma (1 σ). A time-temperature model obtained from zircon and apatite fission-track data from the upper plate reveals that it was being buried during the late Eocene. At ˜ 33-30 Ma, a dramatic change of the time-temperature path was caused by the initiation of horst-graben structures, resulting in rapid exhumation of the upper plate. Our new thermochronological data reveal many aspects of the mechanisms of formation of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits. The heat accumulated during sedimentary burial of the upper plate is a plausible heat source to drive hydrothermal fluid circulation and ore formation. The development of large half-graben basins in the hanging walls of detachment faults, accompanied by a favourable climate, may have created a

  13. Formation of ferrian chromite in podiform chromitites from the Golyamo Kamenyane serpentinite, Eastern Rhodopes, SE Bulgaria: a two-stage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervilla, F.; Padrón-Navarta, J. A.; Kerestedjian, T.; Sergeeva, I.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Fanlo, I.

    2012-10-01

    The Golyamo Kamenyane serpentinite is a portion of a metaophiolite, located in the Upper High-Grade Unit of the metamorphic basement of the Eastern Rhodope Metamorphic Complex, SE Bulgaria. It consists of metaharzburgite and metadunite hosting layers of metagabbro and some chromitite bodies. All these lithologies were affected by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism and subsequent retrograde evolution during exhumation. Chromite from chromitites can be classified into four textural groups: (1) partly altered chromite, (2) porous chromite, (3) homogeneous chromite and (4) zoned chromite. Partly altered chromite shows unaltered, Al-rich cores with unit cell size of 8.255 Å and Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio] = 0.52-0.60, Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) atomic ratio] = 0.65-0.70 and Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) = 0.20-0.30, surrounded by porous chromite, with a cell size of 8.325 Å, Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) < 0.20 and values of Cr# and Mg# evolving from 0.60 to 0.91 and 0.65-0.44, respectively, from core to rim. The chemical composition of porous chromite varies within the following ranges: Cr# = 0.93-0.96, Mg# = 0.48-0.35 and Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) = 0.22-0.53. Its unit cell size is very constant (8.350 Å). Most pores in porous and partly altered chromite are filled with chlorite, which also occurs between chromite grains. Homogeneous chromite has Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) = 0.55-0.66, Cr# = 0.96-0.99, Mg# = 0.32-0.19 and a cell size of 8.385 Å. The cores of zoned chromite are similar to those of partially altered chromite, but the rims are identical to homogeneous chromite. Although chlorite predominates in the silicate matrix of homogeneous and zoned chromite, it coexists with some antigorite, talc and magnesiohornblende. Mineral data and thermodynamic modeling allow interpretation of the alteration patterns of chromite as the consequence of a two-stage process developed during retrograde metamorphic evolution coeval with fluid infiltration. During the first stage, chromite reacts in the presence

  14. Adakitic magmatism in post-collisional setting: An example from the Early-Middle Eocene Magmatic Belt in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, Peter; Georgiev, Stoyan; Raicheva, Raya; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bonev, Nikolay

    2013-11-01

    Post-collisional (56.0-40.4 Ma) adakitic magmatism in the Rhodope Massif and the Kraishte region, including W. Srednogorie, in South Bulgaria followed the collision of the Rhodope and Pelagonian Massifs. It forms a 250 km NW trending belt which continues into the 1000 km long belt of Eocene magmatism in northern Turkey and Iran. The rocks are represented by felsic subvolcanic dykes and sills in the Kraishte and plutons in the Rhodopes. Here, we synthesize new chemical (whole-rock major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopes) and LA-ICP/MS mineral and U-Pb zircon age data along with published similar data in order to constrain the genesis of this magmatism and the early Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the central Balkan Peninsula. The rocks display typical subduction-related characteristics with enrichment in LILE and LREE and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti). In the Kraishte and western Srednogorie Zones these are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rhyolites, displaying a typical adakitic signature, i.e. high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. The studied Rhodope Massif rocks are predominantly high-K calc-alkaline and subordinate calc-alkaline granites and granodiorites with a minor amount of tonalites. Petrographically, they are H2O- and accessory-rich (allanite, epidote, titanite, apatite) rocks, showing geochemical affinities from non-adakitic tonalites and mafic granodiorites to adakitic granodiorites and granites. Similarity of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Kraishte subvolcanic and Rhodope intrusive adakitic rocks with the neighboring and coeval NW Anatolian basaltic to dacitic volcanics and plutons suggests that the most likely source for the South Bulgarian adakitic rocks is the subduction-enriched depleted lithospheric mantle. The nearby and contemporaneous East Serbian alkaline basalts are isotopically and compositionally different and, probably, originate from an OIB-like mantle source. Subsequent fractionation within an isotopically similar lower

  15. Chemical composition and varieties of fahlore-group minerals from Oligocene mineralization in the Rhodope area, Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repstock, Alexander; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Zeug, Manuela; Melfos, Vasilios; Zhai, Mingguo; Li, Hongzhong; Kartal, Tamara; Matuszczak, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Fahlore-group minerals in Oligocene magmatic-hydrothermal deposits from the central and eastern Rhodope area, Bulgaria and Greece (e.g. porphyry-epithermal systems at Pagoni Rachi, Maronia and Kassiteres-Sapes, polymetallic epithermal high- and intermediate-sulfidation veins at Kirki, Perama Hill, Mavrokoryfi, Pefka, Zvezdel-Pcheloyad and Madzharovo, skarn-carbonate replacement deposits at Laki, Davidkovo, Madan, Enyovche and intrusion-related deposits at Kimmeria), cover the whole range of the tetrahedrite-tennantite solid solution series and are dominated by zincian and ferroan varieties reflecting deposition from Zn-(and Fe)-rich fluids. The majority of the studied fahlores are "normal" fully-substituted with Cu (+Ag) close to 10 apfu. However, high-sulfidation epithermal deposits in Greece contain "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite; those with extreme high Cu-excess > Fe + Zn occur in transitional high- to intermediate-sulfidation systems, whereas low "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite with Zn > Cu-excess + Fe and Fe > Cu-excess + Zn are part of tellurides-bearing intermediate-sulfidation assemblages. The epithermal St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits display the most Cu-rich tetrahedrites (11.039 apfu Cu) and tennantite (11.784 apfu Cu) worldwide. Although Ag substitutes for Cu in the structure of Ag-rich tetrahedrite in several deposits, freibergite with 6.800 apfu Ag occurs only at Mavrokoryfi; in particular, the cadmian freibergite at Mavrokoryfi is the second finding of this variety worldwide. Tellurium-bearing fahlore varieties occur in association with enargite/luzonite and native gold in high-sulfidation ore assemblages. Tetravalent tellurium substitutes for trivalent As and Sb in goldfieldite and Te-rich tennantite and tetrahedrite at Mavrokoryfi, Perama Hill, St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits. Goldfieldite at Mavrokoryfi and Perama Hill is remarkably Te-rich (up to 3.766 apfu and 3.711 apfu Te, respectively), with total metal content of 10.591 apfu and

  16. Time evolution of a rifted continental arc: Integrated ID-TIMS and LA-ICPMS study of magmatic zircons from the Eastern Srednogorie, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.; Marchev, P.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern Srednogorie in Bulgaria is the widest segment of an extensive magmatic arc that formed by convergence of Africa and Europe during Mesozoic to Tertiary times. Northward subduction of the Tethys Ocean beneath Europe in the Late Cretaceous gave rise to a broad range of basaltic to more evolved magmas with locally associated Cu-Au mineralization along this arc. We used U-Pb geochronology of single zircons to constrain the temporal evolution of the Upper Cretaceous magmatism and the age of basement rocks through which the magmas were emplaced in this arc segment. High precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) was combined with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for spatial resolution within single zircon grains. Three tectono-magmatic regions are distinguished from north to south within Eastern Srednogorie: East Balkan, Yambol-Burgas and Strandzha. Late Cretaceous magmatic activity started at ~ 92 Ma in the northernmost East Balkan region, based on stratigraphic evidence and limited geochronology, with the emplacement of minor shallow intrusions and volcanic rocks onto pre-Cretaceous basement. In the southernmost Strandzha region, magmatism was initiated at ~ 86 Ma with emplacement of gabbroic to dioritic intrusions and related dikes into metamorphic basement rocks that have previously been overprinted by Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous metamorphism. The Yambol-Burgas region is an extensional basin between the East Balkan and the Strandzha regions, which broadens and deepens toward the Black Sea further east and is filled with a thick pile of marine sediments and submarine extrusive volcanic rocks accompanied by coeval intrusions. This dominantly mafic magmatism in the intermediate Yambol-Burgas region commenced at ~ 81 Ma and produced large volumes of potassium-rich magma until ~ 78 Ma. These shoshonitic to ultrapotassic basaltic to intermediate magmas formed by differentiation of ankaramitic (high

  17. Bilateral comparison of 100 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.b) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 100 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Bilateral comparison of 10 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 10 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Séquences de dépôt à l'articulation plate-forme urgonienne bassin (intervalle Barrémien Albien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest)Depositional sequences at the Urgonian platform/basin transition (Barremian Albian interval) in the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Ivanov, Marin; Nikolov, Todor; Ciszak, Richard; Stoykova, Kristalina

    2000-04-01

    In the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria), the characterization of numerous depositional sequences within the Barremian-Albian interval allows us to reconstruct from southeast to northwest the successive palaeogeographies of this part of the north Tethyan margin: two carbonate (Urgonian) platforms flanking a central terrigenous basin during the Barremian; a single centrifugal terrigenous basin (Aptian) marked, along its axis, by an olistostrome and siliciclastic turbidites; a single Albian basin characterized by the stacking of glauconite-rich condensation sections and anoxic black marls.

  20. Pattern of radiotherapy care in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Hadjieva, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The paper reveals the changing pattern of Bulgarian Radiotherapy (RT) care after the successful implementation of 15 projects for 100 million euro under the European Regional Development Fund in Operational Programme for Regional Development 2007-2013. The project enables a total one-step modernization of 14 Bulgarian RT Centres and creation of a new one. At the end of the Programme (mid 2015), 16 new Linacs and 2 modern cobalt machines will be available together with 11 virtual CT simulators, 5 CT simulators, 1 MRI and 1 PET CT for RT planning and all dosimetry facilities needed. Such a modernization has moved Bulgarian RT forward, with 2.7 MV units per one million of population (MV/mln.inh) in comparison with 0.9 MV/mln.inh in 2012. Guild of Bulgarian Radiotherapists includes 70 doctors, 46 physicists and 10 engineers, together with 118 RTTs and 114 nurses and they all have treated 16,447 patients in 2013. Major problems are inadequate reimbursement from the monopolistic Health Insurance Fund (900 euro for 3D conformal RT and 1500 euro for IMRT); fragmentation of RT care with 1-2 MV units per Centre; no payment for patient travel expenses; need for quick and profound education of 26% of doctors and 46% of physicists without RT license, along with continuous education for all others; and resource for 5000-9000 more patients to be treated yearly by RT in order to reach 45-50% from current service of 32%. After 15 years of struggle of RT experts, finally the pattern of Bulgarian RT care at 2014-2015 is approaching the level of modern European RT. PMID:26549991

  1. Clinical case of rabies in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Nenova, M; Gantcheva, T

    2001-01-01

    The history of a six-year-old girl, hospitalised in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Medical University of Varna with diagnosed meningoencephalitis, obs. rabies, and epidemiological data of dog bite without adequate prophylaxis is presented. The clinical course was unusual: the symptoms of aero- and hydrophobia were not clearly demonstrated, choreic hyperkynesias, torsion seizures and high initial pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid were present. The pathological picture is described. Ethiological diagnosis was proven by immunofluorescence test of brain tissue. PMID:12078128

  2. Quaternary Tectonics of The Vitosha Mountain (bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Dora

    The Vitosha Mt. is a Cretaceous paleovolcano of the central type with complex ge- ological evolution. From a contemporary point of view it has a marked orographic homogeneity, which is connected with its specific evolution during the Neogene and the Quaternary. At the background of intensive vault formation, graben systems from the Maritsa and Strouma fault zones originated in a sharp discordance along its pe- riphery. The vault formation process caused the accumulation of tectonic stresses in different parts of the Vitosha Mt. in the course of time and space. The tectonic stresses provoked the formation of concentric normal faults. Their surface display predeter- mined not only the block disintegration of the structure but also its primary relief. The active mountain formation of Vitosha was controlled by the Pernik and Vladaya fault zones, and by the Vitosha, Zheleznitsa, Matnitsa and Chuipetlovo fault beams during the Quaternary. The Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary was accompanied by active ver- tical tectonic deformations. As a result of pulse tectonic movements and subsequent deformations along the above mentioned structures, a global re-arrangement of the Vladaiska and Strouma River basins took place in the region of the Vladaya village and to the south of the Chuipetlovo village. The age of these events is 0.73 Ma. The pa- leoseismic dislocation in the region of the Dragalevtsi quarter was probably formed at the same time. The paleoseismic deformations during the Middle Pleistocene were es- tablished along the radial faults. They had caused rock-falls in the Douhlata cave, pyra- teries and bifurcations of the underground aquatic system and of the Klisuritsa River. The Holocene stage was characterised by intensified vertical movements along all fault structures together with the climatic changes under post-glacial circumstances. The Vitosha paleovolcano was mightily raised due to the vertical compression and new river system originated while the old one was rotated in a counter-clockwise di- rection. The peat bogs were formed in the nodes between the concentric and radial fault structures and as a result of paleoearthquakes. The performed dating proves that the time of their manifestation was between 500±50 years, the beginning of this process being about 6000 B.P. The orographic ridge of the Vitosha pluton was disturbed due to a paleoearthquake in the Cherni Vruh region in 705+-65 B.P.

  3. Is the pharmaceutical market in Bulgaria innovative?

    PubMed

    Stoimenova, A; Stankova, M; Samev, K; Petrova, G

    2003-09-01

    After the turn to market oriented economy a lot of drugs were authorized for sale in the East European countries. Because of the limited resources of these countries, mainly generic or brand generic products were licensed. The number of the patented drugs on the market could be used as measure of the market attractiveness to the R&D producers. The study shows the analysis of the innovativeness of the Bulgarian drug market comparing the registration and the patient activity of the producers. The number of the authorized products for five years period (1990-2000) and share of the patented products were investigated. During the observed period the number of newly authorized pharmaceuticals increased almost seven times from 800 (650 INN) to 6000 (2000 INN) dosage forms. The prevailing part of the newly registered drugs was found to be brand generics and possess only trade name protection. The share of drugs that are patented is less than five percent of all newly registered medicines, and among the fifty most commonly prescribed and sold medicines between 1996-2000, only 0.5 percent of drugs were patented. Obviously the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market is very competitive but not that attractive for most of the R&D producers. In general the registration of the patent protected products is increasing during the years and especially after harmonization of the related legislation with the EU requirements. The patent activity of the pharmaceutical companies regarding newly authorized drugs is influenced by the structure of morbidity and population. During the last two years the patent activity is increasing and is oriented mainly towards the protection of newly authorized drugs or pharmaceutical forms and obligatory registration of trademarks for the privatized Bulgarian pharmaceutical manufacturers. PMID:14677267

  4. William Russell on Schools in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay; Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    William Russell became one of the most influential educators in the field of international and comparative education in the first half of the 20th century. In 1914, William Russell obtained his PhD from Teachers College and, within few years, became a prominent figure internationally. He traveled through Europe and taught in Japan and Siberia, as…

  5. Higher Geography Education in Bulgaria: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodenska, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Geography is a traditional subject in Bulgarian education, both secondary and higher. Some of the most eminent Bulgarian scientists were geographers and theirs are many publications dealing not only with geography, but also with history, economics, ethnology, ethnography, political science, urban science and other disciplines. Major changes have…

  6. Verification and enhancement high resolution layers 2012 for Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Ventzeslav; Lubenov, Todor

    Production of high-resolution layers (HRL) is a substantial part of the pan-European component of GMES/Copernicus initial operations (GIO) land monitoring service. The focus of this paper is on the results of the implementation of HRL verification and enhancement tasks for Bulgarian territory. For the reference year 2012 five HRL on land cover characteristics were produced by service providers through sophisticated classification of multi-sensor and multi-temporal satellite images: imperviousness, forests, grasslands, wetlands and permanent water bodies. As a result of the verification systematic classification errors were identified relevant to the subsequent enhancement procedure. The verification was carried out through visual inspection of stratified samples in the HRL using reliable reference spatial data sets, checking for commission and omission errors. The applied procedure included three major parts, the first two - obligatory: general overview of data quality, look-and-feel control of critical strata and statistically based quantitative verification. The enhancement task consisted in correcting errors revealed by the verification giving as a result final enhanced HRL products. Stratification schemes, evaluation grades by strata and HRL from look-and-feel verification and accuracy values from statistical verification are presented. Types and quantities of removed mistakes during the enhancement are structured and summarised. Results show that all HRL except the grasslands layer meet the 85% accuracy requirements.

  7. Innovation in Teaching Deaf Students Physics and Astronomy in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamfirov, Milen; Saeva, Svetoslava; Popov, Tsviatko

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy to be implemented in Bulgarian schools in teaching physics and astronomy to students with impaired hearing at grades 7 (13-year-old students) and 8 (14-year-old students). The strategy provides effective education for students with hearing disabilities in mainstream schools as well as for those attending…

  8. Human activity and landscape change at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, central Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiverrell, R. C.; Archibald, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The Classical and early Hellenistic settlement located at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, near Vetren, in the centre of ancient Thrace, is somewhat unusual in displaying well-preserved evidence for the commercial and cultural interactions associated with a river port. The settlement evolved through a series of phases, with traces of activity emerging around the beginning of the fifth, advancing to a progressive close in the second century BCE. The settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa owed its raison d'être to river traffic, with the river as the primary means for importing commodities (non-local amphorae and roof tiles). The Pistiros inscription indicates that overland traffic was also important, presumably over the Rhodopes Mountains to the south. The relationship between the site and the Maritsa River is thus important. Located towards the head of the Maritsa basin downstream of the Momina Klissoura gorge near Belovo, the settlement is perched on a steeply-edged toe of the Vetren tributary alluvial fan, with the bluff trimmed by the migrating River Maritsa. The site is c.12-14 metres above the current bed of the River Maritsa, high and dry away from contemporary flooding, intriguing given evidence for flooding during occupation. The fluvial system has clearly been dynamic and changed much during the last 3000 years. Changes in the Maritsa have been constrained with radiocarbon ages obtained for two fan terrace levels. Active channel and overbank environments of the higher B1 terrace are dated to c. 520-400 cal. BC and provide a terminus post quem for the incision to the lower terrace (B2). The radiocarbon dating of basal contexts from the lower terrace palaeo-channels provides a terminus ante quem for abandonment of the higher terrace of cal. AD 1010-1150. Thus basal lowering and a shift to greater lateral channel activity appear to coincide with the abandonment of Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Upstream of the Momina Klissoura Gorge evidence for heightened geomorphic activity probably reflects processes during the late Holocene, with the low level hill slopes flanking the river littered with small agricultural communities. It is easy to envisage the landscape as one made susceptible to erosion by human activity feeding materials through the Momina Klissoura Gorge to the Belovo fan near the settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Sharp increases in non-arboreal pollen during the period 2880-1620 BP, associated with Greek and Roman times, in the Rila Mountains, have been attributed to seasonal animal husbandry in the higher mountains, with associated permanent settlement in the surrounding lowlands.

  9. Innovation in teaching deaf students physics and astronomy in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfirov, Milen; Saeva, Svetoslava; Popov, Tsviatko

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy to be implemented in Bulgarian schools in teaching physics and astronomy to students with impaired hearing at grades 7 (13-year-old students) and 8 (14-year-old students). The strategy provides effective education for students with hearing disabilities in mainstream schools as well as for those attending specialized schools. A multimedia CD has been developed, which offers a large number of basic terms from the corresponding fields of physics and astronomy, accompanied by textual explanation and various illustrations. The terms are explained in Bulgarian, Bulgarian Sign Language and English. This multimedia product can be used by children with hearing disabilities, as well as by children without disorders.

  10. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  11. Isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, S; Tzvetkov, Y; Najdenski, H; Vesselinova, A

    2001-04-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia strains were isolated between December 1998 and April 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (Lepus europeus), boar (Sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (Canis aureus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mouflon (Ovis musimon), european river otter (Lutra lutra), beech marten (Martes foina), polecat (Musleta putorius) and wild cat (Felis silvestris). It was established that among the wild animals Y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of serotype 0:3. In one sample from asiatic jackal and one sample from rabbit, Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:8 was isolated. Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were isolated from tonsils and tongues as well as from the viscera--lung, liver, heart, spleen, kidney and lymph nodes, mainly in young animals (1-2 years of age). The results showed that wild animals are a possible natural reservoir for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis and are included in the epidemiological chain of yersinioses. PMID:11393816

  12. Geophysical analysis for the Ada Tepe region (Bulgaria) - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Petya; Metodiev, Metodi; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Vatseva, Rumiana

    2013-04-01

    According to the current archeological investigations Ada Tepe is the oldest gold mine in Europe with Late Bronze and Early Iron age. It is a typical low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit and is hosted in Maastrichtian-Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault contact with underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Ada Tepe (25o.39'E; 41o.25'N) is located in the Eastern Rhodope unit. The region is highly segmented despite the low altitude (470-750 m) due to widespread volcanic and sediment rocks susceptible to torrential erosion during the cold season. Besides the thorough geological exploration focused on identifying cost-effective stocks of mineral resources, a detailed geophysical analysis concernig diferent stages of the gold extraction project was accomplished. We present the main results from the geophysical investigation aimed to clarify the complex seismotectonic setting of the Ada Tepe site region. The overall study methodology consists of collecting, reviewing and estimating geophysical and seismological information to constrain the model used for seismic hazard assessment of the area. Geophysical information used in the present work consists of gravity, geomagnetic and seismological data. Interpretation of gravity data is applied to outline the axes of steep gravity transitions marked as potential axes of faults, flexures and other structures of dislocation. Direct inverse techniques are also utilized to estimate the form and depth of anomalous sources. For the purposes of seismological investigation of the Ada Tepe site region an earthquake catalogue is compiled for the time period 510BC - 2011AD. Statistical parameters of seismicity - annual seismic rate parameter, ?, and the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter exponential relation for Ada Tepe site region, are estimated. All geophysical datasets and derived results are integrated using GIS techniques ensuring interoperability of data when combining, processing and visualizing obtained information from different sources.

  13. Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland: Case Studies of a Changing Region. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory-Boyle, Nancy

    This paper presents a unit for government and economics and one for world history on the dramatic regional changes which have occurred in Central and Eastern Europe since the late 1980s. The units can be taught cohesively covering 2-3 weeks or as modules integrated into relevant themes in the curriculum. The "case studies" approach allows students…

  14. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  15. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  16. PREFACE: Conference Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov - Chairman, Kiril Blagoev - Vice-Chairman, Margarita Grozeva - Scientific secretary, Kostadinka Gesheva, Anna Szekeres, Hassan Chamati, Diana Nesheva, Peter Rafailov, Yordan Marinov, Emilia Dimova, Tatyana Ivanova, Radostina Kamburova, Ekaterina Iordanova, Julia Genova, Alexander Donkov, Emilia Vlaikova SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov, Bulgaria; Nikola Sabotinov, Bulgaria; Kiril Blagoev, Bulgaria; Nicholay Tonchev, Bulgaria; Hassan Chamati, Bulgaria; Marin Gospodinov, Bulgaria; Peter Rafailov, Bulgaria; Emil Vlakhov, Bulgaria; Kostadinka Gesheva, Bulgaria; Anna Szekeres, Bulgaria; Diana Nesheva, Bulgaria; Albena Paskaleva, Bulgaria; Tatyana Ivanova, Bulgaria; Alexander Dreischuh, Bulgaria; Evgenia Valcheva, Bulgaria; Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova, Bulgaria; Sanka Gateva, Bulgaria; Frank Hamelmann, Germany; Nicola Scaramuzza, Italy; G.M.W. Kroesen, Netherlands; Jan van Dijk Netherlands; Andrzej Szewczyk, Poland; Henryk Szymczak, Poland; Krzistof Rogacki, Poland; Ion Mihailescu, Romania; Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sweden; Mikael Jonsson, Sweden; Andrew Livingston, UK; Ludmila Peeva, UK

  17. Exploring Cultures and Their Stories: Stories from Uganda, Bolivia, Sri Lanka, Korea, Bulgaria, Germany, and Macedonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Flora

    Intended for teachers of middle and secondary schools, this book presents folk-stories to provide readers (listeners) with insight into other cultures. The book is organized into eight sections, each featuring a country or a people. Each section has a divider page (which gives the story title, the country or region of the culture, and a map), a…

  18. Why Teach Abroad: Two American Teachers Explain Their Motivations and Experiences Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Potash, Brett

    2011-01-01

    A Fulbright poster on the bulletin board, a Search Associates flier in the mailbox, a rumor of something different--everyone has heard about teaching abroad. But is it worth filling out all that paperwork, installing Skype on the family's computers, and learning a new language? In this article, two American teachers explain their motivations and…

  19. The Distributuion BSR and Multiple BSR Across The Danube Delta on the Offshore Romania and Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atgin, Orhan; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Bialas, Jorg; Klaucke, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Danube river which flows into the Black Sea is one of the world's biggest amount sediment transporter to the marine environment. Throughout long geological periods, Danube has formed many channel structures and the channel developments are still being continuened. Danube River has caused a lot of potential gas hydrate formations which spread over quite larger areas. Under the frame of SUGAR Project, high resolution multichannel seismic data were collected using the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology of Dokuz Eylül University on board R/V Maria S. Merian in 2013. More then 2300 km Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the palaeo Danube delta to investigate BSR and potential gas hyrdate areas on the continental shelf where Danube river reaches to the Black Sea, BSR areas and potential gas hyrdates. Also, in relation with high sediment input, the effects of deltas on BSR's are aimed to research and several of inactive and partly buried channel systems could be mapped. There are large number of buried channel levee systems which seem to underlain by a continuous BSR indicating availability of free gas. There are also a significant reflector of inverted polarity was identified within a depth of about 100 m below seafloor. A very prominent BSR with reversed polarity is determined 200 ms TWT below seafloor on the eastern levee of the channel and simulate and crosscut the sediment layer. Three distinct BSRs as multiple BSR signature are observed on the high resolution multichannel seismic with a slightly varying dips. Multiple BSR's up to 5 BSRs are exist around river channels and paleochannels which have formed during different geological periods. In some paleochannel areas, high amount of sediment transportation causes dissolution of gashyrdate structures. At such areas seismic signals are being absorbed and structures which indicate dissolved gas are determined. In addition parasound data show dense amount of gas flares with acoustic blanking in about 30 m depth below seafloor at the BSR outcrop.

  20. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction in soils developed on the same parent material.

  1. Provenance of Tertiary volcanoclastic sediment in NW Thrace (Bulgaria): Evidence from detrital amphibole and pyroxene geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Luca; Orlando, Andrea; Marchev, Peter; Critelli, Salvatore; Manetti, Piero; Raycheva, Raya; Riley, David

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy mineral and bulk rock geochemistry and a review of sandstone petrographic data have been used to investigate the post-collisional effusive magmatism that followed the closure of the Vardar Ocean and the generation of volcanic sediments in a complex and compositionally variable volcanic region. Available petrographic data gives evidence of contributions from three key source areas corresponding to the three main tectonic units: the structurally lower Gneiss-Migmatite Complex (Byala Reka-Kechros and Kesebir-Kardamos domes) and the upper Variegated (Kimi) Complex, both fringed by the low-to-medium-grade Mesozoic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt. Besides the deposition of siliciclastic material, volcanic contributions from both, intermediate and acid products represent an important source of sediment in the area. Despite dominant intermediate to acid volcanic products, volcanic lithic fragments in sandstones (microlithic, lathwork and brown vitric textures) indicate main inputs from intermediate and basic-intermediate products generating questions on the interpretation of volcanic detritus in reconstruction of provenance. Detrital amphibole and pyroxene chemistry is used to characterise the supply of volcanic material as well as the dispersal mechanisms and understand the role played by each of the volcanic centers present in the area in the infill of the north-western Thrace basin. Amphibole chemistry reveals high compositional heterogeneity according to both compositional variability of the numerous volcanic centres active at the time of deposition and presence of metamorphic amphibole. 4Al and AlT apfu values indicate that most of the amphiboles from the NERZ are not of volcanic origin and their presence can only be attributed to the numerous amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks abundantly documented in the area. Detrital amphibole compositions from the ZKVS indicate major contributions from the Iran Tepe and Zvedzel volcanoes. Analysed detrital clinopyroxenes from the NERZ are mostly diopside-augite, with no hedenbergite or Fe-augite detected. The 4Al/6Al ratio is comparable with compositions of volcanic pyroxenes from the Momchilgrad-Arda (ZKVS) region and products from the pre-caldera phase of the Borovitza.

  2. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

  3. Realities of Romanian Art. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Meredith

    This document consists of a two-page outline and seventeen photographs of Romanian art objects. This unit focuses on advancing the high school student from the art of Western Europe to the art of Eastern Europe. The curriculum projects are geared for the 11th and 12th grade student. Students begin with a study of Rodin and progress toward that of…

  4. The International Children's Assembly "Banner of Peace": Performing the Child in Socialist Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencheva, Yuliyana

    2010-01-01

    This project offers a close look into the meaning-making practices of the Bulgarian socialist state with regard to the conception and enactment of childhood. Held for the first time in 1979, on occasion of the UN declared "International Year of the Child", the International Children's Assembly "Banner of Peace" emerges as a focal point of…

  5. Kinematics of Tertiary convergence and extension at the western margin of the Rhodopes (SW Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Georgiev, Neven; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sarov, Stoyan; Jahn-Awe, Silke; Nagel, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Integrating the results of recent structural geological fieldwork with age constraints reported in the literature we propose a kinematic model for Eocene to Miocene tectonics in the western Rhodopes. In the past years, several authors have claimed that low-angle normal faults in the western Rhodopes and adjacent external Hellenides formed in the framework of beginning Aegean extension. The oldest low-angle normal faults identified so far were active since the Middle or Late Eocene, among them the Vertiskos-Kerdilion (Brun & Sokoutis 2007) and Ribnovo faults (Burchfiel et al. 2003) which separate "Rhodopean" rock units (Sidironero-Mesta and Asenica units) characterized by Jurassic protolith ages of orthogneiss in the footwall from "Serbomacedonian" units (Vertiskos-Ogražden unit) with significantly older orthogneiss protolith ages in the hanging wall. Activity of these extensional faults temporally overlaps with that of the Nestos shear zone. The Nestos shear zone was probably active during the entire Eocene (Jahn-Awe et al. in press) and accommodated thrusting of the Sidironero-Mesta unit onto the Pangaion-Pirin unit which we interpret to be derived from the Apulian plate (see also Dinter 1998). The fault geometries observed in the field suggest that the Ribnovo fault soles into the Nestos faults forming a large scale Late Eocene extensional fault system (Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system) with a consistent top-to-the-SW displacement sense. This implies that in the Middle or Late Eocene the Nestos shear zone changed its kinematics from reverse to normal faulting. After the first period of extensional faulting, the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system was offset by a series of steeply NE-dipping normal faults in the NE slopes of the Pirin mountains. Following a tectonically quiet period in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene, the Strimon valley detachment became active in the Middle Miocene. It obliquely cuts through the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system resulting in the offset between the Vertiskos-Kerdilion and Ribnovo faults which probably originally were one coherent fault. Although the shear sense of the Strimon valley detachment is also top-to-the-SW, it was thus kinematically indepent of the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system. Since the horizontal displacement amount of the Strimon valley detachment increases from N to S, we assume that the Strimon valley detachment accommodated relative rotation between the Rhodopes and Hellenides starting in the Middle Miocene (Kissel & Laj 1988) that resulted in particularly strong extension within the Aegean and corresponds to the the evolution of the curvature of the Aegean arc. References Brun J.P., Sokoutis D., 2007: Int. J. Earth Sci. 96, 1079-1099. Burchfiel, B.C., Nakov, R., Tzankov, T., Royden, L.H., 2000: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 173, 325-352. Dinter, D.A., 1998: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 110, 1208-1230. Jahn-Awe, S., Froitzheim, N., Nagel, T.J., Frei, D., Georgiev, N., Pleuger, J. in press: Tectonics. Kissel, C., Laj, C., 1988: Tectonophysics 146, 183-201.

  6. Psychopathy in Bulgaria: The cross-cultural generalizability of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Vasilev, Georgi; Bozgunov, Kiril; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    The generalizability of the psychopathy construct to Eastern European cultures has not been well-studied, and no prior studies have evaluated psychopathy in non-offender samples from this population. The current validation study examines the factor structure, internal consistency, and external validity of the Bulgarian translation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Two hundred sixty-two Bulgarian adults from the general community were assessed, of which 185 had a history of substance dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the two-, three-, and four-factor models of psychopathy. Zero-order and partial correlation analyses were conducted between the two factors of psychopathy and criterion measures of antisocial behavior, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, personality traits, addictive disorders and demographic characteristics. Relationships to external variables provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the psychopathy construct in a Bulgarian community sample. PMID:25313268

  7. Global Neo-Liberalism, Global Ecological Modernization, and a Swine CAFO in Rural Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Mitev, Georgi V.

    2009-01-01

    Rural and development sociology studies have tended to credit globalization with low-wage, extractive, environmentally destructive outcomes. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been treated as a local manifestation of the destructive tendencies of globalization. However, recent scholarship on globalization suggests that…

  8. Basic Training and Professional Qualifications of Teachers in Bulgaria and Turkey: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evgenieva, Emilia; Arslan, Serife

    2012-01-01

    The professional qualification of teachers is a derivative of the career development system, the lifelong study model, the expected efficiency of the learning process and others. Motivating a teacher with regard to the need for continuous development depends on the order of the profession with respect to other professions, the remuneration, the…

  9. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  10. Toxic element profiles in selected medicinal plants growing on serpentines in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Dolja; Karadjova, Irina

    2013-12-01

    Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans. PMID:24170367

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of the pollution sources along the stream of Kamchia River, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mihailov, G; Simeonov, V; Nikolov, N; Mirinchev, G

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen sampling sites along the stream of Kamchia River were considered as environmental objects in the multivariate statistical study aimed to identify and apportion patterns of sampling sites, latent factors responsible for the data structure and their relation to the emitter industrial and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the sampling sites. As variables 11 surface water parameters monitored for a long time period (up to 11 years) were used. Four main site patterns were revealed by cluster analysis (urban, rural, near-to dam and estuary) and for each site latent factors were identified and apportioned (among them "metallurgical", "food production", "winery", domestic wastes", "natural"). The relative contribution of each identified pollution source to the formation of the total concentration of each chemical species or physicochemical parameter was determined and compared to the real emitters in the region of interest. PMID:16114615

  12. Indoor smoking bans in Bulgaria, Croatia, Northern Cyprus, Romania and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, J L; Burdell, A

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards attempts to limit second-hand smoke (SHS) in five Eastern European nations. Methods The data consist of a Eurobarometer (64.3) survey distributed from November to December 2005. Logistic regression was employed to investigate support levels for indoor smoking bans across the five political units. Results Across nations, there is more support for smoking bans in offices and indoor work spaces and indoor public space as opposed to restaurants and bars and pubs. Personal smoking behaviours are linked strongly with the smoking bans. Most importantly, it is specific knowledge about the health dangers of smoking which fosters support for indoor smoking bans. Conclusion Policy implications suggest that government and the media must disseminate accurate information about the harm of smoking to broader segments of the population to gain support for policies that affect the dangers of SHS in these nations. PMID:20675690

  13. Updated archeomagnetic data set of the past 8 millennia from the Sofia laboratory, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, M.; Boyadziev, Y.; Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Jordanova, N.; Donadini, F.

    2009-05-01

    This data brief reports the latest updates of archeomagnetic data obtained at the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory of the Geophysical Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The current data set consists of measurements from 284 Bulgarian archeological sites covering the past 8000 years. There are also 54 sites from other European regions, namely, Serbia, Kossovo, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Finland, and Russian Karelia, as well as five sites from Morocco in North Africa. The update of the archeomagnetic results consisted of a thorough revision of all geomagnetic field measurements as well as dating these measurements that were published in the original papers or in previous compilations. The updated results can be found in GEOMAGIA (http://geomagia.ucsd.edu) or as an Excel spreadsheet at the EarthRef.org Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/cgi-bin/erda.cgi?n = 946).

  14. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    PubMed

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. PMID:25836697

  15. First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

  16. Fluid-present deformation aids chemical modification of chromite: Insights from chromites from Golyamo Kamenyane, SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsukawa, Takako; Piazolo, Sandra; González-Jiménez, José María; Colás, Vanessa; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Gervilla, Fernando; Fanlo, Isabel; Kerestedjian, Thomas N.

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signatures of chromitites are commonly used to track the evolution of the Earth's mantle. However, chemical modification during deformation may have important implications for the interpretation of chromites' signatures. Here, we describe the details of how deformation promotes chemical modification in chromite. Physicochemical characteristics of the chromites were quantified by measuring crystallographic orientation relationships using Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and electron microprobe analysis (EMP). Chromites show porphyroclastic textures with coarse-grained porphyroclasts (ca. 0.2-5 mm) and fine-grained neoblasts (< 200 μm). Coarse-grained chromites are chemically zoned in terms of major elements from core to rim, preserving this initial igneous feature in the cores, while the outer rims reveal a metamorphic signature. Large chromite grains are characterized by local crystal-plastic deformation, exhibiting distinct inter-crystalline deformation including continuous crystal bending and subgrain boundaries as well as chemical modification in their outer, deformed parts. Two types of fine-grained chromite, F1 and F2, are present. While F1 exhibits a well-developed polygonal texture, straight grain boundaries and low intercrystal misorientation (< 1°), F2 shows low-angle boundaries and significant intercrystalline misorientation (2-8°). Both F1 and F2 have higher Fe3 + and Cr and lower Mg# values than the cores of large grains. We interpret F1 and F2 to represent chromite recrystallized by heterogeneous nucleation and subgrain rotation recrystallization, respectively. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and misorientation data on the well-developed low-angle (subgrain) boundaries in coarse grains and F2 grains indicate that deformation in chromite was accommodated mainly by dislocation creep with the dominant activation of the {111}<100 > slip system. The retrograde P-T exhumation path predicted by thermodynamic and chemical modeling suggests that these fine-grained chromites were produced when the initial chromitites reacted with oxidizing fluids during retrograde metamorphism ( 1.0 GPa and 500-700 °C). Our results show that deformation in the dislocation-creep regime in a chemically open system has induced chemical modification and homogenization within chromite aggregates as well as strain localization. This close physicochemical link offers new avenues of interpreting the chemical signatures of chromites, utilizing their microstructurally controlled variation or lack thereof.

  17. Towards an improved International Reference Ionosphere; Proceedings of the Workshop, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, August 30-September 3, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, K.; Serafimov, K. B.; Minnis, C. M.

    Various research papers on the ionosphere are presented. The subjects addressed include: new description of the electron density profile, geometry of the 'exponential middle ionosphere', prediction of total electron content using IRI, model representation of midlatitudinal electron density with Interkosmos-19 data, observed and model N(h) profiles for the Bulgarian region, bottomside N(h) profiles over Vietnam and their comparison with IRI, state of the art in D-region IRI modelling, solar effects cycle effects on the relationship of N(e) and T(e) in the F-region. Also discussed are: comparison between IRI ion composition and incoherent scatter measurement and theoretical values, ion composition behavior in low and midlatitudes during high solar activity, approximation of the height of the O(+)-H(+) transition level for use in IRI, hybrid quadri-ionics model of the lower ionosphere, measurement possibilities for improving IRI, improving IRI profiles of O2(+), NO(+), and O(+) with Airglow Measurements, and plan for compilation of experimental data on drifts for IRI.

  18. Combining task analysis and fault tree analysis for accident and incident analysis: a case study from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Doytchev, Doytchin E; Szwillus, Gerd

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the reasons for incident and accident occurrence is important for an organization's safety. Different methods have been developed to achieve this goal. To better understand the human behaviour in incident occurrence we propose an analysis concept that combines Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Task Analysis (TA). The former method identifies the root causes of an accident/incident, while the latter analyses the way people perform the tasks in their work environment and how they interact with machines or colleagues. These methods were complemented with the use of the Human Error Identification in System Tools (HEIST) methodology and the concept of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) to deepen the insight into the error modes of an operator's behaviour. HEIST shows the external error modes that caused the human error and the factors that prompted the human to err. To show the validity of the approach, a case study at a Bulgarian Hydro power plant was carried out. An incident - the flooding of the plant's basement - was analysed by combining the afore-mentioned methods. The case study shows that Task Analysis in combination with other methods can be applied successfully to human error analysis, revealing details about erroneous actions in a realistic situation. PMID:19819365

  19. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkov, Alexander; Bechtel, Achim; Ćorić, Stjepan; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.

    2015-10-01

    The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (sub)units contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III), locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI) and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC) and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC). TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good) hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair) potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  20. Nitrogen leaching on Fluvisols under vegetable cropping system: An assessment with the NLEAP model in Southern Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main mechanism for nitrogen (N) losses in shallow vegetable rooted crops grown in irrigated sandy soils is nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching. There is the need to calibrate and validate quick assessment tools to evaluate the effect of best management practices (BMP) for irrigated vegetable cropp...

  1. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  2. Dental Status and Associated Factors in a Dentate Adult Population in Bulgaria: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Damyanov, Nikola D.; Witter, Dick J.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Creugers, Nico H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an oral examination. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to observe associations between “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth and the factors of interest. The mean numbers of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth were 2.2, 6.7, and 4.9, respectively. Molar teeth were significantly more often “missing” than premolar and anterior teeth. Age, gender, education, and tooth brushing revealed most noticeable associations. Increasing age was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “filled” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “missing” teeth. Females were more likely to have “missing” and “filled” teeth. Higher education was associated with a lower chance of having “missing” teeth. More frequent tooth brushing was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “missing” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “filled” teeth. These risk indicators should be considered in prevention program planning if reduction of tooth loss is to be achieved. PMID:22654908

  3. Regional Seminar on Youth Unemployment in South Eastern Europe (Velingrad, Bulgaria, June 19-20, 2000). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    A 2-day regional seminar was held to raise awareness of the problem of youth unemployment in Southeastern Europe and assist countries in the region to develop their own framework of action and concrete projects. The following were among the topics discussed: ways policymakers can help young people find valid employment opportunities within…

  4. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and practical…

  5. The Reform of Vocational Curricula: Outcomes of the 2005 ETF Peer Reviews in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David; Nielsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    The European Training Foundation EU European (ETF) Peer Review is an initiative that was launched in the South Eastern European countries in 2002. It combines policy advice to individual countries with a regional dimension. The key objectives for the peer reviews are to: (1) provide an external assessment of VET (vocational education and training)…

  6. International Congress on the Occasion of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Associated Schools Project. (Sofia, Bulgaria, September 12-16, 1983). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report of the Proceedings of an international congress to mark the 30th anniversary of the Associated Schools Project of UNESCO is divided into seven sections. Section I, an introduction, outlines the background of the congress and initial proceedings: the opening address, election of officers, presentation of the program and rules of…

  7. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)]. PMID:27611674

  8. Integrated optics, fiber optics and holography; International School on Coherent Optics and Holography, 2nd, Varna, Bulgaria, September 28-October 3, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simova, P.; Savatinova, I.; Tsonev, L.

    Attention is given to such topics as developments in multimode and monomode integrated optics, the use of holographic techniques to produce integrated-optic elements, the fabrication of optical strip waveguides by diffusion and ion implantation, and the fabrication and investigation of optically controlled CdS(x)Se(1-x) thin-film waveguides. Papers are also presented on the theory of fiber-optic waveguides, mode power distribution measurements in optical fibers, methods for determining the index profile distribution in optical fibers, and highlights of optical-fiber communications systems. The physical properties of media for optical memories and holography, the synthesis of spatial-frequency filters for a coherent optical processor, and pulsed holography and its application are also examined. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  9. [Basic theoretical and methodological principles of developing a population and housing census program in the People's Republic of Bulgaria in 1985].

    PubMed

    Minkov, M

    1985-01-01

    "Proceeding from the Marxist approach to the relation between population and social development, a significantly broader theoretical model of studying the population by means of the forthcoming [Bulgarian] census is justified." The model includes demographic, educational, and socioeconomic aspects, as well as labor force activity. The collection of data by means of sample surveys is assessed, with a focus on areas concerning fertility and reproductive behavior, migration, labor needs and resources, health, and the social system. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12267125

  10. Assessment of mineral nitrogen dynamic and its concentration in the soil profile with the updated NLEAP V.2 model: A case study in South Central Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilization management is important to maximize use efficiencies and reduce losses, especially under irrigated cropping systems grown on sandy soils. The simulation modeling approach provides a fast and efficient means of integrating management effects with soil and climate information to...

  11. Structure and U-Pb zircon geochronology of an Alpine nappe stack telescoped by extensional detachment faulting (Kulidzhik area, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Neven; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Cherneva, Zlatka; Frei, Dirk; Grozdev, Valentin; Jahn-Awe, Silke; Nagel, Thorsten J.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhodope Metamorphic Complex is a stack of allochthons assembled during obduction, subduction, and collision processes from Jurassic to Paleogene and overprinted by extensional detachment faults since Middle Eocene. In the study area, the following nappes occur in superposition (from base to top): an orthogneiss-dominated unit (Unit I), garnet-bearing schist with amphibolite and serpentinite lenses (Unit II), greenschist, phyllite, and calcschist with reported Jurassic microfossils (Unit III), and muscovite-rich orthogneiss (Unit IV). U-Pb dating of zircons from a K-feldspar augengneiss (Unit I) yielded a protolith age of ca. 300 Ma. Garnet-bearing metasediment from Unit II yielded an age spectrum with distinct populations between 310 and 250 Ma (detrital), ca. 150 Ma, and ca. 69 Ma (the last two of high-grade metamorphic origin). An orthogneiss from Unit IV yielded a wide spectrum of ages. The youngest population gives a concordia age of 581 ± 5 Ma, interpreted as the age of the granitic protolith. Unit I represents the Lower Allochthon (Byala Reka-Kechros Dome), Unit II the Upper Allochthon (Krumovitsa-Kimi Unit), Unit III the Uppermost Allochthon (Circum-Rhodope Belt), and Unit IV a still higher, far-travelled unit of unknown provenance. Telescoping of the entire Rhodope nappe stack to a thickness of only a few 100 m is due to Late Eocene north directed extensional shearing along the newly defined Kulidzhik Detachment which is part of a major detachment system along the northern border of the Rhodopes. Older top-to-the south mylonites in Unit I indicate that Tertiary extension evolved from asymmetric (top-to-the-south) to symmetric (top-to-the-south and top-to-the-north), bivergent unroofing.

  12. Concentration of caesium-137, cobalt-60 and potassium-40 in some wild and edible plants around the nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Djingova, R; Kuleff, I

    2002-01-01

    The activities of 137Cs, 60Co and 40K were determined in samples of wild (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata and Populus nigra 'Italica') and edible (vegetable, corn, fruit) plants as well as soil collected from the 30 km safety zone of the Bulgarian NPP "Kozloduy" and comparisons with earlier measurements and analyses of samples from other regions and with literature values were performed. The derived transfer factors for 137Cs and 40K from soil to plants ranged between 0.002 and 0.009 for 137Cs, and between 0.09 and 0.35 for 40K. The individual effective dose (calculated from the present results and data on the activity of other foodstuffs and from information about dietary habits) comprises 4.5% of the annual dose limit. PMID:11848152

  13. European Regional Seminar on Implementation of the UNESCO Recommendation Concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education Relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Sofia, Bulgaria, 15-20 October 1979). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document is the final report of the Unesco seminar on international understanding. The major purposes of the seminar were twofold: (1) to evaluate implementation of human rights and peace-related recommendations within Unesco member nations since 1974 and (2) to suggest how to develop and implement more effective human rights/international…

  14. The Teaching of Science and Technology in an Interdisciplinary Context. Vol. II. Science and Technology Education Document Series 38. Summary of the Pilot Project and Proceedings of the Concluding Consultation (Plovdiv, Bulgaria, May 25-29, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    The proceedings of the final consultation meeting for the Pilot Project on the Teaching of Science and Technology in an interdisciplinary Context are presented. The goals of the project initiated by UNESCO were to develop and test ways in which the concepts, processes and skills of science and technology could be linked with or incorporated into…

  15. Archaeo-directional and -intensity data from burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar (Bulgaria): The effect of magnetic mineralogy, temperature and atmosphere of heating in antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herries, A. I. R.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Shaw, J.

    2007-07-01

    Archaeomagnetic results are presented from a series of burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar. Archaeointensity and archaeodirectional studies were undertaken on three kilns from a pottery production complex. This has been dated to the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C. (325-280 B.C.) based on coins found associated with the kilns [Tonkova, M., 2003. Newly discovered Thracian Centre of the Early Hellenistic Age at the Spring "Halka Bunar" in the Land of C. Gorno Belevo. Annuary of the Institute of Archaeology with Museum. Bulgarian Academy Sci. 2, 148-196 (in Bulgarian)]. This data provides a new point for the Bulgarian archaeomagnetic curve (Dec: 348.70 ± 5.79, Inc: 62.20 ± 2.70, and Fa: 77.23 ± 2.17 μT). The kilns are thought to have been used for producing different types of pottery in a range of heating atmospheres and at different temperatures. Therefore, special attention was paid to the magnetic mineralogy of the samples and its effect on the palaeodata. Kiln 3, orange clay samples were dominated by fine to ultra-fine grained single domain and superparamagnetic magnetite, with a small proportion of haematite. The samples were heated in a high temperature oxidising environment. Kiln 2 was probably used to make grey ware pottery. The samples are light grey and were dominated by stable single domain magnetite formed by high temperature heating in a more reducing environment. Kiln 4, mottled samples consisted of a variable mineralogy showing characteristics of both Kiln 2 and Kiln 3 samples. It was probably used to make traditional, mottled, Thracian ware pottery and was heated to lower temperatures in a mixed environment of heating. Samples heated in an oxidising environment gave more reliable Thellier results than samples heated in a reducing environment in antiquity, as the latter altered heavily on re-heating. A fourth kiln and a destruction feature from different trenches than the kiln complex were also investigated to establish their age. Archaeodirectional data was not recoverable from these two structures due to post-burning disturbance. The mean archaeointensity from Kiln 5 (mean 78.0 ± 1.7 μT) is consistent with that from the main kiln complex (mean 77.23 ± 2.17 μT) and is therefore considered to be contemporary. It was probably not used to make pottery. The destruction feature records much lower archaeointensity values (mean 65.1 ± 1.1 μT). When this value is compared to the existing reference points of the Bulgarian database it suggests this feature is younger than the kilns (250-140 B.C.). Multiple age use of the site is therefore confirmed with a main period of occupation in the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C. and another phase of occupation in the mid 3rd to mid 2nd century B.C.

  16. Educational Research in Five European Socialist Countries, A Survey 1970-1972: Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia. Recherche pedagogique dans cinq pays socialistes europeens, une enquete 1970-1972: Bulgarie, Hongrie, Pologne, Roumanie, Yougoslavie. Documents on Educational Research 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar, Comp.

    Intended as a follow-up to a 1969 survey of educational research institutes and projects in various European countries, this volume covers research units and projects of five European socialist countries for 1970-72. The main purpose of this raw, working document is to increase the exchange of information on educational research. Data was…

  17. 76 FR 60805 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... ($/ Net \\2\\ lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\...... European Union Restitution... of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  18. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Program(s) Subsidy ($/lb) Subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  19. 78 FR 52504 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...(s) subsidy ($/lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\ European Union Restitution $0... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  20. 31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... esportation of strategic goods. Schedule Albania Bulgaria Cambodia The Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania North Korea Mongolia People's Republic of China Poland Romania The Slovak Republic The geographic...

  1. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... deleted, and the following countries would be added to the remaining list: Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  2. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Latvia..., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  3. Suggestopedia and Memory Training in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Based on observations made in Bulgaria in the 1970s, it is proposed that the original version of Suggestopedia for second language training, used in Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s, differs significantly from the techniques developed later, in particular in concentration on and memorization of…

  4. Dynamics of viral hepatitis B epidemiological process in Plovdiv region.

    PubMed

    Kevorkyan-Sariyan, Ani K

    2013-01-01

    Registration of viral hepatitis cases by type started in 1982 in Bulgaria, and in August 1991 Bulgaria launched a mass immunisation programme to vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. The objective of this dissertation thesis is to study the epidemiological status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Plovdiv region (the second largest administrative region in Bulgaria with a population of 683,027 people in 2011), and assess the epidemiological process dynamics as a result of the administration of a recombinant vaccine that has been used over the past two decades. PMID:24191410

  5. A resolution urging the governments of Europe and the European Union to designate Hizballah as a terrorist organization and impose sanctions, and urging the President to provide information about Hizballah to the European allies of the United States and to support to the Government of Bulgaria in investigating the July 18, 2012, terrorist attack in Burgas.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2012-12-11

    12/21/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Voice. (text: CR S8379-8380) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...\\ Country Program(s) subsidy ($/lb) subsidy ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\ European Union... member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic,...

  7. Sarcopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosnia and Herzegovina - Brazil - Bulgaria - Cameroon - Canada - Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - ... significant risk factor for disability in the aging population 4 . When patients suffer from both sarcopenia and ...

  8. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosnia and Herzegovina - Brazil - Bulgaria - Cameroon - Canada - Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - ... warn of osteoporosis threat to Asia’s growing elderly population New drugs may help increase muscle strength and ...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1503 - Procedures for acquiring end products on the List of Products Requiring Contractor Certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... more (see Subpart 25.4); or (4) Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark..., Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or the United Kingdom and...

  10. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  11. The Lozanov Method for Accelerating the Learning of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the Lozanov Method of teaching foreign languages developed by Lozanov in Bulgaria. This method (also known as Suggestopedia) uses various techniques such as physical relaxation exercises, mental concentration, classical music, and ego-enhancing suggestions. (CFM)

  12. Perceptions of societal developmental hierarchies in Europe and beyond: A Bulgarian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Melegh, Attila; Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter; Young-Demarco, Linda

    2013-06-01

    We examine how ordinary citizens in Bulgaria view the developmental levels of European countries and certain states outside of Europe. Our research is motivated by the understanding that scholars and policy makers have for centuries used developmental hierarchies to characterize countries and that this perception of differential development has shaped interactions among different groups, countries and regions. We expect that views of such developmental hierarchies and models have great potential for influencing demographic and family behavior and political and cultural identities of ordinary people. Using data from a 2009 survey in Bulgaria we document that developmental hierarchies are widely perceived in Bulgaria, but are distributed differentially by age, education, and degree of urbanization. We also consider internal mechanisms underlying this hierarchical understanding of development and how hierarchical understandings may be related to national identities. PMID:23807821

  13. Perceptions of societal developmental hierarchies in Europe and beyond: A Bulgarian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Melegh, Attila; Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter; Young-DeMarco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ordinary citizens in Bulgaria view the developmental levels of European countries and certain states outside of Europe. Our research is motivated by the understanding that scholars and policy makers have for centuries used developmental hierarchies to characterize countries and that this perception of differential development has shaped interactions among different groups, countries and regions. We expect that views of such developmental hierarchies and models have great potential for influencing demographic and family behavior and political and cultural identities of ordinary people. Using data from a 2009 survey in Bulgaria we document that developmental hierarchies are widely perceived in Bulgaria, but are distributed differentially by age, education, and degree of urbanization. We also consider internal mechanisms underlying this hierarchical understanding of development and how hierarchical understandings may be related to national identities. PMID:23807821

  14. Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] or α64(E13)Asp→Asn (α1) (HBA1: c.193G>A) Observed in a Bulgarian Family.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Georgi; Dimishkovska, Marija; Tsoneva Ivanova, Vanya; Yordanov, Georgi; Zdraveski, Alexandar; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-01-01

    The abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) with an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution at α64 has been found on both the α2- and α1-globin genes. It has been described in many different populations under different names, but never in Bulgaria. Using the recently proposed nomenclature, Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] refers to the HBA1: c.193G > A, while Hb G-Waimanalo [A2] refers to the HBA2: c.193G > A mutation. Here, we present the first family from Bulgaria with Hb G-Waimanalo [A1]. PMID:26212674

  15. 15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency(ies), other than the government of the People's Republic of China. To determine whether the... security reasons? Does your transaction involve items destined for the People's Republic of China (PRC)? (i... Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria China (PRC) Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece...

  16. 15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(ies), other than the government of the People's Republic of China. To determine whether the parties to... transaction involve items destined for the People's Republic of China (PRC)? (i) If yes, continue with... Belgium Bulgaria China (PRC) Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong Hungary...

  17. 15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency(ies), other than the government of the People's Republic of China. To determine whether the... security reasons? Does your transaction involve items destined for the People's Republic of China (PRC)? (i... Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria China (PRC) Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece...

  18. News of Projects in Associated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes projects for the development of international understanding which were organized by elementary and secondary schools around the world as part of Unesco's Associated Schools program. Project descriptions from schools in Bulgaria, Colombia, Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Phillipines, Thailand, and the United States are…

  19. Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter examines problems and rights of Romani children in East Central Europe, focusing on such topics as: the displaced childhoods of Romani children; snapshots of living conditions in various European countries; Roma child rights; Romani and non-Romani schools in Bulgaria; Romani children's rights to education in Central and Eastern…

  20. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  1. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  2. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  3. Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

  4. A Cross-National Study of the Learning Environment in Chemistry Classes at Albanian, Kosovar, Romanian and Turkish Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilov, Iliya; Tafrova-Grigorova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a cross-national research entitled "In the past and now: Constructivist practices in teaching chemistry--Bulgaria, the Balkans and Europe." The purpose of the research is to explore science secondary classroom environments in terms of the constructivist approach. The study has been carried out at international…

  5. Internal and External Ethnic Assessments in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Patricia; Feliciano, Cynthia; Emigh, Rebecca Jean

    2007-01-01

    Survey data for majority and minority ethnicities in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Russia illustrate how internal ethnic identification and other social characteristics influence external ethnic classification. Logistic regressions show how interviewers use negative social characteristics (poverty, low education) to classify respondents as Roma…

  6. The Practice of Media Education: International Research on Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parola, Alberto; Ranieri, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of OnAir, a European project on Media Education funded by the European Commission. This two-year project aimed at collecting, documenting, and developing media education practices across Europe, especially in Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, and Romania. In particular, the paper focuses on…

  7. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  8. New approximating results for data with errors in both variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, N.; Todorov, S.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce new data from mineral water probe Lenovo Bulgaria, measured with errors in both variables. We apply our Orthonormal Polynomial Expansion Method (OPEM), based on Forsythe recurrence formula to describe the data in the new error corridor. The development of OPEM gives the approximating curves and their derivatives in optimal orthonormal and usual expansions including the errors in both variables with special criteria.

  9. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  10. Assisting Bulgarian Special Educators with Competency Development Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rob; Herrington, Jan; Konza, Deslea; Tzvetkova-Arsova, Mira; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss an expansion of the Special Education Bulgaria (SEB) internet community that is required to pilot software created by the European Union's (EU's) Sixth Framework integrated project, TENCompetence. Design/methodology/approach: SEB is the product of a two-year research project designed to create a…

  11. Roosters to Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.; Suiter, Mary, Ed.

    This publication contains six lessons for elementary, secondary, and high school classrooms developed by writers from Belarus, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, and the United States. The authors of these lessons were participants in the Training of Writers program developed and conducted by the National Council on Economic Education,…

  12. Is It Reasonable to Speak of a Crisis of the Family?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhomova, E. I.

    2007-01-01

    The early 1990s were marked by the onset of a period of lengthy depopulation in Russia. A number of countries confronted a natural decline in population in the 20th century, in particular Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. What is specific to Russia, however, is that the depopulation relates to both components of…

  13. Education in One World: Perspectives from Different Nations. BCES Conference Books, Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Chigisheva, Oksana, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains papers submitted to the 11th Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES), held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 14-17 May 2013, and papers submitted to the 1st International Distance Partner Conference, organized by the International Research Centre "Scientific Cooperation,"…

  14. 75 FR 17699 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Net\\2\\ Subsidy ($/ Country Program(s) Gross\\1\\ Subsidy ($/lb) lb) 27 European Union Member States\\3\\ European Union Restitution Payments $ 0.00 $0.00 Canada Export Assistance on Certain Types of Cheese $ 0.35...(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Belgium, Bulgaria,...

  15. 78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to reflect the enlargement of the European Union to 27... Romania acceded to the European Union (EU), and the EU customs union of 25 member countries (``EU-25'') was enlarged to a customs union of 27 member countries (``EU-27''). At that time, Bulgaria and...

  16. Content Reading in Four European Union Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.; Flynt, E. Sutton

    2009-01-01

    Is content literacy exclusively a U.S. phenomenon? In this installment we report on the state of content literacy from four international perspectives. Descriptions of content literacy from Ireland, Sweden, Germany, and Bulgaria offer insights into (a) the value policymakers may be placing on reading practices for content learning, and (b) the…

  17. 76 FR 72677 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...) ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\......... European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00 Payments...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  18. 76 FR 38359 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...) subsidy ($/lb) ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\......... European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). ] \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  19. 78 FR 40102 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00 Payments. Canada Export...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  20. Suggestopedia to SALT and a New Awareness in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    SALT, suggestive-accelerative learning and teaching, is the Americanized version of a pedagogy developed in Bulgaria. While most extensively applied to foreign language teaching, the methodology may be applied to any discipline, particularly one based upon a foundation of learned facts. This document applies the method to ESL classes. The teacher…

  1. International Observing Expedition: Perseids & Solar Eclipse Kamen Bryag, August 5-15, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojurova, E.; Velkov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium "Nicholas Copernicus" in Varna, Bulgaria, together with the Astroclub Canopus organize an expedition for observations of the Perseid meteor shower maximum and the total solar eclipse of August 11 in the village of Kamen Bryag from August 5 to 15, 1999.

  2. Review of Progress in Vocational Education and Training Reform of the Candidate Countries for Accession to the European Union in the Light of Developments in European Policy on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reviews progress in vocational education and training (VET) reform in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union in light of developments in European policy on vocational training. The document consists of a cross-country overview and individual overviews of VET in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, the Czech…

  3. Bulgarians: Costumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Walter W.

    This booklet presents background information and descriptions of Bulgarian national costumes. The document is part of an ethnic heritage unit intended for use by elementary and secondary social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural awareness educational programs on Bulgaria. Costumes from 11 Bulgarian regions are…

  4. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  5. Stocktaking Research on Policies for Education for Democratic Citizenship and Management of Diversity in Southeast Europe. Regional Analysis and Intervention Proposals. Regional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cameron; Baumgartl, Bernd

    This report is a contribution to the Stocktaking Research Project on national government policies within the field of education for Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC) and the Management of Diversity (MofD) in the countries of South East Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia). The…

  6. Migration Processes and Mechanisms of Youth Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitev, Peter-Emil

    The dramatic changes in Bulgaria's agriculture, labor structure, and demography caused by the establishment of socialism in the country in the mid-1940s have resulted in changing mechanisms of youth socialization. Industrialization and agricultural consolidation precipitated a rural-urban migration boom and a resulting higher education level,…

  7. Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

  8. 2 CFR 176.90 - Non-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements. 176.90 Section 176.90 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...-European Communities Exchange of Letters (May 15, 1995): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech...

  9. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  10. The Role of Children in Eastern European Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robila, Mihaela; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the additive effect of attitudes towards gender roles and importance of marriage on the centrality of children in seven East European countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, the former East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Slovenia using the data from the 1994 International Social Science Survey (ISSP). Results support…

  11. Correlates of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Six Countries: Development of an International Screening and Assessment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow; and Others

    The aim of this study was to develop tools for screening and assessment of socio-medical effects of alcohol use which are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in any primary health care setting. A test protocol was prepared by a group of investigators from Australia, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and the United States. Based on a number of…

  12. Training of Occupational Health Personnel. Report on a Consultation (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, June 24-28, 1981). EURO Reports and Studies, 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The present situation and the future needs in training of occupational health personnel were studied in a consultation held by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization together with the Government of Yugoslavia. Approaches to training were reviewed for these countries: Bulgaria, Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany,…

  13. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  14. Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1985. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1985 have been annotated in this bibliography. Entries from 25 journals representing nine countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed at the beginning of the volume. Countries represented include: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal Republic of…

  15. Self-Conscious Emotions in Response to Perceived Failure: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidjerano, Temi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the occurrence of self-conscious emotions in response to perceived academic failure among 4th-grade students from the United States and Bulgaria, and the author investigated potential contributors to such negative emotional experiences. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that regardless of country, negative…

  16. Analysis of the Socio-Demographic Structure and Thoughts of the Turkish Bilingual Children on "Bilingualism" in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

    2008-01-01

    Two thirds of the world's population is bilingual to some extent, hence from an international perspective speaking more than one language is the norm rather than the exception. Germany, Bulgaria, Iraq are only a few of the countries where more than one language is widely spoken. This study aims to analyse the socio-demographic structure and second…

  17. Report from the European Prison Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents updates on the recent activities of the European Prison Education Association. The main activity of the Association during the quarter has been the biennial conference, "Challenges for European Prison Education: Let's make the changes together," which was held in Sofia, Bulgaria. The conference was open to prison educators…

  18. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  19. Ten Years After and Looking Ahead: A Review of the Transformations of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.

    This volume consists of representative case studies from institutions in Central and Eastern European countries engaged in the reform of higher education. The case studies are structured with the aid of a questionnaire completed by the contributors. The studies are: (1) "Bulgaria: The University of Ruse--Institutional Change in the Bulgarian…

  20. Implementation of the Bologna Objectives in a Sample of European Private Higher Education Institutions: Outcomes of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasceanu, Lazar; Voicu, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a recent survey of private higher education institutions from twelve selected European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, Russia) [in the framework of the UNESCO-CEPES project on "Private Higher Education in Europe and Quality Assurance…

  1. Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralyakov, Petko

    2011-12-01

    Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

  2. Lake Wobegon Upside Down: The Paradox of Status-Devaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sgourev, Stoyan V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines a cognitive bias whereby respondents in postcommunist Bulgaria systematically decrease their self estimates on material welfare in contrast to the well-established status-enhancement bias. The analysis shows that the main reason for the occurrence of status-devaluation is the experience of relative deprivation in postcommunism,…

  3. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  4. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Woman: Memory, Myth, and the Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Chad

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the development of a young poet from Bulgaria, Indiana Pehlivanova, who experienced an explosive growth as a poet. Activating memory, myth, and reality, Pehlivanova's imagination wove together what the author terms as "the finest lines I have ever witnessed in youth poetry."

  5. Mass Communication Research--Current Documentation; Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press Research Centre, Krakow (Poland).

    This publication, the sixth in a series, presents abstracts of 149 publications on mass communication research and propaganda, written by social scientists in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland. For each abstract, information is provided about the language of the original document,…

  6. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  7. JPRS report proliferation issues

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-18

    This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons relevant technologies. The following locations are included: (1) China; (2) Indonesia; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Brazil, Cuba; (5) Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Norway.

  8. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [August 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-14

    This report presents the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) East Asia; Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, (3) Brazil, (4) Near East and South Asia; India, Syria, Pakistan, (5) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia (6) West Europe; Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Finland, Italy, Switzerland (7) South Africa, and (8) Soviet Union.

  9. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  10. A new species of Leipothrix Keifer, 1966 (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus spp. in Europe and reassignment of two Epitrimerus spp. (Acari: Eriophyidae) to the genus Leipothrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus n. sp., collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) and D. fullonum L. in Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, and France, is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Leipothrix knautiae (Liro) n. co...

  11. Silencing in genetically engineered Prunus domestica provides durable and safe resistance to Plum pox virus (sharka disease)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally identified in Bulgaria in 1915, Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most damaging virus of stone fruit trees including apricot, plum, peach, and cherry. PPV steadily spread throughout Europe over the years since its discovery, and at the turn of the century (1999-2000), it reached North America ...

  12. Enlargement Project: Insight into ICT Professional Skills and Jobs in the Candidate Countries. Enlargement Futures Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta

    A study examined information and communication technologies (ICT) job trends and the prospects for preservation and supply of high skilled professionals in the medium and longer term in candidate countries (CCs), for admission into the European Union, focusing on Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland. Rapidly changing technology and growth of…

  13. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12316673

  14. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes of…

  15. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  16. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  17. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine Danova, L.…

  18. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  19. Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.; And Others

    Historical summaries and annotated bibliographies are provided for chapters focusing on national minorities in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy and Austria, Bulgaria, and Albania between 1919 and 1980. Chapter 1, "Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980" (Stephen M. Horak), includes an historical summary focusing…

  20. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  1. Training of Adult Educators in East Europe. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Ed.

    The purpose of this volume is to present information on the training of adult educators in East European countries. All but two of these countries, Albania and Bulgaria, are described. The first of nine articles provides an overview of the research and preparation of adult education staff in some East European countries. Factors cited as…

  2. Educational Research in Seven European Socialist Countries. A Survey, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Zdenek

    This volume incorporates the documents on educational research institutions and their research projects which were prepared for the Seminar for Directors of Educational Research Institutes and Professors of Education held at the Unesco Institute for Education, November, 1969. These documents, dealing with 32 institutions from Bulgaria,…

  3. International Perspectives on Education. BCES Conference Books, Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Leutwyler, Bruno, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains papers submitted to the 10th Annual Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society, held in Kyustendil, Bulgaria, 12-15 June 2012. The overall goal of the 10th BCES conference is to facilitate discussion of different perspectives on international education providing a forum for scientific debate and constructive…

  4. Comparison of Learning Strategies for Mathematics Achievement in Turkey with Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Serpil; Cene, Erhan; Demir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning strategies accounted for mathematics achievement across Turkey and neighboring countries. Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Israel, Serbia, Romania and Jordan were involved in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) study. Since other neighbors of Turkey…

  5. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  6. European Approaches To Widening Participation in Higher Education: A Commentary in Light of the Role of the Society for Research into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of Estonia, Bulgaria, and the United Kingdom illustrate how the access and equity agenda in each country reflect national social concerns and priorities and how individual institutions reinterpret national agendas in light of institutional missions and objectives. Sees a role for the Society for Research into Higher Education in…

  7. The use of genetic engineering for the improvement of stone fruit virus resistance as a model case for the success and challenges of this technology in fruit tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most important virus disease of stone fruits (peaches, nectarines, apricots, and cherries). Since the first report of PPV from Bulgaria in the early 20th century, the virus has invaded virtually the entire European continent and has been spreadin...

  8. Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K.

    2006-01-01

    November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav…

  9. Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1983. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1983 have been annotated in this bibliography. Entries from 25 journals representing 12 countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed at the beginning of the volume. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal…

  10. The Didactics of Biology. Selected Bibliography for 1980. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 19 journals representing 11 different countres are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  11. Didactics of Biology. Selected Bibliography for 1982. Parts I and II. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Paula, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1982 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 25 journals representing 12 countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal…

  12. Didactics of Biology. Selective Bibliography, 1981. Part I [and] Part II. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1980 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 19 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  13. Didactics of Biology. Selected Bibliography for 1984. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornik, Frantisek, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1984 have been annotated in this bibliography. Entries from 23 journals representing 10 countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal Republic…

  14. Christos Patriotis, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Christos Patriotis obtained his MSc in Biochemistry from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria in 1985 and his PhD in Molecular Biology from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1990. Postdoctoral training focused on signal transduction and tumor cell biology. |

  15. The Lozanov Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  16. Some aspects of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens.

    PubMed

    Harizanov, Rumen N; Jordanova, Diana P; Bikov, Ivailo S

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, zoonotic filariae Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens are gaining popularity as incidental human parasitic pathogens. The usual hosts for these nematodes are domestic and wild carnivorous animals. The medical significance of human dirofilariasis is due to frequent misdiagnosis as malignancy and in many cases diagnosis is made after invasive surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to ascertain the geographical distribution and clinical manifestations of a relatively rare among people zoonotic disease such as dirofilariasis, whose epidemiological features depends on prevalence of the parasite among usual hosts, presence of suitable vector, and human activities favoring exposure. Data for a 39-year period were analyzed, during which, in Bulgaria, were recorded 47 cases of human dirofilariasis with various organ localizations. Morphological methods were also used for species identification of Dirofilaria (N.) repens and serological diagnostic tests for filariasis. Some epidemiological parameters such as annual incidence, prevalence for different geographic areas in Bulgaria, distribution by gender (28 females and 19 males) and age (from 19 to 77 years of age) of the diseased were identified, and aspects of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease were discussed. Comparison was made between the number of cases in Bulgaria and those in other European countries. Although the climatic and faunal conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for disease transmission between animal reservoir hosts and humans, the diagnosis of dirofilariasis is often omitted. PMID:24556844

  17. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  18. UBV observations of the flickering of T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Semkov, E.; Stoyanov, K.; Tomov, T.

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis has entered a super-active state (Munari, Dallaporta & amp; Cherini, 2016, NewA, in press). On February 7, 2016, we observed the flickering of T CrB in three filters (UBV) using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria).

  19. 76 FR 1460 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DVD Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ..., Kowloon, HONG KONG-CHINA; and Crystal Ton 2 Ltd., Sofia, BULGARIA, have been added as parties to this... Electronic Limited, Guangdon, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Hong Kong ASA Multimedia Co., Ltd., Kowloon, HONG..., REPUBLIC OF KOREA; Skyworth (Group) Co., Ltd., Quarry Bay, HONG KONG-CHINA; The Refined Industry Co.,...

  20. M-Learning Systems Design--Technology and Pedagogy Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Asenova, Asya; Dulev, Pavlin

    2013-01-01

    Technology developments face universities with many challenges--to integrate technologies in educational processes, design new electronic materials, change teaching styles, and better meet the demands of the technology-savvy generation. The paper considers problems of m-learning adoption in Bulgaria at one Faculty of the Technical…

  1. Reflective Implementation of DERIVE in Teaching Mathematics at the University of Food Technology, Plovdiv

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Eva D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Mathematics at the University of Food Technology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, has introduced the Computer Algebra System DERIVE into the Mathematics courses with a view to increasing student motivation and understanding of the material taught as well as the efficiency of the teaching process. With the aim of investigating the effect of…

  2. School Adaptation of Roma Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

  3. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  4. Matching Preservation Decisions with Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khislovskaya, Galina

    Based on communication with librarians from Russia, Mongolia, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Romania, this paper discusses library collection development and preservation policies. Highlights include: mission statements of national and regional libraries; availability of a formal structure responsible for collection…

  5. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  6. Capitalism Reborn, Chaos and the Post-Socialist Freefall: A View from Europe's "New Periphery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The present paper--from a vantage in Bulgaria, and focusing in significant part on this country as an iconic example of the "post-socialist freefall' and its dystopia on European capitalism's neocolonial "new periphery"--is a revised version of an earlier chapter in "Immiseration Capitalism and Education: Austerity,…

  7. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  8. Cross-Language Analysis and Second Language Acquisition. Volume 1. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    A collection of 17 papers, most presented at the Fifth International Conference on Contrastive Projects in June 1982 in Finland, includes: "Present Trends in Contrastive Linguistics,""Contrastive Linguistics in Bulgaria,""Communicative Competence in Foreign Language Teaching: A Project Report,""From Traditional Contrastive Linguistics Towards a…

  9. Teacher Education Models in Geography: An International Comparison. Papers Prepared in Conjunction with the International Geographical Union Congress (25th, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Wm., Ed.

    Thirteen essays discussing how teachers are trained to teach geography in various countries are presented. The papers are: "Teacher Education in Geography: The Comparative View" (W. E. Marsden); "The Training of Geography Teachers in the People's Republic of Bulgaria" (Paulina Vekilska and Dimitar Kantchev); "Note Sur la Formation des Maitres…

  10. MetaPath: An Electronic Knowledge Base for Collating, Exchanging and Analyzing Case Studies of Xenobiotic Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new MetaPath information system was developed through a collaborative effort between the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (Bourgas, Bulgaria), EPA’s Office of Research and Development (NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN and NERL, ERD, Athens, GA), and EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety a...

  11. Social Structure and Social Change in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, George; Schenkel, Walter

    This specialized bibliography of scholarly writings since 1945 on Eastern Europe covers the countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Distinct entries number about 700 and cover works published in English in the United States and Great Britain and also sources in French and German published…

  12. Informationstechnische Weiterbildung Fur Frauen Von Frauen: Internationaler Workshop = Education in Informatics for Women By Women: International Workshop (Hamburg, Germany, November 30-December 3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellebrecht, Ingrid, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents workshop results and participants' reports from the international conference "Train the Trainers in Information and Communication Technology." The participants consisted of 18 women and one man from Czechoslovakia, Russia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, Mongolia, Jordan, Egypt, and the Philippines. Eleven reports were presented…

  13. The Tomatis Method and Suggestopedia: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Developed in Bulgaria in the 1960's by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, Suggestopedia is a unique system of foreign language teaching, combining yoga relaxation and verbal suggestion with the direct method. In the 1950's in France, Dr. Alfred Tomatis began his research into the ear and the voice and subsequently developed his own unique system for treating…

  14. Infants Prefer the Musical Meter of Their Own Culture: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Gaye; Hannon, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Infants prefer native structures such as familiar faces and languages. Music is a universal human activity containing structures that vary cross-culturally. For example, Western music has temporally regular metric structures, whereas music of the Balkans (e.g., Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey) can have both regular and irregular structures. We…

  15. Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

  16. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Petanovic & Rector, 2007) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) – A promising candidate for biological control of Dipsacus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus has been recorded from Serbia and Bulgaria on Dipsacus laciniatus and from France on D. fullonum. Host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus spp., which indicates that it could be regarded as potential biocontrol a...

  17. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  18. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  19. A Journal of travel of an astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.

    2015-06-01

    The authors is descibing personal impressions from a number of scientific conferences took between 1993 and 1998 in Trieste (ICTP,with the participation of 2 Nobel Laureats Winners: Professor Abdus Salam (1926-1996) and Professor Gert t'Hooft), Catania astrophysical Observatory and University (1995-JENAM 1995), Athens Observatory and University (1996-Wide Field Spectroscopy), Prague Technicke Museum (1996- Symposium "Mysterium Cosmographicum"),Prague technical University (1998 -JENAM 1998),which in fact contained also a trip to Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Torun (Poland). Besides,some details on trips through Ukraine, Poland, Serbia, where a kind meeting with astronomers from Belgrade took place in 1995, former Yugoslav Countries: Monetnegro, Slovenija and Croatia, Bulgaria, where another meeting with physicists from the Academy of Sciences of Bulgaria took place has been given also.

  20. Using principal component analysis and general path seeker regression for investigation of air pollution and CO modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Kulina, H.; Iliev, I.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring and control of air quality in urban areas is important problem in many European countries. The main air pollutants are observed and a huge amount of data is collected during the last years. In Bulgaria, the air quality is surveyed by the official environmental agency and in many towns exceedances of harmful pollutants are detected. The aim of this study is to investigate the pollution from 9 air pollutants in the town of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria in the period of 5 years based on hourly data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to discover the patterns in the overall pollution and the contribution of the 9 pollutants. In addition the Generalized Path Seeker (GPS) regularized regression method is applied to find dependence of CO (carbon monoxide) with respect to other pollutants and 8 meteorological parameters. It is reported that the CO concentrations are in continuously repeated low level quantities very harmful for human health.

  1. Ethnic and religious differentials in Bulgarian mortality, 1993-98.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Iliana V; Preston, Samuel H

    2011-03-01

    We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data-set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socio-economic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this 'Muslim paradox'. For older Turkish women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054

  2. Physical parameters of eclipsing binary components, discovered by STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcheva, Maya; Markov, Haralambi; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Iliev, Ilian; Stateva, Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric observations made with the Heliospheric Imager 1 onboard NASA's STEREO mission a list of eclipsing binary systems was prepared which can be observed with the Coude spectrograph of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria, Smolyan, Bulgaria. The epoch and orbital period of each system were determined. The full complement of data consist of light curves extracted from STEREO HI-1 cameras photometry, wide coverage Echelle spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, USA, for stellar characterization and Coude spectra with R ≈ 15000 and R ≈ 30000 obtained at NAO Rozhen for radial velocity curves. Here we present preliminary results from applying the Wilson-Devinney models for the determination of some physical parameters of three SB2 eclipsing binary systems - HD 103694, HD 185990, and HD 214688.

  3. Ethnic and religious differentials in Bulgarian mortality, 1993–98

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Iliana V.; Preston, Samuel H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socioeconomic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this ‘Muslim paradox’. For older Muslim women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054

  4. Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. ); Vinogradova, O.V.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

  5. JPRS report proliferation issues

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-07

    This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons relevant technologies. The following locations are included: (1) South Africa; (2) China; (3) North and South Korea, Japan; (4) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia; (5) Argentina, Brazil; (6) India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, Libya, Iraq, Egypt; (7) Soviet Union; and (8) Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France.

  6. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [November 29, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-29

    This report presents the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) East Asia; Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, (3) Latin America; Argentina, Brazil, (4) Near East and South Asia; India, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates (5) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Poland, (6) West Europe; Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Ireland, Turkey, Austria, United Kingdom, (7) South Africa, and (8) Soviet Union.

  7. Descriptions of two new species of Aelurillus Simon, 1884 (Araneae, Salticidae) from the Mediterranean, with the synonymization of A. steliosi Dobroruka, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Azarkina, Galina N.; Komnenov, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two Aelurillus species are described as new, Aelurillus alboclypeus sp. n. (♂♀, from Turkey) and Aelurillus deltshevi sp. n. (♂, from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Azerbaijan). Aelurillus steliosi Dobroruka, 2002 is synonymized with Aelurillus leipoldae (Metzner, 1999). Additional distributions of the closely related species Aelurillus v-insignitus are provided for the region of study. Distributional maps are provided for the five species reported in this paper. PMID:26312023

  8. Influence of odour immissions from cellulose-paper industry on some health indicators.

    PubMed

    Georgieff, D; Turnovska, T

    1999-01-01

    The population of the town of Stamboliisky, Bulgaria, is constantly exposed to air pollution which includes immissions of unpleasant odours like methylmercaptane, dimethylsulphide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. Most of these can cause serious olfactory damage even at concentrations well below the toxic levels. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of odour immissions on the health status of the people in the town of Stamboliisky. PMID:10462918

  9. Recent optical activity of Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S.; Gupta, A. C.

    2013-04-01

    Our BVRI optical observations of Mrk 421 were performed within the multiwavelength international campaign (December 2012-June 2013), with the participation of GASP-WEBT, Swift, MAGIC, VLBA, NuSTAR, Fermi, VERITAS, F-GAMMA and other collaborations. Following the reports of enhanced X-ray and gamma activity of Mrk 421 (ATel #4978, ATel #4977, ATel #4976, ATel #4974, ATel #4918), we observed this blazar with the optical telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and the Astronomical Observatory Belogradchik, Bulgaria.

  10. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  11. [Oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy. Religious, medico-social, ethical, financial and legal problems].

    PubMed

    Kozovski, I; Kovachev, M; Angelova, K; Alexandrov, K; Kozovski, G; Markova, V

    2010-01-01

    The authors quote and discuss the postulates of the Orthodox, Jewish, Catholic and Islamic religions towards ART as well as worldwide legislations and standards and the attitude of female students of medicine in Varna. Indications of oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy are proposed but all kinds or surrogacy should be permitted. The ART legislation and standards in Bulgaria should be thoroughly revised. PMID:20734677

  12. Returns to Education and Economic Transition: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Fan-sing

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the returns to education in transitional economies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic and the Ukraine in the 1990s, and in China in the 1980s and 1990s. In the pre-transition period, the returns to education in the six CEE countries were low at about 2-4%,…

  13. [Testing the identity of hashish samples with ICP-AES and NAA and data handling with neural networks. 2. Data verification with the use of artificial neural networks].

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, A; Feuring, T; Lippe, W M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty different hashish samples, which were confiscated in Irak, Iran, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Great Britain and Germany were analysed by means of NAA and ICP-AES. We used modified ANNs to identify a repeated analysed sample out of that data pool. The ANNs are described. Especially the learning rule, a modified backpropagation method, is presented. It is obvious, that neural networks can solve the described classification tasks. There is no significant difference in the power of the applied analytical methods. PMID:9476257

  14. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

    SciTech Connect

    Glavev, Victor

    2014-11-18

    The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

  15. Some potentialities for using aerospace information in the field of national security and defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsov, Petar; Penev, Pavel

    The modern tendencies in using remote sensing techniques and systems for studying the Earth from space are formulated. The potentialities to use dual-destination space monitoring commercial satellites on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria are outlined. General formulation of the tasks in the field of defence and security resolved through the space segment is given. A structure for a sovereign National Space Information Centre is suggested.

  16. Astronomy in the Bulgarian Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, Alexey; Maglova, Penka

    Bulgaria is famous for the richness of its Neolithic culture, with its large variety of artistic representations having deep semantic meaning. Here, we consider several types of monument which yield evidence for the astronomical practices and beliefs of Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) peoples. We begin by considering the emergence and development of Neolithic and Eneolithic societies in Bulgaria and the chronological development of material and spiritual culture. By discussing specific monuments it is shown how astronomy was woven into everyday and spiritual life, revealing insights into people's concepts of space and time. The monuments concerned are Karanovo, the largest and one of the oldest tells in Europe; Topchika cave, with the earliest rock pictures; Magura cave, one of the largest and most beautiful caves in Bulgaria, famous for its unique paintings; Bailovo cave complex, with its lunar images and calendar frieze composed of monochrome paintings; and the Tangarduk Kaya cave sanctuary, from which observations could have been made of the culmination of the sun on the meridian at the solstices.

  17. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  18. Use of biofuels as an option for environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Grozev, O.; Delkov. A.; Krustev, T.; Angelov, I.

    1996-12-31

    There are options in Bulgaria for increasing wood use as an energy source. According to the data of the Committee of Forests, the mean annual wood biomass increment is estimated over 11 mln dense m{sup 3}. In the same time, the foreseen cut is about 6.4 mln m{sup 3}, but the real harvested amounts are 4.5 to 5 mln m{sup 3}. Planning confirms the usage of coppice forests must be increased several times and the harvested biomass could be appropriately used in chemical products as a renewable fuel. Additional woodfuel production is possible within the frame of 1.553 mln m{sup 3}: from the forests for reconstruction - 558,000 m{sup 3}, from the forests for overgrowth and convertion - 552,000 m{sup 3}, from the high-stem forests through thinnings - 25,000 m{sup 3} coniferous and 418,000 m{sup 3} deciduous. About 3% from the forests in Bulgaria are already dead due to disease, wilting, fire, stand destruction, loss of regenerative abilities, etc., which is about 2 mln m{sup 3} dry wood mass. One of the most important biomass reserves is the small-sized timber obtained during the timber production and the primary treating in the wood-cutting areas and store houses and in the woodworking and furniture plants whose amount is 1.2 mln m{sup 3}. Bioenergetical initiatives must be connected with the possibilities for more effective utilization of the wood during the combustion: more efficient kilns for charcoal production, charcoal packaging (e.g., briquettes and granules), improved woodfuel cook stoves, improved use of charcoal for industry (e.g., steel), etc. It will be started working in these directions in our country because the wood in Bulgaria is still burnt in the most primitive ways. It is completely real and possible to extend the biomass utilization as an energetical source in Bulgaria. The introduction of the proper technologies friendly to the environment recently unknown in Bulgaria will provide environmental benefits to the nature and the society in the country.

  19. Earthquake scenarios based on lessons from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stella; Aleksandrova, Irena; Popova, Iliana

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are the most deadly of the natural disasters affecting the human environment; indeed catastrophic earthquakes have marked the whole human history. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The implementation of the earthquake scenarios into the policies for seismic risk reduction will allow focusing on the prevention of earthquake effects rather than on intervention following the disasters. The territory of Bulgaria (situated in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula) represents a typical example of high seismic risk area. Over the centuries, Bulgaria has experienced strong earthquakes. At the beginning of the 20-the century (from 1901 to 1928) five earthquakes with magnitude larger than or equal to MS=7.0 occurred in Bulgaria. However, no such large earthquakes occurred in Bulgaria since 1928, which may induce non-professionals to underestimate the earthquake risk. The 1986 earthquake of magnitude MS=5.7 occurred in the central northern Bulgaria (near the town of Strazhitsa) is the strongest quake after 1928. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. In the present study deterministic scenarios (expressed in seismic intensity) for two Bulgarian cities (Rouse and Plovdiv) are presented. The work on

  20. PREFACE: Fifteenth International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerassimov, Nikolay; Möller, Wolfhard; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2008-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biannually since 1977. It is a forum for the interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the event (since 2001) have been the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, and the Evrika Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria. The fifteenth meeting of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sozopol, Bulgaria from 17-21 September 2007 and was attended by around 120 participants from 17 countries: Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Pakistan, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all peer reviewed to meet the originality and quality criteria of the journal. The school consisted of 11 oral and 3 poster sessions. There were 17 invited talks of general interest and 12 progress reports were presented orally. In total 86 contributed papers were presented during the three poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering the fundamentals of gas discharges and interaction of fast particles with solids, a wide range of conventional and novel applications such as for hard coatings and optical/protective layers, nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Recent achievements in the modification of materials using charged particles or laser beams, thin layers deposition, properties, and characterization and novel materials, techniques, devices were highlighted. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal

  1. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

  2. Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fornarino, Simona; Nesheva, Desislava; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Carossa, Valeria; Yordanov, Yordan; Torroni, Antonio; Galabov, Angel S.; Toncheva, Draga; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible. PMID:23483890

  3. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  4. Y-chromosome diversity in modern Bulgarians: new clues about their ancestry.

    PubMed

    Karachanak, Sena; Grugni, Viola; Fornarino, Simona; Nesheva, Desislava; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Carossa, Valeria; Yordanov, Yordan; Torroni, Antonio; Galabov, Angel S; Toncheva, Draga; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible. PMID:23483890

  5. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  6. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  7. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  8. Preliminary results on optical polarimetry of OJ287 blazar-type AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhilov, Vladimir; Borisov, Galin; Ovcharov, Evgeni

    We perform two epoch optical polarimetry observations of the BL Lac-type AGN OJ287. The data are gathered with the Focal Reducer Rozhen 2 -- FoReRo2 on the 2-m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria, on the nights of 17th and 18th November 2012. We derive polarization in R-band and position angle (P.A.). Observed variation in P.A. corresponds to rotation of the plane of polarization of 10.8 ° per day.

  9. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. PMID:27451111

  10. Spacecraft tables 1957 - 1990.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    This book presents a record of all space launches of all space-active countries from 1957 to 1990. In each case, the name and number designation, launch date, reentry date (when applicable) are given. Launches are organized by country, and by type of mission. If known, the purpose of the mission is indicated. The countries represented include the U.S., U.S.S.R., Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom. Among organizations covered are NASA, Amsat, Intelsat, ESA, Interkosmos, NATO, Inmarsat, Entelsat, Arabsat.

  11. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voynikova, D. S.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-01

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants - sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  12. Properties and hydration products of lightweight and expansive cements. Part I: Physical and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lilkov, V.; Djabarov, N.; Bechev, G.; Kolev, K.

    1999-10-01

    Results from studies on the physical and mechanical properties of lightweight and expansive cements cured at 20 and 75 C are presented. Lightweight additive (cenospheres from thermoelectric power station Bobov Dol, Bulgaria) and expansive additive (Bulexa with hydroxide type of expansion) were used. The compressive and flexural strength, the gas and water impermeability, and the pore structure of the cement stone of lightweight and expansive cements were investigated. The results are compared with corresponding parameters of cement stone without additives. It was found that the cenospheres are appropriate lightweight additives. The use of expansive additive helps overcome the dry shrinkage of cement stone and strengthens the bond with the bounding surfaces.

  13. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  14. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  15. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  16. Power market analysis and potential revenues of new transmission lines in a deregulated environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. S.; Veselka, T. D.; Trouille, B.

    2002-05-15

    This paper describes an approach that was developed to analyze the market potential for power transactions via proposed transmission lines among the electric power utilities of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania. The approach uses an integrated modeling framework consisting of several computer models that estimate the financial and economic benefits of constructing new transmission lines. The integrated model simulates open power markets under several scenarios that include cases with and without the proposed interconnections. The approach estimates power transactions among the three Balkan utility systems and the benefits of coordinated or joint system operations, including short-term power sales agreements.

  17. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and the USSR. Volume 3. 1990 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 29 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, Denmark/Greenland, Spain, Portugal, Luxembourg, The United Kingdom, and Ireland); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Austria, and Switzerland); Malta; the 8 Centrally Planned Economies of Eastern Europe (the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Poland, Yugoslavia, Albania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria); and the USSR.

  18. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure. PMID:17688110

  19. Homogeneous magnitude system of the Eurasian continent: S and L waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoskov, L.; Kondorskaya, N. V.; Vanek, J.

    1983-07-01

    A research project was started by the Commission of Academies of Socialist Countries on Planetary Geophysics (KAPG) to establish a system of seismic reference stations of the Eurasian continent for determining reliable earthquake magnitudes. This system was called the Homogeneous Magnitude System (HMS), and seismologist of 13 institutions from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Poland, and the U.S.S.R. participated. The project was sponsored by the Commission on Practice of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior, which created a special working group for homogeneous magnitude system within its Subcommission on Magnitude.

  20. Leiostyla beatae n. sp. from eastern Georgia (Gastropoda: Lauriidae).

    PubMed

    Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Leiostyla R.T. Lowe, 1852 is a disjunctly distributed pupilloid group of land snails known from the Macaronesian islands, Western Europe, Algeria, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Caucasus region and Iran (Pilsbry 1922-1923; Schileyko 1984; Gittenberger & Pieper 1988; Hausdorf 1990). In the Neogene the genus was more widespread in Central and Western Europe (Pilsbry 1922). Thus, the Caucasus region and the Macaronesian islands, where the highest recent diversity of Leiostyla species is found (Pilsbry 1922-1923), can be considered refugial areas. PMID:25947501

  1. [CS by request--a reasonable alternative?].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, I; Uzunova, Zh; Ivanov, T; Khristozova, M

    2005-01-01

    The doctor-patient relation has been changing as a whole together with the evolution of society. The right of choice should play a main role in female public health as it represents a fundamental social and constitutional law. The growing rate of caesarean sections in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria and in the world are analyzed and the organizational factors having an impact on it are shown. On-line polls among doctors and patients were used. A conclusion was drawn that it is better to have the indication "caesarean section by patient's request" rather than performing abdominal deliveries under fabricated indications. PMID:16313084

  2. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Glavcheva, Z; Yancheva, D; Velcheva, E; Stamboliyska, B; Petrova, N; Petkova, V; Lalev, G; Todorov, V

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials. PMID:25701135

  3. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Meeting: Brecon hosts 'alternative-style' Education Group Conference Meeting: Schools' Physics Group meeting delivers valuable teaching update Saturn Mission: PPARC’s Saturn school resource goes online Funding: Grant scheme supports Einstein Year activities Meeting: Liverpool Teachers’ Conference revives enthusiasm for physics Loan Scheme: Moon samples loaned to schools Awards: Schoolnet rewards good use of ICT in learning Funding: PPARC provides cash for science projects Workshop: Experts in physics education research share knowledge at international event Bulgaria: Transit of Venus comes to town Conference: CERN weekend provides lessons in particle physics Summer School: Teachers receive the summer-school treatment

  4. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    SciTech Connect

    Voynikova, D. S. Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G. Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-28

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants – sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  5. Preventing and fighting spontaneous combustion by foam pulp in Bobov dol coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Michaylov, M.

    1995-12-31

    The coal seams at Bobov dol basin are highly prone to spontaneous combustion in Bulgaria. The risks of endogenous fires (SPONCOM) exist mainly in gob area. During the last 15 years three different technologies for preventing and fighting SPONCOM have been applied in underground mines of this basin: pulp from hard material and water, foam and inerting with nitrogen. On the basis of experimental application of these technologies as well as theoretical and experimental research a new technology - Foam Pulp Technology (FPT) was worked out. It is very effective in difficult to reach places in a gob.

  6. Nikolay Kirov Nikolov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Minko; Reynolds, Steve

    2014-12-01

    Professor Nikolay Kirov Nikolov graduated in Chemistry from Sofia University 'St. Kliment Ohridski', Bulgaria, in 1968. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1973, D.Sc. in 1988 and was appointed to the position of Professor of Physics in the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), in 1989. Prof. Kirov rose to become an international authority in the area of molecular spectroscopy, and in particular in the vibrational spectroscopy of thermotropic liquid crystals. Prof. Kirov was a scientist of high reputation both in Bulgaria and globally. His scientific papers, numbering some 150, focus on the physics of liquid crystals. His systematic investigations of the vibrational spectroscopy of a wide class of thermotropic liquid crystals were collected in the monograph Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid crystals (1984), in which the molecular structure and properties of various liquid crystals, vibrational assignments, orientational order parameters and their calculation by molecular dynamics are presented. A range of liquid crystal materials was categorised and reported in his second book Atlas of vibrational spectra of liquid crystals (1988). Both publications remain a valuable source of information for specialists in the field of molecular spectroscopy. The outstanding contributions and growing reputation of Prof. Kirov led to periods as Visiting Scientist in the Universities of Parma, Calabria and Wroclaw. His abilities as a scientific organizer and leader were also notable, and led to a long and distinguished period of service in the Institute of Solid State Physics, being first appointed in 1980 as Scientific Secretary, and subsequently as Head of the Laboratory of Optics and Spectroscopy (1990-1998) and Director of the Institute (1991-1999). He was Chairman of the Scientific Council of ISSP over this period, and a member of the Specialized Scientific Council on Condensed Matter Physics. Prof. Kirov was a member of the High Testimonial

  7. Possible astronomical meaning of the Povlen ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducić, V.; Petrović, R.

    2003-10-01

    The Povlen ball is a spherical rock in the Povlen mountain, near Valjevo, on which the indented signs are found. Archeological team of Petnica Research Center suggested the possible meaning of these signs. They claimed that these marks are signs of "Sepherd insciptions". We noticed two groups of signs: ones like dimples and the others like figures. Working hypothesis is that five gathered dimples could represent constellation of Cepheus, partially fulfill our expectations. Besides, there is the possibility that one figure represents constellation of Cygnus (Cross). Both of these constellations are used for orientation on the sky, and similar archeoastronomical objects were funded in Bulgaria.

  8. Optical Observations of the Nearby Galaxy IC342 with Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetic, M. M.; Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Dobardzic, A.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Pannuti, T. G.; Petrov, N.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  9. Optical Spectroscopy of the High-mass X-ray Binary A0535+26 after the periastron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, K. A.; Zamanov, R.

    2016-02-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of the & nbsp; High-mass X-ray Binary A0535+26 (HDE 245770, V725 Tau) after the periastron passage (Giovannelli, Bisnovatyi-Kogan & amp; Klepnev, 2013, A & amp;A, 560, 1). The observations are performed with the ESpeRo spectrograph on the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen NAO (Bulgaria) on the nights of 2015 Dec 24 (JD2457381.4285) and 2016 Jan 30 (JD2457418.2045). & nbsp; The equivalent widths of H-alpha emission line are -(11.5 & plusmn;1.5) Angstrom and -(9.3 & plusmn;1.0) Angstrom respectively.

  10. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-03-15

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Three proposed COLs expected in 2007, by Dale E. Klein, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Delivering behaviors that our customers value, by Jack Allen, Westinghouse Electric Company; Facilitating high-level and fuel waste disposal technologies, by Malcolm Gray, IAEA, Austria; Plant life management and long-term operation, by Pal Kovacs, OECD-NEA, France; Measuring control rod position, by R. Taymanov, K. Sapozhnikova, I. Druzhinin, D.I. Mendeleyev, Institue for Metrology, Russia; and, 'Modernization' means higher safety, by Svetlana Genova, Kozluduy NPP plc, Bulgaria.

  11. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  12. The 2012 MW5.6 earthquake in the vicinity of the city of Sofia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Aleksandrova, Irena; Dimitrova, Liliya; Popova, Iliana; Raykova, Plamena

    2013-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The neotectonic movements on the Balkan Peninsula were controlled by extensional collapse of the Late Alpin orogen, and were influenced by extension behind the Aegean arc and by the complicated vertical and horizontal movements in the Pannonian region. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia seismic zone that is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. Seismicity in the zone is related mainly to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=IX-X MSK64. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the town of Sofia and the appearance of thermal springs in the western part of the town. After a quiescence of about 50 years a strong event with M=6.5 occurred in 1905 near the western marginal part of the Sofia zone. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK64). The earthquake caused a lot of damages in the town and changed the capacity of the thermal mineral springs in Sofia and the surrounding villages. The earthquake was felt in an area of 50000 km2 and followed by aftershocks, which lasted more than one year. Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012, at 25 km south west of the city of Sofia. This shallow earthquake was largely felt in the region and up to Greece, FYROM, Serbia and Romania. No severe injuries have been reported so far, though

  13. BR-confirmation of the probable nova M31 2016-07c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcheva, A.; Kurtenkov, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Kostov, A.; Minev, M.; Nedialkov, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report BR-photomerty of the probable nova M31 2016-07c (PNV J00435768+4134528) located at RA(2000) = 00h43m57.94s, Dec(2000) = +41d34'54.6", which is 830.0" east and 1126.1" north of the center of M31. The coordinates uncertainties are 0''.24 in RA and 0''.12 in DEC. The images are obtained with the 50/70cm Schmidt telescope at Rozhen NAO, Bulgaria.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, J

    1970-01-01

    Based on hardly accessible archive documents as well as other original sources and literature data, the author traces the life of the Russian physician K. Yuriev, and more particularly the years of his sojourn in Bulgaria. The emigrant-populist has merits towards Bulgarian surgery in the period of antisepsis. Dr. Yuriev was in contact with the leftists of the liberal party, led by Zahari Stoyanov, he was in charge of the Russe revolutionary circle "1st March", a good friend to the well known Bulgarian populist Spiro Gulabchev and to the outstanding Bulgarian physician Dr. Paraskev Stoyanov. PMID:11636533

  15. Fatal outcome of coinfection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and malaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Petrov, Andrei; Papa, Anna; Vutchev, Dimitar; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Vatev, Nikolay; Stoycheva, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a Bulgarian patient with imported falciparum malaria that manifested 6 days after his arrival in Bulgaria, which was complicated by bloody diarrhea 2 days later. Blood smear revealed high parasitemia, with annular forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, RNA of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was detected in the blood sample by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and nested RT-PCR. The obtained sequence was found to be clustered within the Europe 1 lineage close to the other Bulgarian strains. Notably, the two infectious diseases may appear with many similar symptoms that are difficult to distinguish. PMID:25420643

  16. Trees annual rings and "Sun-Climate" connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter; Bjandov, Georgy; Kirilova, Daniela

    The subject of the present work is an investigation of the relationship "Sun-Climate" for the territory of Central Bulgaria for the period from the end of 18th to the beginning of 21st century, based on dendro-chronoligical data. For this purpose the smoothed time series of the widths of annual rings of two beech samples from the region of Central Balkan Range are used. Special attention is paid to the 22 yr oscillations in the growth of tree mass and the relationship between the oscillation amplitude and the phase of solar cycles with sub-century and two-century duration. It is shown that the attenuation of 20-22 yr magnetic solar cycle during the hyper-centurial Dalton minimum (1795-1825/1830) is accompanied by strong drying and warming of the summers in Central Southern Bulgaria during this time. The onset of new Dalton-type hyper-centurial minimum in the beginning of the 21st century corresponds to an analogous climatic situation.

  17. A new species and new records of Molophilus Curtis, 1833 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from the Western Palaearctic Region

    PubMed Central

    Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molophilus Curtis, 1833 is the most species-rich Limoniidae genus with a total number of 1006 species and subspecies, from which 97 are recorded in the Western-Palaearctic region so far. However new species are still expected from less investigated regions, like the Balkans or the Eastern Europe. New information In the present article, we desrcibe a new limonid crane fly species, Molophilus balcanicus Kolcsár sp. n. from the Central Balkan area (Bulgaria). This new taxa is closely related to M. serpentiger Edwards, 1938 and M. variispinus Starý​, 1971 based on the external male genital structures, but differs from its siblings mostly in the structure of the inner and outer gonostylus. Additionally, a number of species are reported for the first time from various European countries, like M. variispinus Starý, 1971 and M. occultus de Meijere, 1918 from Romania; M. crassipygus de Meijere 1918, M. obsoletus Lackschewitz, 1940 and M. medius de Meijere, 1918 from Greece; M. flavus Goetghebuer, 1920 from Andorra; M. cinereifrons de Meijere, 1920 from Bulgaria and M. corniger Meijere, 1920 from Spain. PMID:26379460

  18. Genetic, Genomic and Epigenomic Studies of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben).

    PubMed

    Staneva, Rada G; Balabanski, L; Dimova, I; Rukova, B; Hadjidekova, S; Dimitrov, P; Simeonov, V; Ivanov, S; Vagarova, R; Malinov, M; Cukuranovic, R; Stefanovic, V; Polenakovic, M; Djonov, V; Galabov, A; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive. Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls. All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology. Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN. PMID:27442376

  19. Founder p.Arg 446* mutation in the PDHX gene explains over half of cases with congenital lactic acidosis in Roma children.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan S; Azmanov, Dimitar N; Ivanova, Mariya B; Chamova, Teodora; Pacheva, Ilyana H; Panova, Margarita V; Song, Sharon; Morar, Bharti; Yordanova, Ralitsa V; Galabova, Fani K; Sotkova, Iglika G; Linev, Alexandar J; Bitchev, Stoyan; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J; Kancheva, Dalia; Gabrikova, Dana; Karcagi, Veronika; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Geneva, Ina E; Bozhinova, Veneta; Stoyanova, Vili K; Kremensky, Ivo; Jordanova, Albena; Savov, Aleksey; Horvath, Rita; Brown, Matthew A; Tournev, Ivailo; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of 31 of Roma patients with congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) from Bulgaria identified homozygosity for the R446* mutation in the PDHX gene as the most common cause of the disorder in this ethnic group. It accounted for around 60% of patients in the study and over 25% of all CLA cases referred to the National Genetic Laboratory in Bulgaria. The detection of a homozygous patient from Hungary and carriers among population controls from Romania and Slovakia suggests a wide spread of the mutation in the European Roma population. The clinical phenotype of the twenty R446* homozygotes was relatively homogeneous, with lactic acidosis crisis in the first days or months of life as the most common initial presentation (15/20 patients) and delayed psychomotor development and/or seizures in infancy as the leading manifestations in a smaller group (5/20 patients). The subsequent clinical picture was dominated by impaired physical growth and a very consistent pattern of static cerebral palsy-like encephalopathy with spasticity and severe to profound mental retardation seen in over 80% of cases. Most patients had a positive family history. We propose testing for the R446* mutation in PDHX as a rapid first screening in Roma infants with metabolic acidosis. It will facilitate and accelerate diagnosis in a large proportion of cases, allow early rehabilitation to alleviate the chronic clinical course, and prevent further affected births in high-risk families. PMID:25087164

  20. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  1. Sofia University GNSS Analysis Centre (SUGAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Tzvetan; Sidorov, Dmitry; Teferle, Norman; Guerova, Guergana; Egova, Evgenia; Vassileva, Keranka; Milev, Ivo; Milev, Georgi

    2015-04-01

    The Sofia University GNSS Analysis Centre (SUGAC, suada.phys.uni-sofia.bg) is a new analysis centre established via collaboration between the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics of Sofia University, the IPOS - BuliPOS GNSS network in Bulgaria and the University of Luxembourg. In April 2014, the first processing campaign took place. One year GNSS data from 7 stations of the BuliPOS network are processed in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg. Tropospheric products (Zenith Total Delay and gradients) with 5 min temporal resolution are obtained using the NAPEOS software, developed by ESA. The tropospheric products from this campaign will be used for validation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as well as for case studies during intense precipitation events and fog. In this work the WRF model validation for Bulgaria will be presented. Future work will be the establishment of autonomous near real-time processing of the regional ground-based GNSS network in Southeast Europe in support of the EUMETNET E-GVAP and COST ES1206 "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems for Severe Weather Events and Climate" projects.

  2. Parameterization of SURFEX-TOPMODEL river velocity based on instant discharge dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedkov, Nikolay; Artinyan, Eram; Tsarev, Petko

    2016-04-01

    SURFEX-TOPMODEL distributed physical model is used to analyze and forecast stream flow discharges including flash floods occurring in a Mediterranean river basin in Bulgaria. River velocity is one of the parameters that need to be calibrated in order to achieve acceptable representation of peak floods but in the same time to produce a smooth hydrograph during the low flow periods. The coupled model showed great sensibility to the parameter but when focusing to reproduce high peaks low discharge hydrograph presented unrealistic small peaks too. The dependency between the measured instant discharge and mean section velocity was established for the Bulgarian hydrometric stations on rivers using 20 years of direct discharge-velocity measures of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria. The relationship is used to avoid the calibration of the velocity parameter for the measured cross-sections. It was coded within the model thus permitting dynamical adjustment of the velocity with respect to the computed instant discharge in the river section. We present the results of river flow simulations with the modified parameterization compared to those with the original model for the hydrological year 2014-2015. Keywords: SURFEX-TOP, river speed parameter

  3. The effect of space weather on human heart diseases in subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Petrova, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this work the relationship between emergency medical calls for myocardial infarction in Yakutsk (subauroral geomagnetic latitudes) and parameters of the space weather near maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) geomagnetic activity is studied. The comparison of the seasonal behavior of the number of calls with the simultaneous seasonal behavior of deaths from myocardial infarctions at low latitudes (Bulgaria) exhibited significant differences. Namely, in Bulgaria, the maximum and minimum of infarctions were observed in winter and in summer, respectively; in Yakutsk, several observed maximums coincided with the sharp and considerable increase in planetary geomagnetic activity. An analysis of experimental results made it possible to suppose that, in subauroral latitudes, unlike low latitudes, a major role in the increase in the number of infarctions is played by the increase in geomagnetic activity, namely, by the appearance of night magnetospheric substorms, which are also observed in subauroral latitudes in magnetically disturbed times. Substorms are always accompanied by irregular geomagnetic Pi1 pulsations with periods of 0.5-3 Hz. These pulsations can be biotropic, like stable quasi-sinusoidal geomagnetic Pc1 pulsations in middle and low latitudes.

  4. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  5. Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 and T. pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) are a complex of fourteen species in Europe and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Straka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) and Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 species subgroups belong to the Tachysphex pompiliformis species group, and both subgroups consist of morphologically similar species. The Tachysphex austriacus Kohl species subgroup comprises four species in Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex austriacus and Tachysphex prismaticus Straka, 2005 are presented, and Tachysphex hungaricus sp. n. from Hungary and Tachysphex smissenae sp. n. from Spain, France and Turkey are described. The Tachysphex pompiliformis species subgroup consists of ten species from Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex ferrugineus Pulawski, 1967 and Tachysphex opacus F. Morawitz, 1893, as well as the differential diagnosis and redescription of Tachysphex pompiliformis, are presented. Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer, 1809), Tachysphex jokischianus (Panzer, 1809) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola, 1808) are resurrected from synonymy with Tachysphex pompiliformis and redescribed. Neotypes of Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola) are designed. Tachysphex bohemicus sp. n. from the Czech Republic; Tachysphex cretensis sp. n. from Crete, Greece; Tachysphex nobilis sp. n. from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Turkey; and Tachysphex punctipleuris sp. n. from Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey are described. Identification keys to all species from Tachysphex pompiliformis and Tachysphex austriacus species subgroups known from Europe and Turkey are presented. PMID:27110190

  6. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    PubMed

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization. PMID:20568931

  7. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Deli, Tamás; Irikov, Atanas; Harl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania), Orcula zilchi (Bulgaria), and Orcula wagneri (Albania) is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum) shell characters (sculpture and shape) and unpublished molecular data the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. Orcula zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia) subgen. n.; Orcula jetschini, Orcula wagneri, and Orcula schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica) subgen. n. (type species: Pupa schmidtii) whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia) is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica) inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula) are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia). The occurrence of only one Orcula species namely Orcula jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and Orcula gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica) is considered as a synonym of Sphyradium doliolum. PMID:23794893

  8. [ADHERING TO MEDICAL STANDARTS, EVIDENCE-BASED STAGING IN GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chakalova, G

    2016-01-01

    Among the key factors that influence the survival of patients is adherence to medical treatment standards. Indicators are assessing the degree of adherence to medical standards and represent the relative shares (%) of patients who fulfilled the relevant aspect of any subject. Data from the BNCR of 9842 cases of patients with malignant diseases of the female reproductive diagnosed in 2011-2013 in Bulgaria has been analyzed. Patients with tumors of the vulva were incorrectly staged in 15% to 30% of the cases, and those with vaginal tumors were incorrectly staged in 20% to 23% of cases. In patients with malignant tumors of the cervix incorrect staging was established in 19% to 47% of the cases. Patients with tumors of the uterus were incorrectly staged in 6% to 26% of the cases. Among the patients with ovarian tumors were incorrectly staged in 18% to 43%. Our results show that one in three patients with gynecological cancer in Bulgaria was incorrectly staged. We recommend using the current TNM and FIGO systems. PMID:27514165

  9. Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 and T. pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) are a complex of fourteen species in Europe and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) and Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 species subgroups belong to the Tachysphex pompiliformis species group, and both subgroups consist of morphologically similar species. The Tachysphex austriacus Kohl species subgroup comprises four species in Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex austriacus and Tachysphex prismaticus Straka, 2005 are presented, and Tachysphex hungaricus sp. n. from Hungary and Tachysphex smissenae sp. n. from Spain, France and Turkey are described. The Tachysphex pompiliformis species subgroup consists of ten species from Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex ferrugineus Pulawski, 1967 and Tachysphex opacus F. Morawitz, 1893, as well as the differential diagnosis and redescription of Tachysphex pompiliformis, are presented. Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer, 1809), Tachysphex jokischianus (Panzer, 1809) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola, 1808) are resurrected from synonymy with Tachysphex pompiliformis and redescribed. Neotypes of Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola) are designed. Tachysphex bohemicus sp. n. from the Czech Republic; Tachysphex cretensis sp. n. from Crete, Greece; Tachysphex nobilis sp. n. from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Turkey; and Tachysphex punctipleuris sp. n. from Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey are described. Identification keys to all species from Tachysphex pompiliformis and Tachysphex austriacus species subgroups known from Europe and Turkey are presented. PMID:27110190

  10. Investigation of the white light coronal structure during the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, P.; Stoev, A.; Kuzin, S.; Shopov, Y.; Kiskinova, N.; Stoyanov, N.; Pertsov, A.

    2008-02-01

    Results from photographic observations of the white light solar corona conducted during the total phase of the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006 in Manavgat, Turkey are shown in this work. Spectroscopic study of the green 530.3 nm line of Fe XIV in the corona of the Sun has also been made. The spectrograph was designed by specialists from the STIL-BAS "Acad. D. Mishev", Stara Zagora Department, Bulgaria; the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia; and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. It has been found that the axis of symmetry of the "helmet"-type streamers is tilted towards the solar equator and the deviations from a radial direction in the western hemisphere are greater than those in the eastern one (21°/8°). The solar corona flattening is [epsilon]=0.098, which corresponds to an intermediate (before the minimum) type of corona. We have obtained that the solar cycle phase is [Phi]=0.17 for the 2006 TSE. White light corona is asymmetric, in contrast to solar corona observed during the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse.

  11. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done. PMID:26505204

  12. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found. PMID:17719068

  13. EDITORIAL: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    Dear Readers, The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS'14, took place in the City of Sofia, Bulgaria. 361 participants from 35 countries attended the conference. It was hosted by the Institute of Electronics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. This year's Workshop was dedicated to paying tribute to two major events: • 50th anniversary of 1964 Nobel Prize in physics, • 145th anniversary of the establishment of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS'14 has been taken under the High Patronage of Rosen Plevneliev, President of the Republic of Bulgaria. The LPHYS'14 Steering Committee and the Advisory & Program Committee would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Professor Sanka Gateva (Co-Chair) and Professor Ekaterina Borisova (Head of the Local Organizing Committee) and to their team for the outstanding job performed in organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference. Their combined efforts lead to a successful result. In this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series you will find selected proceedings of the Workshop in Sofia. Please make a note that the 24th annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'15) will take place from August 21 to August 25, 2015 in the city of Shanghai, China hosted by Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With kind regards, Steering and Advisory & Program committees LPHYS'14

  14. Redescriptions and comments on the validity of Acuaria subula and A. skrjabini (Nematoda, Spirurida, Acuariidae), parasites of passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Kontrimavichus, Vytautas L; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2013-09-01

    Acuaria subula (Dujardin, 1845) is redescribed by light microcopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of specimens from its type host, Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae), from Curonian Spit (Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia) and Bulgaria. Acuaria skrjabini (Ozerskaya, 1926) is redescribed by LM and SEM on the basis of specimens from Passer domesticus (type host) and P. hispaniolensis (Passeriformes, Passeridae) from Bulgaria. Contrary to previous opinions recognizing A. skrjabini as a junior synonym of A. subula, the present study confirms that they are distinct species. They can be distinguished on the basis of the ratio between the length of cordons and the body length, the ratio between the length of muscular oesophagus and glandular oesophagus, and the ratio between the total length of oesophagus and the body length. In addition, the plates forming the cordons in these two species exhibit different morphological characters. Another difference between these two species is associated with the particular irregular mosaic ornamentation of the cuticle on the ventral and lateral sides of body around the region of vulva of A. subula and its absence in A. skrjabini. Data on their host and geographical ranges are surveyed. The type series of Acuaria buttnerae Chabaud et Petter, 1961, described as a parasite of Calandrella brachydactyla (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in France, is re-examined; the latter species is recognized as a junior synonym of A. skrjabini (new synonymy). PMID:23990424

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rhodiola rosea L. of three different origins

    PubMed Central

    Evstatieva, Ljuba; Todorova, Milka; Antonova, Daniela; Staneva, Jordanka

    2010-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae), or “rose root” is a perennial herbaceous plant, distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Pharmacological studies have shown that R. rosea exhibits different biological activities – antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, etc. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from rhizomes of three commercial samples of R. rosea originated from Bulgaria (sample 1), China (sample 2) and India (sample 3). The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thus, the main volatile component in the Bulgaria and Chinese R. rosea was geraniol, followed by myrthenol in sample 1 or octanol in sample 2. Phenethylalcohol was a principal constituent in the Indian oil. Myrtenol and octanol were in significant amounts too. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were characteristic of the latter sample. It is notable that cinnamyl alcohol, which was present in large concentration in Bulgarian sample, was not detected in the other two samples. The obtained results showed considerable differences in the composition of the studied three origins of R. rosea. PMID:21120024

  16. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  17. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  18. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  19. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  20. Phenolic Profile and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Endemic Bulgarian Carduus Species

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, Ivanka; Zhelev, Iliya; Mihaylova, Dasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant species from genus Carduus are widely distributed in the world and represented in Bulgaria by 14 species. Previous investigations on this genus demonstrated a strong antioxidant potential of extract from some Bulgarian Carduus species. Objective: The present study investigates the phenolic profile and the antioxidant potential of different extracts obtained from four endemic Compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus Boiss and Heldr., Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit ssp. globifer (Velen.) Kazmi., Carduus rhodopaeus Velen. and Carduus thracicus (Velen.) Hayek. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was estimated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power and copper reduction antioxidant assays. Phenolic profile was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were quantified in the inflorescences. Sinapic (2760.72 ± 15.68 μg/g dry weight [dw]), chlorogenic (2564.50 ± 19.73 μg/g dw) and ferulic acids (1648.71 ± 19.57 μg/g dw), as well as luteolin (2345.45 ± 18.61 μg/g dw) and apigenin (1332.75 ± 12.05 μg/g dw) were found to be the predominant compounds. The above contents are the highest values found in C. candicans ssp. globifer. The highest established antioxidant activity (AOA) was in favor of the ethanolic extracts, and the extract of C. rhodopaeus affirmed with the highest AOA among the investigated plant species. Conclusion: All identified phenolic compounds were reported for the 1st time in the studied endemic Carduus species, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The present study revealed that these plant species could be used as sources of antioxidants with potential medicinal properties. SUMMARY Phenolic acids and flavonoid profiles of four endemic compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus, Carduus candicans ssp

  1. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  2. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  3. 8th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijker, Roelof; Krötzsch, Guillermo; Rosas-Ortiz, Óscar; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    The Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS) international symposia are periodic biannual meetings of the mathematical physics community with special interest in the methods of group theory in their many incarnations, particularly in the symmetries that arise in quantum systems. The QTSs alternate with the International Colloquia on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics since 1999, when Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner organized the first one in Goslar, Germany. Subsequent symposia were held in Krakóow, Poland (2001), Cincinnati, USA (2003), Varna, Bulgaria (2005), Valladolid, Spain (2007), Lexington, USA (2009), and Praha, Czech Republic (2011); the eighth QTS was awarded to Mexico (2013), and the next one (2015) will take place in Yerevan, Armenia. Conference photograph Further details, including committees and members, are available in the PDF

  4. Variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6939

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Georgiev, Ts.; Niedzielski, A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of CCD photometric survey performed with the 90/180 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope of the Nicolaus Copernicus University Astronomical Observatory in Piwnice (Poland) and the 70/172 cm Schmidt Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) at Rozhen (Bulgaria) of the field of the 1 Gyr old open cluster NGC 6939 are presented. Twenty two variable stars were detected, four of them previously known. Four eclipsing systems (3 detached and 1 contact binary) were found to be members of the cluster. Analysis of the brightness of the contact binary V20 strongly supports the distance to the cluster of 1.74 ± 0.20 kpc. The small population of contact binaries in NGC 6939 confirms also the relatively young age of the cluster.

  5. Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences? A comparison of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Dimitrova, Radosveta

    2016-02-01

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish-Bulgarians, but not for Turkish-Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on "healthy" identity formation among immigrants for research and practice. PMID:26478532

  6. Possible toxicity of tuberculostatic agents in a patient with a novel TYMP mutation leading to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Violeta; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Cherninkova, Sylvia; Penev, Luchezar; Georgieva, Galina; Stoyanova, Katya; Todorova, Albenaa; Tournev, Ivaylo

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by TYMP gene mutations. Here, we report on the first MNGIE patient diagnosed in Bulgaria who carries a novel homozygous TYMP mutation (p.Leu347Pro). The patient presented with gastrointestinal complaints, cachexia, hearing loss, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy, cognitive impairment, and leukoencephalopathy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain. The patient's motor capacity declined significantly, leading to wheelchair dependence several months following administration of tuberculostatic treatment, suggesting mitochondrial toxicity of these agents. The advanced stage of the disease and the poor medical condition prevented us from performing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Early diagnosis is important not only for genetic counseling but also in view of the timely treatment with allogenic HSCT. PMID:23590577

  7. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, K; Kovacheva, N; Vosman, B; Zhang, L; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I

    2005-08-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultivation is based on a very narrow genepool and that oil rose collections contain many genetically identical accessions. The study of long-term vegetative propagation of the Damask roses also reveals high somatic stability for the microsatellite loci analyzed. PMID:15947904

  8. Validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 Vertical Column Densities with Mt.Cimone and Stara Zagora Ground-Based Zenith Sky DOAS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Atanasov, At.; Bortoli, D.; Markova, T.; Ravegnani, F.; Palazzi, E.; Giovanelli, G.

    2004-08-01

    Ground-based zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed by means of GASCOD instruments at Mt. Cimone (44N 11E), Italy and Stara Zagora (42N, 25E), Bulgaria are used for validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 vertical column density (vcd) of ESA SCI_NL product retrieved with 5.01 processor version. The results presented in this work regard satellite data for the JulyDecember 2002 period. On this base it is concluded that during summer-autumn period the overall NO2 vcd above both stations is fairly well reproduced by the SCIAMACHY data, while towards the winter period they deviate from the seasonal behaviour of NO2 vcd derived at both stations

  9. Cross-cultural evidence of value structures and priorities in childhood.

    PubMed

    Döring, Anna K; Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Groenen, Patrick J F; Glatzel, Valentina; Harasimczuk, Justyna; Janowicz, Nicole; Nyagolova, Maya; Scheefer, E Rebecca; Allritz, Matthias; Milfont, Taciano L; Bilsky, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We broaden the developmental focus of the theory of universals in basic human values (Schwartz, 1992, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology) by presenting supportive evidence on children's values from six countries: Germany, Italy, Poland, Bulgaria, the United States, and New Zealand. 3,088 7-11-year-old children completed the Picture-Based Value Survey for Children (PBVS-C, Döring et al., 2010, J. Pers. Assess., 92, 439). Grade 5 children also completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, Schwartz, 2003, A proposal for measuring value orientations across nations. Chapter 7 in the Questionnaire Development Package of the European Social Survey). Findings reveal that the broad value structures, sex differences in value priorities and pan-cultural value hierarchies typical of adults have already taken form at this early age. We discuss the conceptual implications of these findings for the new field of children's basic values by embedding them in the recent developmental literature. PMID:25581067

  10. Engineering protection of reservoirs of hydropower developments from flooding and subirrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Khrisanov, N.I.

    1988-04-01

    Examples are given of current hydropower construction with the creation of systems of embanking lands for protecting them from flooding and subirrigation. The examples are drawn from hydropower developments in Canada, Ecuador, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Soviet Union, and include tidal and nuclear plants as well. An analysis of the specific land-use intensity of different power stations showed that at present there is a tendency toward a reduction of the difference of this index for hydroelectric stations, on the one hand, and thermal power stations (nuclear power stations) on the other. For protection and conservation of lands and improvement of the ecological state of streams, reservoirs, and the lower pools of hydro developments, calculation methods (algorithms and programs) have been developed for optimizing the parameters of the embankment systems.

  11. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  12. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy with an emphasis on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Federica; Forni, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Recent Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy with an Emphasis on Vaccines was the first meeting organized by the European Society of Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy and Progress in Vaccine against Cancer, in collaboration with the Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology of the National Hellenic Research Foundation, in a joint effort towards the setting up of a new generation of cancer vaccines. The main topics of the meeting included: the role of the tumor microenvironment in protecting the tumor from immune attack; differences in immunotherapy outcome in hematological malignancies versus solid tumors; rationale of multi-epitope vaccines; Treg cell elimination/inactivation, tumor stroma destruction, angiogenesis inhibition and the potentiality of 'preventive' vaccination in breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer in the early stages and during the 'wait-and-see' period. The ninth Progress in Vaccines against Cancer meeting will be held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 8-10 October 2009, at the Hilton Hotel. PMID:19093768

  13. Patient doses from hybrid SPECT-CT procedures.

    PubMed

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Dimcheva, M; Petrova, E; Garcheva, M; Dimitrova, M; Palashev, Y; Vassileva, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate patient doses from hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The study involved all four SPECT-CT systems in Bulgaria. Effective dose was estimated for about 100 patients per system. Ten types of examinations were considered, representing all diagnostic procedures performed in the SPECT-CT systems. Effective doses from the SPECT component were calculated applying the ICRP 53 and ICRP 80 conversion coefficients. Computed tomography dose index and dose length product were retrospectively obtained from the archives of the systems, and effective doses from the CT component were calculated with CT-Expo software. Parallel estimation of CT component contribution with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) conversion coefficients was performed where applicable. Large variations were found in the current practice of SPECT-CT imaging. Optimisation actions and diagnostic reference levels were proposed. PMID:25862537

  14. Holocene malacofauna in calcareous deposits of Dūkšta site near Maišiagala in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Gaigalas, Algirdas; Rudnickaitė, Eugenija; Melešytė, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains results of new investigations in Lithuania of the first occurrences of terrestrial molluscs in calcareous tufa (travertine), carbonate content and radiocarbon dating. Terrestrial fossil molluscs (35 taxa) prevail in the mollusc fauna, while freshwater species are much more rare (6 taxa). The Dūkšta terrestrial mollusc fauna embraces a complex of thermophiles including such forest species as Acicula polita (Hartmann), Acanthinula aculeata (Müller), Aegopinella cf. pura (Alder), Bulgaria cana (Held) and Discus cf. rotundatus (Müller), as well as mainly South European Carychium tridentatum (Risso) and mainly West European Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy). The radiocarbon age of the sediments was found to correspond to the end of the Atlantic climatic period and the beginning of the Subboreal.

  15. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including

  16. New Data on the Geographical Distribution and Host Utilization of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum

    PubMed Central

    Csősz, Sándor; Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Markó, Bálint

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic Myrmicinosporidium durum Hölldobler, 1933, a fungus known to exploit several ant species, is reported for the first time in five countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Turkey. The discovery of the fungus in Anatolia significantly widens its known distribution. In addition, this fungal parasite was found to utilize two hitherto unknown host species: Tetramorium sp. D (sensu Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006) and Tetramorium sp. E (sensu Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006). According to the new data, M. durum seems to be more common in Europe than previously thought, while its host range is considerably larger. In the present paper, data on its currently known distribution and host preference are discussed. PMID:23448195

  17. Implementing business continuity management systems and sharing best practices at a European bank.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Stelios; Stratopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology applied by the Alpha Bank Group in order to implement a business continuity management (BCM) programme to its parent company (Alpha Bank SA), as well as to its subsidiaries in Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, UK and Ukraine. It also reviews the problems faced, how they were overcome and the lessons learned. When implementing a BCM programme in a large organisation, it is very important to follow the methodology described by BCM standard ISO 22301, otherwise the business continuity plan is unlikely to work efficiently or comply with the business recovery requirements, as well as with the requirements of other interested parties, such as customers, regulatory authorities, vendors, service providers, critical associates, etc. PMID:26897617

  18. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  19. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. PMID:21620544

  20. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy--Lom (HMSNL): refined genetic mapping in Romani (Gypsy) families from several European countries.

    PubMed

    Chandler, D; Angelicheva, D; Heather, L; Gooding, R; Gresham, D; Yanakiev, P; de Jonge, R; Baas, F; Dye, D; Karagyozov, L; Savov, A; Blechschmidt, K; Keats, B; Thomas, P K; King, R H; Starr, A; Nikolova, A; Colomer, J; Ishpekova, B; Tournev, I; Urtizberea, J A; Merlini, L; Butinar, D; Chabrol, B; Voit, T; Baethmann, M; Nedkova, V; Corches, A; Kalaydjieva, L

    2000-12-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom, initially identified in Roma (Gypsy) families from Bulgaria, has been mapped to 8q24. Further refined mapping of the region has been undertaken on DNA from patients diagnosed across Europe. The refined map consists of 25 microsatellite markers over approximately 3 cM. In this collaborative study we have identified a number of historical recombinations resulting from the spread of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom gene through Europe with the migration and isolation of Gypsy groups. Recombination mapping and the minimal region of homozygosity reduced the original 3 cM hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom region to a critical interval of about 200 kb. PMID:11053686

  1. Least cost options for life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M.

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  2. Short-time particulate matter PM10 forecasts using predictive modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.

    2013-10-01

    Two types of predictive modeling techniques - seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and a new Generalized PathSeeker (GPS) Regularized Regression method have been used for modeling data related to ambient air quality. The models are built for the measured data for the primary air pollutant - particulate matter PM10 in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The time series analysis was carried out based on hourly data with respect to six meteorological variables during a period of one month. The constructed models have been used for short-term four-days-ahead forecasts. The obtained results demonstrate some advantages of the GPS method over seasonal ARIMA stochastic modeling and its applicability. This gives a new perspective for analyzing and preventing the possible pollution problems in urban areas.

  3. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  4. Lidar Observation of Aerosol and Temperature Stratification over Urban Area During the Formation of a Stable Atmospheric PBL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolev, I.; Parvanov, O.; Kaprielov, B.; Mitev, V.; Simeonov, V.; Grigorov, I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the processes in the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) over urban areas were intensely investigated, due to ecological problems related to the air, soil, and water pollution. New pollution sources in new residential districts, when in contradiction to the microclimate and topography requirements of that region, create a number of considerable hazards and problems. The present study is a continuation of our preceding investigations and aims at revealing the aerosol structure and stratification during the transition after sunset as measured by two lidars. Such observation of the nocturnal, stable PBL formation over an urban area in Bulgaria has not been reported before. The lidars' high time and spatial resolutions allow the changes of the internal structure of the PBL's part located above the surface layer to be observed.

  5. Potential for optimisation of paediatric chest X-ray examination.

    PubMed

    Kostova-Lefterova, D; Taseva, D; Ingilizova, K; Hristova-Popova, J; Vassileva, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the important aspects of paediatric radiological practice and the patient doses from chest X-ray examinations performed in three hospitals in Bulgaria. Data from 163 paediatric patients were recorded using a standardised form. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) to patient was calculated from the air-kerma air product (KAP) and field size measurements. Large variations were found for KAP and ESAK. Inappropriate film size and insufficient collimation were often used. Inappropriate use of automatic exposure control and antiscatter grid was found. In most cases, no attention was paid to reduce dose to sensitive organs by means of shielding or proper collimation. Recommendations were given to the hospitals on how to reduce patient doses in paediatric chest radiography. PMID:21824872

  6. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Ruben Kosyan and Violeta Velikova describe the disastrous anthropogenic impact on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine over the last 100 years and its inverse correlation with economic development as exemplified by improving water quality during a downturn in the economy. This degradation is now accelerating from the renovation and construction of ports and terminals, the development of resorts, hazardous industrial development, oil and gas exploration, and unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices. There appears to be no enforcement of protected areas. In the absence of scientific research on these issues, coastal zone management appears to be based on 'learning after seeing disastrous effects'. Without recognition of the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, the Black Sea coast and the coastal waters will deteriorate, as was observed between the 1970s and the 1990s.

  7. Uranium production in Eastern Europe and its environmental impact: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    A survey of the unclassified literature was made to determine the location, technology, throughput, and environmental status of the uranium mines and mills that have historically made up uranium production capability in Eastern Europe. Included in that survey were the following countries: the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now part of a reunited Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. Until recently, uranium was being produced in five of these six countries (Poland stopped production 20 years ago). The production began directly after World War II in support of weapons production in the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe has produced about two-thirds of the total Soviet uranium inventory historically, or about 330,000 metric tonnes of uranium (NM) [730 million pounds of uranium (MlbU)l out of a total of about 490,000 MTU (1090 NlbU).

  8. Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, N.

    1962-01-01

    The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

  9. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  10. Results of the First Bruno's International Creative Competition in the field of astronomy and space sciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkina, E.; Aleshkin, V.

    Results of the First International Creative Competition named after Giordano Bruno are presented. The main goal of the competition was to raise interest in astronomy, space exploration and related questions. There were two categories of participants - senior school students aged 13-18 years (A) and adult amateurs of astronomy (B). The topic of the first competition was "The Human and His/Her place in the Universe". The languages of the papers were to be Russian or English. 36 papers were submitted for the competition. On the decision of the jury it was awarded three degrees in the category A, one degree in the category B and 4 special nominations. The awarding ceremony was held in October 2002 in the Palace of the Youth Creativity in Sankt-Petersburg. Winners from Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Russia, Byelorussia, Latvia and Kazakhstan participated in the ceremony. It is planed to publish the best papers in special volume in Russian and English.

  11. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals. PMID:27003805

  12. Relative-Coordinate Determination for Visual Double Stars by Applying Fourier Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic, V.; Pavlovic, R.; Cvetkovic, Z.

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the software developed for the purpose of determining the relative coordinates (position angle θ and separation ρ) for visual double or multiple stars. It is based on application of Fourier transforms in treating CCD frames of these systems. The objective was to determine the relative coordinates automatically to an extent as large as possible. In this way the time needed for the reduction of many CCD frames becomes shorter. The capabilities and limitations of the software are examined. Besides, the possibility of improving is also considered. The software has been tested and checked on a sample consisting of CCD frames of 165 double or multiple stars obtained with the 2m telescope at NAO Rozhen in Bulgaria in October 2011. The results have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by applying different software and the agreement is found to be very good.

  13. The European Observation Network: Ground-Based Support for Gamma-Ray Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Spurný, P.; Florián, J.; Boček, J.; Tichy, M.; Tichá, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Wenzel, W.; Barthelmy, S.; Cline, T.; Gehrels, N.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mutafov, A.; Hovorka, F.

    While there is extended monitoring of the sky at gamma rays from satellites, mainly provided by the COMPTON Gamma Ray Observatory, there is still a lack of high-quality optical simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous data. On the other hand, the still puzzling nature of Gamma Ray Bursts requires a complex and multispectral approach. The situation changed significantly after the introduction of the BACODINE system which is able to notify ground-based observers immediately after the detection of bursts on the GRO satellite. We present and discuss preliminary results obtained with the European Observation Network providing such follow - up optical observations. This network consists of nine observatories in the Czech Republic, Germany and Bulgaria and has been involved into the BACODINE activities since April 1, 1994.

  14. Transnational aging careers: on transformation of kinship and citizenship in the context of migration among Bulgarian Muslims in Spain.

    PubMed

    Deneva, Neda

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on “transnational aging careers,” a group of elderly migrants who are in constant movement between social contexts, families, and states. Drawing on a case of Bulgarian Muslim migrants in Spain, I look into the ruptures in the structure of care arrangements, kin expectations, and family relations, which migration triggers. I suggest that these transformations, albeit subtle, lead to reformulation of the fabric of the family. In this way, transnational care-motivated mobility affects future security based on kin reciprocity. At the same time, migration disrupts aging careers’ social citizenship both in Bulgaria and in Spain by limiting or even excluding them from state welfare support. I argue that these two lines of transformation, kinship and citizenship, result in new forms of gender and intergenerational inequalities. Furthermore, their intersection leads to a move from welfare to kinfare, which not only affects present arrangements between migrants, but also entails future insecurities. PMID:22611575

  15. The portrayal of men and women in television advertisements: an updated review of 30 studies published since 2000.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Paltzer, Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    In 1999, Furnham and Mak published a review of 14 content-analytic studies of sex roles stereotyping in television commercials. All these studies were based on the McArthur and Resko (1975) content categories. This paper updates that review considering 30 studies in over 20 countries published between 2000 and 2008. Studies were from Australasia, Austria, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hong Kong, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. They examined over 8,000 advertisements. National and cultural differences in gender stereotypes are also considered in the light of this data. The popularity of, and the problems associated with, the research paradigm are considered. PMID:20338017

  16. The future becomes the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H.

    1999-10-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1999 August 11 has been a landmark in our future for so long that it still seems hard to believe it is over. For a few surreal moments the dictates of astronomy took centre stage in Britain: newspapers and TV warned - dare one say superstitiously - of various terrible consequences to come, hundreds of thousands of people nevertheless travelled southwest, and shops and offices closed their doors so that 'everyone might enjoy the spectacle'. Despite the cruel weather the country stood transfixed, and the BBC and the following day's newspapers for once did justice to the moment. Hundreds of BAA members decided despite the poor weather prospects (sadly fulfilled on the day) that this eclipse must be viewed from home; hundreds of others travelled abroad to the more certain climates of Turkey, Bulgaria or Iran. As this Journal went to press, reports were flooding in from observers all along the track from the Scilly Isles to Isfahan.

  17. [110 years--University Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital "Maichin dom"].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2014-01-01

    The first specialized Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Bulgaria was founded based on the idea of Queen Maria Luisa (1883). Construction began in 1896 and the official opening of the hospital took place on November 19, 1903. What is unique about the University Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital "Maichin dom" is above all the fact that the Bulgarian school of obstetrics and gynecology was founded within its institution. Currently, the hospital has nearly 400 beds and 600 employees who work at nine clinics and six laboratories, covering the entire spectrum of obstetric and gynecological activities. Its leading specialists still continue to embody the highest level of professionalism and dedication. The future development of the hospital is chiefly associated with the renovation of facilities, resources and equipment and with the enhancement of the professional competence of the staff and of the quality of hospital products to improve the health and satisfaction of the patients. PMID:24919335

  18. Framework for Service Composition in G-Lite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranova, R.

    2011-11-01

    G-Lite is a Grid middleware, currently the main middleware installed on all clusters in Bulgaria. The middleware is used by scientists for solving problems, which require a large amount of storage and computational resources. On the other hand, the scientists work with complex processes, where job execution in Grid is just a step of the process. That is why, it is strategically important g-Lite to provide a mechanism for service compositions and business process management. Such mechanism is not specified yet. In this article we propose a framework for service composition in g-Lite. We discuss business process modeling, deployment and execution in this Grid environment. The examples used to demonstrate the concept are based on some IBM products.

  19. Influence of different fertilizer types of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) on the structure of nematode communities.

    PubMed

    Haytova, D; Bileva, T

    2011-01-01

    Increasing efficiency of production of vegetable crops is directly related to search for appropriate solution to increase their productivity. Organic amendments have been used for centuries to improve soil fertility and crop yield. Our study suggests that organic amendments can also be used as nematicidal agents. The survey was conducted on Experimental field of Department Horticulture at Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2009 on nematode infested sites. Combination with two types of fertilizers was used to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Characterization and comparative analysis among treatments of soil nematode community structure based on different ecological measures such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity and etc., was made. Changes in the composition and structure of nematode community as result of different fertilizer types were assessed. PMID:22696945

  20. Genetic differentiation of oak populations within the Quercus robur/Quercus petraea complex in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Gömöry, D; Yakovlev, I; Zhelev, P; Jedináková, J; Paule, L

    2001-05-01

    Genetic structure of 25 indigenous populations of sessile and pedunculate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur), originating from three geographical regions: Slovakia, Bulgaria and the Republic Mari-El (Russia), was investigated using isozyme markers. Mean number of alleles per locus ranged between 1.8 and 2.6 in Q. robur populations and from 2.0 to 3.0 in Q. petraea populations; slightly higher expected heterozygosity values were found in Q. robur compared to Q. petraea. One locus, coding for a substrate-nonspecific dehydrogenase, differentiated the two species. The interspecific component of gene diversity was 46.7% at this locus, compared to 0.4-7.8% at the remaining loci. PMID:11554972